International Journal of Energy Research

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Editor-in-Chief: Ibrahim Dincer; European Editor: Peter Lund

Impact Factor: 2.529

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 1/32 (Nuclear Science & Technology); 35/88 (Energy & Fuels)

Online ISSN: 1099-114X


  1. 1 - 64
  1. Research Articles

    1. Flexible power generation scenarios for biogas plants operated in Germany: impacts on economic viability and GHG emissions

      Markus Lauer, Martin Dotzauer, Christiane Hennig, Monique Lehmann, Eva Nebel, Jan Postel, Nora Szarka and Daniela Thrän

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3592

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      Biogas plants, especially those with large gas storage capacities, heat sinks and no temporal limitation of the heat supply, can economically benefit from flexible power generation. The current incentive scheme promotes investment, especially combined heat and power units, and/or additional gas storage capacities. Relative greenhouse gas emissions from flexible biogas plants are significantly lower than from gas-steam power stations.

    2. Economic evaluation for wind power generation–hybrid energy storage system based on game theory

      Xiaojuan Han, Zekun Zhao, Jianlin Li and Tianming Ji

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3591

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      The time constant T1 is used to smooth the fluctuations of wind output power. The time constant T2 is used to distribute the power of the HESS. Game theory is introduced to realize the coordination and optimization between the time constants of the two filters. For comparative analysis, the model's optimal solution is respectively worked out by GA and PSO.

  2. Special Issue Papers

    1. Void reactivity aspect and fuel conversion potential of heavy water cooled thorium reactor

      Sidik Permana, Abdul Waris, Zaki Suud and Hiroshi Sekimoto

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3594

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      Based on the analyses, thorium utilization on heavy water cooled system shows that all obtained void reactivity are negative, which means the reactor gives in safety condition in term of void reactivity condition, and it shows some feasible conditions for obtaining breeding condition, which give the feasible design to increase the sustainability of nuclear fuel.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Thermodynamic analysis and the design of sensible thermal energy storages

      Behnaz Rezaie, Bale V. Reddy and Marc A. Rosen

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3587

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      Thermal energy storage (TES) is an important technology for effective and efficient energy management. The proper design and operation of a TES require an understanding of its behavior and characteristics. The study models an open system TES to characterize the charging and discharging temperatures as well as charging and discharging heat flow capacity of with latent heat.

    2. Performance analysis on a novel micro-channel heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector-incorporated thermoelectric generation

      Guiqiang Li, Jie Ji, Gan Zhang, Wei He, Xiao Chen and Hongbing Chen

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3589

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      A novel micro-channel heat pipe evacuated tube collector incorporated thermoelectric is proposed. The new system takes into account many advantages, including the high heat transfer, low convective heat loss, and low contract thermal resistance. Exergy analysis is introduced to evaluate the performance. The results show that it has a high thermal performance with addition of electricity production.

    3. Priority and delay constrained demand side management in real-time price environment with renewable energy source

      Muhammad Babar Rasheed, Nadeem Javaid, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Awais, Zahoor Ali Khan, Umar Qasim and Nabil Alrajeh

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3588

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      This paper presents opportunistic scheduling algorithms in a real-time pricing environment based on optimal stopping rule. This paper classifies different users and assigns priorities based on energy demand. This paper proposes priority enabled early deadline first scheduling algorithm to maximize user comfort. Results prove electricity cost reduction and user comfort maximization.

    4. Benchmarking the ambipolar conductivity of composite electrolytes for gas separation membranes

      Sónia G. Patrício and Fernando M. B. Marques

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3596

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      Impact of composite microstructure on ambipolar conductance mapped in a new diagram where source data can be easily obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurements. The actual membrane electrical microstructure can be tested against an ideal performance where microstructural constraints are absent.

    5. Analyses of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry in micro-direct methanol fuel cell stacks

      Shou-Shing Hsieh, Ling-Ching Hung, Ching-Chi Liu and Ching-Feng Huang

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3597

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      EIS & CV in μDMFC stacks.

