Packaging Technology and Science

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: David Shires, Diana Twede

Impact Factor: 1.584

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 12/39 (Engineering Manufacturing); 53/123 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1522


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  1. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Issues with Combining Road Elevation Spectral Models and Vehicle Vibration Response to Estimate Vehicle Dynamic Characteristics

      Daniel Ainalis, Vincent Rouillard and Michael Sek

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2101

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      This paper presents research into issues associated with the development of an experimental technique to establish the dynamic characteristics (frequency response function) of wheeled vehicles using only in-service response data. A single-wheeled prototype vehicle was designed and commissioned for the preliminary experiments and comparisons were made between the frequency response functions obtained from the laboratory and those established in-service (combining the measured response data with an assumed excitation spectral model).

    2. Modelling of Migration from Printing Inks on Paper Packaging

      Zhi-Wei Wang, Song Gao, Chang-Ying Hu and Yu-Mei Wu

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2102

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      The migration model of contaminants from inks on paper packaging to food is developed based on the penetration of ink in paper and Fick's diffusion by considering the mass transfer coefficient and partition coefficient in the interface between paper and food. The fitting method is used between the model and the migration experimental data to obtain the diffusion coefficients DP and mass transfer coefficients hm for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). It is found that there exist linear relationships between ln(DP) and 1/T, and also between ln(hm) and 1/T for DBP and ATBC.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Active Packaging System Based on Ag/TiO2 Nanocomposite Used for Extending the Shelf Life of Bread. Chemical and Microbiological Investigations

      Anca Mihaly Cozmuta, Anca Peter, Leonard Mihaly Cozmuta, Camelia Nicula, Liliana Crisan, Lucian Baia and Alin Turila

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2103

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      The Ag/TiO2 based on packaging considerable extends the shelf life and microbiological safety of white bread. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite reduces the degradation rates of nutritional compounds and inhibits the microorganisms' proliferation, and thus, the shelf life and microbiological safety of bread are extended. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite shows oxygen and water scavenging property.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Migration of Photoinitiators in Food Packaging: A Review

      José Luis Aparicio and María Elizalde

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2099

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      Literature results on migration of photoinitiators in food packaging are reviewed and analysed in terms of an existing migration model based on diffusion and partition coefficients. Physicochemical properties of the photoinitiators, characteristics of the foodstuffs or food simulants, temperature, and packaging are concluded as the main factors affecting migration. This model also explains the reported efficiency of different plastic films as barriers to reduce migration. Published works concerning the suitability of polymeric multifunctional photoinitiators to print food packaging are considered.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Corner Foam Versus Flat Foam: An Experimental Comparison on Cushion Performance

      Changfeng Ge and Haoqi Huang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2098

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      This study applied the two most representative and correlated methods to evaluate both flat and corner foam. The study found that the static stress of the corner foam that occurred during the compression testing is 23% higher in average than the flat foam. The shock cushion curve of the corner foam shifted horizontally to the right as a result of the increased static stress. The authors recommend that the conventional cushion curve should be shifted to the right horizontally by about 23–35% in order for a packaging designer to apply it for corner foam.

    2. Impact Oscillator Model for the Prediction of Dynamic Cushion Curves of Open Cell Foams

      James M. Gibert and Gregory S. Batt

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2100

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      This paper delves into a qualitative understanding of the dynamics of a platen impacting an open cell foam cushion material. A hyperelastic material model is used to describe the foam's nonlinear stress-strain relationship, whereas its damping and hysteretic behaviour are represented with linear viscoelasticity. Using a simple nonlinear, discontinuous model of a drop test along with numerical simulations, the study examines the physics of the impact.

    3. Development of an Active Thermoplastic Film with Oxygen Scavengers Made of Activated Carbon and Sodium Erythorbate

      Ronald Joven, Angela Garcia, Andrea Arias and Jorge Medina

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2093

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      The development of a film made of activated carbon and sodium erythorbate dispersed low-density polyethylene matrix is presented, which can be used for absorbing oxygen in gaseous environments such as the head space of food packages. This material was able to absorb up to 87% of the oxygen found inside a typical juice package. Furthermore, a thermal analysis of these particles showed satisfactory stability when subjected to temperatures corresponding to polymers manufacturing.

