Fire and Materials

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 5

Edited By: S. J. Grayson

Impact Factor: 1.208

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 143/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1099-1018

Most Cited


Read the most cited articles published since 2009


Correlations between pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and conventional flammability tests with halogen-free flame retardant polyolefin compounds
Jeffrey M. Cogen, Thomas S. Lin, Richard E. Lyon

Seven halogen-free flame retardant (FR) compounds were evaluated using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and cone calorimetry. Performance of wires coated with the compounds was evaluated using industry standard flame tests. The results suggest that time to peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat released (THR) in cone calorimetry (and THR and temperature at PHRR in PCFC) be given more attention in FR compound evaluation. Results were analyzed using flame spread theory. As predicted, the lateral flame spread velocity was independent of PHRR and heat release capacity. However, no angular dependence of flame spread velocity was observed. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 1, pages 33–50, January/February 2009

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Temperature inside burning polymer specimens: Pyrolysis zone and shielding
B. Schartel, A. Weiß

On the basis of two examples, temperature measurements are proposed within burning polymer specimen during the cone calorimeter test; especially to gain deeper insight into the actual pyrolysis conditions and flame retardancy mechanism. The heating and pyrolysis within a poly(methyl methacrylate) specimen were characterized, discussing the characteristic maximum heating rates (165−90°Cmin−1 decreasing with depth within the specimen and >275°Cmin−1 at the initial surface), pyrolysis temperature (454−432°C decreasing in accordance with decreasing heating rates), thickness of the pyrolysis zone (0.5–1.3 mm) and its velocity (1.2−2.1 mm min−1) as a function of sample depth and burning time. Thermally thick behaviour corresponds to a pyrolysis zone thickness of 0.74 mm and a velocity of 1.51 mm min−1 and occurs until the remaining specimen thickness is less than 8 mm. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 34, Issue 5, pages 217–235, August/September 2010

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Flame retardant finishing of cotton fleece fabric: Part V. Phosphorus-containing maleic acid oligomers
Xinying Cheng, Charles Q. Yang

The high flammability of cotton fleece makes it necessary to apply a flame retardant system on cotton fleece so that it can meet the federal regulation ‘Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles’ (16 CFR 1610). The objective of this research was to reduce the flammability of cotton fleece using the phosphorus-containing maleic acid oligomers (PMAO) synthesized by aqueous free radical polymerization of maleic acid. We found that PMAO can be bound to cotton fleece by esterifying with cotton cellulose with sodium hypophosphite as the catalyst. Both the 45∘ flammability and limiting oxygen index data indicated that the treatment of cotton using PMAO reduced the flammability of cotton fleece.Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 8, pages 365–375, December 2009

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Fire performance of bolted connections in laminated veneer lumber
P. J. Moss, A. H. Buchanan, M. Fragiacomo, P. H. Lau, T. Chuo

This paper describes an investigation into the fire performance of bolted tensile connections in laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from radiata pine. The capacity of the bolted connections depends on the embedment strength of the wood and on the yield moment of the bolts. The purpose of the research was to develop a prediction method for the time to failure of the connections when exposed to fire. An experimental investigation was carried out on the axial tensile strength of three types of bolted connections that utilized either wood or steel splice plates. Some specimens were tested at ambient temperatures while similar specimens were tested in fire conditions with a constant applied load.Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 5, pages 223–243, August/September 2009

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The effect of variation in polymer properties on the rate of burning
Stanislav I. Stoliarov, Natallia Safronava, Richard E. Lyon

The sensitivity of the burning rate to variations in physical and chemical properties of synthetic polymers has been examined in order to understand the relative importance of the knowledge of these properties. The sensitivity analysis was performed using a numerical pyrolysis model called ThermaKin, which was employed to compute the rate of burning (expressed in terms of mass loss) of a one-dimensional material object exposed to steady radiative heat. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 6, pages 257–271, October 2009

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Mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from burning Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) trees
Samuel L. Manzello, Alexander Maranghides, John R. Shields, William E. Mell, Yoshihiko Hayashi, Daisaku Nii

The present study reports on a series of real-scale fire experiments that were performed to determine the mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), a common conifer species indigenous to China, Japan, and Korea. The experiments were performed at the Building Research Institute in Tsukuba, Japan. The total tree height was fixed at 4.0 m and tree moisture content was varied to examine the influence that this parameter has on the mass and size distribution of the firebrands that are produced, under ambient wind conditions. The firebrands were collected using an array of pans. The pans used for firebrand collection were filled with water. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 1, pages 21–31, January/February 2009

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Optimization of the procedure to burn textile fabrics by cone calorimeter: Part I. Combustion behavior of polyester
Jennifer Tata, Jenny Alongi, Federico Carosio, Alberto Frache

The aim of this study was the optimization of cone calorimeter to determine the burning behavior of textile fabrics. In particular, the combustion behavior of commercial polyester textile fabrics with varying densities was studied in terms of time to ignition (TTI), heat release rate (HRR), and relative peak (pkHRR) were monitored. Reproducibility and repeatability of the data have been verified by the influence of instrument variable including incident heat flux, the temperature of ceramic backing pads and retaining grid used during sample mounting as well as sample weight (as the number of fabric layers), the density of textiles, and the relative humidity. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 35, Issue 6, pages 397–409, October 2011

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Comparison between the charring rate model and the conductive model of Eurocode 5
Paulo B. Cachim, Jean-Marc Franssen

Eurocode 5, Part 1–2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C , wood is no longer able to sustain any stress, which makes the determination of the location of the 300°C isotherm decisive for the result provided by the models. In this paper, the charring rate model and the conductive model presented in Eurocode 5, Part 1–2 are compared regarding the determination of the location of the 300°C isotherm. The main wood parameters investigated are density, moisture content and anisotropy. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 3, pages 129–143, April/May 2009

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Interaction of a phosphorus-based FR, a nanoclay and PA6—Part 1: Interaction of FR and nanoclay
Alwar Ramani, Martin Hagen, Johan Hereid, Jianping Zhang, Dimitri Bakirtzis, Michael Delichatsios

The thermal decomposition of organophosphorus fire-retardant (OP1311) and/ or organonanoclay (Cloisite 30B) is hereby investigated employing thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to give an insight into their intrinsic behaviour and interaction in polymer nanocomposites for fire safety applications, because the addition of OP1311 and Cloisite 30B in Polyamide 6 (PA6) seems to have a synergistic effect on the thermal decomposition of PA6 (part 2 of the paper). An important objective of this research was to determine to what extent phosphorus components escape in the gaseous phase, which will affect the heat of combustion of the fire-retarded polymer. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 6, pages 273–285, October 2009

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Residual compressive behavior of alkali-activated concrete exposed to elevated temperatures
Maurice Guerrieri, Jay Sanjayan, Frank Collins

This paper reports the effect of elevated temperature exposures, up to 1200°C , on the residual compressive strengths of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) activated by sodium silicate and hydrated lime; such temperatures can occur in a fire. The strength performance of AASC in the temperature range of 400–800°C was similar to ordinary Portland cement concrete and blended slag cement concrete, despite the finding that the AASC did not contain Ca(OH)2 , which contributes to the strength deterioration at elevated temperatures for Ordinary Portland Cement and blended slag cement concretes. Read the entire abstract.

Volume 33, Issue 1, pages 51–62, January/February 2009

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