Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 52 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 3.543

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 12/83 (Polymer Science)

Online ISSN: 1099-0518

Associated Title(s): Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics

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  1. 1 - 36
  1. Articles

    1. Self-immolative nanoparticles triggered by hydrogen peroxide and pH

      Zhijian Wang, Jianbo Sun and Xinru Jia

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27203

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      The azomethine-based oligomers bearing boronate groups and imine moieties in the main chain were synthesized from a dialdehyde monomer and p-phenylenediamine or ethylene diamine, respectively. Based on the oligomers, the nanoparticles with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and pH dual-responsive properties were constructed and encapsulated nile red inside. The degradation behavior of nanoparticles and the release of nile red triggered by H2O2 and pH were explored.

    2. Disulfide-centered star-shaped polypeptide-PEO block copolymers for reduction-triggered drug release

      Xiao Chang, Lisha Liu, Yanfei Guan and Chang-Ming Dong

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27207

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      Disulfide-centered star-shaped polypeptide-based block copolymers Cy-PZlys-b-PEO were successfully synthesized by combining ROP and thiol-yne chemistry. Despite a liquid crystal phase transition behavior, the inner α-helical PZlys blocks greatly suppressed the crystallinity of the outer PEO blocks. Cy-PZlys-b-PEO self-assembled into nearly spherical micelles, and these micelles were progressively reduced to smaller micelles in 10 mM DTT, exhibiting a reduction-sensitivity. The DOX-loaded micelles presented a reduction-triggered profile, enhancing them useful for intracellular GSH-triggered drug delivery systems.

    3. Preparation of perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid/Nafion®/silica hybrid nanoparticles—thermally stable Nafion® in these silica hybrid nanoparticles even after calcination at 800 °C

      Saki Soma, Yohei Mizuguchi, Masashi Sugiya and Hideo Sawada

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27195

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      Perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid/Nafion/SiO2 hybrid nanoparticles after calcination at 800 °C can exhibit stronger acidity and higher proton conductivity than those before calcination and are applicable to the Friedel-Crafts acylation as well as that before calcination.

    4. High-performance field-effect transistors based on furan-containing diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymer under a mild annealing temperature

      Huajie Chen, Yunlong Guo, Zupan Mao, Dong Gao and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27204

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      Two highly π-extended copolymers were designed and synthesized by copolymerizing furan-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole units with (E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene moieties for solution-processed polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). A typical nodular morphology with the ultrasmall lamellar distances of 16.84–19.15 Å had been demonstrated for the polymer thin films, therefore facilitating high-performance charge transport. The highest hole mobility without thermal annealing treatment reached 1.05 cm2 V−1 s−1. For the PDVF-8 thin films annealed at 100 °C, moreover, an improved hole mobility of 1.90 cm2 V−1 s−1 was achieved, among the highest values of the reported polymer-based FETs fabricated from a mild temperature.

    5. Synthesis and characterization of highly fluorinated poly(phthalazinone ether)s based on AB-type monomers

      Xiuhua Li, Yan Gao, Qiang Long and Allan S. Hay

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27199

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      A series of highly fluorinated poly(phthalazinone ether)s with high-molecular weights based on AB-type monomers containing methyl or phenyl side groups have been successfully synthesized by nucleophilic addition–elimination reactions and following self-condensation polymerization. The polymers have very high Tgs varying from 337 to 349 °C and show excellent solubility, thermal stability, mechanical properties, high-water contact angles, and absorption edges below 340 nm. These results indicate that the polymers are promising as high-performance materials.

    6. Gelation characteristics and applications of poly(ethylene glycol) end capped with hydrophobic biodegradable dipeptides

      G. Rajesh Krishnan, Yuan Yuan, Ayesha Arzumand and Debanjan Sarkar

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27198

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      Aggregation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) end capped with tyrosine-derived dipeptides in various solvents leads to the formation of both hydrogel and organogels. Noncovalent interactions between the end groups associate end functionalized PEG to form physically cross-linked network in presence of solvents. Morphologically the gels contain interpenetrating nanosheet structure. The gels are biodegradable and posses physicomechanical properties suitable for delivery of small molecules and proteins.