  5. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Indirect Inverse Substructuring Theory for Coupling Dynamic Stiffness Identification of Complex Interface Between Packaged Product and Vehicle Transport System

      Jun Wang, Guohua Sun, Lixin Lu and Teik C. Lim

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2096

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      This work is an extension of the inverse sub-structuring method previously proposed by Teik C. Lim for predicting the component-level frequency response functions (FRFs) and coupling stiffness from only system-level FRFs. The aim of the present work is to develop a new frequency response function (FRF)-based indirect inverse sub-structuring method without measuring system-level FRFs at the coupling DOFs for product transport system with special constraints of vibration excitation and/or measurement at the packaging interface. By enforcing the dynamic equilibrium conditions at the coupling coordinates and the displacement compatibility conditions, a closed-form indirect inverse sub-structuring method is derived based on the relationship of easy-to-monitor component-level FRFs and the system-level FRFs at the coupling coordinates. Finally, the method is validated by a lumped mass-spring-damper model, showing exact agreement. The suggested method may help to obtain the main controlling factors and contributions from the various structure-borne paths for product transport system. (Add Figure 5 here)

    2. Controlled Release of Mangiferin Using Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Matrix for Antioxidant Packaging

      Rungkan Boonnattakorn, Vanee Chonhenchob, Muhammad Siddiq and Sher Paul Singh

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2097

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      This study investigated the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix in controlled release packaging. Mangiferin was incorporated into the EVA matrix with different VA contents. The release rate of mangiferin increased with increasing VA content (decreasing crystallinity) and related to the antioxidant activity of the film.

  6. Research Articles

    1. Applying Dynamic Thermography for Observation of Water Level in Column-Shaped Opaque Beverage Containers

      Minoru Aoyagi, Takefumi Hiraguri and Takahiro Ueno

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2095

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      A method for determining the water level in opaque beverage containers is described. In this method, rapid heating of the surface of the beverage containers by flash was followed by thermographic observation of the dynamic changes in surface temperature. The proposed observation method was used for a globe-type reflector in order to observe the water level clearly. The proposed method can successfully observed the water level in the opaque beverage containers.

    2. Migration of Cyclic Monomer and Oligomers from Polyamide 6 and 66 Food Contact Materials into Food and Food Simulants: Direct Food Contact

      Martin Heimrich, Hermann Nickl, Martin Bönsch and Thomas J. Simat

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2094

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      Aqueous and ethanolic simulants revealed to be worst case for migration of caprolactam and cyclic PA oligomers from PA6 (and PA66) FCM. Unlike oligomers, caprolactam migration reached equally high levels for the simulant oil, too. Migration of cyclic oligomers (non-intentionally substances per definition) was in the mg kg−1 range, probably exceeding the limit of exposition of 0.09 mg/person/day for Cramer class III substances, derived from the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept. Extrusion of granulate material to a packaging film led to an increase of the oligomer concentration in the polymer.

    3. The Effect of Concave Base Shape Elements on the Three Dimensional Forming Process of Advanced Paperboard Structures

      Marek Hauptmann, Sebastian Ehlert and Jens-Peter Majschak

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2089

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      Three dimensional forming of paperboard to structures with concave shape sections at the bottom geometry is a challenge but turned out to be possible. In the concave geometry, considerable tensile load and strain appear in the material. The straining can be supported through a delivery of material from adjoining convex sections. The material displacement in concave sections causes parallel wrinkles in the wall showing that a defined reduction of stiffness through creasing in this section could improve the forming process.

    4. Use of Sodium Lactate and Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Extending the Shelf Life of Ready-to-Cook Fresh Meal

      D. Gammariello, A. L. Incoronato, A. Conte and M. A. Del Nobile

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2092

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      The combined effects of sodium lactate and modified atmosphere packaging was used in order to extend the shelf life of a ready-to-cook fresh skewer. The microbial and sensory quality of ready-to-cook fresh skewer was monitored. An increase in the shelf life equal to about 83% was recorded for the skewer treated with a dipping of meat in 40% sodium lactate solution and packaging under modified atmosphere packaging (50%O2/30%CO2/20%N2).

