Muscle & Nerve

Cover image for Vol. 52 Issue 6

Edited By: Lawrence H. Phillips II, MD

Impact Factor: 2.283

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 98/192 (Clinical Neurology); 160/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1097-4598

Author Guidelines

NIH Public Access Mandate
For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement

For additional tools visit Author Resources - an enhanced suite of online tools for Wiley InterScience journal authors, featuring Article Tracking, E-mail Publication Alerts and Customized Research Tools.

Author Guidelines

The Journal is composed of ten sections.

1. Main Articles present original clinical and laboratory research and related topics. Although there is no set limit on length, it is recommended that they be no longer than 6,000 words.

2. Short Reports provide preliminary communications of new data or research methods. Manuscripts should be no longer than 1,000 words and may include only 1 figure or table. Unsolicited case reports may be submitted as Short Reports, but preference will be given to submissions as a Letter to the Editor.

3. Review Articles describe current topics of importance and are usually solicited by the Editor. They undergo the regular review process by at least two referees before acceptance.

4. Editorials are either free-standing brief reviews or commentaries relating to an article published in the same issue of the Journal. They are usually no more than about 2000 words, with up to 12 references but no figures or tables. They are solicited by the Editor.

5. Cases of the Month consist of rare or illustrative studies of neuromuscular disorders. Authors should indicate in a cover letter when manuscripts are being submitted for this section. Manuscripts may not exceed 2,000 to 3,000 words and may include 1 table and up to 4 figures.

6. Issues and Opinions deal with current topics related to etiology, pathogenesis, electrodiagnosis or therapy of neuromuscular disorders. The articles need not be data based. We welcome expression of novel hypotheses and reviews of controversial subjects. When appropriate, opposing views will be presented in the same section usually prepared by one of our editors or an expert identified by the Editorial Office. Manuscripts should be 2,000 to 3,000 words long and may include 1 table and up to 4 figures.

7. Letters to the Editor comment on papers published in this journal or other relevant matters and do not require an abstract. Manuscripts may be no longer than 500 words and may include only 1 figure or table. Subtitles should not be used, and any acknowledgments should be included in the body of the letter.

8. AANEM Material consisting of monographs, practice parameters and other position papers, and a monthly news and comments section, are published after approval by the editor.

9. Calendar of Events provides notices of forthcoming meetings in the field and current events. These notices should be sent to the Editor three months prior to the desired publication date.

10. Book Reviews are solicited by the Editor and should include a non-structured abstract of less than 150 words. Publishers should send one of each book to the editorial office in Charlottesville, VA. Selection of books and reviewers is at the sole discretion of the Editor.

Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere in any but abstract form and are not under consideration by any other journal.

11. Case Reports will be considered for publication only if they are submittted as Letters to the Editor.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts must be submitted electronically. For complete instructions on how to do so, go to and follow the instructions for creating an account and submitting a manuscript.

When submitting your article to Manuscript Central, upload your text, figure legends, and tables as one file in the manuscript. This file and the figures will be combined into a single PDF document for the peer review process.

Microsoft Word Format is preferred for manuscript submission. Electronic versions in ASCII or PDF are not acceptable. Each figure must be uploaded separately as an image file using TIFF or EPS formatting. Each image file must include all subparts (A, B, C, etc.) to the figure. Subparts should not be uploaded individually. Figures saved as PDF or prepared in Word, Excel, Microsoft Publisher, Lotus 123, PowerPoint and Corel Draw are not acceptable files. Tables should appear at the end of the manuscript text in the main document and should not be uploaded as separate image files. A figure legend/list of captions should appear at the end of the manuscript text as well. All submissions should have a complete title page and abstract in the main document file.

If you are updating a file, please delete the original version and upload the revised file. To designate the order in which your files appear, use the dropdowns in the "order" column below. View your uploaded files by clicking on HTML or PDF. When you are finished, click "Next."

General correspondence concerning a MUSCLE & NERVE submission may be directed to: Lawrence H. Phillips II, MD
Editor, Muscle & Nerve
Department of Neurology
University of Virginia
P.O. Box 800394
Charlottesville, Virginia 22908-03944

All other correspondence should be addressed to Christy Boos,


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit


Sources. Webster's Third New International or New Collegiate dictionaries (G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, MA) should be used for spelling and hyphenation of nonmedical terms, and Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (WB Saunders, Philadelphia) for medical terms. Good sources for general style (grammar, punctuation, capitalization, etc.) are: A Manual of Style (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago) and The Elements of Style , by Strunk and White (Macmillan Publishing Co., New York). For units of measure, symbols and nomenclature for biochemistry and biology, use the CBE Style Manual (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington, VA) and for medicine, use the AMA Stylebook and Editorial Manual (American Medical Association, Chicago).Standard United States spellings will be used in all publications.

