Packaging Technology and Science

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: David Shires, Diana Twede

Impact Factor: 1.584

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 12/39 (Engineering Manufacturing); 53/123 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1099-1522

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  1. 1 - 38
  1. Research Articles

    1. Towards a Conceptual Sustainable Packaging Development Model: A Corrugated Box Case Study

      C.A.S. Dominic, S. Östlund, J. Buffington and M. M. Masoud

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2113

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      The study presents a unique integrated model of most relevant agents related to the design and implementation of a corrugated packaging through a supply chain from design to post-consumer and reuse. The research enlightens how small efforts can reduce CO2 emissions and waste, through four ex ante design stages and two ex post facto supply chain stages. Further, the research integrates the design criterion for a unit load and creates opportunity to observe the packaging system holistically.

  2. Paper presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Maximum Gauge Pressure in Dangerous Goods Packagings Under Normal Conditions of Carriage – Comparison of Direct Measurement and Calculation

      Eva Schlick-Hasper, John Bethke, Wolfgang Jahnke, Björn Drousch, Thomas Goedecke and Matthias Kraume

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2111

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      The objective of this work was to determine the maximum gauge pressure in the vapour phase above the liquid in different design types of dangerous goods packagings under normal conditions of carriage. The volume of the design types was approximately 6 l. Two different methods were compared: direct measurement, using dichloromethane as test liquid, and calculation, using a packaging-specific relative expansion function. The results showed that the calculation method provides conservative results for the gauge pressure.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Guava Fruit

      D. K. Antala, A. K. Varshney, P. R. Davara and V. P. Sangani

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2110

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      Fully matured fresh guava fruits were precooled and pretreated with fungicide. The fruits were packed in 25- and 50-µm LDPE bags with active MAP of three O2 concentrations and stored at 5 ± 1 and 10 ± 1 °C temperatures. Results revealed that guava fruits were stored up to 42 days with 9% O2 + 5% CO2 gas concentration in 50-µm LDPE bags at 10 °C storage temperature, retaining the highest score of physicochemical and sensory characteristics.

  4. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Determination of Four Types of Hazardous Chemicals in Food Contact Materials by UHPLC-MS/MS

      Qin-Bao Lin, Long-Fei Cai, Shao-Jing Wu, Xi Yang, Zhi-Nan Chen, Song-Hua Zhou and Zhi-Wei Wang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2116

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      An UHPLC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of two photoinitiators, nine plasticizers, three primary aromatic amines and six bisphenols in food contact materials has been developed. Under optimised conditions, the chromatographic separation was performed in 12 min. The optimised method was successfully applied to trace analysis of the four classes of hazardous chemicals in commercially available food contact materials.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Impact of Production and Conversion Processes on the Carbon Footprint of Flexible Plastic Films

      Ngamtip Poovarodom, Chularat Ponnak and Natthaphon Manatphrom

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2118

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      Film production and conversion processes greatly contribute to the total carbon footprint of plastic films, ranging from 16% to 40%, depending on plastic type, printing area, and number of lamination layers. An empirical model is developed to help calculate the carbon footprint of polyolefin films of different thickness and structure in an affordable and less time-consuming manner.

  6. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Microperforation of Three Common Plastic Films by Laser and Their Enhanced Oxygen Transmission for Fresh Produce Packaging

      Charinee Winotapun, Noppadon Kerddonfag, Pramote Kumsang, Bongkot Hararak, Vanee Chonhenchob, Teerapon Yamwong and Wannee Chinsirikul

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2108

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      Laser microperforation of biaxially oriented polypropylene, biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films (neat LDPE and LDPE containing 0.5 wt% of silica-based additive) was investigated. Explanations on different perforation performances and characteristics among these films were contributed to polymer inherent property and its interaction with laser. Based on the measured oxygen transmission rate using the static method, laser perforation appeared to be an effective method for developing high-oxygen permeable plastic films.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Screening for Chemicals in Paper and Board Packaging for Food Use: Chemometric Approach and Estimation of Migration

      Valeria Guazzotti, Barbara Giussani, Luciano Piergiovanni and Sara Limbo

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2109

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      An analytical survey on paper and board materials intended for food use was carried out by means of solvent extraction with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to explore the data. It allowed to identify and select some compounds as markers for sample classification. Additionally, the semi-quantification of the compounds in the packaging allowed a worst case estimation of food contamination by means of the infinite total migration model; occasionally, migration estimations overcame the specific migration limits.

