Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Philip W. Harvey

Impact Factor: 2.982

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 27/88 (Toxicology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1263


  1. 1 - 82
  1. Research articles

    1. Effect and mechanism of waterborne prolonged Zn exposure influencing hepatic lipid metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta

      Chao Huang, Zhi Luo, Christer Hogstrand, Feng Chen, Xi Shi, Qi-Liang Chen, Yu-Feng Song and Ya-Xiong Pan

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3261

      The present study was conducted to determine the effect and mechanism of waterborne Zn exposure influencing hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. S. hasta were exposed to four waterborne Zn concentrations (0.005, 0.18, 0.36 and 0.55 mg l-l, respectively) for 60 days. Sampling occurred at days 20, 40 and 60, respectively. Zn exposure increased Zn content, declined hepatic lipid content, and reduced lipogenic enzyme activities, including 6PGD, G6PD, ME and FAS. At days 20 and 60, Zn exposure decreased hepatic mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS, ACCα, ACCβ, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)a, HSLb, SREBP-1, PPARα and PPARγ. However, the mRNA levels of CPT 1 and adipose triglyceride lipase increased following Zn exposure. On day 40, Zn exposure reduced hepatic mRNA expression of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS, ACCα,ACCβ, HSLa, HSLb, SREBP-1 and PPARγ but increased mRNA expression of CPT 1, adipose triglyceride lipase and PPARα. For the first time, the present study provided evidence that chronic Zn exposure differentially influenced mRNA expression and activities of genes and enzymes involved in lipogenic and lipolytic metabolism in a duration-dependent manner, and provided new insight into the relationship between metal elements and lipid metabolism.

    2. Copper nanoclusters trigger muscle cell apoptosis and atrophy in vitro and in vivo

      Yayun Liu, Jichao Liang, Qiuju Wang, Yu He and Yong Chen

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3263

      Copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) are widely used in nanomedicine. However, it is unknown whether CuNCs can cause cytotoxicity in muscle cells. In this study, the effect of CuNCs on the cell response was investigated. The results indicated that CuNCs could cause toxicity in muscle cells by inducing reactive oxygen species production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing apoptosis. CuNCs can also cause atrophy of primary muscle cells and mouse gastrocnemius muscle.

    3. Brain-targeted distribution and high retention of silver by chronic intranasal instillation of silver nanoparticles and ions in Sprague–Dawley rats

      Ruoxi Wen, Xiaoxi Yang, Ligang Hu, Cheng Sun, Qunfang Zhou and Guibin Jiang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3260

      Silver accumulation profiles were investigated in neonatal SD rats through chronic intranasal instillation of PVP-coated AgNPs and silver ions. Dose-related silver accumulation occurred and ionic silver caused higher toxicity than AgNPs possibly due to its higher tissue silver accumulation. Particulate silver dominantly contribute to silver distribution in rats rather than the minor released silver ions. According to the time course study, the brain-targeted silver accumulation implied the potential neuronal threat from the intranasal administration of AgNPs or silver colloid-based products.

  2. Short communications

    1. Translocation and biokinetic behavior of nanoscaled europium oxide particles within 5 days following an acute inhalation in rats

      Otto Creutzenberg, Heiko Kock and Dirk Schaudien

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3259

      Nanoscaled europium oxide (Eu2O3) particles were inhaled by rats for 6 h (alveolar dose: approximately 39.5 μg Eu2O3) and translocation of particles was investigated. The liver showed 32.3 ng Eu2O3 after 1 h up to 294 ng 5 days after inhalation. Lung-associated lymph nodes, thymus, kidneys, heart and testis exhibited an increase of europium over the period investigated. The blood revealed the highest amount after 1 h, whereas in feces, urine and mesenteric lymph nodes it was after 1 day. Using transmission electron microscopy analysis, Eu2O3 particles could be detected only in lungs.

  3. Research articles

    1. Transcriptional and morphological effects of tamoxifen on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

      Liang Xia, Liang Zheng and Jun Liang Zhou

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3257

      Zebrafish embryos exposed to 500 µg l–1 of tamoxifen for 96 h caused a 20% reduction in heart rate and mild defects in caudal fin and skin. The expression of many endocrine-related genes was increased by tamoxifen exposure. The expression of metabolic-related genes and genes related to observed morphological changes were also upregulated by a high concentration of tamoxifen.

    2. Effects of soap–water wash on human epidermal penetration

      Hanjiang Zhu, Eui-Chang Jung, Christina Phuong, Xiaoying Hui and Howard Maibach

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3258

      Epidermal penetration was assayed with four chemicals to clarify effect of stratum corneum (SC) hydration on chemical penetration. Results showed accelerated penetration of benzoic acid and paraoxon quickly after surface wash, but reduced penetration of hydroquinone and benzoic acid 30 min post-decontamination. At the end of experiment, the lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration resulted from surface wash. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate.

  4. Review articles

    1. The role of intramolecular self-destruction of reactive metabolic intermediates in determining toxicity

      Andreas Svennebring

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3248

      Intermolecular reactions tend to dominate over intramolecular alternatives when both alternatives are possible. Consequently, for reactive metabolites of xenobiotics, intramolecular quenching by moieties adjacent to a toxicophore may reduce toxicity related to reactive intermediates. In two demonstrative cases, nitrobenzenes and aryl amine drugs, the toxicity characteristic of the toxicophore is absent for drugs that can undergo intramolecular quenching.

    2. An overview of the safety and biological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in mammals

      Néstor Rubio-Infante and Leticia Moreno-Fierros

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3252

      Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Crystal proteins (Cry) are worldwide used bioinsecticides. This review summarizes and discusses current information regarding the biosafety and biological effects that Bt and its insecticidal Cry proteins elicit in mammals. Bt proteins are safe but are not innocuous to vertebrates. The effects of Cry proteins might be associated with immune-activating or allergic responses. More detailed studies are still needed on the effects of Cry toxins in mammals, as concerns regarding their possible health impact have been raised.

    3. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in arsenic neurotoxicity: A review

      Chandra Prakash, Manisha Soni and Vijay Kumar

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3256

      Arsenic is a toxic metalloid present ubiquitously on earth and has gained considerable attention due to its severe neurotoxic effects. Arsenic exposure has been associated with ROS generation which is supposed to be one of its mechanisms for oxidative stress generation. Mitochondria, being the major source of ROS generation may present an important target of arsenic toxicity. The proper functioning of brain depends largely on efficient mitochondrial functions. Multiple studies have reported evidence of brain mitochondrial impairment after arsenic exposure.

  5. Research articles

    1. Distribution of single wall carbon nanotubes in the Xenopus laevis embryo after microinjection

      Brian D. Holt, Joseph H. Shawky, Kris Noel Dahl, Lance A. Davidson and Mohammad F. Islam

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3255

      Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have superlative properties for biological applications, but toxicity studies have yielded inconsistent results. To minimize confounding material effects, we utilized purified, length-selected, individualized SWCNTs. We microinjected high concentrations into the embryogenesis model, Xenopus laevis, and determined that SWCNTs were not toxic, remained individualized and localized within the microinjected cells' progeny. Fluorescently labeling subcellular compartments demonstrated no alterations to subcellular structures and perinuclear subcellular localization. These results suggest that purified, dispersed SWCNTs may be candidate materials for biological applications.

    2. Development of novel in vitro photosafety assays focused on the Keap1–Nrf2–ARE pathway

      Kyoko Tsujita-Inoue, Morihiko Hirota, Tomomi Atobe, Takao Ashikaga, Yoshiki Tokura and Hirokazu Kouzuki

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3234

      The immune response to photoallergens after UV-induced antigen formation is the same as in ordinary skin sensitization. We examined whether activation of the Keap1–Nrf2–ARE pathway, which is deeply involved in skin sensitization, could be used to assess the photoallergenic potential of chemicals using the reporter cell line AREc32 or KeratinoSensTM. Representative photoallergens activated this pathway after exposure to 5 J cm–2 UVA irradiation. The accuracy of predicting photoallergenicity/phototoxicity was 70% with AREc32 cells and 67% with KeratinoSensTM, and the specificity was 100%.

    3. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos

      Santhanamari Ganesan, Naveenkumar Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Azhwar Raghunath, Savitha Vijayakumar and Ekambaram Perumal

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3224

    4. Influence of the surface charge of PLGA nanoparticles on their in vitro genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, ROS production and endocytosis

      Anne Platel, Rodolphe Carpentier, Elodie Becart, Gwendoline Mordacq, Didier Betbeder and Fabrice Nesslany

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3247

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the surface charge modification of NPs on in vitro toxicity assays. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles bearing different surface charges, positive(+), neutral(n) or negative(−), were synthesized. In vitro genotoxicity assays (micronucleus and comet assays) coupled with an assessment of cytotoxicity, were performed in different cell lines (L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, TK6 human B-lymphoblastoid cells and 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells).

    5. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and activation of MAPKs are involved in apoptosis induced by PM2.5 in rat cardiac H9c2 cells

      Jing Cao, Gang Qin, Ruizan Shi, Feng Bai, Guangzhao Yang, Mingsheng Zhang and Jiyuan Lv

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3249

      We present novel findings on the regulatory mechanisms of PM2.5-induced myocardiocyte apoptosis. PM2.5-induced apoptosis was associated with enhanced intracellular ROS production and mediated, at least partially, by a caspase-3-dependent, mitochondria/Bcl-2 death pathway via the MAPKs signaling pathway in H9c2 cells. Our findings shed light on the stress signaling pathway involved in PM2.5-induced apoptotic effects in H9c2 cells. The MAPKs signaling pathway could be a new promising target for clinical therapeutic strategies against PM2.5-induced cardiac injury.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predictive performance of the Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using 118 chemicals

      Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Hajime Kojima and Toshiaki Takezawa

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3254

      The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Vitrigel-EIT method in comparison to GHS were 90.1%, 65.9% and 80.5%, respectively. In case of eliminating nine chemicals showing pH 5 or lower, those were improved to 96.8%, 67.4% and 84.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, nine of 16 false-positive chemicals were classified irritant by EPA and immunohistologically confirmed to have an eye irritant potential. These data demonstrated that the Vitrigel-EIT method could provide excellent predictive performance to judge the widespread eye irritancy, including mild irritant chemicals.

    7. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

      Melissa A. Badding, Natalie R. Fix, Marlene S. Orandle, Mark W. Barger, Katherine M. Dunnick, Kristin J. Cummings and Stephen S. Leonard

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3253

      Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for electronics. Exposures to indium-containing particles in the workplace have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that were collected at various stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO and ventilation dust particles each induced inflammation and damage in the lungs of rats over a time course.

    8. Benzoquinone toxicity is not prevented by sulforaphane in CD-1 mouse fetal liver cells

      Nicola A. Philbrook and Louise M. Winn

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3251

      Benzene is an environmental pollutant known to cause leukemia, however the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. We exposed cultured CD-1 mouse fetal liver cells to the benzene metabolite, benzoquinone, to determine its potential to cause DNA damage and alter DNA repair. Cells were also exposed to sulforaphane (SFN) to determine any potential protective effects against benzoquinone-mediated toxicity. Benzoquinone exposure led to a significant increase in ROS, DNA damage and decreased Ogg1 expression, which was not prevented by SFN.

    9. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice

      Yosuke Maeda, Haruka Hirosaki, Naoaki Yakata and Masahiro Takeyoshi

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3250

      Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of results in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) between the results obtained with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were made using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers. Consequently, a significant difference was noted in disintegrations per minute (DPM) values per mouse derived from each strain of mice; however, no considerable difference was noted in the final outcomes, such as positive/negative decisions, stimulation index (SI) values and EC3 values in LLNA.

    10. Biodistribution and toxicity of spherical aluminum oxide nanoparticles

      Eun-Jung Park, Gwang-Hee Lee, Cheolho Yoon, Uiseok Jeong, Younghun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho and Dong-Wan Kim

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3233

      In this study, we used three-types of synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlONPs): γ-aluminum oxide hydroxide nanoparticles (γ-AlOHNPs), γ- and α-AlONPs. All three AlONPs were spherical, and the surface area was the greatest for γ-AlONPs, followed by α-AlONPs and γ-AlOHNPs. In mice, γ-AlOHNPs accumulated the most 24 h after a single oral dose. Additionally, the decreased number of WBC, the increased ratio of neutrophils and the enhanced secretion of IL-8 were observed in the blood of mice dosed with γ-AlOHNPs (10 mg kg−1). In the in vitro test using six cell lines, BEAS-2B, Chang, HACAT, H9C2, T98G and HEK-293, which were derived from their potential target organs, γ-AlOHNPs induced the greatest toxicity. Moreover, separation of particles was observed only in the TEM image of cells treated with γ-AlOHNPs.

    11. Proteomic responses of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to silver nanoparticles and ionic silver

      Axel Oberemm, Ulf Hansen, Linda Böhmert, Christine Meckert, Albert Braeuning, Andreas F. Thünemann and Alfonso Lampen

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3231

      This study showed that exposure to non-toxic amounts of nanosized and ionic silver induced different patterns of deregulated proteins in human Caco-2 cells. Much more proteins were differentially expressed after exposure to nanosilver compared with ionic treatments and only a relatively small proportion of protein spots were commonly deregulated by both, particle and ionic treatments. However, overlays of functional networks obtained for particulate and ionic treatments revealed overlaps, indicating some common cellular mechanisms.