    7. Importance of compositional homogeneity of macromolecular chains for UCST-type transitions in water: Controlled versus conventional radical polymerization

      Beatriz A. Pineda-Contreras, Fangyao Liu and Seema Agarwal

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27196

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      This article provides a new example of a polymer showing UCST-type transitions based on acrylamide and styrene copolymers. The compositional homogeneity of macromolecular chains provided by controlled radical polymerization together with optimized sample preparation conditions led to UCST-type behavior in contrast to nonthermoresponsive properties of the same materials made by conventional radical polymerization. Since, examples of polymeric systems showing UCST in water are not too many, this work would help in developing more systems with tuned UCSTs.

    8. Electrochromic enhancement of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films functionalized with hydroxymethyl and ethylene oxide

      Shimin Zhang, Jingkun Xu, Baoyang Lu, Leiqiang Qin, Long Zhang, Shijie Zhen and Daize Mo

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27206

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      The electrosynthesis of poly(hydroxymethylated-3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene) and ethylene oxide functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) are reported. In comparison with PEDOT, these polymers exhibits better excellent electrochromic performances, including higher optical contrast ratio (57%), higher coloration efficiency (338 cm2 C−1), lower switching potential, fast response time, good electrochemical, and optical stability, showing promising applications in electrochromic devices and optical displays.

    9. Investigation of proton conductivity of anhydrous proton exchange membranes prepared via grafting vinyltriazole onto alkaline-treated PVDF

      Deniz Sinirlioglu, Ali Ekrem Muftuoglu, Kurtulus Golcuk and Ayhan Bozkurt

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27197

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      Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be a promising technology for clean and efficient power generation in the twenty-first century. Search of thermo-chemically and mechanically stable PEMs with high proton conducting ability for use in high temperature applications has led to the development of novel anhydrous PEMs. A simple approach exploits alkaline-treated PVDF in conjunction with vinyltriazole in a “grafting through” method to achieve PEMs.

    10. Tailoring heterogeneous polymer networks through polymerization-induced phase separation: influence of composition and processing conditions on reaction kinetics and optical properties

      Carmem S. Pfeifer, Zachary R. Shelton, Caroline R. Szczpanski, Matthew D. Barros, Nicholas D. Wilson and Jeffrey W. Stansbury

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27185

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      The crossover between loss and storage modulus during polymerization is assumed to be a good approximation of the onset of gelation. The abrupt decrease in the intensity of light transmitted through a mixture of marginally compatible monomers during polymerization is used to determine the onset of phase-separation. Because both these parameters (modulus development and optical transmission) were indexed to the degree of conversion in real-time, it is possible to demonstrate that heterogeneity formation precedes gelation in an all-methacrylate system, photopolymerized with a single radical initiator.

    11. One-step synthesis of polymer micro-tubes tethered by polymer nanowire networks via RAFT polymerization of N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide xerogel fibers in toluene and ethanol mixed solution

      Qi Li and Liming Tang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27194

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      The new preparation method of polymer micro-tubes tethered by polymer nanowire networks (PTPWNs) is presented. PTPWNs are fabricated facilely via one-step reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) xerogel fibers as both template and monomer source in toluene and ethanol mixed solution. The amount of polymer nanowire networks on the tubes can be controlled by varying the ethanol content in solution.

    12. Selective nucleophilic additions to poly(methacrylate)s containing isothiocyanate moieties in the side chains and their application in cross-linking

      Ryota Seto, Kozo Matsumoto and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27189

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      Reactivity of isothicyanate moiety containing polymethacrylate in the side chain with amine, alcohol, or thiol was investigated. The isothiocyanate moiety containing polymethacrylates in the side chain reacted with amines without a catalyst. Conversely, the isothiocyanates did not react with alcohol or thiols under the same condition applied to the amines. Addition of alcohol or thiol to the isothiocyanate needs catalysts. A diamine or diol was added to the isothicyanates to prepare networked polymers.

