NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 2.983

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/43 (Spectroscopy); 26/72 (Biophysics); 26/124 (Radiology Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging)

Online ISSN: 1099-1492

Associated Title(s): Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging


  1. 1 - 37

    1. Simulation, phantom validation, and clinical evaluation of fast pH-weighted molecular imaging using amine chemical exchange saturation transfer echo planar imaging (CEST-EPI) in glioma at 3 T

      Robert J. Harris, Timothy F. Cloughesy, Linda M. Liau, Phioanh L. Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Whitney B. Pope and Benjamin M. Ellingson

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3611

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      Fast, high-resolution pH-weighted MR images can be obtained using (A) a new amine chemical exchange saturation transfer echo planar imaging (CEST EPI) sequence. The current study (B) first validated a more accurate CEST simulation model using amino acid phantoms at various pH, (C) simulated the z-spectra and magnetization transfer ratio at 3.0ppm (amine resonance) under a variety of conditions and tissue types, and then (D) evaluated pH-weighted imaging using amine CEST EPI in patients with gliomas.

    2. Early detection of human glioma sphere xenografts in mouse brain using diffusion MRI at 14.1 T

      P. Porcari, M. E. Hegi, H. Lei, M-F. Hamou, I. Vassallo, S. Capuani, R. Gruetter and V. Mlynarik

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3610

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      In this study, the feasibility of diffusion MRI methods for early detection and investigation of slow-growing and diffuse infiltrative tumours is demonstrated. In contrast to conventional MRI, tumours grown as human glioma sphere xenografts in mouse brain were properly identified in their early stages of growth using diffusion MRI with moderately long diffusion times (Δ = 80 ms). Localized proton MRS of lesions and immunohistochemistry confirmed tumour presence. Moreover, differences between diffusion properties of each xenograft highlighted diverse tumour microstructures, reflected by histology.

    3. Microscopic DTI accurately identifies early glioma cell migration: correlation with multimodal imaging in a new glioma stem cell model

      Ulysse Gimenez, Adriana-T. Perles-Barbacaru, Arnaud Millet, Florence Appaix, Michele El-Atifi, Karin Pernet-Gallay, Boudewijn van der Sanden, François Berger and Hana Lahrech

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3608

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      This work is focused on DTI parameter validation as early biomarkers for glioma cell migration/invasion. For this purpose we developed a new glioma mouse model characterized by high migratory phenotype. Spatial correlation between microscopic 3D-DTI parameters and fluorescent Glio6 cell density in the corpus callosum validates DTI parameters as quantitative biomarkers, early detecting glioma cell migration/invasion when tumor is still not visible on conventional MRI. DTI variation origin was assessed by electron microscopy which showed axon bundle disorganization.

  2. Special issue review articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An illustrated comparison of processing methods for MR phase imaging and QSM: combining array coil signals and phase unwrapping

      Simon Daniel Robinson, Kristian Bredies, Diana Khabipova, Barbara Dymerska, José P. Marques and Ferdinand Schweser

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3601

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      Phase data from array coils can be combined using the Roemer method at UHF using an inhomogeneous transmit-receive coil, but this introduces transmit phase into the combined image. The most effective alternative approaches assessed were the Virtual Receiver Coil and short echo-time reference scan (COMPOSER) methods. Spatial unwrapping was found to be fragile in the presence of rapid phase fluctuations, while faster temporal unwrapping was more prone to errors at low SNR. Laplacian unwrapping was both fast and effective.


    1. Noninvasive mapping of endothelial dysfunction in myocardial ischemia by magnetic resonance imaging using an albumin-based contrast agent

      Katrien Vandoorne, Moriel H. Vandsburger, I. Jacobs, Y. Han, Hagit Dafni, Klaas Nicolay and Gustav J. Strijkers

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3599

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      Cardiac albumin-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) discriminated between infarcted and remote regions at 3 days post-infarct, based on a reduced fractional blood volume (fBV) in the infarcted region and increased permeability–surface area product (PS) in the infarcted regions confirmed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. This study provides an imaging biomarker for the assessment of endothelial dysfunction. The presented method has the potential to three-dimensionally visualize subtle changes in myocardial permeability and to track endothelial function for longitudinal cardiac studies determining pathophysiological processes during infarct healing.