  8. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. Professionals' View of Consumers' Packaging Interactions – A Narrative Analysis

      Toni Ryynänen and Elina Rusko

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2107

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      The article investigates how professionals perceive consumer interactions with packaging. The aims are to provide insight into factors relevant for consumer-centred packaging development in industry and to identify the potential challenges for adopting a consumer-centred model. As a result, five narratives and five challenges for packaging development were constructed.

    2. Capturing the User Mindset – Using the Online Research Community Method in Packaging Research

      Markus Joutsela and Virpi Korhonen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2106

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      This paper presents a case study of using an online research community as a method for collecting information, user experiences, and ideas from packaging users. 137 participants were recruited to a closed online platform. The various discussion topics and tasks were predetermined by the researchers, and new topics were introduced daily over a period of 13 days. The benefits, challenges, and opportunities of the method are discussed in relation to packaging research.

    3. European Consumers' Perceptions of Time–Temperature Indicators in Food Packaging

      Kyösti Pennanen, Caralampo Focas, Vilja Kumpusalo-Sanna, Kaisu Keskitalo-Vuokko, Imke Matullat, Mariem Ellouze, Saara Pentikäinen, Maria Smolander, Virpi Korhonen and Margareetta Ollila

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2105

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      Sixteen qualitative focus groups and a quantitative survey were conducted in four European countries (Finland, Greece, France and Germany) in 2012 to capture consumers' views on both time–temperature indicator (TTI) technology concept and two commercial TTI applications. The results of the study show that consumers in all countries understand the value of the TTI concept, but the studied applications did not meet the consumers' expectations implying the need for further work to enable the TTI acceptance among consumers.

  9. Research Articles

    1. The Impact of Plasma-modified Films with Sulfur Dioxide, Sodium Oxide on Food Pathogenic Microorganisms

      Elżbieta Maćkiw, Łukasz Mąka, Halina Ścieżyńska, Marzena Pawlicka, Paulina Dziadczyk and Zenobia Rżanek-Boroch

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2104

      In this study, plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfurdioxide and/or sodium oxide was used as the coating precursor. The results show that the films treated with a mixture of argon and sulfur dioxide inhibited microbial growth considerably better than those with coatings containing argon and sodium oxide. The highest levels of growth inhibition, of 86% for Staphylococcus aureus and 82% for Escherichia coli, were achieved with films carrying a sulfur-containing coating (1.4% SO2).

  10. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Issues with Combining Road Elevation Spectral Models and Vehicle Vibration Response to Estimate Vehicle Dynamic Characteristics

      Daniel Ainalis, Vincent Rouillard and Michael Sek

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2101

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      This paper presents research into issues associated with the development of an experimental technique to establish the dynamic characteristics (frequency response function) of wheeled vehicles using only in-service response data. A single-wheeled prototype vehicle was designed and commissioned for the preliminary experiments and comparisons were made between the frequency response functions obtained from the laboratory and those established in-service (combining the measured response data with an assumed excitation spectral model).

    2. Modelling of Migration from Printing Inks on Paper Packaging

      Zhi-Wei Wang, Song Gao, Chang-Ying Hu and Yu-Mei Wu

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2102

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      The migration model of contaminants from inks on paper packaging to food is developed based on the penetration of ink in paper and Fick's diffusion by considering the mass transfer coefficient and partition coefficient in the interface between paper and food. The fitting method is used between the model and the migration experimental data to obtain the diffusion coefficients DP and mass transfer coefficients hm for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). It is found that there exist linear relationships between ln(DP) and 1/T, and also between ln(hm) and 1/T for DBP and ATBC.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Active Packaging System Based on Ag/TiO2 Nanocomposite Used for Extending the Shelf Life of Bread. Chemical and Microbiological Investigations

      Anca Mihaly Cozmuta, Anca Peter, Leonard Mihaly Cozmuta, Camelia Nicula, Liliana Crisan, Lucian Baia and Alin Turila

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2103

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      The Ag/TiO2 based on packaging considerable extends the shelf life and microbiological safety of white bread. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite reduces the degradation rates of nutritional compounds and inhibits the microorganisms' proliferation, and thus, the shelf life and microbiological safety of bread are extended. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite shows oxygen and water scavenging property.

