American Journal of Primatology

Cover image for Vol. 79 Issue 3

Executive Editor: Paul A. Garber

Impact Factor: 2.103

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 23/161 (Zoology)

Online ISSN: 1098-2345

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Author Guidelines

Revised December 2017

This Journal now uses eLocatiors. For more information, please visit Author Services eLocator page here .

Online Only in 2014
Given that the majority of AJP’s readers and subscribers access the journal exclusively online, the journal will be published in online-only format effective with the 2014 volume. This is a positive move towards reducing the environmental impact caused by the production and distribution of printed journal copies. Published articles will continue to be disseminated quickly through the journal’s broad network of indexing services, including ISI, MEDLINE and Scopus. Articles will also continue to be discoverable through popular search engines such as Google. All color images will now be published free of charge.

Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper
Consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate keywords, and promoting your research through social media.

Note to NIH Grantees. Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

The American Journal of Primatology welcomes manuscripts from all areas of primatology. The Journal publishes both original research papers and review articles. Original research may be published as standard Research Articles, Review Articles, Commentaries, or under New Approaches. The American Journal of Primatology no longer accepts Brief Reports.

Submission. The American Journal of Primatology has a completely digital submission, review and production process. We therefore ask for production-quality files at submission of your article. Following the guidelines below will expedite the processing, review, and publication of your article should it be accepted. Manuscripts submitted in incorrect formats will be returned for correction and resubmission. Please submit your manuscript online via the online submission site at

  • Enter your User ID and Password to login to the submission site. If you have forgotten your account information, enter your email address under “Password Help” to receive an email with instructions on resetting your password. If you do not already have an account, click on “Register Here.”
  • Once logged in, click on Authoring Center and then click on the link in the Author Resources section to begin the submission process.
  • Follow all instructions and complete all required fields. After the manuscript has been successfully submitted, authors will see a confirmation screen with a manuscript reference number and will receive an email reply from the AJP executive editor, Paul A. Garber, acknowledging receipt of the manuscript. If that does not happen, please check your submission and/or contact tech support at

Paul A. Garber
Executive Editor
Department of Anthropology
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois 61801 USA

Manuscripts must be submitted in English (American style), and must be double-spaced with no less than 12 cpi font and 3-cm margins throughout. Lines should be numbered consecutively from the title through the references. Number all pages in sequence beginning with the title page, placing the first author's surname and the page number in the upper right hand corner of each page. A Research Article should not exceed 35 pages total, and a Review Article should not exceed 45 pages in total. Page limits for Commentaries and New Approaches are flexible, but they should fall in the range of 10-15 pages. Page limits include the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgements, references, tables, figure legends, and figures.

Cover Letter. All manuscripts must be accompanied by a formal statement that explicitly confirms the following:

  • Acceptance of the provisos in the next paragraph of these Instructions (see “Provisos” below).
  • All research protocols reported in this manuscript were reviewed and approved by an appropriate institution and/or governmental agency that regulates research with animals.
  • All research reported. in this manuscript complied with the protocols approved by the appropriate institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (see Researchers outside the U.S. must confirm that their research receieved clearance from, and complied with, the protocols approved by the equivalent institutional animal care committees of their country.
  • All research reported in this manuscript adhered to the legal requirements of the country in which the work took place.
  • The research adhered to the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Non Human Primates (see

Provisos. All manuscripts submitted to the American Journal of Primatology (AJP) must be submitted solely to this journal, and may not have been published in any substantial form in any other publication, professional or lay. Submission is taken to mean that each of the co-authors acknowledge their participation in conducting the research leading to this manuscript and that all agree to its submission to be considered for publication by AJP. The Editorial Office cannot be responsible for returning any materials submitted for review. The publisher reserves copyright, and no published material may be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher and the author. The journal will not be responsible for the loss of manuscripts at any time. All statements in, or omissions from, published manuscripts are the responsibility of the authors who will assist the editors by reviewing proofs before publication.

Conflict of Interest. AJP requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter (if applicable) to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (in the footnotes, Conflict of Interest or Acknowledgments section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Ethics Guidelines. The American Journal of Primatology abides by Wiley's ethics guidelines and by the guidelines produced by the Committee on Publication Ethics. Please contact the editorial office with any questions on ethics or authorship.


Manuscript Preparation. Manuscripts should be divided into the major divisions given below in the order indicated. (Review Articles, New Approaches, and Commentaries may deviate from this style of organization, but must include an Abstract, Introduction, Discussion, and Acknowledgments.) The goal of Commentaries is to provide a forum for the exchange and discussion of novel ideas and alternative perspectives on important issues in primatology. Please see below for additional guidelines regarding New Approaches.

Title page. The first page of the manuscript should include the complete title of the paper; the names of authors and their affiliations; a short title (not more than 40 characters including spaces); and name, postal address, E-mail address, and phone number of person to whom editorial correspondence, page proofs, and reprint requests should be sent.