  7. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Evaluation of Static and Dynamic Cushioning Properties of Polyethylene Foam for Determining Its Cushion Curves

      By Guang Li, Vincent Rouillard and Michael A. Sek

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2090

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      A dynamic factor function is defined and obtained from the analysis on the experimental data from compression and cushion tests. The deformation energy per unit volume is taken into consideration to make an estimate of the maximum strain and dynamic stress data in an impact, and the peak acceleration can be predicted from the compression data corrected for the dynamic effects by the dynamic factor function. Then, the cushion curves at almost every test condition, such as different drop heights or thickness of cushioning material, can be approximated by a specially developed computer code using Matlab. This research can assist in determining the accuracy of cushion curves for all variants of a particular cushioning material from the dynamic factor function and compression test data.

  8. Research Articles

    1. New Methods for Quality Analysis of Deep-Drawn Packaging Components from Paperboard

      Malte Wallmeier, Marek Hauptmann and Jens-Peter Majschak

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2091

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      This publication aims to measure quality criteria of deep-drawn cups made of paperboard. The number of wrinkles and the shape accuracy of deep-drawn cups are measured by using image analysis and surface scans. Experimental results are used for the verification of the methods and for the investigation of influences of main process parameters. The experiments show that high blankholder force leads to an increasing number of wrinkles and has a negative effect on shape accuracy.

  9. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An Affordance-Based Methodology for Package Design

      Javier de la Fuente, Stephanie Gustafson, Colleen Twomey and Laura Bix

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2087

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      This paper explores the concept of affordances in the context of package design. It proposes a method by which packaging designers can purposefully consider affordances during the design process; it explains this method in the context of a packaging-related case study; and it measures the effect on package usability when an affordance-based design approach is employed.

  10. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Reduced-order Modelling of the Linear Vibration Response of Expanded Polymer Cushion Material

      Gregory S. Batt, James M. Gibert and Mohammed Daqaq

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2086

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      This manuscript examines the accuracy and convergence of a reduced-order model (ROM). The ROM is derived from an idealized packaging system consisting of a rod of polymer foam with an attached end mass. The work begins with an introduction to the complex cyclic softening and the viscoelastic and nonlinear stress-strain behaviour exhibited by expanded polymer foam. Approximate eigenvalues and frequency response functions are compared with both exact and experimental eigenvalues reported in literature.

  11. Short Communications

    1. Exploiting Propolis as an Antimicrobial Edible Coating to Control Post-harvest Anthracnose of Bell Pepper

      Asgar Ali, Yee Zi Wei and Maysoun A. Mustafa

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2088

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      Ethanolic extracted propolis (EEP) was prepared and applied as a coating material for bell pepper stored at 10°C. It was evaluated by assessing the natural-based coating's ability to inhibit mycelial growth of Colletotrichum capsici, causal agent of anthracnose, and maintain the quality of bell pepper. Application of EEP as a coating significantly reduced the incidence of anthracnose and contributed towards moisture retention of fruit, with the higher dilutions of EEP yielding better results.

  12. Review Articles

    1. Nanomaterials: a Map for Their Selection in Food Packaging Applications

      Carmen Sanchez Reig, Antonio Dobon Lopez, Mercedes Hortal Ramos and Vicente Agustin Cloquell Ballester

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2076

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      Building up a map based on the current state-of-the-art nanomaterials for food packaging applications is required. Furthermore, there is a need to classify them independently of their nature, the packaging material and the way they are integrated to this material. A classification of the latest advances in this field was made accompanied by applying Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in order to find which are the most relevant and/or expected to be potentially applied nanomaterials in the area of food packaging.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Estimation of the Dynamic Properties of Non-linear Packaging Materials Using a Reverse Multiple Input/Single Output Based Approach

      Matthew J. Lamb and Anthony J. Parker

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2084

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      This paper discussed an approach that separates the linear contribution of the system's nonlinear frequency response function (FRF) using an optimised reverse multiple input/single output (RMISO) algorithm. Results from the analysis of well-controlled physical experiments, performed using nonlinear expanded polystyrene samples configured in an single-degree-of-freedom (SDoF) arrangement, are presented. The results suggest that the RMISO-based technique is able to provide an estimate of the linear component of the FRF, which allows traditional modal parameter extraction techniques to be used for the analysis of nonlinear cushioning systems.