    6. Catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride on Co catalysts

      Hitoshi Inokawa, Hafedh Driss, Florencio Trovela, Hiroki Miyaoka, Takayuki Ichikawa, Yoshitsugu Kojima, Sharif F. Zaman, Abdulrahim Al-Zahrani, Yahia Alhamed and Lachezar Petrov

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3582

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      Co-B catalysts for NaBH4 hydrolysis reaction were prepared via reduction of Co-EDTA or Co-citrate. Both catalysts were composed of metal, borate, and hydroxide of cobalt, but they have different microstructure. Catalyst prepared from Co-citrate had higher activity and dispersion of Co nanoparticles than that from Co-EDTA. The reduction mechanism and structure of the Co-B catalysts have been investigated.

    7. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene catalyst by high-energy wet ball milling for electrochemical systems

      Shiqiang Zhuang, Eon Soo Lee, Lin Lei, Bharath Babu Nunna, Liyuan Kuang and Wen Zhang

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3595

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      In this research, nanoscale high-energy wet ball milling methodology was developed as a simple and easy synthesis method of nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) catalyst with graphene oxide and melamine as raw materials. The characterization test results show that the electron transfer number of synthesized N-G catalyst has reached 3.87. The high-energy wet ball milling developed in this research is a promising method to synthesize high-performance N-G catalysts with a simple and easy controllable approach.

  4. Review Papers

    1. Wells turbine for wave energy conversion: a review

      Ahmed S. Shehata, Qing Xiao, Khalid M. Saqr and Day Alexander

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3583

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      Review of the most important researches that investigated the development and improvements of the performance of Wells turbine by studying different design and performance variables. This paper is discussing the state of the art CFD studies of Wells turbine.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Biogas derived from municipal solid waste to generate electrical power through solid oxide fuel cells

      Mohammad Moulod, Ahvand Jalali and Ramazan Asmatulu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3585

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      In this study, the biogas derived from Tehran's municipal solid waste is fed into a solid oxide fuel cell to produce electricity. Power generation is up to 300 MWAC, and its price is $0.178 kWh−1. Using a hybrid fuel cell–GT system, the power generation increases to 525 MWAC, and the price is reduced to $0.11 kWh−1.

    2. Boron-free small modular pressurized water reactor design with new burnable absorber

      Jiwon Choe, Youqi Zheng, Deokjung Lee and Ho Cheol Shin

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3590

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      This paper presents a preliminary design of a Small Modular Pressurized Water Reactor aimed at boron-free operation. A new ring type of burnable absorber (R-BA) with Zr–167Er is adopted as a BA, and HfB2 is adopted as a control rod material. Optimal fuel assemblies and loading patterns have been searched, and the reactivity control capacity and design requirements have been demonstrated.

    3. Comparative life cycle assessment of hydrogen pathways from fossil sources in China

      Jun Dong, Xiaotong Liu, Xinhai Xu and Shuyang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3586

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      Emissions of multiple hydrogen production pathways from fossil sources in China were evaluated and compared by using the life cycle assessment method. Emissions and energy consumption of different vehicle technologies in China including fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles, and traditional vehicles were also calculated and compared. The results indicate both fuel cell vehicles and electric vehicles have better performance than the traditional vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles utilizing hydrogen produced from natural gas and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel have the least emissions.

    4. Catalytic combustion of hydrogen for residential heat supply application

      Sen Wang, Luping Chen, Feng Niu, Da Chen, Laishun Qin, Xingguo Sun and Yuexiang Huang

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3579

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      This paper reported an industrial-scale heat acquisition system based on hydrogen catalytic combustion. The 1 wt% Pt-loaded glass fiber felts prepared by an impregnation process were used as the combustion catalyst, and a catalytic combustion burner with a capacity of 1 kW was designed. The testing results demonstrated that the stable combustion could be achieved by adjusting hydrogen flow rate, and a heat efficiency of 80% for hot water supply was obtained based on the present combustion burner.

