Flavour and Fragrance Journal

Cover image for Vol. 30 Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Alain Chaintreau

Impact Factor: 1.761

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 28/71 (Chemistry Applied); 47/123 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1026


Author Guidelines


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Author Guidelines


General

Flavour and Fragrance Journal [FFJ] publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavour and fragrance. Its high scientific standard and international character will be ensured by regional editorial support and a strict refereeing system. Emphasis will be placed on analytical aspects and the important role that analysis in its widest sense plays in the support of research and applications.

As well as essential oils and other natural and naturally derived products, complementary synthetic products will be included, where appropriate. The comprehensive coverage of the journal will be reflected in the wide range of product types embraced, such as fragrances and their compositions, and the flavour, colours and odours of foodstuffs. There are many associated topics of interest, often requiring the use of interdisciplinary techniques. In addition to discussion of their end uses, coverage will include such important integral areas as biomedical sciences and legislation.

The overall aim is to produce a journal of the highest quality which provides a forum for the exchange of a wide variety of information on all aspects of flavours, fragrances and related materials, and which is valued by readers and contributors alike.

Papers must clearly be of scientific value in the field and will be submitted to two independent referees. Contributions must be in English and must not have been published elsewhere, and authors must agree not to communicate the same material for publication to any other journal. It is in the author's interest to ensure accurate and consistent presentation and thus avoid publication delays. There are no page charges.

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Manuscript Submission

All papers must be submitted via the online system. Flavour and Fragrance Journal operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface. Please read the remainder of these instructions to authors and then click ScholarOne to navigate to the Flavour and Fragrance Journal online submission site.

IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have created an account.

File types. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are .doc, .rtf, .ppt, .xls. LaTeX files may be submitted provided that an .eps or .pdf file is provided in addition to the source files. Figures may be provided in .tiff or .eps format.

INITIAL SUBMISSION

In the initial submission, and only in this case, the tables and figures can be included in the text, but should be also uploaded in ScholarOne as separate files.

NON-LATEX USERS: Editable source files must be uploaded at this stage. Tables must be on separate pages after the reference list, and not be incorporated into the main text. Figures should be uploaded as separate figure files.

LATEX USERS: For reviewing purposes you should upload a single .pdf that you have generated from your source files. You must use the File Designation "Main Document" from the dropdown box.

REVISION SUBMISSION

  • In the space provided, please respond in an itemized list to all comments made by the referee(s). If you disagree with a given referee's request, an argued answer should be provided.
  • In the revised manuscript, highlight all text modifications (do not use the modification tracking).
  • If the revision falls after the revision deadline, a new reference number will be allocated to your manuscript. In such a case, specify in the cover letter and in the response to referees that it is a revised version and indicate the reference of the previous manuscript.

NON-LATEX USERS: Editable source files must be uploaded at this stage. Tables must be on separate pages after the reference list, and not be incorporated into the main text. Figures should be uploaded as separate figure files.

LATEX USERS: When submitting your revision you must still upload a single .pdf that you have generated from your now revised source files. You must use the File Designation "Main Document" from the dropdown box. In addition you must upload your TeX source files. For all your source files you must use the File Designation "Supplementary Material not for review". Previous versions of uploaded documents must be deleted. If your manuscript is accepted for publication we will use the files you upload to typeset your article within a totally digital workflow.

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Copyright and Permissions

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-_301.html

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

  • Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-_301.html and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal's compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.


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English Editing

Papers must be in English. Oxford English Dictionary or American spelling is acceptable, provided usage is consistent within the manuscript.

Manuscripts that are written in English that is ambiguous or incomprehensible, in the opinion of the Editor, will be returned to the authors with a request to resubmit once the language issues have been improved. This policy does not imply that all papers must be written in "perfect" English, whatever that may mean. Rather, the criterion will require that the intended meaning of the authors must be clearly understandable, i.e., not obscured by language problems, by referees who have agreed to review the paper.

English Checking Service for Authors from non-English speaking countries. A list of recommended English editing services is available for authors who want to have their paper checked and improved before submission. This list and further information on the service is available at: http://www.wiley.co.jp/journals/editcontribute/editservlist.html. Please note that this is an optional service paid for by the author.

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Presentation of Papers

Manuscript style. Use a standard font of the 12-point type: Times, Helvetica, or Courier is preferred. It is not necessary to double-line space your manuscript.

