Land Degradation & Development

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 6

Edited By: Professor Artemi Cerdà

Impact Factor: 8.145

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 1/34 (Soil Science); 6/225 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1099-145X

Author Guidelines

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Author Guidelines


The Land Degradation and Development online submission site can be found at

All papers must be submitted via the online system. Please read and follow the author guidelines before submitting your work.

NOTE: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the last year it is likely that you will have had an account created.

A covering letter must be included when submitting a paper and this must state the novelty of the paper.

Submission of a manuscript to LDD implies that all persons listed as authors qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify are listed. All authors listed should meet the following criteria:

  • Substantial contributions to research design, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data
  • Drafting the paper or revising it critically
  • Approval of the submitted and final versions

Authors should provide a statement that all listed authors meet these criteria and that nobody who qualifies for authorship has been excluded.

Authors must declare that the submitted work is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication.

Authors should declare that the submitted work has not previously been published in full, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

These statements should be included in the Cover Letter upon submission.

Files to submit:

Text and Tables – as doc, .docx, .rtf, .ppt, .xls

Figures – as .TIFF or .EPS.

Supporting Information – files (optional) as required, see below for further details.

LaTeX files may be submitted providing that an .eps or .pdf file is provided in addition to the source files.


  • The language of the journal is English.
  • Word Limit: Manuscripts submitted to LDD should be approximately 6000 words, this includes References. At the Editor’s discretion a limited number of papers may be allowed over the word limit, if good reasons are given for this to occur. If a paper is to be over the 6,000 word limit, if for example it is a review paper, this request and the reasons for it must be stated in the cover letter
  • Number of Tables and Figures: The combined maximum number of tables and figures allowed is ten. Any manuscript which exceeds this amount will be returned to authors with the request to remove the excess number of images.
  • All submissions including book reviews must have a title, and have a margin of 3cm all round.
  • Illustrations and tables must be on separate sheets, and not be incorporated into the text.
  • Figures and illustrations must either fit a one column size, less than 84.49mm wide, or two column size, less than 177.09mm wide.
  • The title page must list the full title, short title of up to 70 characters, and names and affiliations of all authors. Give the full address, including email, telephone and fax, of the author who is to check the proofs. Both titles should be in capital letters and the full names of the authors in lower-case letters.
  • Include the name(s) of any sponsor(s) of the research contained in the paper, along with grant number(s) in the acknowledgement section.
  • Supply an abstract of up to 250 words for all articles except book reviews. An abstract is a concise summary of the whole paper, not just the conclusions, and is understandable without reference to the rest of the paper. It should contain no citation to other published work.
  • The acknowledgements should list all the people and organisations who are not named as authors but who helped during the research process and the development of the paper prior to its submission. Please keep the acknowledgements brief and place them at the end of the paper before the references section.
  • Include up to five keywords that describe your paper for indexing purposes.
  • Please note that the journal publishes Supporting Information. If you have additional tables and figures that would be better included as Supporting Information than in the main article. Please upload these through ScholarOne Manuscripts and add S1, S2 etc. to the caption. Supporting Information will be online only and will not by copy edited or typeset so please ensure accuracy.
  • When citing Supporting Information in the main text please use abbreviations, “S1”, rather than “Supporting Information 1”.
  • If species names are given then the full name should be used, i.e. “Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc.”, not “Pinus densiflora”.
  • When referencing in text please use “&” instead of “and” in citations, i.e. (Ott & Longnecker, 2001) not (Ott and Longnecker, 2001).

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English language. A Wiley Enlgish language editors service can be found at Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

For those authors using EndNote a bibliographic style document can be found here and a manuscript template here.

PLEASE NOTE: Editors reserve the right to immediately reject a paper if the English is not of a high enough standard.


Upload each figure as a separate file in either .tiff or .eps format, with the lead author's name, the figure number and the top of the figure indicated. Compound figures e.g. 1a, b, c should be uploaded as one figure. Tints are not acceptable. Lettering must be of a reasonable size and must still be clearly legible upon reduction, and consistent within each figure and set of figures. Where a key to symbols is required, please include this in the artwork itself, not in the figure legend. All illustrations must be supplied at the correct resolution:

  • Black and white and colour photos - 300 dpi
  • Graphs, drawings, etc - 800 dpi preferred; 600 dpi minimum
  • Combinations of photos and drawings (black and white and colour) - 500 dpi

Tables should not be part of the main text and should be on separate sheets placed after the references. If a table is created in excel the file should be uploaded separately.

The cost of printing colour illustrations in this journal will be charged to the author. If colour illustrations are supplied electronically in either TIFF or EPS format, they may be used in the PDF of the article at no cost to the author, even if this illustration was printed in black and white in the journal. The PDF will appear on the Wiley Online Library site. However, colour figures are free online so please specify if you wish to have colour online only when you submit your paper.

Reference Style

References should be quoted in the text as name and year within brackets and listed at the end of the paper alphabetically. Where reference is made to more than one work by the same author published in the same year, identify each citation in the text as follows: (Collins, 1998a; Collins, 1998b). Where three or more authors are listed in the reference list, please cite in the text as (Collins et al., 1998). When referencing in text please use “&” instead of “and” in citations, i.e. (Ott & Longnecker, 2001) not (Ott and Longnecker, 2001).

