International Journal of Energy Research

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Editor-in-Chief: Ibrahim Dincer; European Editor: Peter Lund

Impact Factor: 2.737

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 1/33 (Nuclear Science & Technology); 31/83 (Energy & Fuels)

Online ISSN: 1099-114X

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  1. 1 - 43
  1. Research Articles

    1. Development of a mathematical model for optimizing a heliostat field layout using differential evolution method

      Maimoon Atif and Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3325

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Heliostat field layout optimization was executed using differential evolution method. The objective of optimization of the first set was the optical efficiency. The objective of optimization of the second set was the ratio of the optical efficiency to the land area. The optimization was applied to selected days of the year for a selected city as a case study.

  2. Special Issue Papers

    1. Characterization and real-time testing of phase-change materials for solar thermal energy storage

      Alain Joseph, Moe Kabbara, Dominic Groulx, Paul Allred and Mary Anne White

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study examines real-time performance of dodecanoic acid as a PCM for solar thermal energy storage. A LHESS was characterized using PCM and water storage masses of 60 kg. Real-time solar testing concluded that (1) water-based storage shows higher charge/discharge rates but lower storage capacity; (2) the LHESS will benefit from improved heat exchanger design; and (3) the LHESS out-performed an equivalent water storage system by absorbing 20% more thermal energy.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Study of a Stirling engine used for domestic micro-cogeneration. Thermodynamic analysis and experiment

      Lavinia Grosu, Cătălina Dobre and Stoian Petrescu

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3345

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The purpose of this paper is the geometry study of a micro-CHP system using an alpha Stirling engine with four double-effect pistons, which operates with natural gas. The results of three thermodynamic analyses – isothermal model (Schmidt), adiabatic model (Finkelstein), and Direct Method from Finite Speed Thermodynamics (FST) – are confronted with experiment results. This comparison allows pointing out a good accuracy of the Direct Method and the Adiabatic Model, for the thermal operating parameters of the system, noting the different assumptions of each analysis.

    2. Solar hydrogen generation from spinel ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst: effect of synthesis methods

      Rekha Dom, A. Sadananda Chary, Raghavan Subasri, Neha Y. Hebalkar and Pramod H. Borse

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3340

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
      • •Nanoparticle zinc ferrite photocatalysts were synthesized by four different methods
      • •Photocatalyst prepared by conventional synthesis/SSR and microwave showed suitable properties as flat band potential
      • •Microwave sintered photocatalyst showed maximum hydrogen evolution
  4. Review Papers

    1. Optimisation studies on tri-generation: a review

      Ali Nadi Ünal, Seçil Ercan and Gülgün Kayakutlu

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3342

  5. Special Issue Papers

    1. Hydrogen and methane storage in adsorbent materials for automotive applications

      Matthew Beckner and Anne Dailly

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3324

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In moving from the laboratory-scale adsorbents for gas storage to pilot scale implementation, material packing is of great importance. In particular, the apparent density measured from nitrogen or argon adsorption experiments should be used in lieu of the crystal density, because the crystal density does not include defects present after synthesis. When estimating the methane storage of a tank with an idealized packing, we find that the current benchmark materials show improvement over equivalently pressurized empty tanks.

  6. Review Papers

    1. Development of low-temperature properties on biodiesel fuel: a review

      Guangrui Liu

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3334

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Several kinds of methods and technologies were briefly reviewed to improve the low-temperature properties of biodiesel by means of enhancing the impact of biodiesel crystal morphology or decreasing freezing point. In order to continue competing with fossil and other renewable fuels for market share, the blending chemical additives and petroleum fuels would be a promising method that have been widely used.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Investigation of novel anthracene-bridged carbazoles as sensitizers and Co-sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

      Venkataiah Mallam, Hytham Elbohy, Qiquan Qiao and Brian A. Logue

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3331

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      Novel anthracene-bridged carbazole organic dyes (designated ML4 and ML5) were designed and synthesized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar cells with ML4 and ML5 alone produced low power conversion efficiencies, but they were also used as co-sensitizers with N719, improving the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells produced by ~3% and ~10%, respectively.