  6. Special Issue Papers

    1. Full-core coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic modelling of the EBR-II SHRT-45R transient

      D. Caron, R. Bonifetto, S. Dulla, V. Mascolino, P. Ravetto, L. Savoldi, D. Valerio and R. Zanino

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3571

  7. Research Articles

    1. An alternating current heating method for lithium-ion batteries from subzero temperatures

      Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei and Haifeng Dai

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3576

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      An alternating current (AC) heating method for lithium-ion batteries is proposed. A thermal model is established to depict the heat generation rate and temperature, and model is calibrated considering voltage limit and impedance under different current. Experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the AC heating, and the effects of current frequency, amplitudes and current waveforms are also investigated.

  8. Short Communications

  9. Special Issue Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Development of high intensity D–T fusion neutron generator HINEG

      Yican Wu

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3572

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      The high-intensity D–T fusion neutron generator (HINEG) has been developed at Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences/FDS Team, which will be a significant neutronic experimental platform for nuclear energy. HINEG consists of two phases: HINEG-I has been completed and commissioning since December 2015 with the neutron yield of 1.1 × 1012 n/s, while the feasibility of HINEG-II, which is designed to reach a neutron yield of 1014–1015 n/s , has been preliminarily demonstrated.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Characteristics of medium deep borehole thermal energy storage

      Bastian Welsch, Wolfram Rühaak, Daniel O. Schulte, Kristian Bär and Ingo Sass

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3570

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      Seasonal heat storage in medium deep borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology for a sustainable energy supply. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of more than 250 numerical simulation experiments of storage design variations. The results illustrate the typical behaviour of medium deep borehole thermal energy storages and reveal sensitive system parameters.

  11. Review Papers

    1. On the role of surface roughness in the aerodynamic performance and energy conversion of horizontal wind turbine blades: a review

      Iham F. Zidane, Khalid M. Saqr, Greg Swadener, Xianghong Ma and Mohamed F. Shehadeh

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3580

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      The studies reviewed in this article have agreed that as the Reynolds number increases, the sensitivity of the airfol to surface roughness decreases. On the other hand when the angle og attack increases, the sensitivity of the airlfoil to surface roughness increases. In the literature surveyed none of the previous studies have suggested a solution for surface contamination problem on how to eliminate it; the reaserch still incomplete and needs more exploration.

    2. Review on recent approaches for hybrid PV/T solar technology

      Ahmad Hussien Besheer, Mervyn Smyth, Aggelos Zacharopoulos, Jayanta Mondol and Adrian Pugsley

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3567

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      • 1.
        This paper reviews the recent hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) structural/geometrical topologies to highlight the state of the art on this form of collector approaches and designs for both liquid and air-based systems.
      • 2.
        It is shown that at least 30 distinct configurations have been introduced in the literature in the last 5 years.
      • 3.
        The paper concludes with identifying the major factors that affect the performance of typical PV/T systems and lead to effective enhancement of the heat removal mechanisms, thus improving the electrical/thermal solar conversion efficiencies.
  12. Research Articles

    1. Single and multi-objective optimization for the performance enhancement of lead–acid battery cell

      Hamoon Pourmirzaagha, Vahid Esfahanian, Fereidoun Sabetghadam and Farschad Torabi

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3574

  13. Review Papers

    1. Adsorption technology for the storage of natural gas and biomethane from biogas

      Michael Feroldi, Andressa Caroline Neves, Vanessa Rossato Bach and Helton José Alves

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3577

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      Porous solids shall provide high selectively, reversibility, area and viability; Biogas is a renewable fuel and offers features similar to natural gas; Biomethane storage by adsorption is being actively research in recent years.

  14. Research Articles

    1. A novel approach for the liquefaction of wood powder: usage of pyrolytic bio-oil as a reaction medium

      M. Hakkı Alma, Tufan Salan and Ali Temiz

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3581

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      In this study, Scotch pine wood (P. sylvestris L.) powder was liquefied in pyrolytic bio-oil, which was produced from the pyrolysis of same wood, at various temperatures under pressure. The results showed that the wood particles could easily be liquefied with different fractions of bio-oil at a variety of temperatures and times. The highest yield of liquefied wood oil was obtained at 250 °C for 150 min with the heavy fraction of bio-oil produced at a temperature of 550 °C.

