Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics

Cover image for Vol. 52 Issue 18

Online ISSN: 1099-0488

Associated Title(s): Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Supramolecular assembly of polymers

The High Polymer Research Group (HPRG) 53rd annual meeting focuses on supramolecular self-assembly, a topic of much research interest from both fundamental interest and applications in fields such as medicine and materials for energy. The Journal of Polymer Science – both parts A: Polymer Chemistry and B: Polymer Physics – is delighted to provide you with FREE access to a cross-section of papers relevant to the meeting theme.

Submit now at www.polymerchemistry.org and www.polymerphysics.org to join these authors in the journals.



Reviews

On the morphology of polymer-based photovoltaics
Feng Liu, Yu Gu, Jae Woong Jung, Won Ho Jo and Thomas P. Russell

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23063

Polymer-based photovoltaics attract much attention due to their promising applications. In this review, we focus on the morphology study of polymer solar cells. Different categories of conjugated polymers and their blends with fullerene derivatives are discussed. Several key parameters such as crystallinity, miscibility, size of phase separation, and vertical phase segregation that determines the morphology and device performance are analyzed. These understandings of morphology will help material scientists to further increase the performance of plastic solar cells.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(15), 1018–1044.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23063



Injectable hydrogels
Derek J. Overstreet, Dipankar Dutta, Sarah E. Stabenfeldt and Brent L. Vernon

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23081

When made injectable, hydrogels can reduce the invasiveness of medical procedures, which in turn reduces surgical and recovery costs. Advances in polymer science have provided new injectable hydrogels for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. A number of these injectable hydrogel systems have reached the clinic and impact the health care of many patients. However, a remaining challenge is translating the ever-growing family of injectable hydrogels to the clinic.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(13), 881–903.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23081



Nanocomposites from biopolymer hydrogels: Blueprints for white biotechnology and green materials chemistry
Carole Aimé and Thibaud Coradin

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23061

This review presents key concepts and recent achievements in the emerging area of functional bionanocomposite hydrogels design. Through a careful control of the bio-organic/inorganic interface, it is possible to obtain novel materials that combine improved thermal and mechanical stability with tailored optical or conduction properties. Stimuli-responsive and bioactive materials can also be designed for in vivo applications. Future developments in the context of green materials and biotechnological devices can also be foreseen.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(10), 669–680.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23061



Block copolymer strategies for solar cell technology
Paul D. Topham, Andrew J. Parnell and Roger C. Hiorns

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.22302

As polymer solar cells attract more attention in both research and commercial spheres, greater control over polymer morphology is desired. This review covers various strategies used to incorporate block copolymers into organic photovoltaic devices. Block copolymers exhibit extraordinary properties that collide perfectly with the needs of organic photovoltaics. Pitfalls are discussed in the light of current progress alongside possible solutions for future global implementation.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2011, 49(16), 1131–1156.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.22302




Communications

Soft bacterial polyester-based shape memory nanocomposites featuring reconfigurable nanostructure
Kazuki Ishida, Rebecca Hortensius, Xiaofan Luo and Patrick T. Mather

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23021

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) with soft and elastomeric mechanical properties even in the "fixed" shape are drawing considerable attention for applications such as tissue engineering and dry adhesion. This work reports the preparation of a novel soft SMP nanocomposite consisting of a bacterial poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate) (PHOU)-based covalent network grafted with inorganic––organic hybrid polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). Because of its softness and reconfigurable nanostructure, the PHOU––POSS SMP nanocomposite exhibits excellent bulk and microscale surface shape memory performances.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(6), 387–393.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23021




Full Papers

A series of poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] copolymers with anthracene-derived fluorophores showing aggregation-induced emission properties for bioimaging
Hongguang Lu, Fengyu Su, Qian Mei, Xianfeng Zhou, Yanqing Tian, Wenjing Tian, Roger H. Johnson and Deirdre R. Meldrum