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      Synthesis and solid-state self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)s and single-walled carbon nanotubes

      Haoyu Tang, Ying Ling, Yong Deng and Donghui Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27193

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      A series of coil-rod poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)s (PEG-b-PBLGs) with α-helical conformations have been prepared from methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) amine (mPEG-NH2)-mediated ring-opening polymerization of γ-benzyl-l-glutamic acid based N-carboxylanhydride. PEG-b-PBLGs form a lamellar structure where PBLG segments pack into hexagonal arrays when frod is less than 0.28. Incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) causes an increase of the d-spacing of both lamellar and hexagonal packing, suggesting the intercalation of SWCNTs into the PEG-b-PBLGs matrices the SWCNTs are oriented normal to the lamellar interface.

  3. Articles

    1. Synthesis and properties of long-chain branched poly(ether sulfone)s by self-polycondensation of AB2 type macromonomers

      Mitsutoshi Jikei, Daisuke Uchida, Kazuya Matsumoto, Ryohei Komuro and Masataka Sugimoto

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27188

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      Long-chain branched poly(ether sulfone)s (PESs) are synthesized via self-polycondensation of AB2 macromonomers. Gel permeation chromatography with multiangle light scattering detection and solution viscosity measurements suggest that the molecular shape of long-chain branched PESs changes from hyperbranched to a linear-like architecture, depending on the molecular weight of the AB2 macromonomers. Rheological measurements suggest the presence of strongly entangled chains in the long-chain branched PES synthesized from the high-molecular-weight macromonomer.

    2. Alkylamines-intercalated α-zirconium phosphate as latent thermal anionic initiators

      Osamu Shimomura, Keisuke Maeno, Atsushi Ohtaka, Shunro Yamaguchi, Junko Ichihara, Kiyoko Sakamoto and Ryôki Nomura

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27191

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      The reaction of glycidyl phenyl ether (GPE) with α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) intercalated 1-aminoalkanes 1-aminopropane (α-ZrP·Pr), 1-aminobutane (α-ZrP·Bu), 1-aminooctane (α-ZrP·Oct), and 1-aminohexadecane (α-ZrP·Hed) was carried out and these intercalation compounds performed well as latent thermal initiators. Especially, α-ZrP·Hed have the potential to initiate reaction on heating while remaining stable during storage around ambient temperature.

    3. Tuning the low critical solution temperature of polymer brushes grafted on single-walled carbon nanotubes and temperature dependent loading and release properties

      Xin Jia, Guoxiang Zhang, Wei Li, Wenbo Sheng and Cuihua Li

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27186

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      An easy and reliable method is developed to tune the low critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of thermo-responsive polymer brushes grafted on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and to study the LCST-dependent drug-loading and drug-release properties of these polymer-modified SWCNTs. The copolymers grafted on SWCNTs are retrieved by 1 M NaOH to evaluate their molecular weights and LCSTs. Additionally, the pristine properties of SWCNTs are preserved.

    4. Hyperbranched aliphatic polyether esters by ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

      Xinhua Huang, Min Seon Heo, Jin-Wook Yoo, Jin-Seok Choi and Il Kim

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27182

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      A series of well-defined hyperbranched polyether esters comprised of ether and ester backbones and multiple hydroxyl groups on the core and periphery exhibit good degradability and low cytotoxicity, resulting in an ideal candidate material for biomedical applications.

