American Journal of Human Biology

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Lynnette Leidy Sievert

Impact Factor: 1.875

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 16/84 (Anthropology); 29/86 (Biology)

Online ISSN: 1520-6300

Author Guidelines

Online Submission
      Submitting Your Manuscript to the AJHB
      Manuscript Types
      Manuscript Format
            Article Structure
            Tables and Figures
            Supporting Information
      Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper
Authorship in the AJHB
            Ethical Statements
            Conflict of Interest
            Informed Consent
      Note to NIH Grantees
      Open Access Option
After Acceptance
      Signing a License Electronically
            Copyright Transfer Agreement
 Author Services
      Production Questions

Contact Information:

Online Only

Given that the majority of the AJHB’s readers and subscribers access the journal exclusively online, the journal began publishing in an online-only format starting in 2014. This is a positive move toward reducing the environmental impact caused by the production and distribution of printed journal copies. Published articles will continue to be disseminated quickly through the journal’s broad network of indexing services, including ISI, MEDLINE and Scopus. Articles will also continue to be discoverable through popular search engines such as Google. All color images will now be published free of charge.


Submitting Your Manuscript to the AJHB

Authors are required to submit their manuscripts online. If you do not have online access, contact the journal at before submission. To submit a manuscript online, first launch your web browser and go to Check for an existing account. If you are submitting for the first time, and you do not have an existing account, create a new account by following the onscreen step-by-step instructions.

At the end of a successful submission, you will receive email confirmation that the manuscript has been received by the journal. If you do not receive the confirmation, check your submission to ensure that you have clicked the final submit buttons. If you are concerned that your submission did not register, contact technical support by clicking the Help button in the top right corner of the page, send an email message to, or to the Editorial Office (

IMPORTANT: Text, figures, and tables must be submitted as separate files to ensure that the submission is successful.

To avoid possible delay in processing your submission, your files must be submitted in the following formats:

  • One DOC or DOCX file with text and citations
  • Tables in individual DOC or DOCX files
  • Each figure in a separate file in TIF or EPS format

See the relevant sections of these guidelines for format requirements.

Do not mail paper copies of your manuscript to the journal. Be sure to keep an electronic copy that is identical to the version that you submitted online.

Cover photos: Authors are invited to submit color photographs or other artistic material for consideration as cover illustrations.

Manuscript Types

Research reports should be prepared as one of two types: Short Reports or Original Research Articles. In addition, the journal regularly solicits Feature Articles from noted experts on timely topics.

Short Reports: Short reports are presentations of original research findings of a focused nature. They should not exceed 1500 words or text, inclusive of abstract, and include no more than 2 figures or tables and no more than 15 references. Short reports will be given expedited review in order to maintain the shortest possible time to decision and publication.

Original Research Articles: Original articles include presentation of results from more complex research designs and those with more important theoretical or methodological content or implications. While there are no standard limitations on the length of original articles, authors are cautioned to be concise in their presentations and to employ figures and tables only as necessary.

Feature Articles: Feature articles may be solicited on topics of current interest from noted experts. Since it is hoped that these articles will prove useful as teaching materials, authors are encouraged to include clear illustrations and extensive bibliographies. The format of feature articles need not follow the standard organization for research reports, described below, but may be adapted to the content at hand.

Manuscript Format

A manuscript should consist of the following subdivisions and be uploaded in a single DOC or DOCX file:

  • Title page
  • Abstract and key words
  • Text
  • Acknowledgments
  • Author contributions
  • Literature cited
  • Footnotes (if any)

The spelling of nontechnical terms should be as recommended in the current Webster's International Dictionary.

Always spell out numbers when they stand as the first word in a sentence; do not follow such numbers with abbreviations. Numbers indicating time, weight, and measurements are to be in Arabic numerals when followed by abbreviations (e.g., 2 mm; 1 sec; 3 ml).