Tables must be on separate pages after the reference list, and not be incorporated into the main text. Figures should be uploaded as separate figure files.

  • During the submission process you must enter 1) the full title 2) the short title of up to 70 characters 3) names and affiliations of all authors and 4) the full address, including email, telephone and fax of the author who is to check the proofs.
  • Include the name(s) of any sponsor(s) of the research contained in the paper, along with grant number(s).
  • Enter an abstract of no more than 250 words for all articles. Please see the guidance below on acceptable abstract writing for FFJ
  • Keywords. Authors should prepare no more than 5 keywords for their manuscript.

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Writing Abstracts

An abstract is a concise summary of the whole paper, not just the conclusions. The abstract should be no more than 250 words and convey the following:

1. An introduction to the work. This should be accessible by scientists in any field and express the necessity of the experiments executed

2. Some scientific detail regarding the background to the problem

3. A summary of the main result

4. The implications of the result

5. A broader perspective of the results, once again understandable across scientific disciplines

It is crucial that the abstract convey the importance of the work and be understandable without reference to the rest of the manuscript to a multidisciplinary audience. Abstracts should not contain any citation to other published works.

Reference Style

Reference style.References should be cited by superior numbers and listed at the end of the paper in the order in which they appear in the text. Authors should cite available published work. If necessary, cite unpublished or personal work in the text but do not include them in the references list. Journal titles should be italicized and abbreviated in accordance with the “Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index” (CASSI; no commas appear in the journal names).

Journals

[1] R. K. Harris, A. Nordon, K. D. M. Harris, Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 2007, 21, 15.

Books

[2] K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers, Academic Press, London, 1994 .

[3] V. Sklenar, in NMR Applications in Biopolymers , (Eds: J.W. Finley, S. J. Schmidt, A. S. Serianni), Plenum, New York, 1990 , pp. 63-70.

[4] The Oncology Website. http://www.mit/co.oncology/ [24 April 1999]

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Illustrations and ChemDraw Rules

Upload each figure as a separate file in either .tiff or .eps format, with the figure number and the top of the figure indicated. Compound figures e.g. 1a, b, c should be uploaded as one figure. Tints are not acceptable. Lettering must be of a reasonable size that would still be clearly legible upon reduction, and consistent within each figure and set of figures. Where a key to symbols is required, please include this in the artwork itself, not in the figure legend. All illustrations must be supplied at the correct resolution:

Tables should be part of the the main document and should be placed after the references. If the table is created in excel the file should be uploaded separately.

Chemical structures should be prepared in ChemDraw either 80mm (onecolumn)or175mm (twocolumn) widths. However, the one-column format should be used whenever possible as this allows greater flexibility in the layout of the manuscript.Use this ChemDraw Download Chemdraw Download or use the following settings:

Drawing settingsText settings
chain angle120°fontArial
bond spacing18% of lengthsize12 pt
fixed length17 pt
bond width2 ptPreferences
line width0.75 ptunitspoints
margin width2 pttolerances5 pixels
hash spacing2.6 pt
Bold width2.6 pt

Authors using different structural drawing programs should choose settings consistent with those above. Compound numbers should be bold, but not atom labels or captions.


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Graphical Table of Contents

FFJ’s table of contents will be presented in graphical form with a brief abstract.

The table of contents entry must include the article title, the authors' names, no more than 80 words or 3 sentences of text summarising the key findings presented in the paper and a figure that best represents the scope of the paper. (see the section on abstract writing for more guidance).

Table of contents entries should be submitted to Manuscript Central in one of the generic file formats and uploaded as ‘Supplementary material for review’ during the initial manuscript submission process.

The image supplied should fit within the dimensions of 50mm x 60mm, and be fully legible at this size.

Examples for arranging the text and figures as well as paper title and authors' names are shown below.

sample figure

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Colour Policy

When considered necessary by the Editors, two colour pages per article will be printed free of charge. The cost of additional colour illustrations printed in the journal will be charged to the author. If colour illustrations are supplied electronically in either TIFF or EPS format, they may be used in the PDF of the article at no cost to the author, even if this illustration was printed in black and white in the journal. The PDF will appear on the Wiley Online Library site.