Numbers. Use numerals for all units of measure and time, and for all enumerations (e.g., 3 mm, 55%, 2 hours, 9 months, 20 years, 1 of 19 patients). SI unit conversions should appear in parentheses following all units of measure. Spell out numbers beginning a sentence.

Abbreviations. Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum, because their use often confuses readers who are not familiar with the subject matter. Only standard abbreviations, as listed in the CBE Style Manual and the AMA Stylebook and Editorial Manual (see above), may be used without definition. Terms appearing frequently within a paper may be abbreviated, but should be spelled out at first citation, with the abbreviation in parentheses. The term "MRI" for magnetic resonance image is an exception and need not be spelled out at first citation.

Manuscript Preparation

Type the manuscript using double spacing throughout, including the reference section. Organize the manuscript in the order indicated below, with each component beginning on a separate page and with a running title and page number typed in the upper right-hand corner of each page.

Title Page. Page 1 should include: ( a ) the title of the article (80 spaces maximum), ( b ) the authors' full names (first name, middle initial, surname) with no more than two graduate degrees (please do not include diplomas), ( c ) affiliations (the name of the department if any, and the institution, city, and state or country where the work was done) indicating which authors are associated with which affiliations, ( d ) acknowledgments of grant support and of individuals who were of direct help in the preparation of the study, ( e ) the name and address of the author to whom reprint requests are to be sent, and ( f ) a running title (not more than 30 spaces). Authors with multiple affiliations should provide only their primary affiliation. If part or all of the material is contained within a presentation made at a national meeting, the organization, city, and date of the presentation should be included as a footnote, but details of any abstracts should not be cited here.

Abstract. Page 2 should include the title of the article followed by the abstract, which should have no more than 150 words. The abstract should be in the structured format as outlined by the National Library of Medicine.  For most publications, the abstract should include sections labeled:  Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion.  For basic research publications a statement of clinical relevance is encouraged.  Authors who wish to have additional information about the structured abstract format are referred to the National Library of Medicine website: ( and to an article that reviews the subject: (Harbourt AM, Knecht LS, Humphreys BL.  Structured abstracts in MEDLINE, 1989-1991. Bull Med Libr Assoc.  1995;83:190-195).

Abbreviations. All abbreviations used in the text should be listed and defined in alphabetical order on a separate page. This list should appear just before the reference section.

Key Words. The authors should provide 5 key words below the abstract page pertaining to all major points of their contribution. This will help index the article for reference citations. Authors are suggested to refer the below link for adding key words:

Search Engine Optimization: For Authors

Text. Papers should be organized in the following format; Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Other descriptive headings and subheadings may be used if appropriate. Every effort should be made to avoid jargon, to spell out all nonstandard abbreviations the first time they are mentioned, and to present the contents of the study as clearly and as concisely as possible.

The methods, apparatus (including manufacturer's name and address), and procedures should be identified in sufficient detail to allow other investigators to reproduce the results. References should be given for all discussions of previous studies and for all nonstandard methods used. For experiments in which humans were studied, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accord with the standards of the Committee on Human Experimentation of the institution in which the experiments were done or in accord with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. For experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution's or the National Research Council's guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. For drugs and chemicals, the generic name should be used at first mention and, preferably, thereafter. Trade name may appear in parentheses and should be capitalized. Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers should not be used.

Be sure that all references and all tables and figures are cited within the text. The tables and figures should be numbered according to the order in which they appear. Data appearing in tables or figures should be summarized, not duplicated, in the text. All data cited in the text should be checked carefully against the corresponding data in the tables to ensure that they correspond, and all names cited in the text should be checked carefully against the references to ensure that the spelling is correct. Any ambiguous symbols (e.g., the letter "O" versus the numeral "0," the letter "I" versus the numeral "1") should be identified. Tables should be of a size that can be printed in a vertical format on the page, thus the width should be no more than 6 inches.

References. Type references double-spaced in the order of citation and number them accordingly. Identify references in the text, tables, and legs by Arabic numerals typed as superscripts.

The authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.