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.25841

A monomeric hydrophobic fluorophore possessing aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties was copolymerized with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide to form a series of new copolymers. The copolymers were soluble in water to enable the bioapplications of the hydrophobic AIE fluorophore. The AIE fluorophores aggregated in the cores of micelles formed from the copolymers to show high quantum efficiencies. The polymers were endocytosed by U87MG and CP-A cells.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(5), 890–899.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.25841



Clicked (AB)2C-type miktoarm terpolymers: Synthesis, thermal and self-assembly properties, and preparation of nanoporous materials
Jie Song, Eunji Lee and Byoung-Ki Cho

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26403

A (PEO-PS)2-PLA terpolymer self-assembles into a two-phase columnar structure consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/polylactide (PLA) cylindrical domains in a rigid polystyrene (PS) matrix. In contrast, the ion doping of the PEO block induces a three-phase lamellar morphology. Meanwhile, by eliminating the confined PLA block in the columnar morphology, a nanoporous material with hydrophilic PEO walls can be produced.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2013, 51(2), 446–456.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26403



Diblock copolymer–azobenzene complexes through hydrogen bonding: Self-assembly and stable photoinduced optical anisotropy
Jesús del Barrio, Eva Blasco, Luis Oriol, Rafael Alcalá and Carlos Sánchez-Somolinos

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26523

We have demonstrated the preparation of a series of photoaddressable supramolecular block copolymers by mixing a carboxy-terminated azobenzene derivative, AZO, and two PS-b-P4VP block copolymers. Homogeneous liquid crystalline materials were obtained for ratios of AZO to vinylpyridine repeating unit, x, lower or equal to 0.50. Mixtures with higher x resulted in heterogeneous materials showing clear macrophase separation. Photoinduced orientation of the azobenzene units was obtained in films of PS-b-P4VP(AZO)x with x = 0.25 and 0.50.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2013, Early View(), –.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26523



Interacting nanoparticles with functional surface groups
Konstantin I. Popov, Rikkert J. Nap, Igal Szleifer and Monica Olvera de la Cruz

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23077

The interaction potential between nanoparticles coated with ligands containing ionizable end-groups are shown to influence the charge regulation of the functional end-groups as their separation (D) decreases. This induces an asymmetric distribution of charged endgroups, and confers a preferred directionality in nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions to avoid an increase in counterion confinement (condensation) in the region between nanoparticles. The fraction of ionized groups depends on ionic strength, pH value, D, ligand length and grafting density.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(12), 852–862.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23077



Facile synthesis of ABCDE-type H-shaped quintopolymers by combination of ATRP, ROP, and click chemistry and their potential applications as drug carriers
Huanhuan Liu, Shixian Li, Meijing Zhang, Wei Shao and Youliang Zhao

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26285

Well-defined (PEG)(PCL)PSt(PAA)(PLLA) H-shaped quintopolymer was efficiently synthesized and applied for in vitro release of doxorubicin. Azide-functionalized PEG-PCL-PSt star terpolymer and alkyne-in-chain-functionalized PtBA-b-PLLA diblock copolymer were subjected to successive click reaction and hydrolysis to give the target copolymer. Cytotoxicity studies revealed H-shaped copolymer aggregates were nontoxic and biocompatible, and drug loading and release properties of various copolymer aggregates were significantly affected by macromolecular architecture, chemical composition, and pH value. The pH-sensitive quintopolymer aggregates have a potential as controlled delivery vehicles.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(22), 4705–4716.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26285



Recombinant reflectin-based optical materials
Guokui Qin, Patrick B. Dennis, Yuji Zhang, Xiao Hu, Jason E. Bressner, Zhongyuan Sun, Wendy J. Crookes-Goodson, Rajesh R. Naik, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and David L. Kaplan

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23204

A recombinant reflectin-based domain refCBA from squid reflectin protein self-assembles to form ordered structures that are similar to diffraction gratings and are able to generate diffraction orders. Solutions of reflectin-based biopolymer are processed into single-thin or multiple thin films and display repeatable reflectance properties, possessing a wide array of structural color due to thin film interference of reflected light.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2013, 51(4), 254–264.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23204