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Citing EarlyView Articles

To include the DOI in a citation to an article, simply append it to the reference as in the following example:

R. K. Harris, A. Nordon, K. D. M. Harris, Rapid. Commun. Mass Spec. 2007, DOI: 10.1002/rcm.21464.

To link to an article from the author’s homepage, take the DOI (digital object identifier) and append it to "http://dx.doi.org/" as per following example:

DOI 10.1002/FFJ.1822, becomes http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/FFJ.1822.

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Supplementary Material

Data that are (i) not amenable to presentation in a traditional print format, (ii) of interest primarily to specialists and do not require Journal page space, or (iii) particularly useful to the community in electronic (downloadable) form can be published online as supplementary material hosted within Wiley Online Library.

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Article Formats Published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal

Types of Contributions. The following types of papers are published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal: Reviews and Research Articles (please, note that mini-reviews and short communications are not accepted). On special occasions only , a Letter to the Editor (e.g. rebuttal letter) can be submitted for consideration.

Research Articles report work,which advances the science of flavours and fragrances. Innovation is an important criterion for their acceptance. In the special case of plant analysis, the work must include more than one sample of plant material, and be replicated in terms of sample preparation (e.g. essential oil isolation) and analysis (e.g. gas chromatography). The appropriate statistical analysis must be applied to the resultant data. At the least, authors will need to show variability between plants, analytical uncertainty, and will need to provide concentrations of major components of an essential oil in physical units. Authors might also provide data to describe comparisons between plant families, chemotaxonomy, or other information advancing the science of flavours and fragrances. If any submission does not demonstrate sufficient novelty, it will be returned to the authors. More Detailed Guidance on manuscript content is available at the end of these Notes under Conventions adopted by Flavour and Fragrance Journal

As a rule, Research Articles should be divided into sections, headed by captions:

  • Introduction. Every Article must have a concise introduction which reviews what has been done before on the topic, with appropriate references, clearly states the purpose of the work, and clearly states what is new in the paper now submitted and how it advances flavour and fragrance science.
  • Experimental. The Experimental section should contain sufficient information for others to repeat the experiments. New techniques need to be described fully, while known methods must have adequate references. The origin of all materials used must be given. Statistical analysis should be clearly described with references to the methodology used.
  • Results and Discussion. The Results should be presented in a clear, concise manner using tables and illustrations for clarity. Do not list tabular data in the text. Following their presentation, results should be appropriately discussed and interpreted in the light of existing literature. Do not present data in both figures and tables. Figures and tables should be clearly labelled.

Reviews are invited or proposed in writing to the Reviews Editor, who welcomes suggestions for subjects. An outline of the proposed Review should first be forwarded to the Reviews Editor for preliminary discussion prior to preparation. Reviews provide comprehensive but not necessarily exhaustive description of present literature. Authors of such works should be experts in the field and should critically discuss the cited work.

Recommended Practices are hands-on articles written upon invitation of the editors that describe key techniques and methodologies in flavour and fragrance science.

Regulatory Updates are hands-on articles written upon invitation of the editors that deal with the legal environment in which flavour and fragrance industries and science operate.

Conventions Adopted by Flavour and Fragrance Journal

It is not possible to specify every type of article in detail, but the following guidance will help authors to prepare manuscripts, which are more likely to be accepted without difficulty.

Experimental conditions to be specified

General

  • Chemicals. Supplier (city/town, state, country) and degree of purity of all less common chemicals. Optical purity of enantiomers.
  • Equipment. Model and manufacturer (city/town, state, country) of commercial instruments. For instruments that are not commercially available, sufficient detail or a reference should be given to allow others to construct their own instrument.
  • Sample preparation. Give full details (or a reference) for the method of sample preparation. Injection device and volume and concentration of the injected sample should be specified.

Plant Material

  • Moisture (water) content should be determined prior to the distillation. Indeed, when reporting the distillation yield, the value is meaningless unless it refers to the dry weight, or to the fresh weight in indicating the moisture content.
  • Amount of "biomass" involved and the approximate number of plants of a random sample should be mentioned. Depending on the yield, this amount should be a minimum. For example, it is illusive to measure accurately the distillation yield in starting from 50 grams of plant material if 0.1% yield is expected (50 milligrams), unless a solvent is used to recover the oil (see below). When certain conclusions are to be formulated based on distillation yields, the authors should be requested to start from a minimum quantity of plant material, so that at leat one gram of essential oil is obtained. This would ensure a mimimum precision/accuracy for this measurement. The number of samples and/or repetitions should also be mentioned.