    2. Application of diffusional kurtosis imaging to detect occult brain damage in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica

      Wenshu Qian, Koon Ho Chan, Edward S. Hui, Chi Yan Lee, Yong Hu and Henry Ka-Fung Mak

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3607

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      Diffusional kurtosis imaging was employed for discriminating neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from each other and from healthy volunteers. Alterations in conventional diffusion and kurtosis metrics in normal-appearing WM (NAWM) and diffusely increased mean diffusivity in cortical normal-appearing GM (NAGM) would favor the diagnosis of MS rather than NMO. Meanwhile, normal diffusivities and kurtosis metrics in all NAWM with increases in mean diffusivity in frontal and temporal NAGM suggest NMO.

    3. Ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) imaging and modeling: magic angle independent biomarkers of tissue properties

      Ya-Jun Ma, Hongda Shao, Jiang Du and Eric Y. Chang

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3609

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      Graphs of T2* values derived by fitting multiple-TE data and macromolecular proton fractions (f), T2 value of macromolecular protons (T2m) and exchange rate from macromolecular protons to water protons (RM0w) derived from two-pool MT modeling with five angle orientations between fiber direction inline image and inline image. Fitting errors of these parameters are shown by error bars.

  4. Special issue review articles

    1. Diffusion MRI of the spinal cord: from structural studies to pathology

      Yoram Cohen, Debbie Anaby and Darya Morozov

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3592

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      The spinal cord is amenable to ex vivo diffusion MRI microscopy but in vivo diffusion MRI of this organ is quite challenging. This review describes recent developments in the applications of diffusion MRI of the spinal cord with some emphasis on diffusion methods beyond the tensor. After a brief survey of the available diffusion MRI methodologies, selected applications ranging from microstructural studies to studies of selected pathologies are presented.


    1. Reduced respiratory motion artifacts using structural similarity in fast 2D dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of liver lesions

      Edwin E.G.W. ter Voert, Linda Heijmen, Cornelis J.A. Punt, Johannes H.W. de Wilt, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven and Arend Heerschap

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3606

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      We present a fast method to improve multislice dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of liver lesions by removing motion corrupted images as identified by a structural similarity (SSIM) algorithm. The correction improves the reproducibility of the DCE-MRI parameter Ktrans in liver metastasis and reduces contamination of the Ktrans values of lesions by that of surrounding normal liver tissue.

    2. Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisition enhances the sensitivity of hemodynamic mapping using gas challenges

      Harshan Ravi, Peiying Liu, Shin-Lei Peng, Hanli Liu and Hanzhang Lu

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3600

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      In this work, we investigated the benefit of simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisition for gas inhalation imaging. We showed that the sensitivity of CO2 and O2 inhalation data collected using SMS (SMS2 and SMS3) acquisition was higher than that with conventional echo planar imaging (EPI) acquisition (SMS1). The sensitivity improvement of SMS acquisition was present throughout the brain. Furthermore, we found that, using SMS, the scan duration could be reduced by half, whilst maintaining the sensitivity of conventional EPI.

    3. Time-efficient measurement of multi-phase arterial spin labeling MR signal in white matter

      X. Zhang, I. Ronen, H.E. Kan, W.M. Teeuwisse and M.J.P. van Osch

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3603

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      Time-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (te-pCASL) with single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) readout is proposed to detect multi-phase ASL signal in white matter (WM) in a highly time-efficient manner. te-pCASL perfusion measurements by PRESS and echo planar imaging (EPI) readout showed no significantly different values for WM cerebral blood flow (CBF) [18.2 ± 7.6 mL/100 g/min (PRESS) versus 12.5 ± 5.5 mL/100 g/min (EPI); p = 0.19] or temporal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (p = 0.33 and p = 0.81 for GM and WM, respectively), whereas GM CBF was higher using PRESS than EPI readout [77.1 ± 11.2 mL/100 g/min (PRESS) and 53.6 ± 9.6 mL/100 g/min (EPI); p = 0.016].

