Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 4

Editor-in-Chief: Philip W. Harvey

Impact Factor: 2.982

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 27/88 (Toxicology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1263

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Recently Published Articles

  1. Gene expression analyses of vitellogenin, choriogenin and estrogen receptor subtypes in the livers of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to equine estrogens

    Hiroshi Ishibashi, Masaya Uchida, Akiko Koyanagi, Yoshihiro Kagami, Teruhiko Kusano, Ayami Nakao, Ryoko Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Ichikawa, Nobuaki Tominaga, Yasuhiro Ishibashi and Koji Arizono

    Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3292

    No comprehensive data are yet available regarding the estrogenic potentials and risks of equine estrogens to aquatic organisms. We carried out expression analyses on estrogen-responsive genes in the livers of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) that were exposed to the equine estrogens for 3 days. Our qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of equine estrogens. This is the first report describing the comprehensive analyses of in vivo estrogenicity of the equine estrogens in male medaka.

  2. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells

    Xialu Lin, Yuanliang Gu, Qi Zhou, Guochuan Mao, Baobo Zou and Jinshun Zhao

    Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3283

    Human exposure through air, water and food normally involves a mixture consisting of multiple metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different metal mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure.

  3. Inhibitory effect of cadmium on estrogen signaling in zebrafish brain and protection by zinc

    Lina Chouchene, Elisabeth Pellegrini, Marie-Madeleine Gueguen, Nathalie Hinfray, François Brion, Benjamin Piccini, Olivier Kah, Khaled Saïd, Imed Messaoudi and Farzad Pakdel

    Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3285

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of Cd exposure on estrogen signaling in the zebrafish brain, and the potential protective role of Zn against Cd-induced toxicity. Effects on the transcriptional activation of estrogen receptors, aromatase B protein expression and molecular expression of related genes were examined. Our results demonstrate that Cd acts as a potent anti-estrogen in vivo and in vitro, and that Cd-induced estradiol antagonism can be reversed, at the protein level, by Zn supplement.

  4. Integrated decision strategies for skin sensitization hazard

    Judy Strickland, Qingda Zang, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Michael Paris, David M. Lehmann, Neepa Choksi, Joanna Matheson, Abigail Jacobs, Anna Lowit, David Allen and Warren Casey

    Article first published online: 6 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3281

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) evaluated a non-animal decision strategies to predict skin sensitization. Machine learning approaches integrated in vitro, in chemico and in silico data and six physicochemical properties for 120 substances to predict murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) outcomes. The seven models with the highest accuracy used a support vector machine with different combinations of predictor variables. The models outperformed individual non-animal methods and test batteries. This suggests that computational approaches are promising tools to effectively integrate data to identify potential skin sensitizers without animal testing.

  5. Gelucire and Gelucire-PEG400 formulations; tolerability in species used for non-clinical safety testing after oral (gavage) dosing

    Mikael Elander, Jette B. Boll, Anne S. Hojman and Allan D. Rasmussen

    Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3296

    A series of oral tolerability studies were conducted with Gelucire and Gelucire:PEG400 formulations in rats, dogs and minipigs in order to determine tolerable daily dose volumes in these species. It was concluded that Gelucire:PEG400 (90:10) was tolerated in Beagle dogs when administered at 1 ml kg–1 once daily for 39 weeks, and 100% Gelucire was tolerated in the rat and the minipig when administered once daily at 5 ml kg–1 for 5 days.