For journal articles the following information should be included: ( a ) all author names (surnames followed by initials; use "et al" after the sixth author in the case of multi-authored works), ( b ) the title of the article with the same spellings and accent marks as in the original, ( c ) the journal title abbreviated as it appears in the Index Medicus or spelled out if it is not listed there, ( d ) the date of publication, ( e ) the volume number, and ( f ) inclusive page numbers. For books be sure to include the chapter title, chapter authors, editors of the book, title of the book (including volume or edition number), publisher's name and location, date of publication, and appropriate page numbers. Examples of the correct format are as follows:

1.     Dawkins RL, O'Reilly C, Grimsley G, Ziko PJ. Myasthenia gravis: the role of immunodeficiency. Ann NY Acad Sci 1976; 274:461-467.

2.     Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1990. 1223 p.

3.      Siegel IM. Orthopaedic correction of musculoskeletal deformity in muscular dystrophy. In: Griggs RC, Moxley RT III, editors. Advances in neurology. New York: Raven Press; 1973. Vol. 17, p 343-364.

Examples of correct format for referencing online material are as follows:

Cited by URL
1. Pedersen J, Wallace M. 1999. Wiley Journals DTD: Guidelines for reference tagging. Available at Accessed 2002 Feb 4.

Cited by DOI
1. Owen, MJ. Release agents. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Article online posting date: November 16, 2001. DOI: 10.1002/0471238961.1805120515230514.a01.pub2.
2. Oussalah M. Some notes on fusion of uncertain information. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 1984;19(6). Published online: April 23, 2004. DOI: 10.1002/int.20001.

"Unpublished observations," "personal communications," and information that has been obtained from manuscripts "submitted for publication" but not yet accepted should not appear in the references but should be cited in parentheses in the text. Unpublished observations should include the authors, the year, and should be accompanied by letters of permission from all individuals cited; quotations from manuscripts that have been submitted for publication should include the authors, the title of the manuscript, and the date. Manuscripts that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been published may appear in the references. Include the authors, manuscript title, and name of journal, followed by "to be published" in parentheses.

Tables. Type each table double-spaced on a separate sheet; do not submit tables as photographs. If the table must exceed 1 typewritten page, duplicate all headings on the second sheet. Very wide tables are difficult and expensive to typeset and should be avoided by breaking up into smaller tables. Number tables in the order in which they are cited in the text. Every table should have a title, and every column in the table, including the left-hand (stub) column, should have a heading. Define all abbreviations and indicate the units of measurement for all values. Use commas for all numbers exceeding 999, and use zeros before decimals for numbers less than 1. Organize the tables so that like data are read vertically, not horizontally. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines to separate sections. Explain all empty spaces or dashes. Indicate footnotes to the table by the following symbols, used in the order shown: * (asterisk), † (dagger), ‡ (double dagger), § (section mark), (parallels), (paragraph mark), # (number sign). Letters of the alphabet, lower case and italic, should be used instead if there are more than 7 footnotes. Symbols (or letters) should appear after commas and periods, before colons and semicolons, and should be superscript. If data from any other source, published or unpublished, are used, obtain permission for their use and cite the source in the legend. Tables should be of a size that can be printed in a vertical format on the page, thus the width should be no more than 6 inches.

Figures. Images submitted must be in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS). They may be submitted from either a MS-DOS or Macintosh system. If figures are in Adobe Photoshop, or EPS, it is recommended to use Aldus Freehand or QuarkXPress. Figures prepared in Word, Excel, Microsoft Publisher, Lotus 123, PowerPoint and Corel Draw are not acceptable as digital files. If your files have been prepared in one of these formats and cannot be converted you will be required to mail high quality hard copy figures. Failure to comply with these electronic submission procedures will result in a delay in publication. All images must be saved and submitted in final size. The final figure sizes are: 1 column = 3-in. (8.25-cm) wide, 1.5 column = 5-in. (13-cm) wide, 2 columns = 6-in. (17.15-cm) wide. Figures should not exceed 8-in. (21.6-cm) in height. All cropping and manipulation must be completed before the images are submitted to the publisher.

Resolutions of scanned images are as follows: Line art is to be scanned at 1200 dots per inch (dpi). Halftones are to be scanned at 300 dpi. To ensure good reproduction on press, the minimum black value on a halftone scan (highlight) should be 4% black. The maximum value (shadow) should be no higher than 95%. Avoid the use of fine lines (point and below) for graphs and charts. Use only Adobe Type 1 fonts in creating images, and limit the number of fonts used. Do not reletter images in Photoshop. If relettering must be done, import the image into either Freehand or QuarkXPress and reletter, then make an EPS file. Make sure all scanned images are "clean." Look for and clean up dust specks, scratches, tape marks, and anything that is not part of the actual image. Files generated in Freehand should be saved in EPS format.