  12. Review Articles

    1. Migration of Photoinitiators in Food Packaging: A Review

      José Luis Aparicio and María Elizalde

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2099

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      Literature results on migration of photoinitiators in food packaging are reviewed and analysed in terms of an existing migration model based on diffusion and partition coefficients. Physicochemical properties of the photoinitiators, characteristics of the foodstuffs or food simulants, temperature, and packaging are concluded as the main factors affecting migration. This model also explains the reported efficiency of different plastic films as barriers to reduce migration. Published works concerning the suitability of polymeric multifunctional photoinitiators to print food packaging are considered.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Corner Foam Versus Flat Foam: An Experimental Comparison on Cushion Performance

      Changfeng Ge and Haoqi Huang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2098

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      This study applied the two most representative and correlated methods to evaluate both flat and corner foam. The study found that the static stress of the corner foam that occurred during the compression testing is 23% higher in average than the flat foam. The shock cushion curve of the corner foam shifted horizontally to the right as a result of the increased static stress. The authors recommend that the conventional cushion curve should be shifted to the right horizontally by about 23–35% in order for a packaging designer to apply it for corner foam.

    2. Impact Oscillator Model for the Prediction of Dynamic Cushion Curves of Open Cell Foams

      James M. Gibert and Gregory S. Batt

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2100

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      This paper delves into a qualitative understanding of the dynamics of a platen impacting an open cell foam cushion material. A hyperelastic material model is used to describe the foam's nonlinear stress-strain relationship, whereas its damping and hysteretic behaviour are represented with linear viscoelasticity. Using a simple nonlinear, discontinuous model of a drop test along with numerical simulations, the study examines the physics of the impact.

    3. Development of an Active Thermoplastic Film with Oxygen Scavengers Made of Activated Carbon and Sodium Erythorbate

      Ronald Joven, Angela Garcia, Andrea Arias and Jorge Medina

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2093

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      The development of a film made of activated carbon and sodium erythorbate dispersed low-density polyethylene matrix is presented, which can be used for absorbing oxygen in gaseous environments such as the head space of food packages. This material was able to absorb up to 87% of the oxygen found inside a typical juice package. Furthermore, a thermal analysis of these particles showed satisfactory stability when subjected to temperatures corresponding to polymers manufacturing.

  14. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Indirect Inverse Substructuring Theory for Coupling Dynamic Stiffness Identification of Complex Interface Between Packaged Product and Vehicle Transport System

      Jun Wang, Guohua Sun, Lixin Lu and Teik C. Lim

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2096

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      This work is an extension of the inverse sub-structuring method previously proposed by Teik C. Lim for predicting the component-level frequency response functions (FRFs) and coupling stiffness from only system-level FRFs. The aim of the present work is to develop a new frequency response function (FRF)-based indirect inverse sub-structuring method without measuring system-level FRFs at the coupling DOFs for product transport system with special constraints of vibration excitation and/or measurement at the packaging interface. By enforcing the dynamic equilibrium conditions at the coupling coordinates and the displacement compatibility conditions, a closed-form indirect inverse sub-structuring method is derived based on the relationship of easy-to-monitor component-level FRFs and the system-level FRFs at the coupling coordinates. Finally, the method is validated by a lumped mass-spring-damper model, showing exact agreement. The suggested method may help to obtain the main controlling factors and contributions from the various structure-borne paths for product transport system. (Add Figure 5 here)

    2. Controlled Release of Mangiferin Using Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Matrix for Antioxidant Packaging

      Rungkan Boonnattakorn, Vanee Chonhenchob, Muhammad Siddiq and Sher Paul Singh

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2097

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      This study investigated the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix in controlled release packaging. Mangiferin was incorporated into the EVA matrix with different VA contents. The release rate of mangiferin increased with increasing VA content (decreasing crystallinity) and related to the antioxidant activity of the film.

  15. Research Articles

    1. Applying Dynamic Thermography for Observation of Water Level in Column-Shaped Opaque Beverage Containers

      Minoru Aoyagi, Takefumi Hiraguri and Takahiro Ueno

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2095

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      A method for determining the water level in opaque beverage containers is described. In this method, rapid heating of the surface of the beverage containers by flash was followed by thermographic observation of the dynamic changes in surface temperature. The proposed observation method was used for a globe-type reflector in order to observe the water level clearly. The proposed method can successfully observed the water level in the opaque beverage containers.