    2. Physical characterization and electrochemical performance of copper–iron–ceria–YSZ anode-based SOFCs in H2 and methane fuels

      Gurpreet Kaur and Suddhasatwa Basu

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cu/CeO2–YSZ and Cu–Fe/CeO2–YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells are fabricated by tape casting and wet impregnation method. Figure shows fabricated dense electrolyte and adhered well with porous electrodes. Electro-catalytic activity towards hydrogen and methane fuel is investigated for Cu–Fe/CeO2–YSZ anodes.

  8. Special Issue Papers

    1. Green solvent synthesis from biomass based source by biocatalytic membrane reactor

      Filiz Ugur Nigiz and Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3319

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
      • This study has focused on an innovative green process design and operation for ethyl lactate production from bio-based ethanol and lactic acid.
      • In this study, effects of lipase type, lipase ratio in the membrane, reaction time, reaction temperature and initial feed molar ratio on lactic acid conversion and separation performance were investigated
    2. Numerical simulation on the optical and thermal performance of a modified integrated compound parabolic solar concentrator

      Lin Chen, Jia-Xiang Chen and Xin-Rong Zhang

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Modifications are made in the profile of the parabolic concentrators for solar collectors. East-west orientation is best for the current collector design. Optimal collector slope angles for each season are identified.

  9. Special Issue Paper

    1. Photoelectrochemical stability improvement of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films in aqueous solution

      Ying Yang, Juan Han, Xiaohui Ning, Jinzhan Su, Jinwen Shi, Wei Cao and Wei Xu

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3328

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photoelectrochemical stability in aqueous solution of the p-type Cu2O films with Cu inclusions is promising owing to that the Cu inclusions can against the reaction of reduction of Cu2O to metallic copper as well as facilitate the transportation of photogenerated electrons to the electrode/solution interface.

    2. Hybrid CCHP system combined with compressed air energy storage

      Fengjuan He, Yujie Xu, Xinjing Zhang, Chang Liu and Haisheng Chen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3303

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The proposed system comprises two subsystem: power subsystem (GT-CAES) and heat recovery subsystem as shown in Figure (a). A reference system without CAES is adopted for the comparison as shown in Figure (b).

      Key findings

      1. This study proposes a novel combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system with compressed air energy storage (CAES).
      2. By storing or releasing the electricity using CAES, the performance of this proposed system is improved, solving the low efficiency problem of gas turbine due to the off-design working condition.
      3. As a result, the gas turbine power of the proposed system is 30.4% smaller than that of the conventional CCHP, with the fuel energy saving ratio (FESR) of 29.4%.
  10. Special Issue Papers

    1. Preparation and characterization of formed activated carbon from fine blue-coke

      Yuhong Tian, Xinzhe Lan, Yonghui Song, Changbo Liu and Jun Zhou

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3327

  11. Research Articles

    1. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of organic rankine cycles for the conversion of low-to-moderate grade geothermal heat

      P. J. Yekoladio, T. Bello-Ochende and J. P. Meyer

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3326

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The optimal turbine operating conditions and maximum cycle power output increase linearly and exponentially, respectively, with the geothermal resource temperature. The basic types of organic Rankine cycles (ORC) yield maximum cycle power output and are more suitable with organic fluids having high boiling point temperature. The regenerative types of ORC are preferred for high-grade geothermal heat operating with low vapour specific heat capacity organic fluids.

    2. Experimental and numerical analysis of oxy-fuel combustion in a porous plate reactor

      Mohamed A. Habib, Furqan Tahir, Medhat A. Nemitallah, Wael H. Ahmed and Hassan M. Badr

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3323

    3. A directly irradiated solar reactor for kinetic analysis of non-volatile metal oxides reductions

      Elisa Alonso and Manuel Romero

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3320

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A solar reactor was designed, built, and characterized to develop kinetic analysis of metal oxides reductions. A new methodology for kinetic determination was proposed. It consisted of a combination of experimental results and a numerical model. Kinetic was obtained for a case study: Mn2O3 reduction into Mn3O4. Data were fitted to diffusion-controlled mechanism, and obtained kinetic parameters were Ea = 362 kJ/mol and A = 1.39•109 s−1.

