Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 8

Edited By: James C. Lin

Impact Factor: 1.583

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 34/86 (Biology); 53/72 (Biophysics)

Online ISSN: 1521-186X

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Author Guidelines

Bioelectromagnetics is a peer-reviewed, internationally circulated scientific journal that specializes in biological, biochemical, biophysical, epidemiological and clinical research on the interaction of biological systems with electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields with frequencies from zero (DC) to the optical region and with ultrasound. It is sponsored by the Bioelectromagnetics Society and published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and is the official journal of the Bioelectromagnetics Society and the European Bioelectromagnetics Association. It publishes both experimental and theoretical papers, as well as reviews that offer novel insights into or criticism of concepts of field-organism interactions. The journal also welcomes papers on mechanical or other physical factors that may lead to better understanding of bioelectromagnetic interactions.

STYLE: All manuscripts must be written in clear, correct English. Authors should follow the recommendations in CBE Style Manual , 6th Edition (Council of Biology Editors. 1994. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press) the recommendations by the IUPAC and IUB Commissions for nomenclature in abbreviations, and symbols and units of the International System of Units (SI) in reporting quantitative data. When original data have been measured in non-SI units, e.g., inches or feet, use of such units is permissible only if near-equivalent SI units are also given parenthetically. Numbers should be unambiguous concerning significant digits, e.g., use 2.10 x 104 rather than 21000; use a leading zero for all numbers less than one (0.1, 0.7, etc.). Assemble the manuscript in separate files as noted in the "Submission" section.

SUBMISSION: All manuscripts should be submitted through the on-line manuscript handling system , accessible through the Internet at , following the instructions on the Internet pages. Pre-submission inquiries on any topic should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, James C. Lin.

The on-line manuscript handling system has explicit instructions on format and other matters that should be followed. This Journal has a completely digital submission, review, and production process. We therefore ask for production-quality files at initial submission and in any case at the submission of your revised article. This will speed the production and distribution of your work across a variety of print and electronic platforms.

Manuscripts that do not meet the guidelines will be returned for additional revision. This will of course delay review and, in the event that the work is accepted, would delay publication. So please pay careful attention at the time of submission; your cooperation is appreciated.

Text: Submit text in DOC, RTF, or TXT format, as instructed on the Internet pages. Do not embed figures or tables in this document; these should be submitted as separate files. Figure captions should be collected on one or more pages that are placed at the end of the text.

Tables: Tables should be created with a word processor and saved in either DOC or RTF format. Do not embed tables in the text.

Figures: To ensure the highest print quality, figures must be submitted in EPS, DOC, XLS, or PPT formats according to the following minimum resolutions:

  • 1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bar graphs, charts, etc.)
  • 300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)
  • 600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labeling or thin lines)

High-quality (1000 dpi or more) TIF or JPG files are also acceptable. Vector-based figures (e.g. figures created in Adobe Illustrator) should be submitted in EPS format.

Color Figures: In addition to the above resolution guidelines, color figures must be submitted in a CMYK colorspace. Do not submit color figures as RGB.

Unacceptable Figure Formats: Do not submit figures in any of the following formats: GIF, PSD, CRD, PCT, PDF, LaTex, Tex, PICT, Tar, BMP, 123 (or other Lotus formats).

QUESTIONS? To ensure that digital graphics are suitable for print media, Rapid Inspector , a free stand-alone software application, will help you verify illustration quality. Detailed guidelines on preparing digital images can also be found at

Data Deposit and Internet Links: The publisher's Internet site allows authors to deposit data tables or files too massive for inclusion in an Article for online access by subscribers. Data to be deposited should be submitted with the original manuscript and are subject to the same peer review and editing as other parts of the manuscript. The Internet site can also incorporate a link in the freely available online abstract to a number of other Internet data banks, including Genome Database (GDB), Protein Databank (PDB), and European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), though not all links can be accommodated. Link requests should also accompany the initial submission of the manuscript. There is presently no charge for data deposit or links, and none is contemplated. If fees ever are imposed, authors would be asked to choose between assuming them or dropping the deposited data or link.

