Journal of Morphology

Cover image for Vol. 276 Issue 3

Edited By: J. Matthias Starck

Online ISSN: 1097-4687

JMOR Virtual Issues


Embryonic Development: in Honor of Hamburger and Hamilton


Edited by J. Matthias Starck

HH Stage 38
HH Stages 38 and 39

Developmental biology and research in evo-devo relies on precise determination of embryonic stages. In 1951, Viktor Hamburger and Howard Hamilton published in the Journal of Morphology (J. Morphol. 88:49-92) a series of 46 chronological stages in chick development, starting from laying of the egg and ending with a newly hatched chick (now known as the HH stages). The Hamburger-Hamilton system allows accurate staging of the developing chick embryo and it has been used equally successful in developmental studies of other avian species.

2011 is the sixtieth anniversary of this article’s publication and it also marks the tenth anniversary of Hamburger’s death. The Hamburger-Hamilton article is far and away JMOR’s most cited article, both cumulatively (9,963 total cites) and annually (173 cites in 2010). The article was reprinted in Developmental Dynamics in 1992; the reprint has been cited 588 times, for a total of 10,551 cites to date.

With this virtual issue of the Journal of Morphology we would like to commemorate the original publication by Hamburger and Hamilton and celebrate its sixtieth anniversary. This virtual issue also presents a collection of recently published papers in the Journal of Morphology which build upon the seminal paper published in 1951.

A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo
Viktor Hamburger and Howard L. Hamilton
Volume 88, Issue 1, January 1951, pp. 49-92

Developmental stages until hatching of the Lake Victoria cichlid Haplochromis piceatus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)
Ilse M.L. de Jong, Frans Witte and Michael K. Richardson
Volume 270, Issue 5, May 2009, pp. 519-538

Decoupling morphological development from growth in periodically cooled zebra finch embryos
Christopher R. Olson, Carol M. Vleck and Dean C. Adams
Volume 269, Issue 7, July 2008, pp. 875-883

Skeletal development in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis (Testudines: Trionychidae)
Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Hendrik Müller, Christopher A. Sheil, Torsten M. Scheyer, Hiroshi Nagashima and Shigeru Kuratani
Volume 270, Issue 11, November 2009, pp. 1381-1399

The morphology of prehatching embryos of Caecilia orientalis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)
Oscar D. Pérez, Ngan Betty Lai, David Buckley, Eugenia M. del Pino and Marvalee H. Wake
Volume 270, Issue 12, December 2009, pp. 1492-1502

The ontogeny of the shell in side-necked turtles, with emphasis on the homologies of costal and neural bones
Torsten M. Scheyer, Benjamin Brüllmann and Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
Volume 269, Issue 8, August 2008, pp. 1008-1021

Ossification sequence of the avian order anseriformes, with comparison to other precocial birds
Erin E. Maxwell
Volume 269, Issue 9, September 2008, pp. 1095-1113

Developmental morphology of the neonatal alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary
Brandon C. Moore, Mari Carmen Uribe-Aranzábal, Ashley S.P. Boggs and Louis J. Guillette Jr.
Volume 269, Issue 3, March 2008, pp. 302-312

Chondrogenesis and ossification of the lissamphibian pectoral girdle
Rebecca M. Shearman
Volume 269, Issue 4, April 2008, pp. 479-495

Skeletal morphogenesis of the vertebral column of the miniature hylid frog Acris crepitans, with comments on anomalies
L. Analía Pugener and Anne M. Maglia
Volume 270, Issue 1, January 2009, pp. 52-69

4D-analysis of early pelvic girdle development in the mouse (Mus musculus)
Christine Pomikal and Johannes Streicher
Volume 271, Issue 1, January 2010, pp. 116-126

Ossification sequence of the common tern (Sterna hirundo) and its implications for the interrelationships of the Lari (Aves, Charadriiformes)
Erin E. Maxwell and Luke B. Harrison
Volume 269, Issue 9, September 2008, pp. 1056-1072

Heterochrony during skeletal development of Pseudis platensis (anura, hylidae) and the early offset of skeleton development and growth
Marissa Fabrezi and Javier Goldberg
Volume 270, Issue 2, February 2009, pp. 205-220

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