Packaging Technology and Science

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: David Shires, Diana Twede

Impact Factor: 0.737

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 28/39 (Engineering Manufacturing); 81/124 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1522


  1. 1 - 36
  1. Review Articles

    1. Quasi-static and Impact Responses of Multi-layered Corrugated Paperboard Cushion by Virtual Mass Method

      Fu-de Lu and De Gao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2081

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Compression behaviours of multi-layered corrugated paperboard (MLCP) cushioning structure were analysed by virtual mass method. Virtual mass method to solve static compressive responses for two-layer corrugated paperboard cushion was verified analytically. The numerical examples and experimental method were used to further verify the virtual mass method.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Carton Clamp Test Methodologies and the Effects on Load Containment and Retention

      Jay Singh, Tyler Blumer, Soma Roy and Koushik Saha

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Currently, there are two test standards that provide lab-based forklift/clamp testing guidance - ISTA 3B and ASTM 6055. This study attempted to determine if carton clamps are capable and repeatable enough to provide consistent data. It examined the test methodologies' effect on load containment and load retention and the effects of ride height and driver interaction. It also sought to understand if these effects are uniform across the unitized load or differ for various tiers of a palletized load.

  3. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. The Effect of Stretch Wrap Prestretch on Unitized Load Containment

      Jay Singh, Evan Cernokus, Koushik Saha and Soma Roy

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2083

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The three main factors affecting the stability of a palletized load that is unitized by stretch wrapping mechanism are the type of unitized load, wrapping configuration and shipping method. The study showed that containment force is generally higher at the top and bottom than the middle section of the unitized load. There is no evidence suggesting an association between initial containment force and different levels of prestretch.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Natural Antimicrobial – Containing EVOH Coatings on PP and PET Films: Functional and Active Property Characterization

      Josep Pasqual Cerisuelo, Rafael Gavara and Pilar Hernández-Muñoz

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2078

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) coatings with carvacrol, citral, marjoram, or cinnamon bark essential oil, on polypropylene PP and polyethylene terephthalate PET substrates, were subjected to diverse physicochemical analyses to assess their suitability for food packaging applications. The application of corona discharge followed by polyethyleneimine-primer provided excellent anchorage between EVOH and polypropylene PP or polyethylene terephthalate PET. The retention of active agents into EVOH matrices ranged from low to moderate, depending on the embedded substance. The inclusion of bentonite nanoparticles into EVOH substantially enhanced the performance of the final packages.

  5. Short Communications

    1. Effect of Different Packaging Methods on Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh Reindeer Meat

      Marit Kvalvåg Pettersen, Anlaug Ådland Hansen and Maria Mielnik

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2075

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
      • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and MAP + CO2 emitter inhibited the bacterial growth in fresh reindeer meat.
      • Lowest liquid loss in reindeer meat in modified atmosphere packages with CO2 emitter
      • Longer shelf life of reindeer meat with MAP/MAP + CO2 emitter compared with vacuum
  6. Research Articles

    1. Properties of Transglutaminase Crosslinked Whey Protein Isolate Coatings and Cast Films

      Markus Schmid, Sven Sängerlaub, Laura Wege and Andreas Stäbler

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2071

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transglutaminase crosslinks whey protein and reduces thereby the diffusivity for water vapour and oxygen.

  7. Short Communications

    1. Influence of Pullulan-Based Edible Coating on Some Quality Properties of Strawberry During Cold Storage

      Emrah Eroglu, Mehmet Torun, Cuneyt Dincer and Ayhan Topuz

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present study aimed to improve strawberry quality and extend its shelf life under cold storage with pullulan-based coating. The coatings delayed mould formation and decreased weight loss, softening and degradation of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the fruits. Coating with a 10% pullulan-based emulsion successfully extended the shelf life of the strawberries for 5 days longer under cold storage conditions.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Refrigerator-Truck Transport System by Using Inverse Substructure Method

      Zhi-Wei Wang and Yuan-Biao Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Applying the multi-coordinate coupled inverse substructure method for a product-transport system, this paper makes a real analysis of the dynamic characteristics for the refrigerator-truck transport system. The results show that the predicted frequency response functions of refrigerator and truck substructures are in agreement with the measured in trend. The overall vibration contributions to the refrigerator through the frequency range 10 to 50 Hz through four coupling points are respectively 9.4, 7.5, 9.8 and 11.2 mm/N, and the overall vibration contribution ratios are respectively 0.25, 0.20, 0.26 and 0.29.