Article Structure

Title page. The title page must contain the following elements:

  • Title
  • Author's name (or names)
  • Institution from which the paper emanated, with city, state, and postal code
  • Number of text pages, plus bibliography, number of tables, figures, graphs, and charts
  • Abbreviated title (running headline) not to exceed 48 characters and spaces
  • Name, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address of the person to whom the proof is to be sent. If you plan to be away while your article is in press, please inform the Production Editor.
  • Grant sponsorship

Abstract. The abstract should consist of 250 words or fewer. When published, it will precede the introductory section of the text. The abstract should be written in complete sentences and should include the following sections with section heads in bold followed by a colon:

  • Objectives: A succinct statement of the goal(s) of the research.
  • Methods: A brief description of the study design, materials, subjects, data collection, and statistical or other analysis methods used.
  • Results: A brief description of the principal findings.
  • Conclusions: A brief statement of the conclusions drawn relative to the objectives of the study.

This structure can be waived for Feature Articles and certain other articles at the discretion of the Editor.

Key Words. Authors should supply 3 to 5 key words, terms, or brief phrases that will aid in identifying the article to electronic search engines and in indexing the content of the article.

Text. Research articles should be concise and follow a standard organization with the following major sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Subheadings within sections should be used to clarify the organization as needed.

Metric system:
The metric system should be used for all measurements, weights, etc. Temperatures should be expressed in degrees Celsius (centigrade). Metric abbreviations should be expressed in lowercase without periods.

When preceded by a digit, the following symbols are to be used: % for percent; ° for degree.

Author Contributions. Authors should include a brief statement to specify the contributions of each co-author, to appear immediately before the Literature Cited section. The statement should not be more than several sentences long, describing the task of individual authors.

Sample Author Contribution:
GB, KB, and AK analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. GB, SM, and LS designed the study, and directed implementation and data collection. KB, LM, LS, and TS collected the data, and OC provided necessary logistical support. SM, LS, OC, LM, and TS edited the manuscript for intellectual content and provided critical comments on the manuscript.


List all sources in the reference list alphabetically by name. In text citations should follow the author-date method. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

References are styled according to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. A sample of the most common entries in reference lists appears below. Please note that for journal articles, issue numbers are not included unless each issue in the volume begins with page one.

Journal article:
Phelps, L. (1996). Discriminative validity of the WRAML with ADHD and LD children. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 5-12.

Book edition:
Bradley-Johnson, S. (1994). Psychoeducational assessment of students who are visually impaired or blind: Infancy through high school (2nd ed.). Austin, TEX: Pro-ed.

References should refer only to material listed within the text.

Footnotes. Footnotes to the text are discouraged. Footnotes to a table should be typed directly beneath the table and numbered with superscripts (1, 2, 3, etc.). They should not be numbered in sequence with the footnotes in the text. Also, if superscript numbers could be mistaken for exponents, substitute superscript a, b, c, etc.

Tables and Figures

Authors should limit the number of tables and figures to that which adequately presents the findings. Additional tables and figures may be submitted under Supporting Information and will be available to readers online.

Tables. Each table should be submitted in an individual file in DOC or DOCX format and should be clearly presented without unnecessary formatting. Tables should be numbered consecutively (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). All tables must be cited in the article text. Do not embed tables in the article text but instead indicate where the tables belong in the article text within brackets, e.g., [Table 1 here]. Table titles should be complete but brief. Information other than that defining the data should be presented in footnotes, not in the table heading.

Figures. Each figure should be submitted in an individual file in TIF or EPS format. Figures should be numbered consecutively (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). All figures must be cited in the article text. Do not embed figures in the article text but instead indicate where the figures belong in the article text within brackets, e.g., [Figure 1 here]. Figure legends should be collected in a single DOC or DOCX file and uploaded separately during the submission process. When uploading figures in ScholarOne Manuscripts, please include the figure number in the Caption/Legend box, even though you have provided a separate list of figure legends. Abbreviations for all figures should be listed alphabetically and placed before the first figure mentioning them.

Figures, including charts and graphs, must be numbered consecutively.

Software and format:
The recommended format for all illustration files is TIF. JPG and JPEG format will not be accepted. EPS (with preview) is acceptable but not recommended. Do not submit native application formats.

Journal quality reproduction will require image files at resolutions yielding approximately 300 ppi. Bitmapped line art should be submitted at resolutions yielding 600-1200 ppi. These resolutions refer to the output size of the file; an individual figure or group of figures should not exceed the dimensions of 5½" (14.0 cm) wide by 7¾" (19.7 cm) long or 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) wide by 7¾" (19.7 cm) long in the case of single-column placement. Images should be submitted at the proper size for final publication. Color figures must be submitted in RGB colorspace and will be published at no charge.

