Journal of Applied Toxicology
© John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Editor-in-Chief: Philip W. Harvey
Impact Factor: 2.982
ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 27/88 (Toxicology)
Online ISSN: 1099-1263
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Recently Published Articles
- Integrated decision strategies for skin sensitization hazard
Judy Strickland, Qingda Zang, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Michael Paris, David M. Lehmann, Neepa Choksi, Joanna Matheson, Abigail Jacobs, Anna Lowit, David Allen and Warren Casey
Article first published online: 6 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3281
The Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) evaluated a non-animal decision strategies to predict skin sensitization. Machine learning approaches integrated in vitro, in chemico and in silico data and six physicochemical properties for 120 substances to predict murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) outcomes. The seven models with the highest accuracy used a support vector machine with different combinations of predictor variables. The models outperformed individual non-animal methods and test batteries. This suggests that computational approaches are promising tools to effectively integrate data to identify potential skin sensitizers without animal testing.
- Gelucire and Gelucire-PEG400 formulations; tolerability in species used for non-clinical safety testing after oral (gavage) dosing
Mikael Elander, Jette B. Boll, Anne S. Hojman and Allan D. Rasmussen
Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3296
A series of oral tolerability studies were conducted with Gelucire and Gelucire:PEG400 formulations in rats, dogs and minipigs in order to determine tolerable daily dose volumes in these species. It was concluded that Gelucire:PEG400 (90:10) was tolerated in Beagle dogs when administered at 1 ml kg–1 once daily for 39 weeks, and 100% Gelucire was tolerated in the rat and the minipig when administered once daily at 5 ml kg–1 for 5 days.
- Nanosuspension formulations of poorly water-soluble compounds for intravenous administration in exploratory toxicity studies: in vitro and in vivo evaluation
Hisako Fujimura, Takao Komasaka, Taizo Tomari, Yasunori Kitano and Kouji Takekawa
Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3280
Nanosuspensions for intravenous injections were prepared using a mixer mill and zirconia beads with a vehicle of 2% (w/v) poloxamer 338, which was confirmed to induce no histamine release in dogs. Sterilized nanosuspensions were obtained by milling for 30 min, followed by autoclaving for 20 min at 121 °C and milling for 30 min (mill–autoclave–mill method). The enhancing effect of a nanosuspension on exposure in dogs and the versatility of the method were demonstrated.
- Depth-dependent stratum corneum permeability in human skin in vitro
John Jay P. Cadavona, Hanjiang Zhu, Xiaoying Hui, Eui-Chang Jung and Howard I. Maibach
Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3289
The stratum corneum (SC) concentration–thickness profiles were determined for four model chemicals on intact and adhesive tape-stripped skin samples to clarify whether SC is a homogeneous barrier for chemical transport. Data analysis with the diffusion equation of Fick's second law permitted the chemical diffusion coefficient in SC. Results suggested the depth-dependency of SC permeability to panthenol, benzoic acid and butenafine; variation of the diffusion coefficient from the SC surface to the deeper layers agreed with a change in the diffusion coefficient over time in intact skin.
- The Reponses of immune cells to iron oxide nanoparticles
Xu Yaolin, Sherwood Jennifer A., Lackey Kimberly H., Qin Ying and Bao Yuping
Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3282
Surface coating effects on nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity, and ability to trigger immune response were evaluated on human monocyte cell line using iron oxide nanoparticles. The cells were treated with nanoparticles of three types of coatings (negatively charged polyacrylic acid-PAA, positively charged polyethylenimine-PEI, and neutral polyethylene glycol-PEG). Cell viability and the expression of TNF-α and TLR2 were used to quantify the toxicity and immune response.