    12. Distribution and immunotoxicity by intravenous injection of iron nanoparticles in a murine model

      Eun-Jung Park, Seung Yun Oh, Younghun Kim, Cheolho Yoon, Byoung-Seok Lee, Sang Doo Kim and Jong Sung Kim

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3232

      We investigated the tissue distribution and immunotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs) over time after single i.v. injection. At 13 weeks after injection, iron accumulation was notable in the liver, spleen, and thymus with the changed levels of redox reaction-related elements. Additionally, the WBC counts and percentage of neutrophils significantly increased, and IL-8 secretion and LDH release were clearly elevated along with enhanced expressions of chemotaxis related-proteins. However, expression of antigen presenting-related proteins attenuated following accumulation of FeNPs.

    13. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells under the influence of nanostructural polyoxometalates

      Ştefana Bâlici, Sergiu Şuşman, Dan Rusu, Gheorghe Zsolt Nicula, Olga Soriţău, Mariana Rusu, Alexandru S. Biris and Horea Matei

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3218

      Two nanostructural polyoxometalates with diameters of 2–4 nm were synthesized and characterized by electron microscopy and spectroscopy. It was found that both nanomaterials stimulate stem cell differentiation into insulin producing cells, without presenting toxic effects at the working concentrations.

    14. Thyroid endocrine disruption of acetochlor on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae

      Mei Yang, Jingjin Hu, Shuying Li, Youning Ma, Wenjun Gui and Guonian Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3230

      Herbicide acetochlor has been suspected to disturb the thyroid endocrine system, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The present study suggested that zebrafish larvae in the time window could be used as a model for assessment of the thyroid endocrine disruption effects of pesticides. Acetochlor altered the mRNA expression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis-related genes and changed whole body thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish larvae, causing endocrine disruption of the thyroid system by simulating the biological activity of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine.

    15. Functional expressions of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters during the development of zebrafish embryos and their effects on the detoxification of cadmium chloride and β-naphthoflavone

      Huancai Yin, Pengli Bai, Peng Miao, Mingli Chen, Jun Hu, Xudong Deng and Jian Yin

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3225

      This paper aimed to evaluate the physiological functions of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, Pgp (Abcb4), Mrp1, and Mrp2, at differential development stages of zebrafish embryos (4, 24, 48, and 72 hpf). The results indicated that both the gene expressions and activities of Pgp and Mrps increased with the development of embryos, which could cause an increasing tolerance of zebrafish embryos to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and β-naphthoflavone (BNF).

    16. Oxidative stress-related DNA damage and homologous recombination repairing induced by N,N-dimethylformamide

      Cui Wang, Jinhuan Yang, Dezhao Lu, Yongsheng Fan, Meirong Zhao and Zhuoyu Li

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3226

      Our study demonstrated for the first time that DMF reduced the proliferation of human liver cells by causing oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks through the release of reactive oxygen species during biodegradation. Moreover, the ineffectiveness of the homologous repair pathway, leading to persistent DNA lesions, can partially explain the reason for DMF-related liver injury.

    17. Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-induced cell growth arrest via attenuation of SIRT1-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

      Wenjuan Zhang, Youjian Zhang, Zhiyuan Wang, Tian Xu, Cheng Huang, Wenjun Yin, Jing Wang, Wei Xiong, Wenhong Lu, Hongyan Zheng and Jing Yuan

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3223

      Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) as a flame retardant has been ubiquitously detected in the atmosphere, water and indoor dust samples as well as human milk and plasma samples. TCEP is classified as carcinogenic category 2 and toxic for reproduction category 1B. TCEP showed carcinogenicity in experimental animals in the liver and kidneys as well as cell loss in the brain. We investigated the in vitro effect of TCEP and TCEP-induced cell growth through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway using the human non-tumor hepatic cell line L02 and human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We found that TCEP induced cell growth arrest associated with upregulated SIRT1 expression and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway; however, EX-527 aggravated cell growth arrest. The results indicated that TCEP induced cell growth arrest via attenuation of the SIRT1 independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Zerovalent Fe, Co and Ni nanoparticle toxicity evaluated on SKOV-3 and U87 cell lines

      Rosalba Gornati, Elisa Pedretti, Federica Rossi, Francesca Cappellini, Michela Zanella, Iolanda Olivato, Enrico Sabbioni and Giovanni Bernardini

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3220

      We have considered Fe, Co and Ni nanoparticles and studied their dissolution by radioactive tracer method and ICP-MS. We have also performed cytotoxicity and gene expression experiments on two different cell lines. The obtained results convinced us that, at this stage of our knowledge, metal-based nanoparticles should be examined on a case-by-case basis on different in vitro models. Moreover, our results suggest that metal-based nanoparticles have caused similar effects to those caused by their corresponding ions.

    19. Evaluation of uptake, cytotoxicity and inflammatory effects in respiratory cells exposed to pristine and -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes

      Cinzia Lucia Ursini, Raffaele Maiello, Aureliano Ciervo, Anna Maria Fresegna, Giuliana Buresti, Fabiana Superti, Magda Marchetti, Sergio Iavicoli and Delia Cavallo

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3228

      We evaluated on A549 and BEAS-2B cells exposed to pristine-MWCNTs, MWCNTs–OH and MWCNTs-COOH: uptake, cell viability by different assays, membrane damage and cytokine release. MWCNTs intracellular localization in A549 cells demonstrated that pristine-MWCNTs disrupt cell membrane and MWCNTs–COOH confined in cytoplasmatic vesicles inducing inflammation while MWCNTs–OH, free in cytoplasm and inside vacuoles, don't damage cell membrane. WST-1 resulted more reliable than MTT to test MWCNT-toxicity. BEAS-2B cells resulted more susceptible then A549 cells particularly to MWCNT-COOH cytotoxicity.

  6. Review articles

    1. Research advances on potential neurotoxicity of quantum dots

      Tianshu Wu, Ting Zhang, Yilu Chen and Meng Tang

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3229

      This review highlighted research advances on the neurotoxicity of QDs in the central nervous system, including oxidative stress injury, elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and autophagy to damage in vitro neural cells, and impairments of synaptic transmission and plasticity as well as brain functions in tested animals, with the hope of throwing light on future research directions of QD neurotoxicity, which is a demanding topic that requires further exploration.

  7. Research articles

    1. Benzo(a)pyrene inhibits migration and invasion of extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells via activation of the ERK and JNK pathway

      Liyuan Liu, Yingxiong Wang, Cha Shen, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Yubin Ding, Rufei Gao and Xuemei Chen

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3227

      The present study investigated the effect and mechanism of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on the invasion and migration of extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Treatment with BaP inhibited the migration and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells and changed the protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and E-cadherin in cells. Moreover, BaP activated the MAPK signaling pathway. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of MAPK rescued BaP-induced change in the migration and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells.