  6. Special issue review articles

    1. Overview of quantitative susceptibility mapping

      Andreas Deistung, Ferdinand Schweser and Jürgen R. Reichenbach

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3569

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      In this article, we review the theoretical basics of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging and briefly summarize the computational strategies for the characterization of magnetic susceptibility with MRI phase. In addition, we provide an overview of current methodological and clinical applications of QSM with a focus on brain imaging.

  7. Special issue research articles

    1. Single-step quantitative susceptibility mapping with variational penalties

      Itthi Chatnuntawech, Patrick McDaniel, Stephen F. Cauley, Borjan A. Gagoski, Christian Langkammer, Adrian Martin, P. Ellen Grant, Lawrence L. Wald, Kawin Setsompop, Elfar Adalsteinsson and Berkin Bilgic

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3570

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      The tissue susceptibility distribution is directly estimated from the raw phase of a gradient echo acquisition by solving total variation (TV) and total generalized variation (TGV) regularized optimization problems. Efficient algorithms for the proposed single-step quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstructions, which permit analytical solutions to all the subproblems, are developed based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). A dramatic reduction in dipole streaking artifacts and improved homogeneity of image contrast over conventional QSM are demonstrated using numerical simulations and in vivo experiments that were acquired using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficient acquisitions including multi-echo Wave-CAIPI (controlled aliasing in parallel imaging) and three-dimensional echo planar imaging (3D EPI).

    2. A comprehensive numerical analysis of background phase correction with V-SHARP

      Pinar Senay Özbay, Andreas Deistung, Xiang Feng, Daniel Nanz, Jürgen Rainer Reichenbach and Ferdinand Schweser

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3550

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      We propose a new V-SHARP scheme, with optimal and generalized parameters, based on a high-pass filtering approach. The local root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the results from V-SHARP and the ground-truth, background-corrected field map decreased as the center of the brain was approached. The optimal susceptibility maps were calculated for a radius between 6 and 10 mm and a regularization parameter between 0 and 0.01 mm−1. With the novel scheme, the regularization parameter is independent of other imaging parameters, such as the image resolution.

  8. Special issue review articles

    1. Skeletal muscle diffusion tensor-MRI fiber tracking: rationale, data acquisition and analysis methods, applications and future directions

      Bruce M. Damon, Martijn Froeling, Amanda K. W. Buck, Jos Oudeman, Zhaohua Ding, Aart J. Nederveen, Emily C. Bush and Gustav J. Strijkers

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3563

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      A muscle's abilities to generate force and actuate movement are influenced, in part, by the arrangement of fibers with respect to the muscle's mechanical line of action. We describe the use of diffusion tensor-MRI (DT-MRI) muscle fiber tracking for the study of this structure. We discuss the importance of muscle structure to muscle function, describe DT-MRI's application to muscle, discuss issues related to data acquisition and analysis, show how DT-MRI has provided new insights into muscle function and highlight future research directions.

    2. Contributions to magnetic susceptibility of brain tissue

      Jeff H. Duyn and John Schenck

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3546

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      In human brain, iron and myelin are major contributors to MRI magnetic susceptibility contrast. Both their concentration, as well as their microscropic distribution, determine the strength of their contribution. Inferring concentrations from susceptibility weighted MRI requires conjoint analysis of both amplitude and phase of the signal decay curve, and simplifying assumptions about the contrast mechanism.