Abstract. The abstract must be a factual condensation of the entire work, including a statement of its purpose, a succinct statement of research design, a clear description of the most important results, and a concise presentation of the conclusions. Abstracts should not exceed 300 words. Three to six key words for use in indexing should be listed immediately below the abstract.

Research Highlights are the most important findings and/or conclusions of the article (or review), stated concisely. Research Highlights will be displayed online immediately below the article's title (they will not appear in the printed version of the paper). Research Highlights should consist of 2 to 3 short sentences (provided as bullet points) that do not exceed 250 characters (including spaces). These are required for all papers published in AJP and must be submitted at the time of the manuscript submission in ScholarOne.

Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract provides readers with a visual representation of the conclusions and an efficient way to appreciate the key finding and main message of the work. This feature is part of the online article format and will appear in the online Table of Contents of each issue of the journal but will not appear in the printed version of the paper. Please upload an illustration describing the context and significance of the findings for the broader AJP readership to attract the attention of non-specialists. The image should be a single image not containing multiple panels. It is meant to represent one key aspect of the results. The selected image must be a figure or part of a figure that is included in the paper. To prepare the image, select an image or graphic that is easy to read and as much as possible devoid of cluttering items, conveying clear, non-speculative, visual information about the biological context of the findings. Labels, while useful, must be kept to a minimum. The image should be provided in one of the following height and width configurations: 400 x 300 pixel, 300 x 400 pixel, or 400 x 400 pixel, and at a maximal resolution of 72 dpi. Please use Arial or Helvetica font with a size of 10–12 points; preferred file types are EPS and TIFF. The Graphical Abstract is optional for all papers published in AJP. When uploading, please designate the image as Graphical Abstract Image in ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Text. The body of Research Articles must be organized into the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Acknowledgments. The Methods section must include the dates and location of the study. The Methods section must also include a statement that the research complied with protocols approved by the appropriate institutional animal care committee (provide the name of the committee), adhered to the legal requirements of the country in which the research was conducted, and adhered to the American Society of Primatologists' Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Primates. ( These affirmations of legal and ethical compliance are required for publication in AJP. The Results section must include the essential values from all statistical tests cited to support statements regarding findings, in addition to summarizing key data using tables and figures where possible. Acknowledgments should include: funding sources; names of those who contributed but are not authors, further statements of recognition appropriate to the study; and brief confirmation of compliance with animal care regulations and applicable national laws. If photos or identifiable data on human subjects are in any manuscript, they must be accompanied by a notarized copy of the consent form. Footnotes are not to be used except for tables and figures. Nonstandard abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined in the text. Measurements should be given in metric units and abbreviated according to the American Institute for Biological Sciences’ Style Manual for Biological Journals. Review Articles and Commentaries may deviate from this style of organization, but must include an Abstract, Introduction, Discussion, and Acknowledgements. The first time a common name for a species is used, the author should also include the scientific name (Genus, species).

Supplementary Materials. Information designated as Supplementary Material can be uploaded as video, audio, image, or text files. In general, information that is necessary for the reader to evaluate the manuscript should be included in the main text, tables, and figures of the manuscript. Supplementary materials should be limited to video and audio files, photographs, or large data tables (e.g. a list with phenological information on plant species identified at a field site). If authors have questions regarding whether information should be included as supplementary material or as part of their manuscript, they should contact the Journal’s Executive Editor, Paul A. Garber at

References. References should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). This means in text citations should follow the author-date method whereby the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). The complete reference list should appear alphabetically by name at the end of the paper. A sample of the most common entries in reference lists appears below. Please note that a DOI should be provided for all references where available. For more information about APA referencing style, please refer to the APA FAQ. Please note that for journal articles, issue numbers are not included unless each issue in the volume begins with page one.

Journal Article: Phelps, L. (1996). Discriminative validity of the WRAML with ADHD and LD children. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 5-12.

Books: Personal author(s): Beck, I. (1989). Reading today and tomorrow: Teachers edition for grades 1 and 2. Austin, TX: Holt and Co.

Chapter in Edited Book: Borstrøm, I., & Elbro, C. (1997). Prevention of dyslexia in kindergarten: Effects of phoneme awareness training with children of dyslexic parents. In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: Biology, cognition and intervention (pp. 235–253). London, UK: Whurr.

Book Edition: Bradley-Johnson, S. (1994). Psychoeducational assessment of students who are visually impaired or blind: Infancy through high school (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.

Conference Paper: Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March 25-26). Why aren't we using 3d user interfaces, and will we ever? Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces. doi:10.1109/VR.2006.148.

Conference Proceedings: Rapp, R. (1995). Automatic identification of word translations from unrelated English and German corpora. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for the Computational Linguistics, pp. 519–525.

Scientific or Technical Reports: NICHD. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Dissertation: van Otterloo, S. G. (2011). Early home-based intervention for children at familial risk of dyslexia. University of Amsterdam (unpublished doctoral dissertation). References should refer only to material listed within the text.

2 to 7 authors: Daley, C. E., & Nagle, R. J. (1996). Relevance of WISC-III Indicators for assessment of learning disabilities. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 14(4), 320–333.