    5. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable pH and reduction dual-sensitive polymeric micelles for doxorubicin delivery

      Yanfeng Chu, Huan Yu, Yingying Ma, Yunti Zhang, Weihai Chen, Guangyan Zhang, Hua Wei, Xianzheng Zhang, Renxi Zhuo and Xulin Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27192

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      Facile preparation of doxorubicin-loaded polymeric micelles based on new pH- and reduction-sensitive degradable amphiphilic polymer by an easy and quick pH-jumping method without using organic solvent is reported. The obtained drug-loaded micelles show retarded drug release in PBS at pH 7.4 and a rapid release after exposure to weakly acidic or reductive environment mimicking intracellular conditions, displaying obvious anticancer activity similar to free DOX, whereas blank micelles were nontoxic.

    6. Supramolecular polymer gels formed from carboxy-terminated telechelic polybutadiene and polyamidine through amidinium-carboxylate salt bridge

      Yoshio Furusho and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27187

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      The amidinium-carboxylate salt bridge-based supramolecular polymer gels are prepared from a carboxyterminated telechelic polybutadiene and a linear polyamidine having N,N′-di-substituted acetamidine group in the main chain. The supramolecular polymer gel containing equimolar amounts of the carboxyl group and the amidine group show virtually no fluidity, having a high storage modulus (G′) value of about 1 MPa at room temperature.

    7. Click functionalization of methacrylate-based hydrogels and their cellular response

      Miriem Santander-Borrego, David W. Green, Traian V. Chirila, Andrew K. Whittaker and Idriss Blakey

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27183

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      Synthetic hydrogels have many applications as biomaterials, where the nature and degree of functionality has a significant effect on performance. Here, a facile method for preparing functional hydrogels is presented, such that it is possible to control the density of functionality as well as the cellular response.

    8. Synthesis and polymerization of styrene monomers bearing spiroorthoester structure and volume change during crosslinking by double ring-opening of the pendant spiroorthoesters of the obtained polymers

      Takahiro Miyata, Kozo Matsumoto, Shigeaki Yonemori and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27184

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      Styrene-based monomers having spiroorthoester structure (SOE5, SOE7) were prepared, and their homopolymerizations and copolymerizations with styrene were examined. Volume changes of the polymers during crosslinking were also investigated. These polymers and copolymers showed little volume shrinkage or slight volume expansion during the crosslinking.

    9. Acrylate nanolatex via self-initiated photopolymerization

      Florent Jasinski, Emeline Lobry, Lénaïg Lefevre, Abraham Chemtob, Céline Croutxe-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas and Adrien Criqui

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27190

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      Low-scattering monomer miniemulsions have recently emerged as a suitable system for the development of efficient photopolymerization heterogeneous processes. UV light is exploited to cause the self-photoinitiation of acrylate miniemulsions at ambient temperature. The result is the fast production of less-toxic nanolatexes without initiator residue, making them particularly suitable for medical or microelectronic applications. Topics, such as stability, up-scaling in photoreactors and self-initiation mechanism are covered.

    10. Dynamic control of volume phase transitions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) based microgels in water using hydrazide-aldehyde chemistry

      Yunhua Chen, Nicholas Ballard, Oliver D. Coleman, Ian J. Hands-Portman and Stefan A. F. Bon

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27177

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      The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of copolymer microgel particles made from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and methacryloyl hydrazide (MH) can be tailored upon reaction of the hydrazide functional group with aldehydes. The reversibility of the hydrazone formation and dynamic control of the thermo-responsive behavior of the microgels were clearly demonstrated by using hydrophilic and hydrophobic aldehydes.

    11. Synthesis and property of polyoxazolidone having fluorene moiety by polyaddition of diisocyanate and diepoxide

      Motohisa Azechi and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27181

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      Polyoxazolidones with fluorenyl groups were synthesized from 9,9-diglycidyl fluorene and various diisocyanates. The IR spectrum of the obtained polymer showed absorption in carbonyl region, indicating the formation of the expected oxazolidone moieties along with isocyanurate moieties via cyclotrimerization. As a result of polyaddition, the formation of isocyanurate could be controlled.