    2. Altered expression of histone deacetylases, inflammatory cytokines and contractile-associated factors in uterine myometrium of Long Evans rats gestationally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

      Archana Laknaur, Terri-Lee Foster, Lesley E. Bobb, Aramandla Ramesh, Gwinnett M. Ladson, Darryl B. Hood, Ayman Al-Hendy and Chandrasekhar Thota

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3216

      There are no studies on the role of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an environmental toxicant, on preterm birth. In this study, pregnant rats treated with BaP delivered prematurely. Histopathology performed on the uterus, postpartum day 22, showed structural abnormalities in BaP-exposed rats. We observed a direct correlation between BaP metabolites and expression of interleukin-1β and -8, tumor necrosis factor α, connexin 43, cyclo-oxygenase-2, prostaglandin F receptor, histone deacetylase 5 (P < 0.05) and nuclear NFқBp65 and an inverse correlation with histone deacetylases 1 and 3 in the myometrium of BaP-exposed rats.

  8. Review articles

    1. Recent knowledge: Concepts of dermal absorption in relation to skin decontamination

      Christina Phuong and Howard I. Maibach

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3222

      Understanding mechanisms of skin decontamination is critical to protecting humans from percutaneous absorption of toxicants through stratum corneum. Here, highly varied literature is placed in a biological and clinical perspective regarding decontamination, focusing on dermal absorption. Stratum corneum structural heterogeneity results in unique substance partitioning characteristics. As such, attempts to model this behavior in alternative in vitro membranes prove difficult. Further, common decontamination methods are undergoing risk assessment. These recent findings update available knowledge regarding skin decontamination and its challenges.

  9. Research articles

    1. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system

      Bhavesh K. Ahir and Margaret K. Pratten

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3219

      Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions (GJs) defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx43, Cx45 and Cx40, which are present in cardiomyocytes, are known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in GJs are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. The most common human teratogen, caffeine was shown to affect cell-to-cell communication via the Cx43, Cx45 and Cx40, by alteration in expression and distribution in the embryonic chick cardiomyocytes MM culture system.

    2. The toxic effects of indoor atmospheric fine particulate matter collected from allergic and non-allergic families in Wuhan on mouse peritoneal macrophages

      Biao Yan, Jinquan Li, Junhui Guo, Ping Ma, Zhuo Wu, ZhenHao Ling, Hai Guo, Yoshino Hiroshi, U. Yanagi, Xu Yang, Shengwei Zhu and Mingqing Chen

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3217

      The association between allergic symptoms in children and exposure to PM2.5 has not fully elucidated, especially the role of PM2.5 from indoor environment involved in allergy or non-allergy is unknown. In this study, indoor PM2.5 from the homes of schoolchildren with allergic symptoms and those of healthy ones were analyzed. It suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to PM2.5-induced toxicity, and PM2.5 from allergic indoor environment produced more serious toxic effects and inflammatory response than that from non-allergic indoor environment.

    3. Human ketosteroid receptors interact with hazardous phthalate plasticizers and their metabolites: an in silico study

      M. K. Sarath Josh, S. Pradeep, K. S. Vijayalekshmy Amma, R. Sudha Devi, S. Balachandran, M. N. Sreejith and Sailas Benjamin

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3221

      Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known for their adverse health effects in test animals, and of late in humans. Molecular interactions of diphthalates, respective monophthalates, phthalic acid and the known endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A with human ketosteroid receptors were explored using Glide (Schrödinger); and their binding efficiencies were compared with that of the natural steroids. From the in silico evidences, most of these diphthalates and their monophthalates showed potentials for anti-steroidal activity by interacting with human ketosteroid receptors.

    4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout rats are insensitive to the pathological effects of repeated oral exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

      Joshua A. Harrill, Debra Layko, Abraham Nyska, Renee R. Hukkanen, Rosa Anna Manno, Andrea Grassetti, Marie Lawson, Greg Martin, Robert A. Budinsky, J. Craig Rowlands and Russell S. Thomas

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3211

      The role of AHR in mediating pathological changes in the liver prior to tumor formation was investigated in a 4-week, repeated-dose study using adult female wild-type (WT) and AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rats treated with varying concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD: 0, 3, 22, 100, 300 and 1000 ng kg−1 day−1). Treatment-related increases in the severity of liver and thymus pathology as well as changes in serum chemistry parameters were observed in WT, but not AHR-KO rats. Dose-dependent accumulation of TCDD was observed primarily in the liver of WT rats and primarily in the adipose tissue of AHR-KO rats.

    5. Sensitive periods for 17β-estradiol exposure during immune system development in sea bass head kidney

      Frauke Seemann, Thomas Knigge, Aurélie Duflot, Sabine Marie, Stéphanie Olivier, Christophe Minier and Tiphaine Monsinjon

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3215

      The influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen receptor and cytokine gene expression, leukocyte populations and phagocytic activity was assessed in the juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney during organ regionalization from 98 to 239 dph. E2 exposure, beginning at 90 dph resulted in indirect and delayed modifications of interleukin 1β and estrogen receptor α gene expression, which may affect B-lymphocyte proliferation. The E2 treatment of 120 dph fish led to an increase in estrogen receptor β2 and a decrease in transforming growth factor β1 gene expression, which coincided with decreased phagocytic activity of head kidney lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages.

    6. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential

      S. S. Ahmed, X. N. Wang, M. Fielding, A. Kerry, I. Dickinson, R. Munuswamy, I. Kimber and A. M. Dickinson

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3197

      Chemical sensitization resulting in allergy is an important health issue. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for sensitization hazard assessment as an alternative approach to using animal models. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. We tested 44 chemicals and compared results to the mouse local lymph node assay LLNA and published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and 0.91, respectively.

    7. Perfluorinated chemicals, PFOS and PFOA, enhance the estrogenic effects of 17β-estradiol in T47D human breast cancer cells

      Pacharapan Sonthithai, Tawit Suriyo, Apinya Thiantanawat, Piyajit Watcharasit, Mathuros Ruchirawat and Jutamaad Satayavivad

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3210

      PFOS and PFOA do not possess estrogenic activity in T47D hormone-dependent human breast cancer cells. Both compounds enhance the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen response element (ERE) activation, expression of estrogen-responsive pS2 gene, ERK1/2 activation and cell growth.

    8. In vitro cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on neuronal and glial cells. Evaluation of nanoparticle interference with viability tests

      Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, Maria João Bessa, Solange Costa, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Gözde Kiliç, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Pedro Quaresma, Eulália Pereira, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon and João Paulo Teixeira

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3213

      The main objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two iron oxide nanoparticles (ION; magnetite), coated with silica and oleic acid, previously determining their possible interference with the methodological procedures. Effects on SHSY5Y and A172 cells were evaluated by means of the MTT, neutral red uptake and alamar blue assays. Results demonstrated that both ION could alter absorbance readings. Significant decreases in cell viability were observed for both cell lines by all assays. In general, oleic acid-coated ION were less cytotoxic than silica-coated ION.

