Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Martin A. Green, Ryne P. Raffaelle, Tim M. Bruton, Jean-Francois Guillemoles

Impact Factor: 7.365

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/88 (Energy & Fuels); 14/145 (Physics Applied); 24/271 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1099-159X


  1. 1 - 37
  1. Research Articles

    1. SiOyNx/SiNx stack: a promising surface passivation layer for high-efficiency and potential-induced degradation resistant mc-silicon solar cells

      Chunlan Zhou, Junjie Zhu, Su Zhou, Yehua Tang, Sean E. Foss, Halvard Haug, Ørnulf Nordseth, Erik S. Marstein and Wenjing Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2803

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      In this paper, It was found that a SiOyNx film with ~6 nm thickness in the SiOyNx/SiNx stacks is sufficient to provide an effective surface recombination velocity Seff < 2 cm/s. A maximum absolute efficiency gain of 0.5% was obtained compared with single SiNx-coated mc-Si solar cells. In addition, resistance to PID is also significantly improved.

  2. EU PVSEC Papers

    1. Comparison of global horizontal irradiance forecasts based on numerical weather prediction models with different spatio-temporal resolutions

      Elke Lorenz, Jan Kühnert, Detlev Heinemann, Kristian Pagh Nielsen, Jan Remund and Stefan C. Müller

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2799

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      In the framework of the IEA SHC Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting” we compare solar global horizontal irradiance forecasts based on different numerical weather predictions models. These include direct model output of global and limited area models, a rapid update cycle model, a multi model ensemble prediction system, and two MOS systems. In particular we analyze the impact of spatial and temporal averaging and evaluate the model's ability to represent and forecast solar irradiance and cloud variability.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Experimental demonstration of high-concentration photovoltaics on a parabolic trough using tracking secondary optics

      Thomas Cooper, Gianluca Ambrosetti, Fabio Malnati, Andrea Pedretti and Aldo Steinfeld

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2800

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      High-concentration on a parabolic trough? By arranging an array of rotating secondary optical elements (SOE) along the focal line of a parabolic trough, we show that the 2D limit of concentration of 215× can be considerably surpassed. We place an array of 3 J cells at the exit of each SOE, thus yielding the first trough-based high-concentration photovoltaic collector (Cg = 590×). From on-sun testing of a full-scale prototype, we report a solar-to-DC efficiency of 20.2%, the highest ever measured for a parabolic-trough-based PV system.

  4. Broader Perspectives

    1. The environmental impact of lightweight HCPV modules: efficient design and effective deployment

      Philip Sandwell, Geoffrey Duggan, Jenny Nelson and Ned Ekins-Daukes

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2802

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      We perform a life cycle analysis of a lightweight design of high concentration photovoltaic module by considering the embedded energy and greenhouse gas emissions of its manufacture and deployment. In suitable locations we find low energy and greenhouse gas payback times and the emission intensity of electricity produced is less than those of other PV and CSP technologies in similar locations.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system

      David C. Miller, Michael D. Kempe, Matthew T. Muller, Matthew H. Gray, Kenji Araki and Sarah R. Kurtz

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2796

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      Most specimens show minimal evidence of aging; only 4 of 29 specimens have “failed” to date. Failure modes including combustion, thermal decomposition, fracture, and haze formation have been observed. Effects of aging are suggested by peripheral appearance, photoelasticity, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermal degradation is unlikely to contribute to immediate or long-term degradation of siloxanes unless aided by another mechanism, for example, discoloration.

    2. Integration of InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells on deeply patterned silicon substrates

      Andrea Scaccabarozzi, Simona Binetti, Maurizio Acciarri, Giovanni Isella, Roberta Campesato, Gabriele Gori, Maria Cristina Casale, Fulvio Mancarella, Michael Noack, Hans von Känel and Leo Miglio

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2798

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      High efficiency InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates, with good performance despite the presence of microcracks. By means of deep patterning of the Si substrate, we show how the density of cracks in the epilayers can be reduced. We report how the surface morphology of the Ge layer on patterned Si affects device performance.