  12. Special Issue Papers

    1. Refined representation of turbines using a 3D SWE model for predicting distributions of velocity deficit and tidal energy density

      Jie Lin, Jian Sun, Lu Liu, Yaling Chen and Binliang Lin

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A Blade Element Momentum model has been developed and integrated into a three-dimensional shallow water equations model to improve the accuracy for assessing tidal current energy distributions. Using the blade element momentum approach, state variables can be obtained for a blade element of a turbine rotor to calculate the local thrust coefficient. The refined model has been validated against measurements from an experiment of turbine arrays. The model performs generally well in predicting the distribution of velocity deficit and the recovery of wakes.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Economic benefits of combining clean energy technologies: the case of solar photovoltaics and battery electric vehicles

      Ellen De Schepper, Steven Van Passel and Sebastien Lizin

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3315

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
      • We study the profitability of combining clean technologies for private investors facing budgetary constraints.
      • We add to literature by developing a method to calculate the payoff of interdependent projects undertaken together.
      • The methodology is illustrated by means of a case study of PV solar power and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) for a small Belgian enterprise.
    2. Visible light-driven metal-oxide photocatalytic CO2 conversion

      Majeda Khraisheh, Aoubai Khazndar and Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3318

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nine photocatalysts were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The tested materials (BaBiO3, Bi2WO6, SrTiO3, KNbO3, NaNbO3, Sr4Nb2O9, YInO3, CaIn2O4, and YFeO3) showed great potential for use as photocatalysts in the efficient reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel as well as in water splitting. It was observed that KNbO3 showed the highest CH4 generation, (86.842 ppm g−1 h−1). Some of the tested photocatalysts could generate H2 and O2 at a very promising rate: Sr4Nb2O9 and NaNbO3.

    3. Modeling and simulation of hydrogen production from dimethyl ether steam reforming using exhaust gas

      Cong Li, Yan Gao and Changshui Wu

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3330

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this paper, hydrogen production from steam reforming of DME (dimethyl ether) has been modeled and simulated using a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) method. The simulation results indicate the temperature distribution, mass distribution, DME conversion, and hydrogen production from steam reforming of DME. In addition, the fuel to steam ratio and velocity of exhaust gas are manipulated as operating parameters.

  14. Special Issue on Global Warming and Energetic Solutions

    1. Feasibility study for biohydrogen production from raw brewery wastewater

      Nusara Sinbuathong, Chamaiporn Somjit and Suchat Leungprasert

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3321

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      Highlight

      • Biohydrogen production from raw brewery wastewater by using the mixed culture from the brewery digested sludge was studied.
      • Raw brewery wastewater was not appropriate to produce hydrogen.
      • Methane-producing archaea in brewery digested sludge were stress-tolerant to temperature change and chemicals and could be recovered to produce methane when sufficient time was allowed.
      • Raw brewery wastewater and brewery digested sludge treated anaerobically were appropriate to produce methane rather than hydrogen.
  15. Research Articles

    1. Solar power tower as heat and electricity source for a solid oxide electrolyzer: a case study

      Anis Houaijia, Martin Roeb, Nathalie Monnerie and Christian Sattler

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3316

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hydrogen production by high-temperature electrolysis has a great potential of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions compared with fossil fuel-based technologies for hydrogen production if operated by the use of renewable resources like concentrated solar radiation. The total energy demand of the electrolyzer unit consists of electricity and heat. This could be generated by solar concentrating energy systems (solar tower).

    2. The production of renewable transportation fuel through fed-batch and continuous deoxygenation of vegetable oil derived fatty acids over Pd/C catalyst

      Wei-Cheng Wang, Chi-Jeng Bai and Nirajan Thapaliya

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3309

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
      • The fed-batch deoxygenation yielded maximum 99% alkane along with 95.9% average CO2 selectivity.
      • The continuous deoxygenation yielded maximum 88% n-alkane and 94.6% average CO2 selectivity.
      • The continuous deoxygenation consumed more H2 than the fed-batch process but has higher deoxygenation rate when higher H2 partial pressure was applied.
    3. A methodology to assess suitability of a site for small scale wet and dry CSP systems

      Eray Uzgoren and Eray Timur

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3314

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study presents a methodology to assess suitability of a site for small scale concentrated solar power (CSP) systems for its energy conversion efficiency and make-up water requirement. The developed methodology is illustrated through a case study, which showed that dry cooling unit is capable of saving water about 18.7 ton/MWh while it produces 27% less energy compared to the wet cooling alternative.