    3. Computational methods for image reconstruction

      Julianne Chung and Lars Ruthotto

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3545

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      We review analytical tools and state-of-the-art computational tools for solving image reconstruction problems. By comparing quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) with the classic image-deblurring problem, we show that a severe challenge for QSM reconstruction is to distinguish between noise and signal contributions in the data; therefore regularization methods are crucial. We survey some regularization approaches and regularization parameter selection methods and discuss efficient numerical implementations for large-scale QSM problems.

  9. Special issue research articles

    1. Determination of detection sensitivity for cerebral microbleeds using susceptibility-weighted imaging

      Sagar Buch, Yu-Chung N. Cheng, Jiani Hu, Saifeng Liu, John Beaver, Rajasimhan Rajagovindan and E. Mark Haacke

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3551

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      A direct formulaic approach is proposed that uses spherical simulations to estimate the underlying size of a cerebral microbleed (CMB) based on the number of radiologically detected voxels, the estimated susceptibility and acquisition parameters. A comparison between measured values and values derived from our formulae for the prediction of the number of voxels detected due to the blooming effect for CMBs with diameters of 2 voxels (a, b) and 1 voxel (c, d). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values are 47 : 1 for 7-T, 20 : 1 for 3-T and 10 : 1 for 1.5-T simulations, is shown in the Figure.

  10. Special issue review articles

    1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging: current status and future directions

      Saifeng Liu, Sagar Buch, Yongsheng Chen, Hyun-Seok Choi, Yongming Dai, Charbel Habib, Jiani Hu, Joon-Yong Jung, Yu Luo, David Utriainen, Meiyun Wang, Dongmei Wu, Shuang Xia and E. Mark Haacke

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3552

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      Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a method that uses the intrinsic nature of local magnetic fields to enhance image contrast in order to improve the visibility of various susceptibility sources and to facilitate diagnostic interpretation. In this article, we review the basics of SWI, with discussions on data acquisition, reconstruction and post-processing. In addition, we show a few clinical applications of SWI, such as the imaging of stroke, traumatic brain injury, the carotid vessel wall and siderotic nodules in cirrhotic liver.

  11. Special issue research articles

    1. Dentate nucleus iron deposition is a potential biomarker for tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease

      Naying He, Pei Huang, Huawei Ling, Jason Langley, Chunlei Liu, Bei Ding, Juan Huang, Hongmin Xu, Yong Zhang, Zhongping Zhang, Xiaoping Hu, Shengdi Chen and Fuhua Yan

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3554

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      The tremor-dominant (TD) Parkinson's disease group showed increased susceptibility in the bilateral dentate nucleus (DN) compared with the healthy control group. No difference was seen in R2* between the TD group and healthy control group, indicating that the deposited iron in DN may comprise smaller iron particles. The DN susceptibility in drug-naive PD patients was positively correlated with tremor score. These findings indicate that iron load within DN may make an important contribution to motor phenotypes in PD.

  12. Special issue review articles

    1. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy outside the central nervous system

      Russell Dibb, Luke Xie, Hongjiang Wei and Chunlei Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3544

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      Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy is observed in tissues throughout the body and arises from a variety of organized molecular sources including the epithelial lipids in the kidney, myofilament proteins in the heart, and collagen fibrils in connective tissue. Two MRI tools, susceptibility tensor imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping, have exploited this anisotropy to assess the microstructure and orientation of renal tubules, myofibers, and articular cartilage. Measuring susceptibility anisotropy using MRI is a promising technique for studying healthy and diseased organ tissues.

  13. Special issue research articles

    1. MR phase imaging with bipolar acquisition

      Joseph Dagher and Kambiz Nael

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3523

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      Bipolar (non-yback) multi-echo readouts offer significant SNR advantages over monopolar echo readouts, but introduce unknown phase errors. We present a novel MR phase-imaging method that jointly disambiguates errors from bipolar readouts as well as errors from phase wrapping, phase noise and channel-dependent phase offsets. The approach, based on voxel-per-voxel maximum-likelihood estimation, enables MR phase imaging in SNR-limited scenarios, such as at in-plane resolutions of 310 µm at 3 T.