    9. Antimicrobial agent triclosan is a proton ionophore uncoupler of mitochondria in living rat and human mast cells and in primary human keratinocytes

      Lisa M. Weatherly, Juyoung Shim, Hina N. Hashmi, Rachel H. Kennedy, Samuel T. Hess and Julie A. Gosse

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3209

      Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent and mast cells are ubiquitous players in physiological processes and in diseases. TCS disrupts adenosine triphosphate production in mast cells, mouse fibroblasts and primary human keratinocytes and increases the oxygen consumption rate. TCS-methyl (no ionizable proton) affects neither degranulation nor adenosine triphosphate production at non-cytotoxic doses, indicating the effects of TCS are due to its proton ionophore structure. TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler, affecting numerous cell types and functions via this mechanism.

  10. Research Articles

    1. BDE-209 inhibits pluripotent genes expression and induces apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells

      Lili Du, Wen Sun, Huili Zhang and Dunjin Chen

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3195

      Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) has been detected in human serum, semen, placenta, cord blood and milk worldwide. In this study, human embryonic stem cell lines FY-hES-10 and FY-hES-26 were used to evaluate the potential effects and explore the toxification mechanisms using low-level BDE-209 exposure. BDE-209 exposure could decrease pluripotent genes expression via epigenetic regulation and induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  11. Research articles

    1. Proposed human stratum corneum water domain in chemical absorption

      Hanjiang Zhu, Eui-Chang Jung, Xiaoying Hui and Howard Maibach

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3208

      To better understand mechanisms of percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination, 21 compounds were studied for their affinities to stratum corneum (SC) and its subunits using a facile method. Differences between chemical absorption to intact SC and total contribution of protein and lipid domains suggest the possibility and significance of a water domain. A longer lag time of absorption into intact SC than to delipidized SC or SC lipid suggests the water domain may delay chemical binding to protein and lipid domains.

    2. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna

      Simon Bahrndorff, Thomas Yssing Michaelsen, Anne Jensen, Laurits Faarup Marcussen, Majken Elley Nielsen and Peter Roslev

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3212

      We have evaluated an automated monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant and temperature effects. The sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to K2Cr2O7 and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Significant effects of toxicant concentrations, exposure time and incubation temperatures were observed. The results demonstrated that the monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing.

    3. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by silver nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 cells in different dispersion media

      Yuying Xue, Ting Zhang, Bangyong Zhang, Fan Gong, Yanmei Huang and Meng Tang

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3199

      This study evaluated the proliferation and apoptosis of Ag NPs suspended in different solvents in HepG2 cells. The degree of Ag NPs ionization differed with dispersion media. Ag NPs exposure resulted in increased cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, generation of ROS and mitochondria injury, which may be directly involved in cellular oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of Ag NPs to HepG2 cells is concentration- and time-dependent and could be, in partially, attributed to Ag ions released from the nanoparticles in the dispersion.

    4. Cytochrome P450 induction response in tethered spheroids as a three-dimensional human hepatocyte in vitro model

      Lei Xia, Xin Hong, Rashidah Binte Sakban, Yinghua Qu, Nisha Hari Singh, Michael McMillian, Shannon Dallas, Jose Silva, Carlo Sensenhauser, Sylvia Zhao, Heng Keang Lim and Hanry Yu

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3189

      We constructed tethered spheroids on RGD/galactose-conjugated membranes as an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model using cryopreserved human hepatocytes. CYP3A4 mRNA expression in the tethered spheroids was induced to a significantly greater extent than those in the collagen sandwich cultures, indicating the transcriptional regulation was more sensitive to the CYP inducers in the 3D model. Induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 activities in the tethered spheroids were comparable to, if not higher than that observed in the collagen sandwich cultures.

    5. An improved model of predicting hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats by using gene expression data

      Fumihiro Yamada, Kayo Sumida and Koichi Saito

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3184

      The prediction system, which estimates the carcinogenicity of a compound with gene expression data, was improved by adding more gene expression data. The total data we used were from a short-term (28-day) study using 41 hepatocarcinogens and 52 non-hepatocarcinogens. Compared with the older version, the improved system had a higher concordance rate with the training data and a good performance with the external test data. we expect to apply it to early stages of new compound development.

    6. Protein profiles of cardiomyocyte differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate

      Ying-Ying Zhang, Lei-Lei Tang, Bei Zheng, Ren-Shan Ge and Dan-Yan Zhu

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3207

      PFOS was classified as a weak embryotoxic chemical by using embryonic stem cell test procedure and it could block cardiomyocyte differentiation. In total, 176 differential proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics analysis. The differential proteins were classified by GO and connectivity analysis. PFOS affected 32 signaling pathways and mostly influenced the metabolism pathways. Five differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by western blotting. These results revealed potential new targets of PFOS on the developmental cardiovascular system.

    7. Defensive and adverse energy-related molecular responses precede tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate cytotoxicity

      Jinkang Zhang, Timothy D. Williams, James K. Chipman and Mark R. Viant

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3194

      To investigate the potential adverse effects of human exposure to tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), the cytotoxicity of this flame retardant to HepG2/C3A and A549 cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assays. The molecular responses to TDCIPP exposure were investigated using transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches. Defensive responses (e.g. xenobiotic metabolism) as well as energy-related changes were observed, which preceded the cytotoxic effects of TDCIPP in HepG2/C3A cells.

    8. Effects of sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on endometrial carcinogenicity in Donryu rats

      Yoshikazu Taketa, Kaoru Inoue, Miwa Takahashi, Yohei Sakamoto, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya and Midori Yoshida

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3206

      Sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion. Here, the effects of PRL on endometrial carcinogenicity were evaluated in rats. Sulpiride (200 ppm) inhibited the uterine carcinogenesis whereas EGME (1250 ppm) did not. Sulpiride prevented the onset of persistent estrus and induced high PRL and progesterone (P4) serum levels. These results suggest that disruption of the estrous cycle with a decrease in estradiol-17β to P4 ratio may explain the inhibitory effects of sulpiride on uterine carcinogenesis.

    9. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

      Ammon W. Brown, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, Steven M. Colegate, Dale R. Gardner, Kip E. Panter, Edward L. Knoppel and Jeffery O. Hall

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3205

      Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including lycopsamine and intermedine, and has consequently been internationally regulated with respect to its use. To help further define the toxicity of S. officinale, male, California White chicks were used to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine. Based on clinical, serum biochemical, tissue adduct concentrations and histopathological analysis, the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than either pure lycopsamine or intermedine. This suggests a cautionary note when estimates of herbal toxicity are based upon the observed toxicity of isolated toxins.

    10. Kupffer cell-mediated exacerbation of methimazole-induced acute liver injury in rats

      Sho Akai, Yasuaki Uematsu, Koichi Tsuneyama, Shingo Oda and Tsuyoshi Yokoi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3202

      Methimazole (MTZ) is known to cause liver injury in humans. It has been demonstrated that MTZ-induced liver injury in Balb/c mice is accompanied by T helper 2 cytokine-mediated immune responses; however, there is little evidence for immune responses associated with MTZ-induced liver injury in rats. We found that Kupffer cell-mediated immune responses are crucial factors for the exacerbation of MTZ-induced liver injury in rats, indicating apparent species differences in the immune-mediated exacerbation of liver injury between mice and rats.