    2. Investigation of the copper concentration on photocurrent collection of CuInSe2 solar cells

      Fang-I Lai, Jui-Fu Yang, Ming-Chun Lee and Shou-Yi Kuo

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3573

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      CuInSe2 (CISe) thin films were prepared from thermally evaporated Cu/In precursors with atomic ratio ranging from 0.91 to 1.19. The effects of Cu/In atomic ratio on grain size, surface morphology, micro-structure and defect formation of CISe films were examined. The photovoltaic properties were strongly related to Cu concentration, as well as carrier transport mechanism. Our experimental results show that the Cu-rich solar cell achieves conversion efficiency of 4.55% and exhibits an exceptional high short-circuit current density of 33.9 mA/cm2.

    3. Evolution of liquid and gas phases in multi-plume spray injection

      Abbas Ghasemi, Aaron Pereira and Xianguo Li

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3562

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      Unsteady development of multi-plume sprays is investigated by large eddy simulations and experiments for their spatiotemporal evolution of both the liquid and gas phases; the global flow characteristics are compared and agree with the experimental results; while the local flow features are analyzed for the evolution and distribution of the drop sizes, and the spray-induced air jets in the multi-plume sprays characterized by using vorticity, pressure, and fields.

  15. Special Issue Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      CLEAR-S: an integrated non-nuclear test facility for China lead-based research reactor

      Y. Wu

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3569

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      An integrated multifunctional non-nuclear test facility named CLEAR-S will be built by the end of 2016 in order to verify the 1:1 prototype components, investigate the thermal-hydraulics phenomena and verify the CFD codes for CLEAR-I and pool type lead-based reactor. The design and latest progress of CLEAR-S will be presented in this paper.

  16. Research Articles

    1. Implementing Power-to-Gas to provide green hydrogen to a bitumen upgrader

      Sean Walker, Ushnik Mukherjee, Michael Fowler, Itai Arbiv and Edoardo Lazzaroni

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3557

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      To reduce CO2 emissions from upgrading bitumen to synthetic crude, the use of electrolytic hydrogen in place of steam methane reforming is examined. Overall, electrolysis costs between $1.3bn and $3.1bn, while steam methane reforming costs $2.2bn over 20 years. Using electrolytic, hydrogen reduces the net lifecycle CO2 emissions by 100 000 to 145 000 tonnes annually.

  17. Short Communications

    1. A TEM study of morphological and structural degradation phenomena in LiFePO4-CB cathodes

      Duc-The Ngo, Roberto Scipioni, Søren Bredmose Simonsen, Peter Stanley Jørgensen and Søren Højgaard Jensen

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3575

  18. Research Articles

    1. Thermo-economic investigation: an insight tool to analyze NGCC with calcium-looping process and with chemical-looping combustion for CO2 capture

      Lin Zhu, Hu Chen, Junming Fan and Peng Jiang

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3556

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      Three kinds of natural-gas-based power generation processes (i.e., NGCC-PRE, NGCC-CLP, and NGCC-CLC) are proposed. Aspen Plus is used to study them from a thermodynamic perspective. The feasibility of the three processes are compared by sensitivity analysis. Meanwhile, economic feasibility is preliminarily conducted. The results show that NGCC-CLC is the most promising process, beneficial to higher energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, CO2 capture ratio, NPV, and IRR associated with lower total capital investment and dynamic payback period.

  19. Book Reviews

  20. Review Papers

    1. Investigation of silicates as a catalyst in biodiesel production: A review

      Hassan I. El Shimi, Nahed K. Attia, Guzine I. El Diwani and Shakinaz T. El Sheltawy

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3546

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      Na2SiO3 and Li4SiO4 are excellent water-resistant catalyst and of high activity for at least five runs in biodiesel synthesis. The properties of produced biodiesel using silicates as catalyst met the EN 14214 and ASTM D-6751 standards. Economic indicators of silicates (can be prepared from natural resources) are better than that of KOH and CaO.

  21. Research Articles

    1. Steam co-gasification of iron-loaded biochar and low-rank coal

      Lingbo Shen and Kenji Murakami

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3565

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      Steam co-gasification of iron catalyst-loaded biochar, which was produced by the pyrolysis of woody biomass and Indonesian Adaro subbituminous coal (AD) at 800 °C, was carried out in this study.

      It was shown that the H2 evolution for a mixed sample of iron-loaded biochar (20 wt%) and AD increased by 20% compared with that for the coal sample with the same amount of iron catalyst and was approximately 1.5 that for the coal sample without the iron catalyst.

    2. Augmented photoelectrochemical response of CdS/ZnS quantum dots sensitized hematite photoelectrode

      Sonal Sahai, Ashi Ikram, Snigdha Rai, Rohit Shrivastav, Sahab Dass and Vibha R. Satsangi

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3561

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      ZnS passivated CdS QDs sensitized hematite photoelectrode has been developed to overcome the photo-corrosion problem of CdS QDs in photoelectrochemical cell. The hematite film sensitized by three SILAR cycles of CdS QDs followed by two cycles of ZnS QDs deposition, has shown excellent stability and 11 fold increase in efficiency than only CdS QDs sensitized films.

    3. Green hydroelectrical energy source based on water dissociation by nanoporous ferrite

      Ravinder Kumar Kotnala and Jyoti Shah

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3545

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      Water molecule dissociation ability of octahedrally coordinated unsaturated surface cations and oxygen vacancies created in Li-substituted magnesium ferrite have been exploited to develop a green electrical energy cell. The innovated cell has been nomenclatured as Hydroelectric Cell ( area 17 cm2 ) and it has generated a short circuit current 82 mA and 920 mV emf with maximum output power 74 mW. Invented cell has a potential to replace solar cell and fuel cell in terms of cost and safety.

    4. Dynamic characteristics and enhanced performance of a novel wind turbine rotor analyzed via experiments and numerical simulation

      Hongya Lu, Pan Zeng and Liping Lei

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3551

      Novel wind turbine rotor was designed to improve the reliability and power output of wind turbines. Experiments showed the dynamic behavior of the enhanced system, and design constraints' impacts were gaged by numerical simulation. Power of NREL 5-MW wind turbine was increased by 15.16% with 5.1% reduction in rotor mass.

    5. Structural design of carbon/epoxy bio-inspired wind turbine blade using fluid/structure simulation

      Mariana Correa-Álvarez, Valentina Villada-Quiceno, Julián Sierra-Pérez, Juan Guillermo García-Navarro and César Nieto-Londoño

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3564

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      The structural design process of a low-speed, horizontal axis, bio-inspired wind turbine blade made of carbon/epoxy is presented. The design is based on a fluid/structure interaction simulation.

    6. Investigation of performance of fire-tube boilers integrated with ion transport membrane for oxy-fuel combustion

      Rached Ben-Mansour, Abdulafeez A. Adebiyi and Mohamed A. Habib

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3553

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      The performance of a carbon free fire-tube boiler utilizing two-pass oxygen transport reactors (OTRs) was numerically investigated. The influences of the oxygen transport reactor wall temperature on the reaction rate, oxygen permeation and heat flux were quantified. The performance of the reactors has been investigated at elevated temperature. It is observed that both heat transfer and combustion characteristics can be optimized at an elevated temperature of 1373 K.

    7. Energetic evaluation of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides

      Patrick Adametz, Karsten Müller and Wolfgang Arlt

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3563

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      This study presents an overall thermodynamic analysis of the storage of hydrogen in metal hydrides, focusing on the impact of material properties and process conditions on the energy balance. Main impact factors on the energy balance are heat of reaction and desorption pressure; hydrogen uptake does not have a notable influence as long as it is higher than 5%. If used as electricity storage, efficiencies between 6 and 29 % are possible, depending on the heat delivery and heat integration.