Influence of the Z-group on the RAFT-mediated polymerizations in nanoreactors
David Valade, Yujung Jeon, Stefanie Kessel and Michael J. Monteiro

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26300

The influence of the RAFT end group of a macro-chain transfer agent (mCTA) on the abinitio emulsion polymerization of styrene (STY) was studied through the comparison of poly(dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA-b-PNIPAM) mCTA bearing either a butyltrithiocarbonate or a dodecyltrithiocarbonate (DTTC) group. Differences in aggregation properties were noticed, while emulsion polymerizations of STY in the presence of PDMA-b-PNIPAM-DTTC mCTA were fast and well controlled, leading to polymers with narrow molecular weight and particle size distributions.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(22), 4762–4771.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26300



Insights into poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer: Synthesis and solvent-induced structure formation in thin films
Hui Yang, Hao Xia, Guowei Wang, Juan Peng and Feng Qiu

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26353

The amphiphilic rod-coil conjugated block copolymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly (ethylene oxide) (P3HT-b-PEO) were synthesized via a facile click reaction. The subtle balance between microphase separation of copolymer and the π-π stacking of the conjugated P3HT can be controlled by changing the solvents of different selectivity in solution.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(24), 5060–5067.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26353



Nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals by self-assembled Bombyx mori silk fibroin
Mingying Yang, Wen He, Yajun Shuai, Sijia Min and Liangjun Zhu

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23249

The mechanically robust properties of silk fibroin (SF) have prompted numerous investigations into its potential in biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering. To prove that Bombyx mori SF mediates the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals (HAps) by its molecular self-assembly, atomic force microscopy observation of a co-solution of SF and simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that SF incubated in SBF was self-assembled into a net, suggesting that nucleation of HAps of SF was controlled by its molecular self-assembly.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2013, Early View.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23249



Optically active core/shell nanoparticles prepared using self-assembled polymer micelle as reactive nanoreactor
Haiyang Zhang, Lei Ding, Yu Chen, Wantai Yang and Jianping Deng

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26263

A novel approach is developed for the preparation of a unique class of core/shell nanoparticles using self-assembled polymer micelle as a reactive nanoreactor. Such core/shell nanoparticles are composed of optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene (forming the core) and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (forming the shell). The nanoparticles simultaneously exhibit remarkable optical activity and thermosensitivity.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(21), 4415–4422.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26263



Particle and breath figure formation of triblock copolymers having self-complementary hydrogen-bonding units
Nojin Park, Myungeun Seo and Sang Youl Kim

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26256

A series of triblock copolymers having self-complementary hydrogen-bonding units have been synthesized through RAFT polymerization of the methacrylate monomer containing bis-dendritic benzamide group. The triblock copolymers showed the formation of polymeric nanoparticles and aggregation behavior through intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bondings. Well-ordered hexagonal structures were prepared by "Breath Figure" technique.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(21), 4408–4414.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26256



Structure formation of integral-asymmetric membranes of polystyrene-block-Poly(ethylene oxide)
Janina Hahn, Volkan Filiz, Sofia Rangou, Juliana Clodt, Adina Jung, Kristian Buhr, Clarissa Abetz and Volker Abetz

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23209

Integral asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) membranes with an isoporous surface layer are fabricated by a combination of block copolymer self-assembly and the nonsolvent induced phase inversion process. The development is based on the determination of the solution and precipitation behavior of PS-b-PEO. The results show that diethyl ether is a suitable nonsolvent in the precipitation process leading to good membrane structures.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2013, 51(4), 281–290.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23209



Synthesis and clustering of supramolecular "graft" polymers
Katharina Hackethal, Florian Herbst and Wolfgang H. Binder