    11. Effects of urban particulate matter with high glucose on human monocytes U937

      Yue Zhang, Yiqun Mo, Aihua Gu, Rong Wan, Qunwei Zhang and David J. Tollerud

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3198

      This study examined the effects of urban particulate matter (U-PM) with or without high glucose on human monocytes U937. The results showed that exposure of monocytes to U-PM alone caused ROS generation, increased p38 phosphorylation, up-regulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8, and increased activity of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9. These effects were enhanced significantly when cells were exposed to U-PM with high glucose. Our findings have important implications in understanding the health effects of PM on diabetics.

    12. Investigating the effect of excess caffeine exposure on placental angiogenesis using chicken ’functional‘ placental blood vessel network

      Zheng-lai Ma, Guang Wang, Wen-hui Lu, Xin Cheng, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee and Xuesong Yang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3181

      In this study, we first demonstrated the morphological similarities between chick yolk sac and chorioallantoic membranes verses the mammalian placenta. Using chick yolk sac and chorioallantoic membrane as a model, we found that 5 - 15µmol/egg of caffeine exposure inhibited angiogenesis. Furthermore, caffeine exposure is able to generate excess ROS that in turn alters the expression of angiogenesis-associated genes. The results implied that the negative impact of caffeine on fetal development was partly attributed to impaired placental angiogenesis.

    13. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development

      Guang Wang, Shan Zhong, Shi-yao Zhang, Zheng-lai Ma, Jian-long Chen, Wen-hui Lu, Xin Cheng, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Da-xiang Lu and Xuesong Yang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3201

      In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol on the YSM during chick embryogenesis. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found to be associated with the excess ROS production. Both ethanol and AAPH (a ROS inducer) could inhibit cell proliferation, enhance apoptosis and repress expression of angiogenesis-related genes. This further supports our proposal that excess ROS production was central to the anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol.

    14. An assay to determine the sensitive window of embryos to chemical exposure using Xenopus tropicalis

      Lingling Hu, Lijiao Wu, Yingang Xue, Jingmin Zhu and Huahong Shi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3200

      The Xenopus tropicalis embryos showed great variations of malformation in response to nine tested compounds during four separate 12-h exposure periods. Based on the value of score of malformations, the most sensitive exposure period of embryos was significantly distinguished for eight compounds. A rapid and valid assay was proposed to determine the 12-h sensitive window of embryos to chemical exposure using X. tropicalis.

    15. Investigation of ifosfamide and chloroacetaldehyde renal toxicity through integration of in vitro liver–kidney microfluidic data and pharmacokinetic-system biology models

      Eric Leclerc, Jeremy Hamon and Frederic Yves Bois

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3191

      We have integrated in vitro and in silico data to describe the toxicity of chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) on renal cells via its production from the metabolism of ifosfamide (IFO) by hepatic cells. A pharmacokinetic (PK) model described the production of CAA by the hepatocytes and its transport to the renal cells. A system biology model was coupled to the PK model to describe the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by CAA in the renal cells.

    16. Developing Xenopus embryos recover by compacting and expelling single wall carbon nanotubes

      Brian D. Holt, Joseph H. Shawky, Kris Noel Dahl, Lance A. Davidson and Mohammad F. Islam

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3203

      Single wall carbon nanotubes are being developed for wide-ranging applications. However, understanding the direct exposure to Xenopus laevis, a development model, is lacking. We found superficial microinjection of nanotubes suspended with Pluronic F127 into one- to two-cell embryos resulted in the formation and expulsion of compacted, nanotube-filled masses. Expulsion is dramatically different from typical distribution throughout the embryo. Previous studies microinjecting other nanomaterials often report toxicity, yet our results demonstrate recovery, which we speculate results from Pluronic F127's membrane activity and nanotubes’ large aspect ratio.

  12. Research Articles

    1. Sub-chronic exposure to fluoride impacts the response to a subsequent nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin

      Mariana Cárdenas-González, Tania Jacobo Estrada, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Norma A. Bobadilla, Olivier C. Barbier and Luz M. Del Razo

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3186

      The purpose of this work was to investigate if sub-nephrotoxic stimulus induced by fluoride might impact the response to a subsequent nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin. Rats were exposed to fluoride (0, 15 or 50 ppm) through drinking water during 40 days. Then, rats were co-exposed to gentamicin (40 mg kg–1 day–1) for 7 days. The results suggested that fluoride reduced gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by inducing a compensatory response carried out by Hsp72 and by decreasing the gentamicin accumulation.

    2. Complement C5a–C5aR interaction enhances MAPK signaling pathway activities to mediate renal injury in trichloroethylene sensitized BALB/c mice

      Jia-xiang Zhang, Wan-sheng Zha, Liang-ping Ye, Feng Wang, Hui Wang, Tong Shen, Chang-hao Wu and Qi-xing Zhu

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3179

      We have shown previously complement activation as a possible mechanism for trichloroethylene (TCE) sensitization, leading to kidney damages. A Pretreatment with the C5aR antagonist attenuated TCE-induced tissue damage and renal dysfunction, attenuated increase of expression of P-p38, P-ERK and P-JNK proteins and also consistently reduced TCE sensitization-induced increase of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Our finding identify C5a binding to C5aR, MAP kinase activation and inflammatory cytokine release as a novel mechanism for complement-mediated renal injury by sensitization with TCE.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Non-clinical safety evaluation of repeated intramuscular administration of the AS15 immunostimulant combined with various antigens in rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys

      N. Garçon, J. Silvano, C. F. Kuper, N. Baudson, C. Gérard, R. Forster and L. Segal

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3167

      The aim of the current paper was to assess the safety profile of vaccine candidates containing the AS15 immunostimulant combined with different antigens in two animal models. Several antigens were tested for this purpose: WT1 (rabbits), p501, dHER2 and recPRAME (cynomolgus monkeys). Only transient differences in hematology and biochemical parameters could be observed, while pathology testing revealed no safety concerns. Our findings support the use of AS15 for clinical development of potential immunotherapeutic cancer vaccines.

    4. Short-term, low-dose cadmium exposure induces hyperpermeability in human renal glomerular endothelial cells

      Liqun Li, Fengyun Dong, Dongmei Xu, Linna Du, Suhua Yan, Hesheng Hu, Corrinne G. Lobe, Fan Yi, Carolyn M. Kapron and Ju Liu

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3168

      Cadmium enters the human body and circulates for a short period in the bloodstream. In this study, we found that short-term, low-dose cadmium exposure increases permeability without cytotoxic effects in human renal glomerular endothelial cells. The hyperpermeability might be caused by membrane dissociation of vascular endothelial cadherin and is partially mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    5. Onset of hepatocarcinogen-specific cell proliferation and cell cycle aberration during the early stage of repeated hepatocarcinogen administration in rats

      Masayuki Kimura, Hajime Abe, Sayaka Mizukami, Takeshi Tanaka, Megu Itahashi, Nobuhiko Onda, Toshinori Yoshida and Makoto Shibutani

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3163

      This study aimed to determine the onset time of hepatocarcinogen-specific cellular responses. Rats were treated orally with hepatocarcinogens for 3, 7 or 28 days. For comparison, some animals were subjected to partial hepatectomy or treated with noncarcinogenic hepatotoxicants. Obtained results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce hepatocarcinogen-specific disruption of G1/S checkpoint function, early withdrawal of proliferating cells from M phase due to disruptive spindle checkpoint function and aberrant p21Cip1 activation to cause apoptosis reflecting DNA damage accumulation.