  14. Special issue review articles

    1. Iron quantification with susceptibility

      Stefan Ropele and Christian Langkammer

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3534

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      Iron in tissue can cause local and non-local changes of the magnetic field, which strongly depend on the spin state and valence of its electrons in the iron compound. Quantitative susceptibility mapping allows to assess the iron content and typically shows a good linear relationship with iron concentration. Larger uncertainties may arise in myelinated fibers and in the presence of mineralized iron with unknown magnetic phases such as hemosiderin or hemozoin.

    2. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain

      Wei Li, Chunlei Liu, Timothy Q. Duong, Peter C. M. van Zijl and Xu Li

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3540

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      Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from gradient echo signal phase. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor.

  15. Special issue research articles

    1. Investigating lipids as a source of chemical exchange-induced MRI frequency shifts

      K. Shmueli, S. J. Dodd, P. van Gelderen and J. H. Duyn

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3525

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      We measured exchange-induced frequency shifts (fe) in a model of cell membranes consisting of multilamellar vesicles of cerebrosides and phospholipids. Using chemical shift imaging, with dioxane as an internal reference to remove susceptibility-induced frequency shifts, we found significant increases in fe with increasing lipid concentration: 0.044 ± 0.008 ppb/mM (r2 = 0.877, p < 0.01). We also measured and corrected for the water–dioxane frequency shift which was –0.021 ± 0.002 ppb/mM dioxane in agreement with previous measurements at low dioxane concentrations.

  16. Special issue review articles

    1. Mechanisms of T2* anisotropy and gradient echo myelin water imaging

      Jongho Lee, Yoonho Nam, Joon Yul Choi, Eung Yeop Kim, Se-Hong Oh and Dong-Hyun Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3513

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      A white matter voxel demonstrates T2* anisotropy that originates from isotropic and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and multi-compartmental microstructure induced frequency shifts. These mechanisms result in multi-exponential magnitude decay and nonlinear phase evolution. Using the complex signal, myelin water fraction can be estimated, producing gradient echo myelin water imaging.

    2. Susceptibility-based time-resolved whole-organ and regional tissue oximetry

      Felix W. Wehrli, Audrey P. Fan, Zachary B. Rodgers, Erin K. Englund and Michael C. Langham

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3495

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      Quantification of reactive hyperemia with dynamic oximetry showing cross-sectional phase difference image of the thigh, 10 cm below the inferior boundary of the pressure cuff along with post-ischemia femoral vein SvO2 time course, and series of zoomed phase images showing relative phase of venous blood during period indicated. Darker blue represents lower saturation levels. Parameterization of time-course data yields quantitative metrics: washout time, upslope and overshoot.

  17. Special issue research articles

    1. Reproducibility of R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstruction methods in the basal ganglia of healthy subjects

      M. D. Santin, M. Didier, R. Valabrègue, L. Yahia Cherif, D. García-Lorenzo, P. Loureiro de Sousa, E. Bardinet and S. Lehéricy

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3491

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      The registration of four sessions of three-dimensional gradient echo complex images in a cohort of healthy subjects allowed the quantification of the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) methods versus the reproducibility of more conventional R2* mapping. The sensitivity to changes in the QSM technique was shown to reach a level of 1.5% in the basal ganglia.

    2. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging

      Hongjiang Wei, Yuyao Zhang, Eric Gibbs, Nan-Kuei Chen, Nian Wang and Chunlei Liu

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3501

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      Current two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar imaging (EPI)-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) uses three-dimensional (3D) phase unwrapping followed by 3D background phase removal, and leaves phase inconsistencies across slices. Here, we report a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices. Experimental results show that the new 2D EPI-based QSM method can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of time-consuming 3D gradient-echo (GRE)-based QSM.

    3. Quantitative susceptibility mapping at 3 T: comparison of acquisition methodologies

      M. Louis Lauzon, Cheryl R. McCreary, D. Adam McLean, Marina Salluzzi and Richard Frayne

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3492

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      We compared deep grey matter susceptibility (χ) values in healthy adults acquired from various quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) sequences at 3 T using unipolar or bipolar readout gradients, accelerated imaging or not (R2 or R1), with/without gradient-warp correction (GW). Using a linear mixed effects model, only GW was found to alter the χ estimate, but its overall effect was small (~5%).

    4. Regionally progressive accumulation of iron in Parkinson's disease as measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping

      Xiaojun Guan, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Peiyu Huang, Chunlei Liu, Nian Wang, Xiaojun Xu, Wei Luo and Minming Zhang

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3489

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      Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to confirm a regionally progressive pattern of iron accumulation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at different stages, which indicates that iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is affected exclusively in the early PD (EPD) patients, while the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), red nucleus (RN) and globus pallidus internal (GPi) as well as globus pallidus external (GPe) become involved in the late PD (LPD) patients.

  18. Special issue review articles

    1. In vivo diffusion MRS investigation of non-water molecules in biological tissues

      Peng Cao and Ed X. Wu

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3481

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      In this review, recent diffusion MRS studies of biologically relevant non-water molecules under normal and diseased conditions will be presented. Technique considerations for diffusion MRS experiments will be discussed. With advances in MRI hardware and diffusion methodology, diffusion MRS of non-water molecules is expected to provide increasingly valuable and biologically specific information on tissue microstructures and physiology, complementing the traditional diffusion MR of small and ubiquitous water molecules.

    2. Diffusion MRI in early cancer therapeutic response assessment

      C. J. Galbán, B. A. Hoff, T. L. Chenevert and B. D. Ross

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3458

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      Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is sensitive to cellular changes and has been evaluated extensively as a quantitative and early imaging biomarker of the therapeutic response. DW-MR can be applied to many different solid tumors to detect changes in cellularity as measured by an early increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water molecules within the lesion. An overview of DW-MRI acquisition protocols, quantitative image analysis approaches and applications implementing DW-MRI for the early prediction of cancer treatment response is presented.

    3. Diffusion lung imaging with hyperpolarized gas MRI

      Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy, Alexander L. Sukstanskii and James D. Quirk

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3448

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      Diffusion MRI with hyperpolarized gases provides quantitative information on lung microstructure at the alveolar level and makes it possible to measure the same morphometric parameters (mean linear intercept, surface-to-volume ratio, number of alveoli per unit volume) as have been traditionally obtained by means of invasive stereology.

    4. Diffusion tensor imaging in abdominal organs

      Rotem Shlomo Lanzman and Hans-Jörg Wittsack

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3434

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      Diffusion tensor imaging of abdominal organs adds additional diagnostic information about the microstructure of human tissues. Besides the technical requirements for DTI in abdominal organs, recent studies of major organs such as kidney, liver, prostate and pelvic floor are presented and discussed.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diffusion MRI in the heart

      Choukri Mekkaoui, Timothy G. Reese, Marcel P. Jackowski, Himanshu Bhat and David E. Sosnovik

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3426

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      Diffusion MRI provides unique information on the integrity of the myocardium without the need for exogenous contrast agents. However, diffusion MRI in the heart has proven technically challenging. In this review, we describe approaches that have been developed to overcome these challenges, and briefly examine the application of diffusion MRI in ischemic heart disease. The use of diffusion MRI as a clinical tool may lead to new and complementary approaches to diagnose and treat patients with heart disease.

    6. Diffusion imaging of the vertebral bone marrow

      Olaf Dietrich, Tobias Geith, Maximilian F. Reiser and Andrea Baur-Melnyk

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3333

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      Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of the vertebral bone marrow is a clinically important tool for the characterization of bone-marrow pathologies and, in particular, for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. DWI of the vertebral bone marrow is, however, complicated by some unique MR and tissue properties of vertebral bone marrow. This review summarizes data from numerous studies in which diffusion measurements of normal vertebral bone marrow and of different vertebral bone-marrow lesions were performed.


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