    3. Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells with 10.6% efficiency through innovative absorber engineering with Ge superficial nanolayer

      Sergio Giraldo, Thomas Thersleff, Gerardo Larramona, Markus Neuschitzer, Paul Pistor, Klaus Leifer, Alejandro Pérez-Rodríguez, Camille Moisan, Gilles Dennler and Edgardo Saucedo

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2797

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      Ge doping optimization in Cu2ZnSnSe4 kesterite is presented, demonstrating the ideal concentration range for achieving high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Using the optimum amount of Ge, open-circuit voltages up to 489 mV are obtained, leading to one of the lowest VOC deficits reported for this material. The importance of Ge–Na interaction for the doping level control is also demonstrated.

  6. EU PVSEC Papers

    1. Effect of grain boundary character of multicrystalline Si on external and internal (phosphorus) gettering of impurities

      Supawan Joonwichien, Isao Takahashi, Kentaro Kutsukake and Noritaka Usami

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2795

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      We investigated the effect of the grain boundary (GB) character of multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) on the efficiency of external and internal gettering of impurities during phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG). We utilized seed crystals with an artificially designed GB configuration to grow mc-Si ingots with different artificial GB characters. PDG combined with an originally developed multiple-cycle gettering technique at low temperature was introduced on intentionally Fe-contaminated mc-Si samples to enhance external and internal gettering. This result suggests the importance of the control of crystal defect character as well as impurities in mc-Si ingots, which could strongly affect the PDG efficiency.

  7. Research Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Changes of solar cell parameters during damp-heat exposure

      Jiang Zhu, Michael Koehl, Stephan Hoffmann, Karl Anton Berger, Shokufeh Zamini, Ian Bennett, Eric Gerritsen, Philippe Malbranche, Paola Pugliatti, Agnese Di Stefano, Francesco Aleo, Dario Bertani, Fabrizio Paletta, Francesco Roca, Giorgio Graditi, Michele Pellegrino, Oihana Zubillaga, F. J. Cano Iranzo, Alberto Pozza, Tony Sample and Ralph Gottschalg

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2793

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      The electrical ageing of photovoltaic modules during extended damp-heat tests at different stress levels is investigated. Deploying different stress levels allows determination of an equivalent stress dose function, which is a first step towards the lifetime prediction of devices. The derived dose function is used to characterize the degradation of power as well as that of the solar cell's equivalent circuit parameters. This approach identifies the primary contributors to the power degradation and distinguishes the potential ageing mechanism.

  8. Broader Perspectives

    1. Impact of the injection-level-dependent lifetime on Voc, FF, ideality m, J02, and the dim light response in a commercial PERC cell

      Henry Hieslmair, Jesse Appel, Jai Kasthuri, Jason Guo, Bayard Johnson and Jeff Binns

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2792

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      This paper attempts to clarify the actual functioning of a solar cell by explaining the various observed cell behaviors resulting from the injection level dependent silicon lifetime. This work illustrates that for a commercial PERC cell with an AlOx rear passivation, the injection level dependent lifetime is the primary mechanism behind ideality factors greater than 1, the need for a J02 term, and is responsible for a reduction of ~1% in fill factor.

  9. Research Articles

    1. Comprehensive simulation study of industrially relevant silicon solar cell architectures for an optimal material parameter choice

      Heiko Steinkemper, Martin Hermle and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2790

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      We present a comprehensive simulation study, based on a consistent set of simulation parameters, explaining the influence of the base material properties on the cell performance for different industrially relevant cell architectures. Additionally, our analysis is assisted by comparisons to experimental results. The study serves as a guide for material and cell manufacturers and supports an optimal material parameter choice taking into account lifetime and base resistivity with respect to the investigated cell architectures.

    2. Limiting factors on the semiconductor structure of III–V multijunction solar cells for ultra-high concentration (1000–5000 suns)

      M. Ochoa, E. Barrigón, L. Barrutia, I. García, I. Rey-Stolle and C. Algora

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2791

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      A 2D numerical model based on drift-diffusion equations and quantum models that take into account tunnel junctions, heterojunctions and typical recombination mechanisms has been developed and validated to analyse the limiting factors on the semiconductor structure of multijunction solar cells operating at ultra-high concentration. The contribution to series resistance from top cell window and emitter layers is examined and optimised for solar cell performance operating at ultra-high irradiance. The role of top cell window layer has been found to be more important for concentrations above 700 suns where an efficiency gain up to 1% can be achieved. No signs of high injection effects were detected nor Auger-limiting process that may affect the performance of the cells up to a concentration level of 5000 suns. The potential barriers at heterojunctions were analysed, and no important losses have been found for literature band offsets. However, when a high potential barrier is present, its impact can be mitigated by increasing the doping level favouring the tunnelling of carriers through the potential barriers. The resulting optimised structure suggests that, by using an appropriate design, it is possible to reach high efficiencies (above 42%) in a conventional GaInP/GaAs/Ge multijunction structure. Finally, the implications on the use of other multijunction structures such as inverted metamorphic, wafer bonded and dilute nitrides are described in order to explore the potential of these cells at ultra-high irradiance.