    2. Migration of Cyclic Monomer and Oligomers from Polyamide 6 and 66 Food Contact Materials into Food and Food Simulants: Direct Food Contact

      Martin Heimrich, Hermann Nickl, Martin Bönsch and Thomas J. Simat

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2094

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      Aqueous and ethanolic simulants revealed to be worst case for migration of caprolactam and cyclic PA oligomers from PA6 (and PA66) FCM. Unlike oligomers, caprolactam migration reached equally high levels for the simulant oil, too. Migration of cyclic oligomers (non-intentionally substances per definition) was in the mg kg−1 range, probably exceeding the limit of exposition of 0.09 mg/person/day for Cramer class III substances, derived from the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept. Extrusion of granulate material to a packaging film led to an increase of the oligomer concentration in the polymer.

    3. The Effect of Concave Base Shape Elements on the Three Dimensional Forming Process of Advanced Paperboard Structures

      Marek Hauptmann, Sebastian Ehlert and Jens-Peter Majschak

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2089

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      Three dimensional forming of paperboard to structures with concave shape sections at the bottom geometry is a challenge but turned out to be possible. In the concave geometry, considerable tensile load and strain appear in the material. The straining can be supported through a delivery of material from adjoining convex sections. The material displacement in concave sections causes parallel wrinkles in the wall showing that a defined reduction of stiffness through creasing in this section could improve the forming process.

    4. Use of Sodium Lactate and Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Extending the Shelf Life of Ready-to-Cook Fresh Meal

      D. Gammariello, A. L. Incoronato, A. Conte and M. A. Del Nobile

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2092

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      The combined effects of sodium lactate and modified atmosphere packaging was used in order to extend the shelf life of a ready-to-cook fresh skewer. The microbial and sensory quality of ready-to-cook fresh skewer was monitored. An increase in the shelf life equal to about 83% was recorded for the skewer treated with a dipping of meat in 40% sodium lactate solution and packaging under modified atmosphere packaging (50%O2/30%CO2/20%N2).

  16. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Evaluation of Static and Dynamic Cushioning Properties of Polyethylene Foam for Determining Its Cushion Curves

      By Guang Li, Vincent Rouillard and Michael A. Sek

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2090

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      A dynamic factor function is defined and obtained from the analysis on the experimental data from compression and cushion tests. The deformation energy per unit volume is taken into consideration to make an estimate of the maximum strain and dynamic stress data in an impact, and the peak acceleration can be predicted from the compression data corrected for the dynamic effects by the dynamic factor function. Then, the cushion curves at almost every test condition, such as different drop heights or thickness of cushioning material, can be approximated by a specially developed computer code using Matlab. This research can assist in determining the accuracy of cushion curves for all variants of a particular cushioning material from the dynamic factor function and compression test data.

  17. Research Articles

    1. New Methods for Quality Analysis of Deep-Drawn Packaging Components from Paperboard

      Malte Wallmeier, Marek Hauptmann and Jens-Peter Majschak

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2091

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      This publication aims to measure quality criteria of deep-drawn cups made of paperboard. The number of wrinkles and the shape accuracy of deep-drawn cups are measured by using image analysis and surface scans. Experimental results are used for the verification of the methods and for the investigation of influences of main process parameters. The experiments show that high blankholder force leads to an increasing number of wrinkles and has a negative effect on shape accuracy.

  18. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An Affordance-Based Methodology for Package Design

      Javier de la Fuente, Stephanie Gustafson, Colleen Twomey and Laura Bix

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2087

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      This paper explores the concept of affordances in the context of package design. It proposes a method by which packaging designers can purposefully consider affordances during the design process; it explains this method in the context of a packaging-related case study; and it measures the effect on package usability when an affordance-based design approach is employed.

  19. Paper Presented at IAPRI World Conference 2014

    1. Reduced-order Modelling of the Linear Vibration Response of Expanded Polymer Cushion Material

      Gregory S. Batt, James M. Gibert and Mohammed Daqaq

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2086

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      This manuscript examines the accuracy and convergence of a reduced-order model (ROM). The ROM is derived from an idealized packaging system consisting of a rod of polymer foam with an attached end mass. The work begins with an introduction to the complex cyclic softening and the viscoelastic and nonlinear stress-strain behaviour exhibited by expanded polymer foam. Approximate eigenvalues and frequency response functions are compared with both exact and experimental eigenvalues reported in literature.

  20. Short Communications

    1. Exploiting Propolis as an Antimicrobial Edible Coating to Control Post-harvest Anthracnose of Bell Pepper

      Asgar Ali, Yee Zi Wei and Maysoun A. Mustafa

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2088

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      Ethanolic extracted propolis (EEP) was prepared and applied as a coating material for bell pepper stored at 10°C. It was evaluated by assessing the natural-based coating's ability to inhibit mycelial growth of Colletotrichum capsici, causal agent of anthracnose, and maintain the quality of bell pepper. Application of EEP as a coating significantly reduced the incidence of anthracnose and contributed towards moisture retention of fruit, with the higher dilutions of EEP yielding better results.