    2. Flexographic Printing of Trametes versicolor Laccase for Indicator Applications

      Heini Virtanen, Kaisa Vehmas, Tomi Erho and Maria Smolander

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2073

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Trametes versicolor laccase was successfully printed with flexographic press in laboratory scale and laccase was active on copy paper and EUCA paper after printing. Laccase paper changed colour to green rapidly after adding or printing of ABTS solutions and its use as authenticity and as oxygen leakage indicator in package was demonstrated. Printing would allow large scale manufacturing of this kind of enzyme-based indicators.

    3. Hydrophobic Zeolite-Filled Polymeric Films with High Ethylene Permselectivity for Fresh Produce Packaging Applications

      Asira Fuongfuchat, Doungporn Sirikittikul, Warintorn Booncharoen, Phatchareeya Raksa, Chonlada Ritvirulh and Tawan Sooknoi

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2066

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gas permselective plastic films have been in a great deal of attention in the area of modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produces; thus, in this study, the films with high ethylene permselectivity were developed and fabricated by blown film extrusion. Particularly high ethylene permselectivity was obtained from the films containing phenyl-grafted zeolites. An improvement of particle-polymer interface and interactions between double bonds of the phenyl group and ethylene gas may facilitate ethylene gas transports.

    4. Migration Processes of Metal Elements from Carbon Steel Cylinders to Food Gases

      Franco Tassi, Francesco Capecchiacci and Orlando Vaselli

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study presents a protocol for sampling and analysis of metal elements migrating from carbon steel cylinders to CO2, N2 and O2 employed by food and beverage industries, based on the use of an acidified trapping solution coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Our tests show that the concentrations of metallic elements (e.g. Al, Fe, Ni and Zn) as a result of migration processes occurring in 5 years are too low to significantly affect the quality of food gases.

    5. Modelling Gas Transmission in Cylindrical Dynamic Accumulation Oxygen Transmission Rate Chambers to Explore Implications of Oxygen Sensor Location Relative to Samples

      Ayman Abdellatief, Bruce A. Welt, Jason Butler, Eric McLamore, Arthur A. Teixeira and Sanjay Shukla

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The simplifying assumption of ‘well mixed’ gas for the dynamic accumulation method for oxygen transmission rate measurements was found to be robust. Conclusions suggest that permeation chamber size and geometry are not too critical for practical instrument design. These findings also confirm applicability of the dynamic accumulation method for oxygen transmission rate measurements in actual packages.

    6. An Extended Method to Measure Overall Consumer Satisfaction with Packaging

      Sandra Pousette, Martin Löfgren, Birgitta Nilsson and Anders Gustafsson

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A range of factors influences the success or failure of a product. This paper investigates the openability of packaged consumer goods. Results show that openability issues have a strong influence on the satisfaction evaluations of older consumers and are decisive for younger consumers.

    7. Use of Allyl Isothiocyanate-containing Sachets to Reduce Aspergillus flavus Sporulation in Peanuts

      Caio Gomide Otoni, Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares, Washington Azevêdo da Silva, Eber Antonio Alves Medeiros and José Carlos Baffa Junior

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We developed antimicrobial sachets to be stored alongside peanuts and release allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a strong antimicrobial compound from mustard essential oil. The active packaging system controlled Aspergillus flavus sporulation in peanuts at 25 ± 2ºC. After a 90 day storage, the sachets reduced A. flavus survival by 4.81 log cycles. Volatile AITC decreased with time within package headspaces, whereas no residual AITC was detected on peanut grains throughout storage.

    8. Barriers Against the Migration from Recycled Paperboard into Food: Measuring Efficiency by Surrogate Components

      Sandra Biedermann-Brem and Koni Grob

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2062

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Functional barriers are likely to soon be required by certain countries to protect food against contaminants from recycled paperboard used for packaging. A method for specifying and checking the efficiency is described, using four surrogate compounds of different polarities. They are applied to a donor paper placed on one side of the barrier. On the other side, a silicone paper absorbs the material broken through the barrier. The performance of the method was tested on various barrier materials.