All references must be complete and accurate. Where possible the DOI for the reference should be included at the end of the reference. Online citations should include date of access. If necessary, cite unpublished or personal work in the text but do not include it in the reference list. References should be listed in the following style:

  • Kumar P. 2011. Capacity constraints in operationalisation of payment for ecosystem services (PES) in India: Evidence from land degradation. Land Degradation & Development 22: 432–443. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1024
  • Dickie JA, Parsons AJ. 2012. Eco-Geomorphological processes within grasslands, shrublands and badlands in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa. Land Degradation & Development 23: 534–547. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2170
  • Taguas EV, Carpintero E, Ayuso JL. 2013.Assessing land degradation risk through the long-term analysis of erosivity: A case study in Southern Spain.Land Degradation & Development 24: 179–187. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1119

Citing EarlyView Articles

Citing EarlyView articles will be done in the following style:

  • Kiernan K. 2013. Nature, severity and persistence of Geomorphological damage caused by armed conflict. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2216
  • Bizoza AR. 2013. Three-stage analysis of the adoption of soil and water conservation in the Highlands of Rwanda. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2145
  • Alegre Prats S, Cortizo Malvar M, Simões Vieira DC, MacDonald L. Keizer, JJ. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in Central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236
  • Roy M, McDonald LM. 2013. Metal uptake in plants and health risk assessments in metal-contaminated smelter soils. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2237

To link to an article from the author’s homepage, take the DOI (digital object identifier) and append it to "" as per following example: DOI 10.1002/ldr.735, becomes

To include the DOI in a citation to an article, simply append it to the reference as in the following example:

Yan-Gui S, Xin-Rong L, Ying-Wu C, Zhi-Shan Z, Yan L. 2013. Carbon fixation of Cyanobacerial-Algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic carbon accumulation in desert. Land Degradation & Development 24: 342-349. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1131

Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional: tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission please visit:

The availability of Supporting Information should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the Acknowledgements, headed 'Supporting Information'. Short legends should be included here, listing the titles of all supporting figures, tables, data etc. Full (more detailed) legends for Supporting Information must also be uploaded as a separate Word document. This version will be used online, alongside where the Supporting Information is hosted, but not in the manuscript text, which instead uses the short versions of the legends. For image files (i.e. TIFF, JPEG etc.), legends should not be embedded. Instead, when uploading the image file to ScholarOne, please use the space provided to paste in the legend so that it appears underneath the figure in the PDF that is sent to the reviewers. In order to protect reviewer anonymity, material posted on authors’ websites cannot be reviewed.

Supporting Information items should be referred to in the text as follows:

Supporting figures: Figure S1, Figure S2 etc.

Supporting tables: Table S1, Table S2 etc.

Supporting data: Data S1, Data S2 etc.

Supporting experimental procedures: Methods S1, Methods S2 etc.

Supporting animations: Movie S1, Movie S2 etc.

Any other text-based Supporting Information: Appendix S1, Appendix S2 etc.

The above order should be used when listing the Supporting Information legends, both in the short versions in the main manuscript text file, as well as in the separate full legends file.


NON-LATEX USERS: Upload your manuscript files. At this stage further source files, supporting information, do not need to be uploaded.

LATEX USERS: If you are submitting LaTeX files you should upload a single .pdf that you have generated from your source files. You must use the File Designation "Main Document" from the dropdown box.


NON-LATEX USERS: Editable source files must be uploaded at this stage. Tables must be on separate pages after the reference list, and not be incorporated into the main text. Figures should be uploaded as separate figure files.

LATEX USERS: When submitting your revision you must still upload a single .pdf that you have generated from your now revised source files. You must use the File Designation "Main Document" from the dropdown box. In addition you must upload your TeX source files. For all your source files you must use the File Designation "Supplemental Material not for review". Previous versions of uploaded documents must be deleted. If your manuscript is accepted for publication we will use the files you upload to typeset your article within a totally digital workflow.


Further Information. For accepted manuscripts the publisher will supply proofs to the submitting author prior to publication. This stage is to be used only to correct errors that may have been introduced during the production process. Prompt return of the corrected proofs, preferably within two days of receipt, will minimise the risk of the paper being held over to a later issue. Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only (unless otherwise stated). Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Reprints of your article and copies of the journal may be ordered. There is no page charge to authors.

Accepted Articles

‘Accepted Articles’ have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appearing in PDF format only, and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked, and indexed by PubMed.

Open Access - Geo

We work together with the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) and Wiley open access journal, Geo: Geography and Environment, to enable rapid publication of good quality papers that are outside the scope of our journal. Authors of papers rejected by our journal as unsuitable on the grounds of scope or space may be offered the option of having their manuscript, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Geo editorial team. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. Geo will consider submissions from across the spectrum of geographical and environmental research, which reach the standard acceptable for publication. Geo is a fully open access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information please go to


Wiley requires that all authors disclose any potential conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, which might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity, is considered a potential conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work described in the manuscript. Potential conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to: patent or stock ownership, membership on a company’s board of directors, membership on an advisory board or committee for a company, or consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the submitting author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (in the footnotes, Conflict of Interest or Acknowledgments section), and in the online submission system all pertinent commercial and other relationships.

The journal of Land Degradation & Development adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE, authorship criteria should be based on: substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet these conditions. By submitting a manuscript to LDD, all authors warrant that they have the authority to publish the material and that the paper, or one substantially the same, has neither been published previously, nor is being considered for publication elsewhere. Submissions may be subject to testing for textual similarity to other published works via the CrossCheck software employed by LDD.

LDD is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics COPE and will adhere to the prescribed guidelines when dealing with any ethics cases.

If suspected, your manuscript will be subjected to iThenticate which helps Editors and the Editorial team check written work for plagiarism and attribution.

NOTE to NIH Grantees: Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see



OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article open access. With OnlineOpen the author, their funding agency, or institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in PubMed Central and PMC mirror sites. In addition to publication online via Wiley Online Library, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository, or other free public server, immediately on publication.

Copyright Transfer Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions ( copyright.asp)

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services ( and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: