NMR in Biomedicine

Cover image for Vol. 28 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 3.044

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 9/44 (Spectroscopy); 24/125 (Radiology Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging); 27/73 (Biophysics)

Online ISSN: 1099-1492

Associated Title(s): Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging


  1. 1 - 45
  1. Research articles

    1. Relationship between diffusion parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion MRI and perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of soft tissue tumors

      Simona Marzi, Linda Stefanetti, Francesca Sperati and Vincenzo Anelli

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3446

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Although intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was demonstrated to be feasible in soft tissue tumors (STTs), no significant relationship was found between IVIM parameters and any diffusion contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters. From the visual assessments of single clinical cases, both f and D*f maps were in satisfactory agreement with DCE maps in the extreme cases of an avascular mass and a highly vascularized mass, whereas, for tumors with a slight vascularity or with a highly heterogeneous perfusion pattern, a clear association was lacking.

  2. Special issue research articles

    1. Proton observed phosphorus editing (POPE) for in vivo detection of phospholipid metabolites

      Jannie P. Wijnen, Dennis W. J. Klomp, Christine I. H. C. Nabuurs, Robin A. de Graaf, Irene M. L. van Kalleveen, Wybe J. M. van der Kemp, Peter R. Luijten, Mark C. Kruit, Andrew Webb, Hermien E. Kan and Vincent O. Boer

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3440

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity of proton observed phosphorus editing (POPE) over direct 31P MRS with Ernst angle excitation for 1H–31P coupled metabolites in the human brain at 7 T.

  3. Special issue review articles

    1. Diffusion tensor imaging in abdominal organs

      Rotem Shlomo Lanzman and Hans-Jörg Wittsack

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3434

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusion tensor imaging of abdominal organs adds additional diagnostic information about the microstructure of human tissues. Besides the technical requirements for DTI in abdominal organs, recent studies of major organs such as kidney, liver, prostate and pelvic floor are presented and discussed.

  4. Research articles

    1. Evaluation of bound and pore water in cortical bone using ultrashort-TE MRI

      Jun Chen, Shawn P. Grogan, Hongda Shao, Darryl D'Lima, Graeme M. Bydder, Zhihong Wu and Jiang Du

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3436

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study we aimed to develop and evaluate ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for assessment of bone water components in cortical bone using a 3T clinical whole-body scanner. Mean and standard deviation of pore water concentration (WCPore), collagen-bound water concentration (WCCollagen) and mineral-bound water concentration (WCMineral) were evaluated using UTE imaging techniques, THO-H2O isotope exchange study and gravimetric analysis, respectively.

    2. Validation of a fast method for quantification of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue for large-scale human studies

      Magnus Borga, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Johannes Rosander, Julie Fitzpatrick, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard and Jimmy D. Bell

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3432

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study we tested the value of using the semi-automated fat–muscle quantitation system AMRATM Profiler in the analysis of MR images for population studies. The results show extremely high agreement with the current ‘gold-standard’ method across a range of BMI, with the AMRATM Profiler technique taking up to 10 times less time than its counterpart. The speed and robustness of this method makes it an ideal tool for small- and large-scale human phenotypic studies.

    3. Reducing signal loss of the parahippocampal gyrus improves imaging of the default-mode network in 3.0-T MRI: the effect of susceptibility-induced field gradients

      Yu-Sheng Tseng, Teng-Yi Huang and Shang-Yueh Tsai

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3435

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study investigated the magnetic field gradients of various brain regions and attempted to compensate for signal loss in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHC) using an optimized slice orientation. The field gradients, signal intensities and default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity of the PHC were investigated using datasets acquired from 18 healthy volunteers. The results of this study support the selection of the coronal or sagittal planes for imaging of the DMN.

    4. Simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and MR of ex vivo organotypic cortical cultures: a new test bed for functional MRI

      Ruiliang Bai, Andreas Klaus, Tim Bellay, Craig Stewart, Sinisa Pajevic, Uri Nevo, Hellmut Merkle, Dietmar Plenz and Peter J. Basser

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3424

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here we describe the development and testing of a new test bed for non-BOLD functional MRI aimed at detecting neuronal activity directly and accurately. This test bed enables simultaneous calcium fluorescence optical imaging and MR acquisition on a stable and reproducible biological model of neuronal activity without hemodynamic related artifacts. This experimental design makes it possible to directly correlate the candidate functional MR signals to optical indicators of neuronal activity.

    5. Fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping of the human liver in vivo for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis

      Vasily L. Yarnykh, Erica V. Tartaglione and George N. Ioannou

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantitative maps of the macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) in the human liver in vivo can be obtained using an optimized protocol comprising four breath-hold scans. Liver MPF was increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection and clinically significant hepatic fibrosis relative to those with no or mild fibrosis, and strongly correlated with the histologically determined fibrosis stage. MPF mapping shows potential as a promising non-invasive method for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases.

    6. Spectral fitting using basis set modified by measured B0 field distribution

      Ningzhi Li, Li An and Jun Shen

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3430

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Linear combination fitting plots from homogeneous and inhomogeneous field acquisitions from the same voxel located in the occipital lobe (indicated by the yellow boxes on the T1-weighted images) of a healthy volunteer. The proposed spectral fitting method used a signal model distorted by the measured B0 field map to fit the observed data. This novel approach provides reliable metabolite quantifications in the presence of large magnetic field distortion, especially with high fields.

    7. Choline kinase-α protein and phosphatidylcholine but not phosphocholine are required for breast cancer cell survival

      Noriko Mori, Flonné Wildes, Samata Kakkad, Desmond Jacob, Meiyappan Solaiyappan, Kristine Glunde and Zaver M. Bhujwalla

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3429

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here, we have used triple negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and SUM149, to investigate the role of choline kinase-α (Chk-α) by examination of Chk-α protein level, cell viability, choline phospholipid and lipid metabolism, lipid droplet formation, and apoptosis, following treatment with a novel selective Chk-α inhibitor, V-11-0711, which inhibits the catalytic activity of Chk-α. Under the conditions used our results demonstrate that a low phosphocholine (PC) level does not reduce cell viability if the Chk-α protein level and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) level are not reduced, suggesting that Chk-α protein (not catalytic activity) and PtdCho, but not PC, may be crucial for breast cancer cell survival and proliferation. These data support the approach of antitumor strategies that destabilize Chk-α protein or downregulate PtdCho level in breast cancer.

    8. Effect of respiratory hyperoxic challenge on magnetic susceptibility in human brain assessed by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)

      Pinar Senay Özbay, Cristina Rossi, Roman Kocian, Manuel Redle, Andreas Boss, Klaas Paul Pruessmann and Daniel Nanz

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3433

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We measured effects of respiratory induced hyperoxia on brain-tissue magnetic-susceptibility by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). QSM is demonstrated to suffer significantly less from non-local interference than more traditional R2* maps. We report normative values for healthy volunteers (i) of the magnetic-susceptibility reduction in brain tissue and large veins, and (ii) of the magnetic-susceptibility increase in ventricular CSF induced by inhalation of 100% oxygen. The results suggest a potential for QSM in clinical applications, such as radiotherapy planning or oxygen therapy.

  5. Special issue review articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diffusion MRI in the heart

      Choukri Mekkaoui, Timothy G. Reese, Marcel P. Jackowski, Himanshu Bhat and David E. Sosnovik

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3426

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusion MRI provides unique information on the integrity of the myocardium without the need for exogenous contrast agents. However, diffusion MRI in the heart has proven technically challenging. In this review, we describe approaches that have been developed to overcome these challenges, and briefly examine the application of diffusion MRI in ischemic heart disease. The use of diffusion MRI as a clinical tool may lead to new and complementary approaches to diagnose and treat patients with heart disease.

  6. Research articles

    1. Combining parallel detection of proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) measurements with a data-consistency constraint improves SNR

      Shang-Yueh Tsai, Yi-Cheng Hsu, Ying-Hua Chu, Wen-Jui Kuo and Fa-Hsuan Lin

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3425

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An MRSI reconstruction algorithm enforcing the k-space data consistency (DC) among channels of a coil array is proposed to suppress noise and consequently to improve SNR. Our results show that the suppression of noise by applying a DC constraint (λ) to proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging yields up to 32% and 27% SNR gain for avg-1 and avg-2 data with λ = 5, and this results in the lowest spatial variation and root-mean-square errors using an avg-8 data set as reference. DC reconstruction with λ = 5 is recommended to save around 70% of scanning time.

    2. Assessing inflammatory liver injury in an acute CCl4 model using dynamic 3D metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

      Sonal Josan, Kelvin Billingsley, Juan Orduna, Jae Mo Park, Richard Luong, Liqing Yu, Ralph Hurd, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Daniel Spielman and Dirk Mayer

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3431

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metabolic imaging using 13C-pyruvate was used to non-invasively assess liver damage in vivo, and revealed increased conversion of pyruvate to alanine (rAUCPA) in livers of CCl4-treated rats, which is indicative of elevated ALT activity as seen in the ALT assay. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate (rAUCPL) was also higher in CCl4-treated compared with control animals, demonstrating the presence of inflammation, matching the liver injury seen by liver histology.

    3. Sensitive MRI detection of internalized T1 contrast agents using magnetization transfer contrast

      Daniela Delli Castelli, Giuseppe Ferrauto, Enza Di Gregorio, Enzo Terreno and Silvio Aime

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3423

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new contrast-enhanced MRI strategy has been developed aimed at increasing the sensitivity threshold for the detection of T1 agents. The approach is based on the effect that T1 shortening has on MT contrast. It has been demonstrated that, in some cases, MTC can be a more sensitive way to detect the presence of low amounts of a T1-agent.

    4. R1 correction in amide proton transfer imaging: indication of the influence of transcytolemmal water exchange on CEST measurements

      Hua Li, Ke Li, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Zhongliang Zu, Moritz Zaiss, Daniel F. Gochberg, John C. Gore and Junzhong Xu

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3428

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The influence of multiple water compartments and heterogeneous relaxation on APT imaging in real tissues was investigated with simulations and in vivo experiments with serial Gd-DTPA injections. The results confirm that the spin–lattice relaxation rate R1 significantly confounds conventional APT measures, and suggest that the R1-corrected AREX metric based on the 1/Z method is an appropriate means to remove the influences of spin–lattice relaxation on APT measurements.

    5. Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging kinetics during chemoradiotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: preliminary results from a prospective pilot study

      Yao Ding, John D. Hazle, Abdallah S. R. Mohamed, Steven J. Frank, Brian P. Hobbs, Rivka R. Colen, G. Brandon Gunn, Jihong Wang, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Adam S. Garden, Stephen Y. Lai, David I. Rosenthal and Clifton D. Fuller

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3412

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our data showed that low pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pure diffusion coefficient (D) values were associated with early radiologic complete response (CR) during chemoradiotherapy. Mid-treatment ADC, D and f values were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than pretreatment values for all lesions. A model combining ΔADC and ΔD is highly predictive of early CR. Non-invasive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI is feasible and potentially useful for the prediction and assessment of early responses of human papillomavirus-associated (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to chemoradiotherapy.

    6. In vivo 1H MRS and 31P MRSI of the response to cyclocreatine in transgenic mouse liver expressing creatine kinase

      Min-Hui Cui, Kamaiah Jayalakshmi, Laibin Liu, Chandan Guha and Craig A. Branch

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3391

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Successful transplantation of donor hepatocytes to liver requires monitoring of the hepatocyte proliferation. We explore an approach for in vivo monitoring of CK-expressing hepatocytes in a mouse model utilizing MRS/MRSI of cyclocreatine and phosphocyclocreatine respectively. Cyclocreatine supplementation of CK-Tg mice was used to enhance SNR, and an external standard permitted quantitation of PCr and PCCr. Taken together, combined 1H and 31P MRS may provide an alternative and noninvasive approach for measuring creatine kinase activity in rodents with CK-expressing hepatocytes.

      Spectra of CK-Tg mouse liver fed on either 0.25% CCr water for 7 days (top) or 1.3% Cr water for 8 days (bottom, X 8). Substantial enhancement of the PCCr peak is evident.

  7. Special issue review articles

    1. Imaging of sodium in the brain: a brief review

      N. Jon Shah, Wieland A. Worthoff and Karl-Josef Langen

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3389

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The distribution and concentrations of sodium are indicators of pathology, which can be imaged non-invasively and in vivo using MRI. We discuss and compare different imaging techniques suitable for sodium imaging, including methods for differentiating between the intracellular/extracellular compartments and MR-PET. Applications to brain imaging are presented, with an emphasis on neurological disorders and diseases. Figure from Fiege et al. ().

  8. Research articles

    1. Alterations in creatine metabolism observed in experimental autoimmune myocarditis using ex vivo proton magic angle spinning MRS

      Frédéric Muench, Joren Retel, Sarah Jeuthe, Darach O h-Ici, Barth van Rossum, Katharina Wassilew, Patrick Schmerler, Titus Kuehne, Felix Berger, Hartmut Oschkinat and Daniel R. Messroghli

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3415

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Myocardial tissue of rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was analyzed by ex vivo proton magic angle spinning MRS (1H-MAS-MRS). Heart function (LVEF) was quantified by left ventricular ejection fraction in MRI and inflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry. A significant increase in metabolic ratio of Tau/tCr (taurine/total creatine) was observed in animals with EAM, and the ratio correlated with heart function parameters (LVEF). Metabolic alterations occurred acutely with the development of myocarditis.

    2. Hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization to characterize brain tumor heterogeneity using multi-parametric MRI

      Nicolas Sauwen, Diana M. Sima, Sofie Van Cauter, Jelle Veraart, Alexander Leemans, Frederik Maes, Uwe Himmelreich and Sabine Van Huffel

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3413

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Abundance maps corresponding to the tissue-specific hNMF sources of a grade IV glioma: T2 images with the region of interest (A), active tumor (B), necrosis (C), edema (D), blood vessels (E) and white matter (F). Tissue characterization in gliomas is challenging as a result of the co-existence of several intra-tumoral tissue types within the same region and high spatial heterogeneity. A hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization (hNMF) technique is applied to multi-parametric MRI data (conventional, perfusion, diffusion and spectroscopy MRI) of 24 patients with glioma, providing intra-tumoral tissue characterization and incorporating the concept of tissue mixtures.

  9. Special issue review articles

    1. Sodium MRI radiofrequency coils for body imaging

      Neal K. Bangerter, Joshua D. Kaggie, Meredith D. Taylor and J. Rock Hadley

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3392

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The proliferation of high-field whole-body systems, advances in gradient performance and refinement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficient short-TE sequences suitable for sodium imaging have led to a resurgence of interest in sodium imaging for body applications. With this renewed interest has come increased demand for SNR-efficient sodium coils. In this work, we focus on body imaging applications of sodium MRI, and review developments in MRI radiofrequency (RF) coil topologies for sodium imaging.

    2. High-performance radiofrequency coils for 23Na MRI: brain and musculoskeletal applications

      Graham C. Wiggins, Ryan Brown and Karthik Lakshmanan

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3379

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The current state of the art of radiofrequency (RF) coil design for 23Na brain and musculoskeletal imaging is reviewed. Coil design for 23Na presents various challenges, particularly if it is also desired for the coil to provide 1H imaging. Through close attention to coil loading and by minimizing unwanted RF shielding, high sensitivity to 23Na can be achieved, whilst also providing 1H sensitivity more than adequate for shimming and anatomical localization.

  10. Special issue research articles

    1. Residual quadrupole interaction in brain and its effect on quantitative sodium imaging

      Robert W. Stobbe and Christian Beaulieu

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3376

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three experiments in healthy volunteers show that 23Na residual quadrupole interactions are detrimental to quantitative sodium MRI. This effect is most observed in central white-matter regions. Reduced flip-angles with very short RF pulses help to mitigate signal loss.

  11. Editorial

  12. Special issue research articles

    1. Dipole antennas for ultrahigh-field body imaging: a comparison with loop coils

      A. J. E. Raaijmakers, P. R. Luijten and C. A. T. van den Berg

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3356

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article provides electromagnetic insight into the operating principles of dipole antennas by numerical simulations. It focuses on a comparison study of dipole antennas and loop coils at the frequencies of 128, 298 and 400 MHz. When the optimal element is chosen for each depth, loop coils have higher B1+ efficiency for shallow depths, whereas dipole antennas have higher B1+ efficiency for large depths. Loop coils demonstrate a better B1+/√SARmax ratio, but not in an array setup with overlapping elements.

    2. Concurrent recording of RF pulses and gradient fields – comprehensive field monitoring for MRI

      David O. Brunner, Benjamin E. Dietrich, Mustafa Çavuşoğlu, Bertram J. Wilm, Thomas Schmid, Simon Gross, Christoph Barmet and Klaas P. Pruessmann

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3359

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By using NMR field probes in conjunction with broadband RF receivers, a stand-alone monitoring unit measuring RF pulses and gradient waveforms concurrently and with common timing was built. The unit can capture the field dynamics of multi-channel RF transmission systems without the need for dedicated RF pickups, and delivers a comprehensive sequence depiction as it is executed by the scanner. These abilities are exemplified by monitoring typically challenging applications such bSSFP, UTE and spatially selective parallel transmission pulses at 7 T.

  13. Review articles

    1. Sodium MRI of glioma in animal models at ultrahigh magnetic fields

      Victor D. Schepkin

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3347

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sodium MRI has the potential to reveal tumor chemotherapy resistance both prior to treatment and non-invasively. Application of sodium MRI may lead to individualized cancer treatment strategies, avoiding unsuccessful interventions. It can also serve as a marker for multidrug resistance and as a valuable tool for cancer drug development.

  14. Special issue review articles

    1. Diffusion imaging of the vertebral bone marrow

      Olaf Dietrich, Tobias Geith, Maximilian F. Reiser and Andrea Baur-Melnyk

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of the vertebral bone marrow is a clinically important tool for the characterization of bone-marrow pathologies and, in particular, for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. DWI of the vertebral bone marrow is, however, complicated by some unique MR and tissue properties of vertebral bone marrow. This review summarizes data from numerous studies in which diffusion measurements of normal vertebral bone marrow and of different vertebral bone-marrow lesions were performed.

    2. Sodium NMR/MRI for anisotropic systems

      U. Eliav and G. Navon

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3331

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Many biological tissues contain structures such as fibers and membranes that impose anisotropic translational and rotational motions on the sodium ions. Translational motion can be studied by diffusion measurements. Anisotropic rotational motion, resulting in non-degenerate ±1/2–±3/2 transitions, is best studied using multiple-quantum 23Na NMR and MRI (see the spectrum for the optic nerve). The current review covers various NMR techniques applied to 23Na in anisotropic compartments of cartilage, tendon, intervertebral discs, red blood cells, nervous system and muscles.

  15. Special issue research articles

    1. Quantitative sodium MRI of the human brain at 9.4 T provides assessment of tissue sodium concentration and cell volume fraction during normal aging

      Keith Thulborn, Elaine Lui, Jonathan Guntin, Saad Jamil, Ziqi Sun, Theodore C. Claiborne and Ian C. Atkinson

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3312

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantitative sodium MRI at 9.4 T performed on human brains shows that the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) and cell volume fraction remain constant during cognitively normal ageing, confirming a result previously available only from neuropathology. The figure shows TSC of the brain as a function of adult age. Representative images of TSC (top) and tissue cell volume fraction (bottom) are shown across the age scale for representative young and old individuals. Images were acquired at 9.4 T.

  16. Review articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Parallel transmission for ultrahigh-field imaging

      Francesco Padormo, Arian Beqiri, Joseph V. Hajnal and Shaihan J. Malik

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3313

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultrahigh-field MRI provides a powerful new investigational device for in vivo imaging, but is hindered by non-uniform and variable radiofrequency fields. Parallel transmission (PTx) promises to address these issues by providing more control over the fields. In this article, we review methods for exploiting the new degrees of freedom provided by PTx to improve image quality and to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR).

  17. Special issue review articles

    1. The technological future of 7 T MRI hardware

      A. G. Webb and P. F. Van de Moortele

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3315

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this article we present some projections for future hardware developments on human 7 T MRI scanners. Areas covered include magnet design, magnetic field gradients, RF coils, dynamic shimming, SAR estimation, and patient monitoring.

  18. Special issue research articles

    1. A simple approach to evaluate the kinetic rate constant for ATP synthesis in resting human skeletal muscle at 7 T

      Jimin Ren, A. Dean Sherry and Craig R. Malloy

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3310

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Extracting the ATP synthesis rate constant (kPi[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]γATP) from 31P inversion transfer measurements is generally complicated by the tangle of multiple spin relaxation and exchange parameters in the magnetization equations describing the exchange system. This problem can be avoided by using a simple alternative approach based on the Bloch–McConnell equation for inorganic phosphate Pi, which allows the evaluation of kPi[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]γATP by a linear plot of Pi magnetization rate (m˙Pi) against the magnetization difference between Pi and γ-ATP (mPi − mγATP) .

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assessment of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T quantitative flow MRI

      W. H. Bouvy, L. J. Geurts, H. J. Kuijf, P. R. Luijten, L. J. Kappelle, G. J. Biessels and J. J. M. Zwanenburg

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3306

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A two-dimensional, single-slice, quantitative flow (Qflow) sequence on a 7-T system yielded the first non-invasive in vivo measurements of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries in the basal ganglia (BG) and semioval centre (CSO), with the middle cerebral artery as reference. The precision of the velocity measurements in individual vessels and the pulsatility index per anatomical region was determined using Bland–Altman analysis. This sequence allows the study of the haemodynamics of cerebral perforating arteries and their association with, for example, vascular lesions.

    3. Enhancing the quantification of tissue sodium content by MRI: time-efficient sodium B1 mapping at clinical field strengths

      Jonathan Lommen, Simon Konstandin, Philipp Krämer and Lothar R. Schad

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3292

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      B1 mapping methods for tissue sodium content (TSC) quantification are evaluated. On this basis, a new protocol using the phase-sensitive (PS) method is developed, which allows for simultaneous B1 mapping and spin density-weighted imaging. The accuracy of TSC measurements is increased without the need for additional measurement time, which allows for a better incorporation of quantitative sodium imaging into clinics.

    4. Safety testing and operational procedures for self-developed radiofrequency coils

      Jens Hoffmann, Anke Henning, Ioannis A. Giapitzakis, Klaus Scheffler, G. Shajan, Rolf Pohmann and Nikolai I. Avdievich

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3290

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Herein, a comprehensive guideline on electrical and mechanical safety tests, specific absorption rate (SAR) simulation, risk analysis and operational procedures for self-developed RF coils is described that helps to recognize and eliminate safety concerns during RF coil design and operation. Although the procedure is generally applicable to all field strengths, specific requirements with regard to SAR simulation and verification, as well as electrical safety and performance, at ultrahigh-field are considered.

  19. Special issue review articles

    1. Sodium MRI of multiple sclerosis

      Maria Petracca, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann and Matilde Inglese

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3289

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sodium MRI is a topic of increasing interest in multiple sclerosis (MS) research as it allows the metabolic characterization of brain tissue in vivo, aiding in the exploration of pathogenetic mechanisms and possibly offering insights into disease progression and the monitoring of treatment outcomes. We present an up-to-date review of sodium MRI application in MS, organized into four main sections: biological and pathogenetic role of sodium; brief overview of sodium imaging techniques; results of sodium MRI application in clinical studies; and future perspectives.

    2. Evaluation of cartilage repair and osteoarthritis with sodium MRI

      Štefan Zbýň, Vladimír Mlynárik, Vladimir Juras, Pavol Szomolanyi and Siegfried Trattnig

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3280

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sodium MRI is technologically a challenging yet sensitive method for the detection of even small changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, which play a key role in homeostasis. Clinical applications of sodium imaging published over the past decade demonstrate its potential for the non-invasive evaluation of cartilage pathologies. In this review, we present basic information on cartilage composition and sodium imaging methodology, as well as an overview of clinical studies evaluating different cartilage repair techniques and osteoarthritis by sodium imaging.

    3. Recent applications of UHF-MRI in the study of human brain function and structure: a review

      Wietske van der Zwaag, Andreas Schäfer, José P. Marques, Robert Turner and Robert Trampel

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3275

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      MRI at ultra-high field strength of 7 T and greater has made tremendous progress over the last decade and a half. This review discusses the rapidly expanding literature on UHF applications of BOLD fMRI and structural imaging in the brain, including relaxation-time-weighted imaging, phase imaging, and QSM; angiography and diffusion- and MT-weighted imaging.

    4. Clinical applications at ultrahigh field (7  T). Where does it make the difference?

      Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner, Stephan Gruber, Pavol Szomolanyi, Vladimir Juras, Simon Robinson, Štefan Zbýň and Stefan Haneder

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3272

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Although it will probably take some years before full whole-body investigations can be performed routinely with high quality at 7 T, many morphological applications, as well as metabolic and functional MRI applications, in neuroimaging, musculoskeletal and breast imaging have already been shown to be superior compared with the benchmark 3 T, which will further enhance the move to 7 T. The rapid increase in operating 7-T systems indicates the growing interest in ultrahigh-field MRI because of the improved clinical results with regard to morphological detail, as well as functional and metabolic imaging capabilities.

    5. Quantitative sodium MRI of kidney

      Frank G. Zöllner, Simon Konstandin, Jonathan Lommen, Johannes Budjan, Stefan O. Schoenberg, Lothar R. Schad and Stefan Haneder

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The human kidneys maintain the homeostasis of the body's fluid and electrolyte balance by filtration of the plasma and excretion of the end products, herein the regulation of extracellular sodium (23Na). Renal 23Na MRI can provide new insights into the physiological function and viability of tissues via the quantification of the tissue sodium concentration. Initial pre-clinical and clinical studies have already outlined the potential of this technique. Future studies must be extended to larger patient groups to demonstrate its diagnostic power. In conclusion, 23Na MRI is seen as a powerful technique with the option to establish a non-invasive renal biomarker for tissue viability, but is still a long way from real clinical implementation.

    6. W(h)ither human cardiac and body magnetic resonance at ultrahigh fields? technical advances, practical considerations, applications, and clinical opportunities

      Thoralf Niendorf, Katharina Paul, Celal Oezerdem, Andreas Graessl, Sabrina Klix, Till Huelnhagen, Fabian Hezel, Jan Rieger, Helmar Waiczies, Jens Frahm, Armin M. Nagel, Eva Oberacker and Lukas Winter

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3268

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This work documents and reviews advances and progress in cardiac and body MR technology at ultrahigh fields and its application in forefront research and in early clinical applications. The achievements of ultrahigh field cardiac and body MR are shown to be a powerful motivator and enabler, since the extra speed, signal and imaging capabilities may be invested to overcome the fundamental constraints that continue to hamper traditional cardiac and body MR applications at lower magnetic field strengths.

    7. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review

      Paul A. Bottomley

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3265

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The properties, methods and clinical potential of sodium MRI in human heart are reviewed. The myocardial sodium concentration is about 40 µmol/g wet weight, and its signal-to-noise ratio is about one-6000th of conventional proton MRI. Sodium's short multi-component relaxation behavior necessitates fast, ultra-short-echo MRI sequences, especially for quantification. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved, but increased sodium, primarily attributable to sodium influx, is demonstrated in human myocardial infarction. The added value of cardiac 23Na MRI versus existing methods remains key.

  20. Special issue research articles

    1. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function

      Sanneke van Rooden, Mathijs Buijs, Marjolein E. van Vliet, Maarten J. Versluis, Andrew G. Webb, Ania M. Oleksik, Lotte van de Wiel, Huub A. M. Middelkoop, Gerard Jan Blauw, Annelies W. E. Weverling-Rynsburger, Jeroen D. C. Goos, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Ted Koene, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Ondine van de Rest, P. Eline Slagboom, Mark A. van Buchem and Jeroen van der Grond

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3248

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease-like changes may occur in the brain. We investigated whether cortical phase shifts at 7 T in SCI can be detected, implicating the deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and associated iron, and which cognitive domains are associated with cortical phase shifts in SCI. In SCI, an increased cortical phase shift at high field is associated with a poorer memory performance, although no increased phase shift could be determined in subjects with SCI compared with controls.


  1. 1 - 45