Assurances, Notifications, and Conflicts of Interest: For all reports of work using animals or human subjects, the Methods section must note compliance with the relevant safeguards, noting relevant regulations and oversight committees. Bioelectromagnetics seeks to follow the accountability policy enunciated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (see Davidoff F., et al. 2001. Editorial. N. Engl. J. Med, 345: 825-827). Authors must acknowledge all financial or in kind support of the work from sources outside of their institutions. They must also identify any significant past or present situations that plausibly might affect the ability of any of them to make disinterested scientific judgments related to the work. Such situations are impossible to list fully, but they include past or present employment; paid or unpaid consulting; substantial financial interest or ownership on the part of an author or a close family member or other personally significant individual; other types of close or adversarial personal or professional relationships; etc. Such situations also include some types of participation or oversight by sponsors in research design, implementation, or publication.

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS: The journal publishes Articles, Reviews, Brief Communications, Comments and Letters. The first two, longer type of manuscripts should be organized into sections appropriate to the material. All types of papers should observe the recommendations for Articles where applicable, e.g., title page, abstract and key words, reference format, etc.

ARTICLES report the results of experimental, theoretical, epidemiological, or clinical research. A well-written paper generally will not exceed 8 printed pages, equivalent to approximately 16 double-spaced manuscript pages, excluding title, abstract, figures and tables. Introductory comments and discussion of results should generally be directly relevant to the data being presented. Interpretive statements and speculations should be clearly indicated as such. Conclusions drawn from experimental data should be consistent with experimental uncertainties.

Title Page: This page should contain a brief but informative title, the names and complete institutional affiliations of all authors, and the name and address to be used for editorial correspondence and reprint requests. The corresponding author's telephone, fax, and email address should also be included. A short running title and sources of grant, contract, and other major financial support should be placed at the bottom of the title page.

Abstract: The abstract must be a factual condensation of the entire work, including in the case of experimental studies, a clear description of primary variables and major findings. In one paragraph of not more than approximately 200 words (about one double spaced manuscript page), provide a concise summary of approach, data or theory, and conclusions.

Key Words: At the bottom of the abstract page, include 3-5 words or short phrases that capture the subject matter of the manuscript for use in the annual Subject Index. Do not repeat words already used in the title.

Text: Use a format appropriate to the material, which will generally include, in the following order, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions (can be combined with Discussion), Acknowledgments (if necessary), References, and Appendices (if any). Sources of grant and contract funding are identified on the title page. Required assurances and notifications (see above) appear in the Methods section. Assistance from others should be mentioned in the Acknowledgment section.

References: In text, cite references by author and year of publication in brackets; for more than two authors, use only the first author's surname with "et al." If an author has two or more reports during a given year of publication, identify them with letter suffixes to the year ofpublication (e.g., Doe, 1995a, b). Reference to reports that are nonarchival or limited in circulation, e.g., conference abstracts or laboratory, company, or government agency reports, is discouraged because they are often difficultto obtain and generally lack formal peer review. Similarly, references to personal communications or unpublished manuscripts are discouraged, but if used, permission from the author of the communication must be obtained. These citations are incorporated into the text in brackets [ ]. The list of references must be double spaced in alphabetical order. Abbreviate names of journals in accordance with the style of IndexMedicus. Note the following examples:

Cohen HD, Graham C, Cook MR, Phelphs JW. 1992. ELF exposure facility for human testing. Bioelectromagnetics 13:169-182.

Lin JC. 1978. Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.

McLee BD, Finch ED. 1973. Analysis of reported physiological effects of microwave radiation. In Lawrence JH, Goffman JR (eds): Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, Vol. 14. New York: Academic Press, pp 163-223.

Wilkinson GR, Shand DG. 1975. Commentary: A physiological approach to hepatic drug clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18:377-390.

References to Internet resources parallel the print format whenever possible. If print publications also are available on the Internet, authors may at their option add the Internet citation. For example:

WHO International EMF Project. [undated]. Agenda for Research [Internet]. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization. Available from: [Last updated 14 March 2002]

de Vocht F, Stevens T, Glover P, Sunderland A, Gowland P, Kromhout H. 2007. Cognitive effects of head-movements in stray fields generated by a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI magnet. DOI: 10.1002/bem.20311. Published Online: Feb 8 2007. Available from: (subscription required)

For further information, see Patrias K. 2001. National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation. Supplement: Internet Formats. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), 106 pp. Available from:

Tables: Compose each table, double spaced, on a separate page. Tables are given Arabic numbers in order of appearance and must be keyed to the text. Each table must have a self-explanatory title; additional explanatory information should be placed in footnotes, placed below the body of the table, to the title, column headings and entries. Use symbols (asterisk, dagger, etc.) or lower case Roman letters for footnotes, rather than numerals.