Distillation

If steam distillation is involved, the authors should indicate how they proceeded (apparatus, yield).

Duration: standard durations do not exist. The authors should indicate why they distilled during one, two, three or more hours. In the case on sesquiterpene-rich essential oils, or certain biomasses (wood) the duration can be very long (10-15 hours or more) and, whenever possible, the distillation rate in ml/hour should be mentioned.)

When a solvent has been used for the recovery of the essential oil, two possibilities exist:

1.) The entire distillate (hydrolate and oil) is extracted with a solvent, and the solvent is subsequently evaporated (w/o drying over sodium sulphate). In this case, the crude product CANNOT be called any longer an essential oil, but rather a solvent extract from the distillation water.

2.) The essential oil is recovered by decantation, and the part that remains of the walls of the glassware (Clevenger or oil receiver) is recovered by washing with some solvent. Only in this case one can tolerate/admit that an essential oil has been obtained, after elimination of the small quantity of solvent. The authors should indicate whether the oil has been dried, the nature of the drying agent and the yield of this step. In all cases, the authors should be requested to check that the residual solvent does not exceed 2%, for example.

Column liquid chromatography

  • Column. Column dimension (length x internal diameter), manufacturer and location, packing material, particle size, column temperature.
  • Mobile phase. Describe mobile phase composition and procedure for its preparation; pH; flow-rate; gradient program.

Gas chromatography

  • Column. Column dimension (length x internal diameter), manufacturer and location, type of column (packed, capillary, etc.), support material, film thickness.
  • Carrier Gas. Type, purity, flow-rate, inlet pressure and/or pressure programmes.
  • Temperature. Give all relevant temperatures (and temperature programmes).

Planar chromatography

  • Chamber. Internal dimensions, manufacturer and location, saturation, temperature, humidity.
  • Thin layer of paper. Manufacturer and location, material, dimensions, type and thickness of the layer, additives, position of starting line, development mode, method of activation.
  • Mobile phase. Composition and volume.
  • Sample. Application method, size of spot or streak, solvent, concentration and volume of solution applied.
  • Detection. Spray reagent, wavelength, details of colour, RF values.

Mass spectrometry

  • Inlet system. Direct on-line, off-line, post-column splitting.
  • Source. Ionisation energy, temperature, trap current, reagent gas. For LC interface, complete description of operating parameters (vaporiser and capillary temperature, nebulising, auxiliary or ionizing gases, source and interface voltage, CID voltage).
  • Mass analyser. Accelerating voltage, scan mode, resolution and mass range. For tandem MS, indicate the collision energy.
  • Detection. Electron multiplier voltage and/or electrometer gain, ions monitored in SIM and dwell time.

NMR

Specify if 1H-NMR or 13C-NMR. Give frequency of the instrument, solvent used, internal standard added. Chemical shifts should be noted in (ppm) values relative to TMS. The type of signal should also be noted (singlet s, doublet d, triplet t, multiplet m, etc.).

Chemical nomenclature

Generally accepted chemical nomenclature may be used, either IUPAC or CAS Registry. For example, the use of trivial names for terpenes or other classes of components is acceptable if there is no possibility of confusion.

Species names

Plant material must be adequately and correctly identified and described. The identification of the investigated species must be confirmed by a botanist. A voucher specimen must be deposited in a recognized botanical collection and its number indicated in the experimental section.

Processed natural products (foods, beverages including wines,…):

Such products should be manufactured in the authors’ laboratory, or – at least – under the whole supervision of authors. The process must be described in the experimental section and the addition of any additive must be exhaustively reported.

Identification of compounds

The component identification must use at least two methods to validate identity, most commonly, mass spectrometry and gas chromatography (e.g. MS spectra and retention indices (RI) being measured on the same instrument). Assuming that gas chromatographic data are used in identification, the manuscript must include a listing of observed retention indices and reference indices from an authentic or a published source (with its bibliographic reference) for each compound identified. The combination of a RI and a mass spectral identification is usually not sufficient for unusual sesquiterpenes, and a spectral confirmation by GC/IR and/or NMR is highly recommended. Authors might find it helpful to consult the IOFI Statement on the identification in nature of flavouring substances, particularly when they are reporting the identification of a compound in nature for the first time (Flavour Fragr. J. 2006;21: 185). If the authors declare the presence of a specific enantiomer [of which optical rotation (+) or (-), and/or absolute configuration (R) or (S) is indicated], they should provide analytical evidence of the enantiomeric composition of the compound. It must be clearly shown where compounds that can exist in isomeric form have not been fully characterized.

