BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 11

Editor: Andrew Moore

Online ISSN: 1521-1878

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Volume 39, Issue 11, November 2017


Physical Limits on the Precision of Mitotic Spindle Positioning by Microtubule Pushing forces : Mechanics of mitotic spindle positioning

Physical Limits on the Precision of Mitotic Spindle Positioning by Microtubule Pushing forces : Mechanics of mitotic spindle positioning

Jonathon Howard*, Carlos Garzon-Coral

We discuss microtubule-based mechanisms of the mitotic spindle positioning, a key mechanical process that shapes and patterns tissues. The magnitude of the centering forces indicates that the physical limit on the accuracy and precision of centering is set by the number of contributing microtubules rather than by thermally driven fluctuations.

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 11, 0 [Prospects and Overviews]

Cell Polarity and Notch Signaling: Linked by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Neuralized?

Cell Polarity and Notch Signaling: Linked by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Neuralized?

Gantas Perez-Mockus, Francois Schweisguth*

Notch receptor activation depends on direct cell–cell contacts that in turn depends on cell shape and cellular polarity. The size and geometry of cell–cell contacts have an impact on the strength and range of signaling. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized regulates the endocytosis and signaling activity of Delta. The activity of Neuralized is tightly regulated during development. Neuralized also modulates epithelial cell polarity by targeting the apical polarity protein Stardust and by promoting the endocytosis of Crumbs. Thus, the cell-specific expression of Neuralized (cell in orange) couples Notch receptor activation (high level of Notch activity in cells next to the Neur-expressing cell) with cell polarity regulation in epithelia (loss of the apical domain in the orange cell).

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 11, 0 [Prospects and Overviews]

DNA Methylation in Embryo Development: Epigenetic Impact of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies)

DNA Methylation in Embryo Development: Epigenetic Impact of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies)

Sebastian Canovas*, Pablo J. Ross, Gavin Kelsey, Pilar Coy

DNA methylation, critical for embryo development, suffers significant changes after fertilization, including demethylation, remethylation and TET3-mediated oxidation of 5 mC to 5 hmC. In addition to infertility and environmental insults, ART (in vitro fertilization, in vitro culture, etc) could impact DNA methylation and ART related consequences in the offspring have been reported.

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 11, 0 [Prospects and Overviews]

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