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26257

Synthesis and dynamics of supramolecular poly(isobutylene) networks bearing statistically distributed hydrogen-bonding moieties (a weak pyridinium/pyridine interaction and a (stronger) 2,6-diaminotriazine/thymine interaction) are reported, aiming at the understanding of network formation in self-healing materials. In the melt state, a clear difference in the (weaker) pyridinium/pyridine interaction (effective cluster lifetime tb * ~ 1 s) to the 2,6- (stronger) diamintriazine/thymine interaction (tb * ~ 100 s) is observed now enabling the future design of self-healing rubbery supramolecular polymers.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(21), 4494–4506.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26257



Synthesis and thin-film orientation of poly(styrene-block-trimethylsilylisoprene)
Christopher M. Bates, Marco A. Bedolla Pantoja, Jeffrey R. Strahan, Leon M. Dean, Brennen K. Mueller, Christopher J. Ellison, Paul F. Nealey and C. Grant Willson

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26375

The synthesis of a diblock copolymer is described, which undergoes spontaneous assembly into cylindrical patterns. The matrix surrounding the cylinders can be selectively etched away to leave structures with dimensions on the nanoscale. The orientation and ordering of these structures is demonstrated. Structures of this sort are valuable for use in nano-manufacturing of devices such as microelectronics and hard disk drives.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2013, 51(2), 290–297.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26375



A pH-sensitive, strong double-network hydrogel: Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylates�poly(acrylic acid)
Sina Naficy, Joselito M. Razal, Philip G. Whitten, Gordon G. Wallace and Geoffrey M. Spinks

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/polb.23016

Double-network (DN) hydrogels are particularly interesting for their similarities they share with biological systems and their impressive mechanical strength. A pH responsive DN system composed of two biocompatible polymers is shown to exhibit pH driven cluster formation caused by association between poly(ethylene glycol) side chains and a polyacrylic acid network. The clusters contribute to the enhanced strength and extensive de-swelling at low pH. The properties of these DN hydrogels are ideal for applications as artificial muscles or controlled release devices.

Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50(6), 423–430.
DOI: 10.1002/polb.23016



Synthesis of self-assembled sphingolipid conjugates and their morphology effect on anticancer therapeutic potency
Bokyung Jung, Yong-Cheol Jeong and Jong-Duk Kim

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26360

The shape of self-assembling polymer–drug conjugates is important for effective drug delivery. In this study, polymeric drug conjugates of different morphologies are synthesized with phytosphigonsine (PHS) as a hydrophobic model drug and poly(amino acid) as a hydrophilic host polymer. By varying the degree of PHS substitution, spherical and worm-like micelle structures of PHS–poly(amino acid) conjugates were formed. Along with physicochemical properties, an in vitro study including cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and cell cycle was investigated.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(24), 5079–5086.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26360



Thermoswitchable fluorescence organogels based on hydrogen bond-assisted chiral gelators
Wen-Tzu Liu, Norimitsu Tohnai, Ichiro Hisaki, Mikiji Miyata, Wen-Ting Chen, Yen-Jou Wu and Jui-Hsiang Liu

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26440

Self-assembly of cholesteryl N-(2-anthryl) carbamate (CAC) results in the formation of helical structures. The results of temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopy indicate that hydrogen bond-assisted π–π interaction maintains the growth of the axis of the self-assembled construction, and the three-dimensional effect from the cholesteryl group induces the rotational structure. In the gel state, significant enhanced fluorescence strength is observed because of the aggregation-induced enhanced emission of CAC molecules.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2013, 51(4), 793–800.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26440



Unprecedented diverse nanostructures formed by amphiphilic graft copolymer bearing PEO side chains synthesized by ATNRC
Yaogong Li, Ming Du, Yongjun Li, Long Sui, Guolin Lu and Xiaoyu Huang

Graphical Abstract Image 10.1002/pola.26302

PtBA-g-PEO well-defined amphiphilic graft copolymers synthesized by atom transfer nitroxide radical coupling (ATNRC) reaction show unprecedented diverse nanostructures in the presence of steric bulky tert-butyl groups in every repeating unit of the backbone.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50(22), 4783–4789.
DOI: 10.1002/pola.26302




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