    9. Effects of High Pressure Treatments on Polymeric Films for Flexible Food Packaging

      Lucia Sansone, Alessandra Aldi, Pellegrino Musto, Eugenio Amendola and Giuseppe Mensitieri

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This research addresses the issue of suitability of polymeric flexible packaging for use in high pressure pasteurization and sterilization. The effect of treatment conditions, up to 700 MPa and 115°C, on pouches containing foodstuff and made of several single layer and bilayer films, is analysed in terms of structural/morphological changes of polymer materials, of variation of functional properties and of delamination effects in bilayer structures.

    10. Using Graphene Oxide to Enhance the Barrier Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Film

      Ling-Ling Wu, Jia-jun Wang, Xia He, Tao Zhang and Hui Sun

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphene oxide (GO) is used as a barrier material to cooperate with polyethyleneimine (PEI) for electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly. And the nanoscale composite membrane of (PEI/GO)n has gotten poly(lactic acid) film an extraordinary barrier properties for oxygen gas.

    11. Finite Element Analysis of Hot Melt Adhesive Joints in Carton Board

      Nils Hallbäck, Christer Korin, Christophe Barbier and Mikael Nygårds

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2060

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The aim of the present study is to analyse the behaviour of adhesive joints tested in the Y-peel testing device using a layered carton board model. It is found that the pre-peak behaviour of the Y-peel force-elongation curves is reasonably well captured by the FE simulations. The deformation and delamination pattern obtained in the simulations conforms to the observed behaviour during Y-peel testing at comparable loading levels, even though the delamination opening is somewhat underestimated by the model.

  9. Review Articles

    1. Strategic Use of Colour in Brand Packaging

      Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper explores the little-known issue of the functions of packaging colours, specifically how colours help to capture consumers' attention and affect perceptions at the point of purchase. By surveying colour-related research, the study makes a first attempt to highlight the multifarious nature and multiple functions of packaging colour. The study also develops a theoretical base and proposes a framework that incorporates the functions of packaging colours and their inter-relationships.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Silicon Migration from High-barrier Coated Multilayer Polymeric Films to Selected Food Simulants after Microwave Processing Treatments

      Sumeet Dhawan, Shyam S. Sablani, Juming Tang, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cànovas, Jeffrey L. Ullman and Kanishka Bhunia

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present work evaluates the influence of microwave and conventional thermal processing on the silicon (Si) migration from food packaging films into food-simulating liquids. The level of Si migration during microwave was not significantly different (p > 0.05) as compared with conventional processing. The final process temperature had a strong influence in the level of Si migration for the two films. The processing time had a higher impact on Si migration at pasteurization temperatures compared with sterilization temperatures.

    2. 3D Forming of Paperboard: The Influence of Paperboard Properties on Formability

      Alexey Vishtal, Marek Hauptmann, Roland Zelm, Jens-Peter Majschak and Elias Retulainen

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article deals with the studying of the deformations of the paper-based materials in 3D-forming processes such as deep-drawing and thermoforming. The appearance and the depth of the 3D-shapes were linked with the mechanical properties of paper for understanding of deformation behavior.

    3. Low O2 Master Bag for Beef Patties: Effects of Primary Package Permeability and Structure

      Eleonora Uboldi, Mirka Lamperti and Sara Limbo

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, a master bag solution with O2 scavengers for patties of ground beef stored in case-ready units was studied. The aim was to evaluate the role of gas permeability of different stretch films and the morphology of foamed polystyrene trays in regulating gas exchanges during the storage in master bag, blooming and display life. The right performances of case-ready materials in terms of O2 permeability and structure can contribute to the colour stability of the product both on the upper and lower sides of patties, extending their distribution life and making the master bag solution competitive if compared with the simple tray wrap solution.

    4. Detection and Identification of Oestrogen-Active Substances in Plastic Food Packaging Migrates

      Christian Kirchnawy, Johannes Mertl, Veronica Osorio, Helge Hausensteiner, Michael Washüttl, Johannes Bergmair, Michael Pyerin and Manfred Tacker

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Migrates from plastic food packaging were tested for oestrogen activity by yeast oestrogen screen and subsequently analysed by chromatographic methods to identify oestrogen-active chemicals. Oestrogenic activity ranging from 0.7 to 59 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents was detected in seven out of 42 samples tested. A number of chemicals with known or supposed oestrogen activity were identified in migrates of oestrogen-active samples.