    2. Mineral Oil Barrier Testing of Cellulose-Based and Polypropylene-Based Films

      G. O'Connor, N. Hudson and S. Buckley

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2082

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      Recycled cardboard has been identified as a major source of mineral oil contamination of foods. This paper shows that cellulose-based films and both-sided proprietary acrylic-coated biaxially orientated polypropylene film types can provide functioning mineral oil barriers within recycled cardboard packaging.

    3. Determination and Prediction of the Lag Times of Hydrocarbons through a Polyethylene Terephthalate Film

      Johann Ewender and Frank Welle

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2085

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      Measured and predicted lag times for n-alkanes at temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C for a 12 µm polyethylene terephthalate film.

  14. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. You have free access to this content
      The Effect of Full Body Versus Partial Body Graphic Labelling on Beverage Packaging

      Toni Gomes, Rupert Andrew Hurley, Andrew Duchowski, Duncan Darby and Andrew Ouzts

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2070

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      The shelf impact of full versus partial body graphic labels on beverages was examined and evaluated through purchase selection and eye-tracking data. Data revealed that both label sizes drew an equivalent amount of visual attention; however, consumers selected partial body labels more often than full body labels, regardless of the flavour of the beverage or their age group. Paper presents a unique methodology of comparing attention between the two label styles on plastic beverage bottles.

  15. Research Articles

    1. A Better Posture Strategy for Fingertip Force and Finger Coordination during a Daily Activity

      Chen-Yu Huang and Fong-Chin Su

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2068

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      This study found a better posture strategy for the young subjects to open a jar with the off-table posture while sitting, and this was also the best opening posture when comparing the overall torque in this work with that reported in previous studies, no matter whether subjects were standing or sitting, or whatever type of finger group was defined. However, the effect of grasp type and the middle, ring and little fingertip forces needs to be clarified in future studies.

  16. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. Talking about Torque: Measuring Pack Accessibility – a Review

      A. Yoxall and J. Rowson

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2079

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      This paper examines and compares the work undertaken by a series of researchers to measure human torque strength with respect to the access of jars such as those used for packaging. The aim of the paper is to compare the results and examine the reasons for any differences in those results. The paper recommends that packaging researchers must be more consistent in their experimental approach in future analyses to aid comparison of results and to facilitate a broader knowledge base.

  17. Review Articles

    1. Quasi-static and Impact Responses of Multi-layered Corrugated Paperboard Cushion by Virtual Mass Method

      Fu-de Lu and De Gao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2081

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      Compression behaviours of multi-layered corrugated paperboard (MLCP) cushioning structure were analysed by virtual mass method. Virtual mass method to solve static compressive responses for two-layer corrugated paperboard cushion was verified analytically. The numerical examples and experimental method were used to further verify the virtual mass method.

  18. Research Articles

    1. Carton Clamp Test Methodologies and the Effects on Load Containment and Retention

      Jay Singh, Tyler Blumer, Soma Roy and Koushik Saha

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2080

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      Currently, there are two test standards that provide lab-based forklift/clamp testing guidance - ISTA 3B and ASTM 6055. This study attempted to determine if carton clamps are capable and repeatable enough to provide consistent data. It examined the test methodologies' effect on load containment and load retention and the effects of ride height and driver interaction. It also sought to understand if these effects are uniform across the unitized load or differ for various tiers of a palletized load.

  19. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. The Effect of Stretch Wrap Prestretch on Unitized Load Containment

      Jay Singh, Evan Cernokus, Koushik Saha and Soma Roy

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2083

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      The three main factors affecting the stability of a palletized load that is unitized by stretch wrapping mechanism are the type of unitized load, wrapping configuration and shipping method. The study showed that containment force is generally higher at the top and bottom than the middle section of the unitized load. There is no evidence suggesting an association between initial containment force and different levels of prestretch.

  20. Research Articles

    1. Natural Antimicrobial – Containing EVOH Coatings on PP and PET Films: Functional and Active Property Characterization

      Josep Pasqual Cerisuelo, Rafael Gavara and Pilar Hernández-Muñoz

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2078

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      Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) coatings with carvacrol, citral, marjoram, or cinnamon bark essential oil, on polypropylene PP and polyethylene terephthalate PET substrates, were subjected to diverse physicochemical analyses to assess their suitability for food packaging applications. The application of corona discharge followed by polyethyleneimine-primer provided excellent anchorage between EVOH and polypropylene PP or polyethylene terephthalate PET. The retention of active agents into EVOH matrices ranged from low to moderate, depending on the embedded substance. The inclusion of bentonite nanoparticles into EVOH substantially enhanced the performance of the final packages.