File names:
Figure files should be given the 2- or 3-letter extension that identifies the file format used (i.e., .tif, .eps).

Cover art:
Authors are invited to submit color photos or other artwork for consideration as cover illustrations.

Supporting Information

Authors are encouraged to submit supporting information that could aid readers in understanding the authors' findings and where appropriate to ensure that the page limits are met. This accompanying information may include (but is not limited to) figures, tables, video clips, large sections of movies (QuickTime or mpeg), data sets, program code, and electronic graphical files. Supporting information must be submitted at the time of peer review, although the reviewers and editors may also suggest that figures or table(s) be provided as supporting information during the review process. Each piece of supporting information should be referenced within the text. Supporting information should be numbered in order, but independently of figures in the main article, e.g., S- Figure 1 would indicate a figure that follows Figure 1 in the main text. Please note that supporting information is NOT edited by the publisher after final acceptance by the editors, and is posted online in the format in which it is supplied.

Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper

Consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate key words, and promoting your research through social media.




The AJHB adheres to Wiley’s Ethics Guidelines available at and by the guidelines produced by the Committee on Publication Ethics. Please contact the journal at with any questions or concerns regarding ethics in the AJHB.

Ethical Statements

By submitting your manuscript to the AJHB, you confirm the following ethical statements:

  • Your manuscript has not been published previously and is not currently submitted to any other journal.
  • Your manuscript does not contain plagiarized content. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.”
  • Your manuscript does not contain self-plagiarized text. The Office of Research Integrity defines self-plagiarism as “reuse [of an author’s] own previously written work or data in a ‘new’ written product without letting the reader know that this material has appeared elsewhere.”
  • All authors listed in your manuscript meet the below criteria of authorship, and all those who meet these criteria are listed as authors.
    • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
    • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
    • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
    • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


The AJHB uses iThenticate, a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to us, you agree that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works. All submitted manuscripts must be original and must not have been published previously either in whole or in part, except in abstract form; manuscripts published previously in another language may not be submitted. Also, manuscripts submitted to us must not be under consideration by any other journal.

Conflict of Interest

The AJHB requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter (if applicable) to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript’s Acknowledgments section, and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Informed Consent

The AJHB requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining informed consent of any and all human and/or experimental animal subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication. A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed was reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. For research involving recombinant DNA, containment facilities and guidelines should conform to those of the National Institutes of Health or corresponding institutions. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration should be followed.

Note to NIH Grantees

Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Open Access Option

OnlineOpen, Wiley’s open access option, is available to authors who wish to make their article open access and available to all on Wiley Online Library, including those who don’t subscribe to the journal. Authors wishing to choose OnlineOpen will have an opportunity to do so after acceptance.


Signing a License Electronically

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to electronically complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Copyright Transfer Agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs.


This journal now uses eLocators. For more information, please visit the Author Services eLocator page here.


If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

  • Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


A set of page and illustration proofs will be sent to the author via email from the publisher. All corrections should be clearly marked.

Author Services

Authors can easily track the production process for their accepted article in Wiley Author Services. Other benefits available at Wiley Author Services include:

  • Free access to your article for 10 of your colleagues; each author of a paper may nominate up to 10 colleagues. This feature is retrospective—even articles already published offer this feature for free colleague access.
  • Access in perpetuity to your published article.
  • Easy communication with your Production Editor via email.
  • A list of your favorite journals with quick links to the Editorial Board, Aims & Scope, Author Guidelines and if applicable the Online Submission website; journals in which you have tracked production of an article are automatically added to your Favorites.
  • Electronic signing of the license agreement for your accepted article.

Self-Archiving Policy. Authors of articles published in Wiley journals are permitted to self-archive the submitted (preprint) version of the article at any time, and may self-archive the accepted (peer-reviewed) version after an embargo period. Please visit our Self-Archiving Policy page for details or refer to your Copyright Transfer Agreement.

Production Questions

Please contact the AJHB Production Editor at