Photomicrographs must include a calibration bar of appropriate length (e.g., 1µm, 0.1 mm, etc.) Symbols used in micrographs should contrast with the background.

For photographs of persons, written permission from the subject must be supplied. Unless specified otherwise, the subject's eyes will be masked to prevent identification.

COLOR POLICY: Figures must be consistent in all published versions; Muscle and Nerve does not offer online-only color publication. Authors are required to pay the cost of reproducing color figures. Muscle and Nerve charges per figure, $600 for the first figure. Second, third and fourth figures are billed at $400 each.

Digital Figures. To ensure that your digital graphics are suitable for print purposes, please go to RapidInspector™ at . This free, stand-alone software application will help you to inspect and verify illustrations right on your computer.

Figure Legends. Legends should be less than 200 words, typed double-spaced and numbered with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, each should be explained clearly in the legend. For photomicrographs, the internal scale markers should be defined and the methods of staining should be given. If the figure has been previously published a credit line should be included.


The journal Muscle & Nerve is committed to objectivity in the collection of, analysis, and interpretation of scientific data, and to maintaining the highest ethical standards in the conduct of all research.

All authors must disclose if they, or any immediate family member within the last 5 years have had any affiliations that they consider to be relevant and important with any organization that to any author's knowledge has a direct interest, particularly a financial interest, in the subject matter or materials discussed. Such affiliations include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, ownership of stock, membership on a standing committee or the board of directors, consultantships, or being publicly associated with a company or its products. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest include the receipt of honoraria, consulting fees, grants, or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations.

Such disclosure is required for every sort of article submitted to the journal, including original research, reviews, editorials, letters to the editor and any others, and should be made at the time of submission by completion of the journal's Disclosure Statement.

The simplest remedy for conflict of interest is disclosure. In the journal, disclosure will be achieved by the inclusion of a short footnote with each published article. This information will be held in confidence while the paper is under review. It will not be shared with peer reviewers, and it will not influence the editorial decision to accept or reject the manuscript. When an article is accepted for publication, the Editor will usually discuss with the authors the manner in which such information is to be represented.

Data Access. For reports of original data, at least 1 author (e.g., the corresponding or principal investigator) is expected to have full access to all the data in the study and to take responsibility for its accuracy. Readers are referred to the editorial by Rosenberg et al. ( Muscle Nerve 2002;25:133–134). Such access must be confirmed on the Disclosure Statement.


Authorship of articles implies that an individual has made a substantial contribution to the article both in terms of the design of the study or collection/evaluation of data and with regard to the intellectual content of the manuscript. Such contribution may be confirmed by signature on the Disclosure Statement that must be signed by all authors prior to formal acceptance of manuscripts for publication. In the case of multi-authored articles, the editor may seek clarification to determine that authorship is appropriate.

Review and Production Process

Manuscripts are evaluated by the editor and at least 2 reviewers, who are informed of the confidential nature of the review process. An editorial decision (accept, reject, or revise) is made within 2 weeks in 85 percent of instances. Decisions of the editor are final and rejected manuscripts will not be considered further. All material accepted for publication is subject to copy editing. Authors will receive page proofs of their article before publication, and should answer all queries and carefully check all editorial changes at this stage. Authors are asked to check for misprints or syntactic errors and not to otherwise revise the manuscript. The current policy of Muscle & Nerve calls for an editorial review of all notes added in proof but not minor modifications made in the text. Any major alteration would substantially delay publication, pending approval from the editor, in consultation with the reviewers, if necessary. Authors are responsible for the scientific content of their article.

Accepted Articles

Once a paper is accepted, all files in the final version of the manuscript will be placed in the Accepted Articles section of the journal website. The manuscript files will be in a pdf format. Each article will include a digital object identifier (DOI) and a collaborative reference linking service through which readers can click on a reference citation and immediately access article content. Once articles are published electronically, it is not possible for authors to make further changes before the print version appears. The print version will indicate the on-line publication date. This makes articles available before the print version and reduces publication time to a few days.

Referrals to the Journal "Brain and Behavior"

This journal works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Brain and Behavior, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Brain and Behavior. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Brain and Behavior will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly: typically within 15 days of acceptance. Brain and Behavior is a Wiley Open Access journal, and article publication fees apply. For more information please go to


Once a corrected proof is received by the publisher from the author and reviewed with the Editor, individual articles are published on-line in the EarlyView service maintained by the publisher. Articles are available as PDF full-text and HTML full-text.


Reprints may be ordered directly from the publisher. An order form will be sent with the page proofs to the corresponding author. Reprints are available in quantities of 100s.