  21. Short Communications

    1. Effect of Different Packaging Methods on Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh Reindeer Meat

      Marit Kvalvåg Pettersen, Anlaug Ådland Hansen and Maria Mielnik

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2075

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      • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and MAP + CO2 emitter inhibited the bacterial growth in fresh reindeer meat.
      • Lowest liquid loss in reindeer meat in modified atmosphere packages with CO2 emitter
      • Longer shelf life of reindeer meat with MAP/MAP + CO2 emitter compared with vacuum
  22. Research Articles

    1. Properties of Transglutaminase Crosslinked Whey Protein Isolate Coatings and Cast Films

      Markus Schmid, Sven Sängerlaub, Laura Wege and Andreas Stäbler

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2071

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      Transglutaminase crosslinks whey protein and reduces thereby the diffusivity for water vapour and oxygen.

  23. Short Communications

    1. Influence of Pullulan-Based Edible Coating on Some Quality Properties of Strawberry During Cold Storage

      Emrah Eroglu, Mehmet Torun, Cuneyt Dincer and Ayhan Topuz

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2077

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      The present study aimed to improve strawberry quality and extend its shelf life under cold storage with pullulan-based coating. The coatings delayed mould formation and decreased weight loss, softening and degradation of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the fruits. Coating with a 10% pullulan-based emulsion successfully extended the shelf life of the strawberries for 5 days longer under cold storage conditions.

  24. Research Articles

    1. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Refrigerator-Truck Transport System by Using Inverse Substructure Method

      Zhi-Wei Wang and Yuan-Biao Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2072

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      Applying the multi-coordinate coupled inverse substructure method for a product-transport system, this paper makes a real analysis of the dynamic characteristics for the refrigerator-truck transport system. The results show that the predicted frequency response functions of refrigerator and truck substructures are in agreement with the measured in trend. The overall vibration contributions to the refrigerator through the frequency range 10 to 50 Hz through four coupling points are respectively 9.4, 7.5, 9.8 and 11.2 mm/N, and the overall vibration contribution ratios are respectively 0.25, 0.20, 0.26 and 0.29.

    2. Flexographic Printing of Trametes versicolor Laccase for Indicator Applications

      Heini Virtanen, Kaisa Vehmas, Tomi Erho and Maria Smolander

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2073

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      Trametes versicolor laccase was successfully printed with flexographic press in laboratory scale and laccase was active on copy paper and EUCA paper after printing. Laccase paper changed colour to green rapidly after adding or printing of ABTS solutions and its use as authenticity and as oxygen leakage indicator in package was demonstrated. Printing would allow large scale manufacturing of this kind of enzyme-based indicators.

    3. Hydrophobic Zeolite-Filled Polymeric Films with High Ethylene Permselectivity for Fresh Produce Packaging Applications

      Asira Fuongfuchat, Doungporn Sirikittikul, Warintorn Booncharoen, Phatchareeya Raksa, Chonlada Ritvirulh and Tawan Sooknoi

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2066

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      Gas permselective plastic films have been in a great deal of attention in the area of modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produces; thus, in this study, the films with high ethylene permselectivity were developed and fabricated by blown film extrusion. Particularly high ethylene permselectivity was obtained from the films containing phenyl-grafted zeolites. An improvement of particle-polymer interface and interactions between double bonds of the phenyl group and ethylene gas may facilitate ethylene gas transports.

    4. Migration Processes of Metal Elements from Carbon Steel Cylinders to Food Gases

      Franco Tassi, Francesco Capecchiacci and Orlando Vaselli

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2069

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      This study presents a protocol for sampling and analysis of metal elements migrating from carbon steel cylinders to CO2, N2 and O2 employed by food and beverage industries, based on the use of an acidified trapping solution coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Our tests show that the concentrations of metallic elements (e.g. Al, Fe, Ni and Zn) as a result of migration processes occurring in 5 years are too low to significantly affect the quality of food gases.


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