    3. Increasing the quantum efficiency of InAs/GaAs QD arrays for solar cells grown by MOVPE without using strain-balance technology

      Nikolay A. Kalyuzhnyy, Sergey A. Mintairov, Roman A. Salii, Alexey M. Nadtochiy, Alexey S. Payusov, Pavel N. Brunkov, Vladimir N. Nevedomsky, Maxim Z. Shvarts, Antonio Martí, Viacheslav M. Andreev and Antonio Luque

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2789

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      Quantum dots (QDs) and solar cells with QD arrays made by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy have been thoroughly researched. High-speed overall growth is considered for cost effectiveness, and slower speed is used to grow the QDs and caplayers only. Highest photoluminescence has been researched; solar cells have been made and characterized. Highest quantum efficiency has been obtained in the host sub-bandgap region per QD layer.

    4. Assessing material qualities and efficiency limits of III–V on silicon solar cells using external radiative efficiency

      Kan-Hua Lee, Kenji Araki, Li Wang, Nobuaki Kojima, Yoshio Ohshita and Masafumi Yamaguchi

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2787

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      This paper analyzes the material qualities of state-of-the-art III–V on silicon solar cells using external radiative efficiencies (EREs). We show that the materials with optimal band gap combinations but poorer material qualities can still be beneficial as long as the decrease of EREs is less than two order of magnitude compared with conventional indium gallium phosphide/gallium arsenide top cells. This criterion for using optimal band gap top cell is a realistic target, according to the estimated EREs of the solar cells reported in the literature.

    5. Enhancement of silicon solar cells by downshifting with Eu and Tb coordination complexes

      T. Fix, A. Nonat, D. Imbert, S. Di Pietro, M. Mazzanti, A. Slaoui and L. J. Charbonnière

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2785

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      In this work, we implement different coordination complexes into a polymer encapsulant placed on silicon solar cells. Thanks to the downshifting properties of the complexes, we observe in the best case a relative increase of 8% of the solar cell efficiency. Such a high increase in efficiencies has never been observed before and is a stepping stone for future integration of functionalized encapsulants into commercial solar modules.

    6. Electrochemical nature of contact firing reactions for screen-printed silicon solar cells: origin of “gray finger” phenomenon

      Hee-Soo Kim, Sung-Bin Cho, Heesan Kim, Donghwan Kim, Miki Dovrat, Guy Eytan and Joo-Youl Huh

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2783

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      This work analyzes the root cause of the “gray finger” phenomenon, in which part of the fire-through Ag contact gridlines of a c-Si solar cell appears in gray or dark contrast in the EL images owing to high contact resistance. The firing reactions in Ag thick-film contact formation are electrochemical in nature, establishing a potential difference between the Ag gridlines and Si emitter separated by molten glass. Formation of a short-circuit spot between the Ag gridline and Si emitter during contact firing inhibits Ag crystallite formation at the contact interface along the gridline, leading to strong lateral variations in contact resistance across the cell area and a significant degradation of cell performance.

    7. Impact of rain and soiling on potential induced degradation

      Michael Koehl and Stephan Hoffmann

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2786

    8. Spectral study and classification of worldwide locations considering several multijunction solar cell technologies

      Rubén Núñez, Chen Jin, Marta Victoria, César Domínguez, Stephen Askins, Rebeca Herrero, Ignacio Antón and Gabriel Sala

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2781

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      The AERONET network has been exploited, selecting 34 worldwide sites with the best data quality and covering many different climate conditions. Site characterization by means of SMR indexes has been extended to several triple-junction technologies, covering lattice-matched cells based on germanium and dilute nitrides and both inverted and upright metamorphic cells. Differences in the performance of the devices between selected locations are large, while the differences among technologies are less significant. Impact of solar cells temperature is negligible.

    9. Copper (I) Oxide (Cu2O) based back contact for p-i-n CdTe solar cells

      Johannes Türck, Hermann-Josef Nonnenmacher, Paula M. L. Connor, Sebastian Siol, Bastian Siepchen, Jan Peter Heimfarth, Andreas Klein and Wolfram Jaegermann

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2782

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      Cu2O was reactive sputtered as a new back contact material for CdTe solar cells. With an annealing of the finished solar cells and an improved front contact with CdS:O efficiencies of >15% could be achieved. The Cu2O acts as Cu source for the p-doping of the CdTe and provides the p-type contact material for the p-i-n structure of the solar cell. With a XPS interface experiment the band alignment between Cu2O and CdTe was investigated.

  10. Broader Perspectives

    1. Techno-economic analysis of three different substrate removal and reuse strategies for III-V solar cells

      J. Scott Ward, Timothy Remo, Kelsey Horowitz, Michael Woodhouse, Bhushan Sopori, Kaitlyn VanSant and Paul Basore

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2776

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      If current state-of-the-art processes for epitaxial III-V solar cells were scaled up for high-volume manufacturing, the cost of the substrate wafer would be the dominant component of the cost of the solar cell. A possible solution is to reuse the substrate many times, thus spreading its cost across many cells. We performed a bottom-up techno-economic analysis of three different strategies for substrate reuse in high-volume manufacturing: epitaxial lift-off, spalling, and the use of a porous germanium release layer.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Effect of thermal insulation of the back side of PV modules on the module temperature

      Michael Koehl, Simon Hamperl and Markus Heck

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2773

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      Difference of the average photovoltaic module temperatures between non-insulated references and with increasing insulation thickness for various module types exposed at 45° tilt to south in Freiburg, Germany, measured between 900 and 1100 W irradiance and normalized to 1000 W before averaging.

    2. Parameterized complex dielectric functions of CuIn1−xGaxSe2: applications in optical characterization of compositional non-uniformities and depth profiles in materials and solar cells

      Puruswottam Aryal, Abdel-Rahman Ibdah, Puja Pradhan, Dinesh Attygalle, Prakash Koirala, Nikolas J. Podraza, Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W. Collins and Jian Li

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2774

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      Dielectric function spectra for thin Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 (CIGS) with different Ga contents x were determined using in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and were parameterized analytically as functions of a single parameter, x. SE analyses of non-uniformities in x were consistent with EDX and AES characterizations. From the correlations between the analysis results of mapping SE and cell performance parameters, controlling factors for Jsc, efficiency, and Voc were identified for high efficiency thin (0.7 micron) CIGS cells, leading to an SE-guided optimization pathway.

    3. Scale up the collection area of luminescent solar concentrators towards metre-length flexible waveguiding photovoltaics

      Sandra F. H. Correia, Patrícia P. Lima, Edison Pecoraro, Sidney J. L. Ribeiro, Paulo S. André, Rute A. S. Ferreira and Luís D. Carlos

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2772

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      Large-area luminescent solar concentrators based on bulk and hollow-core plastic optical fibres (POFs) were fabricated. The active optical layers used to coat the bulk POFs or fill the hollow-core ones are Rhodamine 6G- or Eu3+-doped organic–inorganic hybrids. For the bulk-coated LSCs, the maximum optical conversion efficiency (ηopt) and concentration factor (F) were 0.6% and 6.5, respectively; the hollow-core optimised device displays ηopt = 72.4% and F = 12.3.

  12. Broader Perspectives

    1. Technology advances needed for photovoltaics to achieve widespread grid price parity

      Rebecca Jones-Albertus, David Feldman, Ran Fu, Kelsey Horowitz and Michael Woodhouse

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2755

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      In this paper, we provide a framework for the evaluation of technology advances needed for photovoltaics to achieve widespread grid parity with an average solar resource and without subsidies. Our focus is on the levelized-cost-of-energy metric, and the key input parameters that we evaluate include efficiency, reliability and durability, and module and installed total system costs. Several pathways to the US Department of Energy's SunShot levelized-cost-of-energy goals for 2020 and beyond are discussed.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Monolithic Si nanocrystal/crystalline Si tandem cells involving Si nanocrystals in SiC