  16. Special Issue on Global Warming and Energetic Solutions

    1. Impact assessment and efficiency evaluation of hydrogen production methods

      Canan Acar and Ibrahim Dincer

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3302

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study, economic, environmental, and social impacts and process efficiencies of various hydrogen production methods are comparatively assessed. The relationships between efficiency and environmental impact are also investigated. Solar-based hydrogen production options (e.g. photocatalysis, photoelectrolysis, and photoelectrochemical) provide the lowest emissions, while coal gasification causes the highest emissions. Biomass gasification offers the highest exergy efficiency while photoelectrochemical method has the lowest one.

    2. Emerging smart grid technology for mitigating global warming

      Xue Zhang, Wei Pei, Wei Deng, Yan Du, Zhiping Qi and Zuomin Dong

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3296

  17. Special Issue on Recent Progress in Clean Energy Research

    1. Multiphase ultra-low grade thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle

      Michael Soda and Asfaw Beyene

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3300

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Because the availability of ultra-low grade thermal energy resources (below boiling temperature of water) are often intermittent, it is desirable to thermal energy storage close to the resource temperature. Potential thermal energy storage materials for ORC were tested. Mixtures of magnesium salts and waxes yielded a layered composite with the less dense waxes creating a sealing layer over the salt layer that significantly increased the stability of the magnesium salts.

  18. Special Issue on Global Warming and Energetic Solutions

  19. Review Papers

    1. A review of large-scale electrical energy storage

      Sameer Hameer and Johannes L. van Niekerk

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3294

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper gives a broad overview of the plethora of energy storage technologies available on the large-scale complimented with their capabilities conducted by a thorough literature survey. This paper also provides a mathematical model for thermal energy storage as a battery.

    2. Exoelectrogens in microbial fuel cells toward bioelectricity generation: a review

      Ravinder Kumar, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid and Mohd Fadhil Md. Din

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3305

    3. Insights into the production potential and trends of China's rural biogas

      Tong Zhang, Yuheng Yang and Deti Xie

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3311

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There is a huge potential of biogas production in China, but it has been underutilized in the past. By analyzing and summarizing the direction for future development and various benefits of rural biogas in China, we present burning questions and countermeasures for biogas development and recommend ideas for the future development of rural biogas in China.

    4. A review on coke management during dry reforming of methane

      Oki Muraza and Ahmad Galadima

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3295

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper reviewed various catalytic systems being evaluated for the dry (CO2) reforming with emphasis on operating parameters, activity, and coke deposition. Other factors such as the catalyst promoter, the reactor system, and the periodical regeneration were also critically reviewed.

  20. Special Issue on Recent Progress in Clean Energy Research

    1. Modeling and simulation of diesel, biodiesel and biogas mixtures driven compression ignition internal combustion engines

      Vilmar Graciano, Jose Viriato C. Vargas and Juan C. Ordonez

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3286

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper introduces a general mathematical model for compression ignition internal combustion engines driven by diesel, biodiesel, and/or biogas. The model is written for dynamic and steady state operation and combines principles of classical thermodynamics and heat transfer. The model was adjusted and experimentally validated by direct comparison of the results to published data, and engine curves. Therefore, the model could be a tool for design, control, and optimization of compression ignition internal combustion engines that use diesel, biodiesel, and biogas fuel mixtures.

    2. Progress in carbon fuel cells for clean coal technology pipeline

      Turgut M. Gür

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3288

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon fuel cells (CFC) offer attractive opportunities to realize clean coal power generation. They are environmentally friendly and can achieve high conversion efficiency, produce a highly concentrated CO2 flue stream, and require no water withdrawal preserving a precious natural resource. This article provides a progress overview of CFCs and their technical challenges towards achieving clean coal power generation.

    3. Clean energy systems as mainstream energy options

      Peter D. Lund

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3283

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mitigating global energy and climate challenges requires large amounts of clean energy. Variable renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar and wind could be future mainstream energy options. Advanced strategies are needed to bridge these new technologies with the present energy system. Electricity-to-thermal conversion or e-mobility in urban context could enable optimal integration of RE in large scale. In this way the RE share could be increased by a factor of 2–3 compared with the self-use limit of power.

  21. Review Papers

    1. Capturing and using CO2 as feedstock with chemical looping and hydrothermal technologies

      Yaşar Demirel, Michael Matzen, Carina Winters and Xin Gao

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3277

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemical looping and hydrothermal process of capturing and converting CO2 to methanol.

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