    6. RNA sequencing provides insights into the toxicogenomic response of ZF4 cells to methyl methanesulfonate

      Zhouquan Li, Yong Long, Liqiao Zhong, Guili Song, Xiaohua Zhang, Li Yuan, Zongbin Cui and Heping Dai

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3147

      RNA-seq identified 6,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). GO enrichment revealed that RNA-associated processes were the most up-regulated, while cell cycle and adhesion were the most repressed, neuron-related processes were the most down-regulated developmental process. KEGG pathway enrichment identified DNA damage repair, cell cycle, apoptosis and spliceosome overrepresented. There were 1,156 AS DEGs specifically expressed after MMS treatment, many of which belonged to metabolism and catabolic process. Cluster analysis of orthologs was able to extrapolate toxicotranscriptomics data between zebrafish and yeast.

    7. A method for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in conscious monkeys

      Hiroshi Satoh, Nana Nomiya, Daiki Imai, Shigeru Sato, Ken Sakurai, Kiyoshi Takasuna and Kazuhisa Furuhama

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3178

      To establish a method for estimating the GFR in monkeys, the radiographic contrast medium iodixanol was administered as tracers to monkeys as a bolus injection; blood was collected after 60, 90 and 120 min. An equation based on a single-blood-sample method derived from Jacobsson's formula was prepared using the data from healthy and gentamicin-treated monkeys by a multisample strategy with iodixanol. The GFR using the equation with iodixanol was in agreement with that from the multisample method with iodixanol.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Acute and subchronic toxicity of 20  kHz and 60  kHz magnetic fields in rats

      Izumi Nishimura, Atsushi Oshima, Kazumoto Shibuya, Takashi Mitani and Tadashi Negishi

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3161

      Despite increasing use of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields (MFs) in occupational and domestic settings, scientific evidence is insufficient for IF MF health risk assessments. Rats were exposed to 20 kHz or 60 kHz sinusoidal MFs for 22 h day−1 for 14 days (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). MF-exposed rats did not exhibit significant and reproducible changes in body and organ weights, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathology. Our results indicate that IF MF exposure does not carry a significant health risk to mammals.

    9. Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells

      M. T. Ortega, B. Jeffery, J. E. Riviere and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3158

      Short abstract

      Food ingredients clove leave oil, eugenol, guanosine monophosphate (GMP), GMP + inosine monophosphate, sorbose, ginger root extract, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, thyme oil, thymol, lemongrass oil and citric acid showed differential toxicity in canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which differentiated into enterocyte-like cells in vitro. The most toxic ingredients were thymol, eugenol, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, clove leave oil and lemongrass oil (0.002–0.54 mg ml–1). GMP, GMP + inosine monophosphate and sorbose were the least toxic ingredients (56.8–116.7 mg ml–1).

    10. Safety data on 19 vehicles for use in 1 month oral rodent pre-clinical studies: administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin causes renal toxicity

      Guy Healing, Tabassum Sulemann, Peter Cotton, Jayne Harris, Adam Hargreaves, Rowena Finney, Sarah Kirk, Carolin Schramm, Clare Garner, Perrine Pivette and Lisa Burdett

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3155

    11. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells in the hippocampal neurogenesis involving myelin vacuolation of cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs in mice

      Mizuho Kato, Hajime Abe, Megu Itahashi, Yoh Kikuchihara, Masayuki Kimura, Sayaka Mizukami, Toshinori Yoshida and Makoto Shibutani

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3162

      This study investigated the effect of maternal hexachlorophene exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. Pregnant mice were supplemented with hexachlorophene in diet during gestation and lactation. Offspring displayed reversible decrease of type 2 intermediate-stage progenitor cells in the subgranular zone. Myelin vacuolation might be responsible for changes in neurogenesis possibly by reducing nerve conduction velocity of cholinergic inputs from the septal–hippocampal pathway to granule cell lineages and/or GABAergic interneurons, and of glutamatergic inputs to granule cell lineages.

    12. mRNAs and miRNAs in whole blood associated with lung hyperplasia, fibrosis, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma after multi-walled carbon nanotube inhalation exposure in mice

      Brandi N. Snyder-Talkington, Chunlin Dong, Linda M. Sargent, Dale W. Porter, Lauren M. Staska, Ann F. Hubbs, Rebecca Raese, Walter McKinney, Bean T. Chen, Lori Battelli, David T. Lowry, Steven H. Reynolds, Vincent Castranova, Yong Qian and Nancy L. Guo

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3157

      This study determined global mRNA and miRNA profiles in whole blood from mice exposed by inhalation to MWCNT that correlated with the presence of lung hyperplasia, fibrosis, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma. At 17 months post-exposure, whole blood was collected and analyzed using microarray analysis for global mRNA and miRNA expression. The changes in miRNA and mRNA expression, and their respective regulatory networks, identified in this study may potentially serve as blood biomarkers for MWCNT-induced lung pathological changes.

    13. In vitro neurotoxicity evaluation of piperazine designer drugs in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

      M. D. Arbo, R. Silva, D. J. Barbosa, D. Dias da Silva, S. P. Silva, J. P. Teixeira, M. L. Bastos and H. Carmo

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3153

      Piperazine designer drugs act as substrates at dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors and/or transporters in the brain. This work aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of N-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine in the differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Complete cytotoxicity curves were obtained after 24 h incubations with each drug. A significant decrease in intracellular total glutathione content was noted for the drugs. All drugs caused an increase of intracellular free Ca2+ levels, accompanied by mitochondrial hyperpolarization.

    14. Preclinical safety evaluation of low molecular weight heparin–deoxycholate conjugates as an oral anticoagulant

      Ji-young Kim, Ok-Cheol Jeon, Hyun Tae Moon, Seung Rim Hwang and Youngro Byun

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3146

      The preclinical safety of an oral anticoagulant (OH09208) was assessed by a comprehensive evaluating program in compliance with standard guidelines. As a result, OH09208 demonstrated acceptable values in single dose acute toxicity studies in rats, repeat dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, systemic anaphylaxis test, both in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies, and safety pharmacology studies. Overall, there were no unexpected toxicities found in this study that might have precluded the safe administration of OH09208 to humans.