  21. Research Articles

    1. Estimation of the Dynamic Properties of Non-linear Packaging Materials Using a Reverse Multiple Input/Single Output Based Approach

      Matthew J. Lamb and Anthony J. Parker

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2084

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      This paper discussed an approach that separates the linear contribution of the system's nonlinear frequency response function (FRF) using an optimised reverse multiple input/single output (RMISO) algorithm. Results from the analysis of well-controlled physical experiments, performed using nonlinear expanded polystyrene samples configured in an single-degree-of-freedom (SDoF) arrangement, are presented. The results suggest that the RMISO-based technique is able to provide an estimate of the linear component of the FRF, which allows traditional modal parameter extraction techniques to be used for the analysis of nonlinear cushioning systems.

    2. Mineral Oil Barrier Testing of Cellulose-Based and Polypropylene-Based Films

      G. O'Connor, N. Hudson and S. Buckley

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2082

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      Recycled cardboard has been identified as a major source of mineral oil contamination of foods. This paper shows that cellulose-based films and both-sided proprietary acrylic-coated biaxially orientated polypropylene film types can provide functioning mineral oil barriers within recycled cardboard packaging.

    3. Determination and Prediction of the Lag Times of Hydrocarbons through a Polyethylene Terephthalate Film

      Johann Ewender and Frank Welle

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2085

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      Measured and predicted lag times for n-alkanes at temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C for a 12 µm polyethylene terephthalate film.

  22. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. You have free access to this content
      The Effect of Full Body Versus Partial Body Graphic Labelling on Beverage Packaging

      Toni Gomes, Rupert Andrew Hurley, Andrew Duchowski, Duncan Darby and Andrew Ouzts

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2070

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      The shelf impact of full versus partial body graphic labels on beverages was examined and evaluated through purchase selection and eye-tracking data. Data revealed that both label sizes drew an equivalent amount of visual attention; however, consumers selected partial body labels more often than full body labels, regardless of the flavour of the beverage or their age group. Paper presents a unique methodology of comparing attention between the two label styles on plastic beverage bottles.

  23. Human-Packaging Interaction

    1. Talking about Torque: Measuring Pack Accessibility – a Review

      A. Yoxall and J. Rowson

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2079

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      This paper examines and compares the work undertaken by a series of researchers to measure human torque strength with respect to the access of jars such as those used for packaging. The aim of the paper is to compare the results and examine the reasons for any differences in those results. The paper recommends that packaging researchers must be more consistent in their experimental approach in future analyses to aid comparison of results and to facilitate a broader knowledge base.

  24. Research Articles

    1. Carton Clamp Test Methodologies and the Effects on Load Containment and Retention

      Jay Singh, Tyler Blumer, Soma Roy and Koushik Saha

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2080

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      Currently, there are two test standards that provide lab-based forklift/clamp testing guidance - ISTA 3B and ASTM 6055. This study attempted to determine if carton clamps are capable and repeatable enough to provide consistent data. It examined the test methodologies' effect on load containment and load retention and the effects of ride height and driver interaction. It also sought to understand if these effects are uniform across the unitized load or differ for various tiers of a palletized load.

  25. Paper Presented at IAPRI Symposium 2013

    1. The Effect of Stretch Wrap Prestretch on Unitized Load Containment

      Jay Singh, Evan Cernokus, Koushik Saha and Soma Roy

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2083

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      The three main factors affecting the stability of a palletized load that is unitized by stretch wrapping mechanism are the type of unitized load, wrapping configuration and shipping method. The study showed that containment force is generally higher at the top and bottom than the middle section of the unitized load. There is no evidence suggesting an association between initial containment force and different levels of prestretch.

  26. Short Communications

    1. Effect of Different Packaging Methods on Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh Reindeer Meat

      Marit Kvalvåg Pettersen, Anlaug Ådland Hansen and Maria Mielnik

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pts.2075

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      • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and MAP + CO2 emitter inhibited the bacterial growth in fresh reindeer meat.
      • Lowest liquid loss in reindeer meat in modified atmosphere packages with CO2 emitter
      • Longer shelf life of reindeer meat with MAP/MAP + CO2 emitter compared with vacuum

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