Composition

The raw GC percentages (obtained by internal normalization, with all response factors set equal to unity) are no longer accepted to report the composition of an essential oil, an aroma, etc. Authors are requested to provide a true quantification, using a recognized technique (internal or external standardization, internal normalization, addition of standards, multiple headspace extraction, etc.) of major components. For more details, refer to the Recommended Practice on GC quantification (Flavour Fragr. J.2011, 26, 297–299 and 2012, 27, 224–226).Simple GC-FID percentages may be included to facilitate comparison with literature data. For non-commercially available compounds representing less than (10-20%) of the whole composition, semi-quantification can be performed using one pure standard for each class of similar components (e.g. monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, etc.). Authors are encouraged to isolate or synthesize compounds occurring at more than 20% for calibration purposes and structural confirmation by other spectroscopic means. Methods assuming response factors equal to unity cannot be used with a mass spectrometer and NPD. Only FID and TCD can be suitable for such an approximation. Whatever the method of quantitation, all results must be presented with appropriate precision. Give an appropriate number of significant figures, e.g. no more than 2 significant figures in composition data unless greater precision can be demonstrated.

The composition of a volatile fraction resulting from purge-and-trap or sorptive techniques (SPME, SBSE, HSSE) does not directly represent the composition in the investigated material. Therefore, when a paper aims at describing the composition of a volatile fraction, a calibration is required for each of the volatile constituents and using the same matrix (see Flavour Fragr. J.2010,25, 404–406). If the objective is only the monitoring of small variations of the composition versus a given factor (and not between species, chemotypes, etc), purge and trap or sorptive techniques can be accepted (e.g. the study of changes in coffee volatiles under different storage conditions).

The composition of a plant, based on a single sample, cannot justify a publication. Papers should report broader investigations by comparing the composition as a function of one or several given factor(s) (e.g. chemotypes, geographical origin, climatic differences, etc). For each case, several samples should be analyzed starting from different collected plants, and a standard deviation should be provided. For comparative studies, the use of statistical tools is necessary.

The experimental observation that several techniques lead to different compositional results is not enough to support a publication. Authors are encouraged to discuss the results in comparison with a reference method, theoretical modeling or comparison with samples spiked with known amounts.

Sensory analysis

Informal sensory evaluations are very subjective and difficult to reproduce reliably. The use of trained sensory panels and recognized methods of sensory analysis addressing a measure of the uncertainty in the measurement are highly recommended. This also applies to GC-Olfactometry. Ranking the odorant contribution based on odor activity values (OAV) or determining the odor thresholds from GC-O experiments is not accepted.

Statistical analysis, validation

Give full details (or a reference) of the method and name the software used. When a new quantitative method is proposed, the authors are warmly encouraged to validate their results according to a recognized procedure.

Synthesis

The authors should describe the procedures in following the same guidelines enforced in recognized standard journal in the field (e.g. J. Org. Chem.). The yield must be determined from the amount of the isolated and weighted compound. The atomic composition of new compounds should be checked with appropriate means (e.g. elemental analysis or accurate mass MS), and their structure should be supported by 1H, 13C NMR and MS spectra. The linear retention indices of volatile substances are required..

Bioactive substances and extracts

The benefits of natural materials on botanical or living organisms should be compared to those of other natural materials exhibiting the highest efficiency for the same health claim. Comparison with the efficiency of synthetic substances whose activity is well known is also encouraged.

Manuscripts reporting bioactive properties of extracts without providing their origin and composition are usually not be accepted.

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Further Information

For accepted manuscripts the publisher will supply proofs to the submitting author prior to publication. This stage is to be used only to correct errors that may have been introduced during the production process. Prompt return of the corrected proofs, preferably within two days of receipt, will minimise the risk of the paper being held over to a later issue. Free access of the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Further offprints and copies of the journal may be ordered. There is no page charge to authors.

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