    8. Structured electrolytes to suppress dendrite growth in high energy density batteries

      Jinwang Tan and Emily M. Ryan

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3560

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      Novel structured electrolyte designs are proposed to generate local non-uniform mass transport properties and induce dendrite suppression effects while still using conventional isotropic electrolytes. The dendrite growth in the proposed structured electrolytes is studied by a mesh-free particle based Lagrangian dendrite growth model. Simulation results show that columnized electrolytes have the best suppression effect among the proposed designs without significantly sacrificing the performance of the battery.

    9. Novel hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of biomass in a research-scale rotary tubular helical coil gasifier

      Renny Andrew, D. T. Gokak, Pankaj Sharma and Shalini Gupta

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3558

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      A laboratory scale rotary tubular gasifier was designed and fabricated with helical coil internals suitable for carrying out steam gasification of biomass. The perfect radially and axially mixed reactor configuration contributed to enhanced conversion of biomass and char through extensive mass and heat transfer. Maximization of product gas yield and hydrogen yield could also be realized through a fixed bed catalytic conversion step, post gasification and by the use of a combination of robust steam reforming catalysts.

    10. Corrosive characteristics of bioethanol and gasoline blends for metals

      Saravana Kannan Thangavelu, Abu Saleh Ahmed and Farid Nasir Ani

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3555

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      •Corrosive characteristics of bioethanol fuel on metals were studied.•Corrosion of mild steel, Cu, and Al in E0, E25, and E50 was studied.•Corrosion rate of metals in bioethanol was in the order: Al < Cu < MS.•Degradation of fuel properties was high in E50 compared with E25 and E0.

    11. Transport, thermodynamic, and structural properties of rare earth zirconia-based electrolytes by molecular dynamics simulation

      Mohammad Razmkhah, Mohammad Taghi Hamed Mosavian and Fatemeh Moosavi

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3559

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      The vibrational spectra of cations prove that NHPC occupies the accessing space of hopping oxygen ions; thus, oxygen ion tends to cross though HPC.

  22. Review Papers

    1. Using novel compressed-air energy storage systems as a green strategy in sustainable power generation–a review

      Yousef S. H. Najjar and Ahmad M. Abubaker

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3550

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      Review of some research works that cover different system involving energy sustainability, energy efficiency, green energy and power augmentation related to compressed air energy storage.

    2. Review of photocatalytic water-splitting methods for sustainable hydrogen production

      Canan Acar, Ibrahim Dincer and Greg F. Naterer

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3549

  23. Special Issue Papers

    1. Towards the improvement of thermal efficiency in lignite-fired power generation: Concerning the utilization of Polish lignite deposits in state-of-the-art IGCC technology

      Yosuke Komatsu, Anna Sciazko, Marcin Zakrzewski, Taro Akiyama, Akira Hashimoto, Naoki Shikazono, Shozo Kaneko, Shinji Kimijima, Janusz S. Szmyd and Yoshinori Kobayashi

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3548

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      Fundamental investigations on the physical properties of the Polish lignite prove its potential for the state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Low ash fusibility and smooth viscosity-temperature characteristics of the Belchatow lignite were found. Drying kinetics of Polish lignite were investigated and show clear difference among the investigated lignite samples.

  24. Short Communications

    1. Biofuel production using Pd/Zn synergistically catalyzed hydrodeoxygenation applied at bio oil extracted in biomass pyrolysis process

      Yinbin Huang, Lin Wei, Xianhui Zhao, James Julson, Changling Qiu, Shanmugapriya Dharmarajan, John Kiratu, Douglas Raynie, Ashish Dubey and Qiquan Qiao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3547

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      After being dissolved with the same amount of methanol, the raw bio-oil undergoes hydrodeoxygenation reactions with the presence of Pd/C + ZnCl2 catalyst in a high-pressure reactor. The hydrodeoxygenation reactions produce three products: syngas, solid (carbon deposits), and liquid biofuel.