      Manuel Schnabel, Mariaconcetta Canino, Kai Schillinger, Philipp Löper, Caterina Summonte, Peter R. Wilshaw and Stefan Janz

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2766

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      Tandem cells involving a top cell with Si nanocrystals embedded in SiC and a c-Si bottom cell have been prepared and exhibit open-circuit voltages Voc exceeding 900 mV, of which over 320 mV arise from the top cell. Short-circuit current is limited to 0.8-0.9 mAcm−2 by current collection in the top cell. Equivalent circuit simulations show that shunts in the top cell can provide a path for additional photocurrent collection from the bottom cell but lead to decreased Voc.

  14. EU PVSEC Papers

    1. You have free access to this content
      Quantum wire-on-well (WoW) cell with long carrier lifetime for efficient carrier transport

      Masakazu Sugiyama, Hiromasa Fujii, Takumi Katoh, Kasidit Toprasertpong, Hassanet Sodabanlu, Kentaroh Watanabe, Diego Alonso-Álvarez, Nicholas J. Ekins-Daukes and Yoshiaki Nakano

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2769

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      A quantum wire-on-well (WoW) structure, taking advantage of the layer undulation of an InGaAs/GaAs/GaAsP superlattice grown on a 6 °-off substrate, enhances the carrier collection from the confinement levels and extend the carrier lifetime (220 ns) by approximately four times more than a planar reference superlattice. The superior carrier collection in the WoW improved fill factor compared with the planer superlattice.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Probabilistic evaluation of solar photovoltaic systems using Bayesian networks: a discounted cash flow assessment

      Philip A. Leicester, Chris I. Goodier and Paul Rowley

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2754

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      A probabilistic approach using Bayesian networks is applied to the techno-economic analysis of domestic solar photovoltaic under uncertainty. Empirical datasets have been used to generate and calibrate prior probability distributions for key parameters, including photovoltaic yield and domestic electricity consumption. The analysis readily renders a probabilistic discounted cash flow and sensitivity analysis that facilitate rapid outcomes appraisal. Implications for stakeholders globally are presented and discussed.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Photovoltaic energy competitiveness and risk assessment for the South African residential sector

      Stephanie Betz, Silvia Caneva, Ingrid Weiss and Paul Rowley

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2757

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      Bussiness models are ranked from higher to lower risk. Ask ranges of NPV move to posivite values fewer risks are associated. The transfer of capitalisation from the household to the WSCO implies that rewards can be higher for the ESCO. The analysis shows that appropriate application of risks modelling has the potential to inform decision by investors and policty makers. Improved policy and business solution can be shaped to support increased resident PV energy market competitivenes without explicit subsidy frameworks.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Photoluminescent and electroluminescent couplings in monolithic tandem solar cells

      Dongchen Lan and Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2750

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      We extend earlier models focusing on electroluminescent coupling through incorporation of an extra photoluminescent component, which is validated by measurement of the closely related external emission. A unique circuit analysis not only clarifies the roles of parasitic circuit elements and external loads in more complex radiative interactions between cells, but also reveals undiscovered issues to be addressed in the critical step of external quantum efficiency corrections.

    5. You have free access to this content
      On the application of the vibrating Kelvin probe method for quality control of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin-film solar modules

      Tetiana Lavrenko, Kerstin Marzinzig, Thomas Walter, Balázs Plesz and Sándor Ress

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2746

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      Kelvin probe measurements are able to detect spatial potential variations in both reverse and forward biases and therefore to localize electrical defects and material inhomogeneities of a module, which are not visible to other characterization techniques. Moreover, Kelvin probe measurements under reverse bias conditions demonstrated a high sensitivity to variations of the reverse current of the single diodes even under conditions where open-circuit voltage is not severely affected by inhomogeneities.

    6. You have free access to this content
      Applications of carrier de-smearing of photoluminescence images on silicon wafers

      Sieu Pheng Phang, Hang Cheong Sio and Daniel Macdonald

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2747

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      We demonstrate experimentally a previously proposed method based on the continuity equation to de-smear photoluminescence images blurred by lateral carrier diffusions. Experiment using a partially shaded monocrystalline silicon wafer shows that the method is effective across most of the wafer, with the exception of regions very close to the localised recombination centres. Application of the method on n-type multicrystalline silicon wafer reveals more uniform and higher lifetimes in the intra grain regions.