Figures: Figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and be keyed to the text. Line drawings and computer generated figures must be of high quality; see guidelines concerning figures in Submission section, above. Lines and lettering must be large and dense enough (minima of 1 point line width, 12 point bold face lettering) to be legible after the figure is reduced to one column width (8.25 cm or 3.25 inches) . We encourage submitting original figures of this width. Scanned figures are generally not of acceptable quality due to grey backgrounds and lack of sharp-edged lines and letters. Photographs, including photomicrographs, must be taken from high contrast glossy prints. Magnification factors must be provided when appropriate; they should be indicated by a calibration bar in the figure. If color plates are necessary, the extra costs involved must be assumed by the authors.

As noted above, authors are expected to pay the extra costs of publishing figures in color. Color photographs or graphs that reproduce well in black and white (b/w) are acceptable; they will appear in b/w in print, but in color on the publisher’s Internet file of the article. Authors should test such figures by viewing their computer files in "greyscale" or by making a photocopy of a color printout . Color figures that almost never reproduce well include false-color maps running from red through blue, fluourescence photomicrographs of more than one color, and graphs that do not use differently-shaped points to distinguish multiple lines.

Captions and Legends: Descriptive figure captions and legends must accompany illustrations. Captions should be typed, double spaced, on a separate page or pages at the end of the manuscript. A figure and its caption should convey a clear message without asking the reader to scan the text, but should rely on the text for details beyond the basic information needed to convey the message and should not repeat information already in the figure itself. All special abbreviations and symbols should be defined by legends in a figure or by the caption.

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Short, but complete reports of novel experimental findings or theories are solicited, and the editors will attempt to secure reviews with a minimum of delay and to speed publication. Manuscripts should be limited to 10 double-spaced pages of text and a maximum of four figures and/or tables. Do not include section headings. The abstract should be kept to a few lines, and only essential references should be included.

COMMENTS:The journal welcomes short comments that address specific scientific research issues raised by papers published in Bioelectromagnetics. All Comments will be reviewed for scientific content and appropriateness in furthering the goals of eliminating errors and enhancing understanding of published research. Comments that are accepted will be published in as timely a manner as possible, accompanied if appropriate by a reply from the original author(s). Comments should be no longer than three printed page, including figures and references (about 1200 words or four double spaced pages, less space for figures).

REVIEWS: Manuscripts providing a critical and analytical synopsis and assessment of prior work are welcome. They should provide a sufficiently complete and balanced set of references to enable the reader to begin independent study of the topic. These papers may also include the authors' original contributions or assessments, if clearly identified. They will generally be longer than articles, but rarely more than 40 double spaced manuscript pages. Authors contemplating reviews are advised to consult the Editor in Chief early in order to avoid duplication or content inconsistent with the journal's purpose.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Short (not more than five double spaced manuscript page), clear, informative letters appropriate to an archival journal are invited. Generally letters are limited to a single idea on a topic that is of interest to a significant portion of our readers, which may be related to something published recently in this journal. However, almost all technical comments on specific articles should use the Comments format. The Editor in Chief has discretion to accept or refuse publication of any letter, with or without seeking the advice of referee(s), to solicit comment on a letter from another party for simultaneous publication, and to terminate extended exchanges. Letters may be edited for clarity or length, with or without asking authors' approval of the edited version.

COPYRIGHT/LICENSING: If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.
For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions
For authors choosing OnlineOpen:
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

OTHER INFORMATION: All manuscripts submitted to Bioelectromagnetics must be under consideration solely by this journal, may not have been published in any part or form in any other publication of any type, professional or lay. The journal presumes that all authors have approved the submitted manuscript. Manuscripts, though not their contents, become the property of the journal. Authors must secure permission to republish any copyrighted material. Should possible scientific misconduct or dishonesty in research submitted for review by the journal be suspected or alleged, the journal reserves the right to forward any submitted manuscript to the sponsoring or funding institution or other appropriate authority for investigation. The journal recognizes the responsibility to ensure that the question is appropriately pursued, but does not undertake the actual investigation or make determinations of misconduct.

The Bioelectromagnetics Society now requests no page charges, voluntary or otherwise, or other fees for authors or their institutions. At their option, authors may purchase reprints at

Note to NIH Grantees. Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see .

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in Bioelectromagnetics do not necessarily represent the views of the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.

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