    5. Bionanocomposite Polylactic Acid/Organoclay Films: Functional Properties and Measurement of Total and Lactic Acid Specific Migration

      Luciano Di Maio, Paola Scarfato, Maria Rosaria Milana, Roberta Feliciani, Massimo Denaro, Giorgio Padula and Loredana Incarnato

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanocomposite polylactic acid (PLA)/Cloisite 30B films with intercalated/exfoliated morphology of the dispersed layered nanofiller were obtained using conventional film production technologies. With increasing the nanoclay content in the film, the developed systems show a marked improvement of the mechanical performance, a significant lowering in the oxygen permeability and a slight increase in the surface wettability, without significant alteration of film transparency and chromatic perception. No significant changes can be observed about the migration behaviour of the nanocomposite PLA systems compared with the unfilled one. Only for the nanocomposite PLA film at 6 wt% of organoclay loading, the lactic acid specific migration in 50% ethanol tends to increase during the time, but it remains well below the applicable generic specific migration limit of 60 mg/kg food (10 mg/dm2) of the Regulation EU 10/2011.

    6. The Use of Radio Frequency Identification Technology in Packaging Systems: Experimental Research on Traceability

      Alberto Regattieri, Giulia Santarelli, Mauro Gamberi and Rita Gamberini

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper focuses on the analysis of the internal flow traceability of goods (products and/or packages) along the supply chain. The authors have developed an innovative automatic system based on radio frequency identification-ultra wide band technology. A prototype of this system has been realized and used for an experimental research that has consisted of several tests (static and dynamic), tracing the position and movements of products and ,in particular, packages in indoor environments, in continuous and in real time.

    7. Technofunctional Properties of Films Made From Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Whey Protein Isolate Compounds

      Markus Schmid, Felicia Hammann and Henning Winkler

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the incorporation of whey protein isolates (WPIs) on the technofunctional properties of ethylene vinyl acetate films. It was investigated how and to what extent the incorporation of WPI and hydrolysed WPI influenced the barrier, mechanical and optical properties. This study provides a promising perspective on the thermoplastic processing of whey protein formulations in the future.

    8. Designing Efficient Oxygen Scavenging Coating Formulations for Food Packaging Applications

      Ramesh M. Gohil and William A. Wysock

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A printable ink or coating formulation for controlling oxygen in food packages was designed for use within a sachet (see figure) by using water soluble and water insoluble ascorbates containing enzyme. We investigated the effects of several parameters on the initial oxygen scavenging rate and have shown that an efficient formulation can be made by increasing the surface area of Ascorbate crystals and adding inorganic catalyst that can remove oxygen from the package in less than 100 h.

  11. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. Rating Accessibility of Packaging: A Medical Packaging Example

      Jen Rowson, Aamir Sangrar, Elena Rodriguez-Falcon, Alison F. Bell, Karen A. Walton, Alaster Yoxall and Seri Rahayu Kamat

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As we age, we undergo changes in strength, dexterity and cognition. Most previous work has concentrated on issues surrounding strength. This paper presents a way of understanding dexterity issues surrounding packaging use by using medical blister packaging as a case study and presents a way in which different pack types can be compared.

  12. Research Articles

    1. The Hybrid Drop Test

      Chen Zhong, Katsuhiko Saito, Kazuaki Kawaguchi and Hiroshi Setoue

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To verify the cushion performance of transport packaging, traditional drop test and simulation methods are often used. However, both of them have shortcomings for package testing. Therefore, we propose a new test method called ‘the hybrid drop test’. Using the hybrid drop test, we can predict the peak response acceleration of the design condition or for higher drop heights by performing only one-drop test with a low-drop height. This new method provides the packaging researchers with a new choice for testing and ensures the safety of the test product and improves test efficiency.