    15. Establishment of a mouse model for amiodarone-induced liver injury and analyses of its hepatotoxic mechanism

      Shohei Takai, Shingo Oda, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tatsuki Fukami, Miki Nakajima and Tsuyoshi Yokoi

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3141

      In this study, an in vivo mouse model of amiodarone-induced liver injury was developed with co-administration of dexamethasone and possible mechanisms were investigated. It was suggested that amiodarone and/or desethylamiodarone contribute to the pathogenesis of amiodarone-induced liver injury by producing mitochondrial and oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation. This study provides a new perspective on drug-induced liver injury and is useful for achieving an in vivo hepatotoxicity assay in nonclinical drug development.

    16. Bisphenol A inhibits duodenal movement ex vivo of rat through nitric oxide-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase and α-adrenergic signaling pathways

      Kaushik Sarkar, Panchali Tarafder and Goutam Paul

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3154

      We report here the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the duodenal movement of the rat. We found significant depression of duodenal movement by BPA. Furthermore, we observed significant counteractions of BPA-induced inhibition by N-ω-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide [NO] synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (soluble guanylyl cyclase blocker) and phentolamine (α-adrenergic receptor blocker). The results indicate that NO and norepinephrine secreting intrinsic neurons might be involved in BPA-induced changes. We may conclude that BPA inhibits the duodenal movement by promoting NO- and/or norepinephrine-mediated signaling mechanisms in duodenal smooth muscle cells.

    17. Microminipigs as a new experimental animal model for toxicological studies: comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluoroalkyl acids

      Keerthi S. Guruge, Michiko Noguchi, Koji Yoshioka, Eriko Yamazaki, Sachi Taniyasu, Miyako Yoshioka, Noriko Yamanaka, Mitsutaka Ikezawa, Nobuhiko Tanimura, Masumi Sato, Nobuyoshi Yamashita and Hiroaki Kawaguchi

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3145

      A single oral dose of a mixture of 10 PFAAs was given to Microminipigs. The blood depuration half-lives of PFAAs ranged from 1.6 to 86.6 days. PFOS and other long-chain carboxyl acids remained in the tissues for a long period. Persistence of PFAAs in edible tissues raises concerns about the safety of swine products. MMPigs can be excellent novel experimental animals for toxicological studies.

    18. Acrylamide induces locomotor defects and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

      Jia Li, Dan Li, Yongsheng Yang, Tiantian Xu, Ping Li and Defu He

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3144

      In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mgl−1 acrylamide resulted in significant declines in locomotor behavior and decrease of crawling speeds and body bending angles, which indicated locomotor defects, along with Parkinsonian-like impairment. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Moreover, acrylamide induced down-expression of Pdat-1 and enhanced expression of unc-54, which indicated degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and aggregation of α-synuclein. It suggests that the neurotoxicity of acrylamide is associated with Parkinson's disease.

    19. PM2.5-induced oxidative stress increases adhesion molecules expression in human endothelial cells through the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway

      Wei Rui, Longfei Guan, Fang Zhang, Wei Zhang and Wenjun Ding

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3143

      We explored the underlying mechanisms of PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfucntion in EA.hy926 cells. PM2.5 exposure triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal regulatory kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and increase in expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as well as adhesion of THP-1 cells. However, ERK, AKT and NF-κB inhibitors significantly down-regulated PM2.5-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, but not JNK inhibitor and p38 MAPK inhibitor. The results suggest that PM2.5-induced ROS trigger ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions via activation of ERK/AKT/NF-κB pathway.

    20. Particulate matter phagocytosis induces tissue factor in differentiating macrophages

      M. Milano, P. Dongiovanni, A. Artoni, S. Gatti, L. Rosso, F. Colombo, V. Bollati, M. Maggioni, P. M. Mannucci, P. A. Bertazzi, S. Fargion and L. Valenti

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3156

      Here we show that in human differentiating macrophages, particulate matter with diameter < 10 mcM (PM10) exposure induces tissue factor (TF) and a procoagulant phenotype. This process is dependent on phagocytosis and the activation of stress pathways, and is abolished in differentiated anti-inflammatory macrophages. In rats, alveolar exposure to PM10 causes the recruitment of inflammatory cells and results in local induction of TF, increasing circulating TF levels. TF induction by differentiating lung macrophages, activated following phagocytosis, contributes to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with PM10 exposure.

    21. Impaired aquaporins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of rat after mercury exposure

      Cinzia Bottino, Marta Vázquez, Vicenta Devesa and Umberto Laforenza

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3151

      This study aims to evaluate the effects of mercury species exposure on aquaporin (AQP) expression in the gastrointestinal tract of rats treated during 4 days. Both HgCl2 and CH3HgCl reduced AQP expression in stomach, jejunum and colon. In particular, AQP3 and AQP4 are downregulated in stomach and AQP3 and AQP7 in jejunum and colon. This effect on AQP expression could be one of the causes of the gastrointestinal symptoms observed after mercury exposure (diarrhea, luminal water accumulation, fluid loss).

    22. Augmenting effects of gestational arsenite exposure of C3H mice on the hepatic tumors of the F2 male offspring via the F1 male offspring

      Keiko Nohara, Kazuyuki Okamura, Takehiro Suzuki, Hikari Murai, Takaaki Ito, Keiko Shinjo, Shota Takumi, Takehiro Michikawa, Yutaka Kondo and Kenichiro Hata

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3149

      Gestational exposure can affect the F2 generation through exposure of F1 germ cells. We assessed tumor incidence in the F2 males obtained by reciprocal crossing between the control and gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 males and females in C3H mice. The results demonstrated that the F2 males born to arsenite-F1 males developed tumors at a significantly higher rate than the F2 males born to the control F1 males. We also characterized gene expression of several hepatocellular carcinoma markers in the F2 tumors.

    23. Gene expression profiling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in an adult toxicity study captures a variety of neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in rat models of hypothyroidism

      Ayako Shiraki, Fumiyo Saito, Hirotoshi Akane, Yumi Akahori, Nobuya Imatanaka, Megu Itahashi, Toshinori Yoshida and Makoto Shibutani

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3140

      Global gene expression profiling was performed in four brain regions in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-administered young adult rats with hypothyroidism. Among the brain regions, gene expression alterations related to neural development and myelination were most profound in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Because the gene expression profile of the adult dentate gyrus closely related to neurogenesis, 28-day toxicity studies looking at gene expression changes in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus may also detect possible developmental neurotoxic effects.

    24. Meloxicam inhibits fipronil-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

      Jae Hyeon Park, Youn Sun Park, Je-Bong Lee, Kyung-Hun Park, Min-kyoung Paik, Mihye Jeong and Hyun Chul Koh

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3136

      Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses have been identified as key elements of neuronal cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which inflammatory responses contribute to apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with fipronil (FPN). Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of FPN, we examined the neuroprotective effects of meloxicam against FPN-induced neuronal cell death.


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