  25. Technical Notes

    1. Facile synthesis of three-dimensional graphene networks by magnetron sputtering for supercapacitor electrode

      Xiaojun Du, Wenge Wu, Chunhua An, Yunping Cheng, Xinyu Zhang, Youyi Sun and Yaqing Liu

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3543

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      3D graphene network deposition on Ni foam (3D Graphene/NF) was successfully synthesized by the magnetron sputtering. The 3D Graphene/NF was directly applied as the electrode of supercapacitor. It delivered a high specific capacitance of 122.0 F g−1 at 1.0 A g−1 and excellent cycle stability with capacitance retention of 99.0% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles.

  26. Research Articles

    1. Influence of alkaline chlorides on thermal energy storage properties of bischofite

      Svetlana Ushak, Andrea Gutierrez, Yana Galazutdinova, Camila Barreneche, Luisa F. Cabeza and Mario Grágeda

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3542

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      Bischofite is a by-product of non-metallic industry and promissory TES material, but its composition may vary. The influence of the variation of bischofite composite with its main impurities needs to be evaluated. The results established that the presence of KCl and NaCl does not affect bischofite use as PCM. Small contents of LiCl do not change significantly melting enthalpy but decrease the melting temperature; an interesting change that may enable this material as PCM in other applications at lower temperatures.

    2. Power flattening study of ultra-long cycle fast reactor using thorium fuel

      Taewoo Tak, Youqi Zheng, Deokjung Lee and T. K. Kim

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3552

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      A design study of power shape flattening has been performed using thorium fuel for an ultra-long cycle fast reactor in order to mitigate the power peaking issue and improve the safety with a lower maximum neutron flux and reactivity swing. The three-zone core has the most flattened radial power shape and is without any compromise in the nature of long cycle core, from the neutronics point of view, in terms of average discharge burnup and breeding ratio.

    3. Experimental and numerical investigation on solar parabolic trough collector integrated with thermal energy storage unit

      Sivaram P M, Nallusamy N and Suresh M

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3544

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      Numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out to study the performance of a small-scale solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) integrated with thermal energy storage system. Performance parameters obtained from the numerical model are compared with experimental results, and it is found that agreement is good within 10% deviations. System thermal efficiency is mainly influenced by heat gain and solar flux density, whereas thermal loss is significantly influenced by concentrated solar radiation, receiver tube temperature and heat gained by heat transfer fluid.

    4. Thermodynamic evaluation of integrated gasification combined cycle: Comparison between high-ash and low-ash coals

      Arash Arabkhalaj, Hojat Ghassemi and Rasoul Shahsavan Markadeh

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3541

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      • •IGCC with low and high-ash coal feeding is modeled.
      • •Energy and exergy analyses are conducted.
      • •Performance and emissions of IGCC plant for two types of coal are compared.
      • •High-ash coal can be used in IGCC, as well as low-ash coal, because of its efficiency and environmental impacts.
    5. A trapezoidal cycle with theoretical model based on organic Rankine cycle

      Xinguo Li

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3528

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      A trapezoidal cycle with theoretical model is proposed. Empirical equations to simulate the performance of the ORC at maximum power are built. Trapezoidal cycle can develop to trilateral cycle or Carnot cycle, which are the boundary cycles of the trapezoidal cycle.

    6. Development and validation of chemistry agnostic flow battery cost performance model and application to nonaqueous electrolyte systems

      Alasdair Crawford, Edwin Thomsen, David Reed, David Stephenson, Vincent Sprenkle, Jun Liu and Vilayanur Viswanathan

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3526

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      A chemistry agnostic cost performance model predicts redox flow battery performance by estimating the active reaction zone thickness at each electrode using measured data for electrode kinetics, electrolyte conductivity and electrode specific surface area. Validation of the model is conducted using stack data at various current densities and flow rates. This model is used to estimate the performance of a non-aqueous flow battery with electrode and electrolyte properties used from the literature.