    2. Corrosion in Aluminium Cans with Grape Juice – Influence of Mechanical Damage

      Sílvia Tondella Dantas, Beatriz Maria Curtio Soares, Elisabete Segantini Saron, Fiorella Balardin Hellmeister Dantas, Jozeti Aparecida Barbutti Gatti and Paulo Henrique Massaharu Kiyataka

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study has evaluated the influence in the corrosion development of three types of mechanical damage to which beverage cans may be subjected. The cans did not reveal a loss in the packaging's airtightness, and the denting did not result in any alteration to the internal surface. The aluminium migration quantification indicated that the beverage is appropriate for human consumption even after 1 year of exposure in the three types of crushed cans that were studied.

  13. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. Critical Factors in Opening Pharmaceutical Packages: a Usability Study among Healthcare Workers, Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Elderly Women

      Erja Sormunen, Nina Nevala and Sarianna Sipilä

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study focused on comparing the usability of pharmaceutical packaging to determine the critical factors involved in the usability of packages with different opening mechanisms. Their usability was evaluated for subjective measures related to the ease of opening and for such objective measures as the time needed to open the packaging, the involved upper-extremity electrical muscular activity (electromyography) and the ranges of motion of the upper extremities. Factors related to the comprehensibility of the opening mechanism and the ease of handling the whole package should be considered when user-friendly products are being created for consumers.

  14. Research Articles

    1. Evaluation of a Non-destructive High-voltage Technique for the Detection of Pinhole Leaks in Flexible and Semi-rigid Packages for Foods

      Yoon S. Song, Mohit Gera, Bulbul Jain and John L. Koontz

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study evaluated the capabilities of a high voltage technique for the detection of pinhole leaks by using flexible pouches and semi-rigid cups for foods. Factors such as film thickness, package surface area, headspace, food type, and electrical conductivity were found to be critical in detecting defective packages with pinholes of 10–50 μm. In general, the high voltage system can detect pinholes as small as 10 μm in both plastic and foil-laminated pouches and lid cups, even at worst-case scenario conditions, including liquid, semi-solid, and solid foods with 0.85 aw.

    2. Evaluation of Different Conditions of Contact for Caprolactam Migration from Multilayer Polyamide Films into Food Simulants

      Juliana S. Félix, José Eduardo Manzoli, Marisa Padula and Magali Monteiro

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Caprolactam migration from multilayer PA-6 films was compared at 40°C/10 days and at 100°C/30 min. Caprolactam migration into water and 3% acetic acid at high temperature and short contact time (100°C/30 min) could replace the application of the test for 10 days at 40°C, since similar results were obtained under both conditions. Caprolactam migration into olive oil was two to three times higher at 40°C/10 days.

    3. Quality Changes of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Packaged in Coloured Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles Stored Under Different Lighting Conditions

      Valeria Rizzo, Luisa Torri, Fabio Licciardello, Luciano Piergiovanni and Giuseppe Muratore

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The influence of light storage and exposure on quality parameters of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was investigated. Coloured PET bottles were stored under different artificial lighting (one and four fluorescent cool white lamps) and in the dark (control). Total peroxide value, polyphenols, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were most affected by lighting, and blue and white PET bottles showed the best performances in terms of global quality maintenance.

  15. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. You have free access to this content
      Drop Test of Plastic Packagings – Correlation with Material Parameters and Change of Packaging Behaviour After Impact of Standard Liquids

      Andreas Menrad, Thomas Goedecke and Manfred H. Wagner

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The drop height where 50% of the packages fail was determined according to a staircase method. Comparing the same design type made of different high density polyethylene grades, the 50% failure drop height correlates with the tensile impact strength of specimen cut out of the packaging and also with the notched impact strength of pressed plates from the same grade. The oxidative degradation due to preconditioning reduces this drop height drastically if the resistance against oxidative degradation is low.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate/Organoclay Nanocomposites Produced by Extrusion

      R. I. Quintero, M. J. Galotto, F. Rodriguez and A. Guarda

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanocomposite films based on cellulose acetate butyrate, modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B), plasticizer (triethyl citrate) and antimicrobial compounds (carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde) were prepared by extrusion. Films were effective against Gram-positive bacteria (reduction of at least 3.0 log CFU/ml) and yeast (reduction of at least 4.0 log CFU/ml). The study demonstrated that antimicrobial cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol can be successfully incorporated into cellulose acetate butyrate nanocomposites, and the they have an inhibitory effect against microbial growth in solid medium.


  1. 1 - 36