  15. EU PVSEC Paper

    1. Inline quality rating of multi-crystalline wafers based on photoluminescence images

      Matthias Demant, Stefan Rein, Jonas Haunschild, Theresa Strauch, Hannes Höffler, Juliane Broisch, Sven Wasmer, Kirsten Sunder, Oliver Anspach and Thomas Brox

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2706

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      The paper shows how to rate the quality of as-cut multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers. Advanced pattern recognition techniques are successfully applied to systematically analyze a broad spectrum of wafer materials: We quantify defect structures in photoluminescence images of standard mc-Si and high-performance mc-Si wafers sampled from over 72 bricks. We develop rating schemes to predict the open-circuit voltage of solar cells with aluminum back-surface field and passivated emitter and rear cells with mean absolute error of 2.2 mV and 2.9 mV, respectively.

  16. EU PVSEC Papers

    1. Case study of a low-voltage distribution grid with high PV penetration in Germany and simulation analyses of cost-effective measures

      Fabian Carigiet, Markus Niedrist, Christian Scheuermann and Franz Baumgartner

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2710

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      The analysed low-voltage grid in Dettighofen, Germany contains a very high photovoltaic capacity of 46% and a low local consumption. The required technical standard EN50160 were satisfied even in May at the maximum amount of produced photovoltaic power with one exception. Reactive power control and active power curtailment are good measures against voltage rises because of decentralised power generation. These cost-effective measures could reduce the voltage by 3% on a clear sky day.

    2. Dislocation behavior in seed-cast grown Si ingots based on crystallographic orientation

      Karolin Jiptner, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Bing Gao, Koichi Kakimoto and Takashi Sekiguchi

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2708

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      The dislocation density in multi-seeded cast-grown Si ingots is determined and compared in different crystallographic orientations. The thermal stress-induced dislocation density is analyzed, and dislocation motion is discussed in this work.

    3. Crystalline silicon on glass—interface passivation and absorber material quality

      Onno Gabriel, Tim Frijnts, Natalie Preissler, Daniel Amkreutz, Sonya Calnan, Sven Ring, Bernd Stannowski, Bernd Rech and Rutger Schlatmann

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2707

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      Thin crystalline silicon solar cells prepared directly on glass substrates by means of liquid-phase crystallization of the absorber utilize only a small fraction of the silicon material used by standard wafer-based silicon solar cells. The influence of hydrogen plasma passivation and surface passivation of thin crystalline silicon absorbers were investigated for various p-type and n-type solar cells. The paper finishes with an outline of the perspectives and limits of this next-generation solar cell technology.

    4. PERC+: industrial PERC solar cells with rear Al grid enabling bifaciality and reduced Al paste consumption

      Thorsten Dullweber, Christopher Kranz, Robby Peibst, Ulrike Baumann, Helge Hannebauer, Alexander Fülle, Stefan Steckemetz, Torsten Weber, Martin Kutzer, Matthias Müller, Gerd Fischer, Phedon Palinginis and Holger Neuhaus

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2712

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      Whereas conventional industrial PERC solar cells apply a full-area Al layer at the rear, in this paper, we introduce a novel PERC solar cell design that applies a screen-printed Al finger grid while using the same PERC manufacturing sequence. We name this novel cell concept PERC+ because it offers several advantages compared with conventional PERC cells such as a strongly reduced Al paste consumption, a deeper aluminum back surface field, and enabling of bifacial applications. First performance data of industrially manufactured bifacial PERC+ modules are presented as well.

    5. Breakdown of the efficiency gap to 29% based on experimental input data and modeling

      Rolf Brendel, Thorsten Dullweber, Robby Peibst, Christopher Kranz, Agnes Merkle and Daniel Walter

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2696

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      We demonstrate the synergistic efficiency gain analysis for an experimental passivated emitter and rear cell and an interdigitated back contacted cell. We model the transport and the optics of both cells using experimentally easily accessible input parameters (e.g., sheet resistances and saturation current densities). Synergistic efficiency gain analysis treats resistive, optical, and recombinative losses on equal footing, gives a breakdown of the full efficiency gap to the ultimate efficiency limit 29%, and can be carried out within minutes on a laptop.


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