    12. Thermoresponsive dendronized polymeric sensors

      Lianxiao Liu, Wen Li, Jiatao Yan and Afang Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27171

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      Thermoresponsive dendronized copolymers carrying dendritic oligoethylene glycol (OEG) scaffolds and solvatochromic dye pendants are synthesized, and their aqueous solution colors varied according to temperature and solution pH. Dendritic OEGs are found to capture the dye moieties, which can be enhanced with the increase of dendron generation and solution temperature, but retarded above their phase transition temperatures. The dye transition within the collapsed polymer media is governed by the thickness of dendronized polymers.

    13. Chain-growth condensation polymerization approach to synthesis of well-defined polybenzoxazole: Importance of higher reactivity of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compared to 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid ester

      Yoshihiro Ohta, Tetsurou Niiyama, Akihiro Yokoyama and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27174

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      Well-defined poly(o-hydroxyamide) was synthesized by chain-growth condensation polymerization of phenyl 4-{(2-methoxyethoxy)methoxy(MEM-oxy)}-3-{(4-octyloxybenzyl) (OOB) amino}benzoate with an initiator, followed by removal of the MEM and OOB groups with trifluoroacetic acid. Cyclodehydration of poly(o-hydroxyamide) proceeded at 350 °C to yield polybenzoxazole, which was insoluble in organic solvents and acids.

    14. Hierarchically ordered ABA triblock copolymer with large difference in glass transition temperatures of the two blocks

      Chang-Feng Li, Qi-Kai Zhang, Hai-Jian Tian, Chun-Peng Chai, Long-Cheng Gao, Zhihao Shen, Xing-He Fan and Yun-Jun Luo

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27175

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      The rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers, (PMVBP-b-PDMS-b-PMVBP), were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization. SAXS and TEM results demonstrate that the triblock copolymers form lamellar structures. Upon heating to the temperature at which the LC phase of PMVBP forms, the PMVBP blocks become liquid crystalline within the lamellar structures of the BCPs, resulting in hierarchically ordered structures. These triblock copolymers are potentially useful as thermoplastic LC elastomers owing to their distinctly different glass transition temperatures.

    15. Radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene with 4-bromo-3,3,4,4-tetrafluorobut-1-ene

      Gérald Lopez, Noureddine Ajellal, Alagappan Thenappan and Bruno Ameduri

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27172

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      A wide range of poly(CTFE-co-BTFB) copolymers are prepared by radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) with 3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-4-bromobut-1-ene (BTFB). Their microstructures are determined by means of NMR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These copolymers exhibit fair to satisfactory thermal stability as well as an alternating character for increased amount of BTFB incorporated in the copolymer. These original fluoropolymers with reactive pendant brominated groups are suitable candidates for various applications.

    16. Accelerated brush growth on nanoparticle surfaces by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

      Yang Jiao and Pinar Akcora

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27170

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      Unusual kinetic results are presented for achieving grafted chain lengths longer than the free chains using RAFT polymerization. Surface initiated polymerization grows faster than the free chains in solution with high RAFT agent coverage (1.95 agents/nm2) on nanoparticles. Activation of the anchored CTA is limited by the diffusion of macro-radicals within the growing grafts. Thus, the radical transfer and exchange reactions become inefficient between grafts and free polymer, and convert the surface-initiated RAFT mechanism to a free radical polymerization.

    17. A rheological and spectroscopic study on the kinetics of self-healing in a single-component diels–alder copolymer and its underlying chemical reaction

      Ranjita K. Bose, Julia Kötteritzsch, Santiago J. Garcia, Martin D. Hager, Ulrich S. Schubert and Sybrand van der Zwaag

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27164

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      Self-healing polymers based on reversible Diels–Alder chemistry were synthesized along with nonhealing control polymers. A combined FTIR and rheological study showed that reversible crosslinking of the network can be achieved, which was linked to bulk microscratch healing. The use of nonhealing control samples did show some viscoelastic recovery but lacked chemical reversibility. Therefore, care must be taken to distinguish molecular healing from viscoelastic recovery, which can be achieved by combined spectroscopic and mechanical investigations.