    7. Production of fuel by co-pyrolysis of Makarwal coal and waste polypropylene through a hybrid heating system of convection and microwaves

      Khadim Hussain, Zahid Hussain, Hussain Gulab, Fazal Mabood, Khalid Mohammad Khan, Shahnaz Perveen and Mohammad Hassan Bin Khalid

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3537

    8. Production of useful energy from solid waste materials by steam gasification

      Uisung Lee, Jun Dong and J. N. Chung

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3529

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      In this paper, we report a study of solid waste conversion to energy by steam gasification. Rubber, MSW, and sewage sludge were used as the feedstock. Much higher hydrogen production by high temperature pure steam gasification was found. The syngas generation depends on the carbon content in the feedstock regardless of the types of input materials. We conclude that waste treatment by steam gasification produces minimum adverse impact on the environment.

    9. Design of integrated laboratory-scale iodine sulfur hydrogen production cycle at INET

      Ping Zhang, Chenglin Zhou, Hanfei Guo, Songzhe Chen, Laijun Wang and Jingming Xu

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3535

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      An integrated laboratory-scale IS facility with H2 production rate of 100NL/h was designed and built. The specifications of the facility are presented. Mass balance and compositions of the streams in the process are calculated using Aspen Plus software with OLI database, and embedded self-made models, the optimized flow sheet and the operational parameters are proposed. The preliminary closed cycle experiment results on IS-100 were presented.

    10. A comprehensive stochastic energy management system in reconfigurable microgrids

      Sajjad Golshannavaz, Saeed Afsharnia and Pierluigi Siano

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3536

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      Key findings

      • -
        Devising an efficient EMS for optimal daily operational scheduling of emergent MGs;
      • -
        Joint stochastic energy and reserve scheduling for suitable accommodation of uncertainties;
      • -
        Incorporating flexible network topologies by ACSs in enhancing the economical and technical metrics;
      • -
        Considering the practical switching costs and limitations of ACSs to reach in a realistic scheme;
      • -
        Utilizing the unallocated capacities released by hourly reconfigurations as the potent reserve capacities.
    11. Charge/discharge characteristics of Li-ion batteries with two-phase active materials: a comparative study of LiFePO4 and LiCoO2 cells

      Seunghun Jung and Ho-Young Jung

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3540

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      Charge/discharge characteristics of Li-ion cells with two-phase active material were investigated by conducting comparative simulation of LiFePO4 and LiCoO2 cells. First, it was theoretically confirmed that the LiFePO4 particle coating with conductive substance significantly improves electrode conductivity. Second, it was unveiled that lithium intercalation behavior inside a LiFePO4 particle is different under charge and discharge condition, which explains the performance difference between charge and discharge of LiFePO4 batteries.

    12. A comprehensive optimized model for on-board solar photovoltaic system for plug-in electric vehicles: energy and economic impacts

      Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Srikanth Pilla, Rajendra Singh, Imtiaz Haque and Zoran Filipi

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3534

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      • -Investigation of the energy and economic impacts for utilizing solar photovoltaic (PV) system as an on-board auxiliary power source for plug-in electric vehicles (EV).
      • -A comprehensive on-board PV system model was developed and optimized for EV applications.
      • -Estimation of the solar PV daily range extender, and the return of investment (ROI) economic value in different locations, vehicle sizes, various driving, and cost scenarios.
  27. Special Issue Papers

    1. Reactivity and kinetic parameter evolutions for the core height and boron concentration of the fixed bed nuclear reactor

      Ha Van Thong, Do Thi Nguyet Minh, Sümer Şahin, Truong Huy Hoang and Farhang Sefidvash

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3515

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      This article focuses on calculation of reactivity and kinetic parameters in different states of the fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR). When there is no-boron in the coolant water and the core height is over 120 cm, the reactor control can be carried out by the movement of a core height level limiter, but when there is a boron concentration, the reactor may be controlled by the level limiter at the lower core heights.

    2. Utilization of nuclear waste plutonium and thorium mixed fuel in candu reactors

      Sümer Şahin, Başar Şarer and Yurdunaz Çelik

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3464


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