More than 7 authors: Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., … Carroll, J. (2004). Sex differences in developmental reading disability: New findings from 4 epidemiological studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(16), 2007–2012. DOI: 10.1001/jama.291.16.2007

In press or forthcoming: van Bergen, E., de Jong, P. F., Maassen, B., Krikhaar, E., Plakas, A., & van der Leij, A. (in press). IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities. DOI: 10.1177/0022219413479673

Format for Presenting Statistical Information. Overall is it recommended that authors provide the details of their statistical analyses in the Methods, Tables, and Figures as appropriate. Linear statistics: means and standard deviation/standard errors should be written in the format X± SD/SE unit (i.e., mean body weight=6.38 ± SD 1.29 kg or mean head-trunk length=425 ± SE 3.26 mm). Circular statistics: mean and angular dispersion should be written in the format X± AD unit (i.e., phase relationship between head linear and angular displacement=104 ± AD 14 deg). Ranges should be written as range: 15-29; sample sizes should be written as N=731; numbers less than 1 should be written as 0.54 not as .54. P values that are deemed significant can be presented as less than a threshold value (i.e., P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Nonsignificant test outcomes should be reported using an exact probability value whenever possible. The P value (P) and sample size (N) should be capitalized, and degrees of freedom, if required, should be written in lower case (e.g. df=4). For example: X2 = 1.84, df=8, P = 0.91 Unless a test statistic unambiguously refers to a particular statistical test (i.e., X2 is understood to refer to a Chi-squared test), results should include the name of the statistical test which should be followed by a colon, the test statistic and its value, degrees of freedom or sample size (depending on which is most appropriate for that test), and the P value, with indication if it is one- or two-tailed (unless that issue has been addressed for the manuscript as a whole before any statistical results are given). These entries should be separated by commas. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test: Z=3.82, P<0.001, N=20 ANOVA: F=2.26, df=1, P=0.17

Tables. Tables should be titled and numbered in accordance with the order of their appearance; each table should be placed on a separate page. All tables must be cited in the text with approximate placement clearly defined. Table titles should be concise descriptions of the data in the table. Table footnotes should provide more detail relating to the interpretation of data presented in the table (i.e., notes on sample sizes, tests performed, etc.). Samples are shown below:

Table title: Leadership of Group Movements by Males and Females within Each Group Table footnote: Chi-square results for adult female- versus adult male-led group progressions overall (A), when feeding occurred within 5 min of group movement (B), and when feeding did not occur within 5 min of group movement (C). N refers to the number of progressions led by each sex. Females in each group, except C3, led group movements significantly more than males overall and in all contexts.

Table title: Food Species and Plant Parts in the Diet of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou During the Study Period Table footnote: Season: Sp, spring (February, March, April); Su, summer (May, June, July); A, autumn (August, September, October); W, winter (November, December, January); Y, four seasons. E, evergreen; D, deciduous

Figure Legends. A descriptive legend must be provided for each figure and must define all abbreviations used therein.

Figures/Illustrations. Figures must be submitted in TIFF or EPS format. Do not embed figures in your text document. To ensure the highest reproduction quality, figures should be submitted according to the following minimum resolutions:

  • 1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bargraphs, charts, etc.)
  • 300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)
  • 600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labeling or thin lines)

This specification means that a figure which you wish to be printed at a size, for example, of 2 x 2 inches will be 2,400 dots wide (black and white line art), or 600 dots wide (halftone). Vector-based figures (e.g., figures created in Adobe Illustrator) should be submitted in EPS format. Figure sizes should be no more than 5 inches in width and 6 inches in height. Please contact AJP Production at for further information.

In addition to the above guidelines, color figures must be submitted in the RGB colorspace. All color figures will be reproduced at no charge.

AJP is pleased to announce the introduction of a new category for publication: "New Approaches". This category provides the opportunity for researchers to share new methods, techniques, and protocols in order to facilitate more rapid scientific advances in the field of Primatology. The emphasis is on approaches that are either newly developed or modifications and improvements of established approaches in Primatology and other scientific fields. Manuscripts in this category should be organized around the following four sections: (1) Introduction: set the stage for justifying why a new approach is required; (2) Description: describe the new approach; (3) Example: apply the new approach to a particular experiment or problem; and (4) Comparison and Critique: discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the new approach when compared to other available approaches. Please note that, if applicable, the comparison and critique sections can serve as the discussion section for a new approaches manuscript. These sections should be followed by Acknowledgments and References, the final sections used in other categories of AJP manuscripts.

Copyright/Licensing Agreements. If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen:
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Self-Archiving Policy. Authors of articles published in Wiley journals are permitted to self-archive the submitted (preprint) version of the article at any time, and may self-archive the accepted (peer-reviewed) version after an embargo period. Please visit our Self-Archiving Policy page for details or refer to your Copyright Transfer Agreement.

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The American Journal of Primatology is proud to participate in COPE.

Guidelines for Cover Submissions

If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.