    18. A novel low-bandgap conjugated polymer based on Ru(II) bis(acetylide) complex and BODIPY moieties

      Shuwei Zhang, Yuan Sheng, Guo Wei, Yiwu Quan, Yixiang Cheng and Chengjian Zhu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27166

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      A novel conjugated polymer P-1 with Ru(II) complex and BODIPY moieties in the main chain was synthesized by Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction. Compared with the reference polymer P-2 without Ru(II) complex moieties, P-1 shows obviously lower bandgap derived from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and DFT calculation, which is as low as 0.87 eV. P-1 also appears redshift both in absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    19. Synthesis of methallylic monomers bearing ammonium side-groups and their radical copolymerization with chlorotrifluoroethylene

      Ali Alaaeddine, Frédéric Boschet and Bruno Ameduri

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27173

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      Methallylic monomers bearing triethyl or one or two 4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) ammonium side-groups are prepared and copolymerized with chlorotrifluoroethylene. Several copolymerization parameters (nature and amounts of initiators, solvent, and temperature) are investigated. In all cases, chlorotrifluoroethylene is more reactive than the methallylic monomers. These copolymers are stable up to 180 °C without any degradation and have a Td,10% above 300 °C. Finally, their ionic exchange capacities (IECs) range between 0.94 and 1.69 meq g−1.

    20. Resorcinol-based benzoxazine with low polymerization temperature

      Andre Arnebold, Oliver Schorsch, Johannes Stelten and Andreas Hartwig

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27169

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      A new reactive resorcinol-based benzoxazine (R-a) exhibits relatively low self-polymerization temperature compared to common benzoxazines like BA-a. The use of thermolatent super acids as initiators lead to a futher decrease in curing temperature. Furthermore, the combination of R-a and a thermolatent initiator features long shelf-life and makes it therefore to a suitable system for technical applications.

    21. Low band-gap D–A conjugated copolymers based on anthradithiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole for polymer solar cells and field-effect transistors

      Jun Huang, Yongxiang Zhu, Lianjie Zhang, Ping Cai, Xiaofeng Xu, Junwu Chen and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27163

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      Conjugated copolymers PADT-DPP and PADT-FDPP based on anthradithiophene (ADT) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP), with thiophene and furan as the π-conjugated bridge, respectively, were synthesized. The two polymers exhibit broad absorption ranges with band gaps of 1.44 eV and 1.50 eV, respectively. PADT-DPP showed a better efficiency of 3.46% in polymer solar cell and a higher field-effect hole mobility of 4.7 × 10−3 cm2/(V s).

    22. Improved synthesis of oligomeric phthalonitriles and studies designed for low temperature cure

      Matthew Laskoski, Arianna Neal, Teddy M. Keller, Dawn Dominguez, Christopher A. Klug and Andrew P. Saab

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27161

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      An improved synthetic method has been developed for oligomeric aromatic ether ketone-based phthalonitrile (PN) resins. A new curing additive was studied that lowers the cure temperature of the PN resin to around 150 °C. The mechanical and thermooxidative properties were compared for both cure systems.

    23. Dual stimuli-responsive microgels based on photolabile crosslinker: Temperature sensitivity and light-induced degradation

      Shanshan Bian, Jin Zheng and Wuli Yang

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27165

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      What's new?

      A new o-NB-based crosslinker is synthesized through a convenient route. Dual stimuli-responsive P(VCL-co-NHMA) microgels based on the new photolabile crosslinker, with uniform size and fine morphology are successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization. The microgels perform higher VPTT with increasing NHMA content and can totally degrade into short linear polymers by UV light. Increasing light intensity results in a faster degradation; thus, the degradation rate of microgels can be controlled by changing light properties, which may indicate the potential application in some fields.

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