Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Upcoming Hot Papers
Hot Papers are chosen by the Editors for their importance in a rapidly evolving field of high current interest. Many of the "Very Important Papers" (VIPs) would certainly qualify to be included here, but such a duplication is avoided.
Group 13 Metal Catalysis
Cooperative Bond Activation and Catalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide at a Group 13 Metal Center
Joseph A. B. Abdalla, Dr. Ian M. Riddlestone, Rémi Tirfoin and Prof. Simon Aldridge
A single-component ambiphilic Group 13 system has been developed, capable of the cooperative activation of protic, hydridic and apolar HX bonds. The hydride complex derived from the activation of H2 catalyzes the selective transformation of CO2 to a methanol derivative, representing the first example of such a reduction process catalyzed by a molecular gallium complex.
Lewis Acid Promoted Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Etherifications by Selective Hydrogenation of Carboxylic Acids/Esters
Dr. Yuehui Li, Dr. Christoph Topf, Dr. Xinjiang Cui, Dr. Kathrin Junge and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller
An assist from Al: A bifunctional catalyst system consisting of a Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate allows selective hydrogenation of esters to ethers. A variety of lactones were reduced to the desired products in good yields. The catalyst further provides a general method for the reduction of linear esters and reductive etherification of carboxylic acids with alcohols.
Iron-Catalyzed Dehydropolymerization: A Convenient Route to Poly(phosphinoboranes) with Molecular-Weight Control
Dr. André Schäfer, Dr. Titel Jurca, Joshua Turner, Dr. James R. Vance, Dr. Kajin Lee, Dr. Van An Du, Dr. Mairi F. Haddow, Dr. George R. Whittell and Prof. Dr. Ian Manners
Loading matters: The catalyst loading is the key to control the molecular weight of the polymer in the iron-catalyzed dehydropolymerization of phosphine–borane adducts. Studies showed that the reaction proceeds through a chain-growth coordination–insertion mechanism.
Natural Product Synthesis
A Concise and Scalable Strategy for the Total Synthesis of Dictyodendrin B Based on Sequential CH Functionalization
Andrew K. Pitts, Dr. Fionn O'Hara, Dr. Robert H. Snell and Prof. Matthew J. Gaunt
One by one: A sequential CH functionalization strategy for the synthesis of the marine alkaloid dictyodendrin B is reported. The synthetic route begins from commercially available 4-bromoindole and involves six direct functionalizations around the heteroarene core as part of a gram-scale strategy towards the natural product.
Visible-Light-Triggered Molecular Photoswitch Based on Reversible E/Z Isomerization of a 1,2-Dicyanoethene Derivative
Dr. Xin Guo, Jiawang Zhou, Dr. Maxime A. Siegler, Prof. Dr. Arthur E. Bragg and Prof. Dr. Howard E. Katz
Light switch: A dicyanoethene-based molecular photoswitch operates only through E/Z photoisomerization that is triggered by visible light (100 % EZ conversion within minutes). The combination of favorable properties in a single photochromic switch makes it an attractive alternative to the frequently used azobenzenes in numerous photoswitching applications.
(−)-Englerin A is a Potent and Selective Activator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 Calcium Channels
M. Sc. Yasemin Akbulut, Hannah J. Gaunt, Prof. Katsuhiko Muraki, Dr. Melanie J. Ludlow, Dr. Mohamed S. Amer, Dr. Alexander Bruns, Dr. Naveen S. Vasudev, Dr. Lea Radtke, Dr. Matthieu Willot, M. Sc. Sven Hahn, M. Sc. Tobias Seitz, Dr. Slava Ziegler, Prof. Dr. Mathias Christmann, Prof. Dr. David J. Beech and Prof. Dr. Herbert Waldmann
Natural born killer: The sesquiterpene (−)-englerin A rapidly and selectively kills renal cancer cells through activation of calcium-permeable nonselective transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) calcium channels. It is a highly efficient, fast-acting, potent, selective, and direct stimulator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels (PM=plasma membrane).
Temperature-Controlled Bidirectional Enantioselectivity in a Dynamic Catalyst for Asymmetric Hydrogenation
M. Sc. Golo Storch and Prof. Dr. Oliver Trapp
Temperature switches enantioselectivity! A stereochemically flexible diastereomeric rhodium(I) catalyst has been designed for the asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral (Z)-α-acetamidocinnamates and α-substituted acrylates. The catalyst changes its enantioselectivity depending on the temperature to produce each single enantiomer in high yield and a constant high enantioselectivity.
Cooperative Catalysis of Noncompatible Catalysts through Compartmentalization: Wacker Oxidation and Enzymatic Reduction in a One-Pot Process in Aqueous Medium
Dr. Hirofumi Sato, Prof. Dr. Werner Hummel and Prof. Dr. Harald Gröger
Dream reaction: A Wacker oxidation with PdCl2/CuCl was combined with an enzymatic reduction to convert styrenes enantioselectively to 1-phenylethanols in a one-pot process, although the two reactions are not compatible with each other due to enzyme deactivation by Cu ions. The key to success was the compartmentalization of the catalysts (see picture; PDMS=polydimethylsiloxane).
Dehydrogenative Homocoupling of Terminal Alkenes on Copper Surfaces: A Route to Dienes
Qiang Sun, Liangliang Cai, Yuanqi Ding, Lei Xie, Chi Zhang, Prof. Dr. Qinggang Tan and Prof. Dr. Wei Xu
On the surface: By combining high-resolution UHV-STM imaging and DFT calculations, the homocoupling of terminal alkenes on copper surfaces is reported. A diene compound is formed with an appreciably high yield on the Cu(110) surface.
Electrochemically Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization from a Substrate Surface Manipulated by Bipolar Electrolysis: Fabrication of Gradient and Patterned Polymer Brushes
Naoki Shida, Yuki Koizumi, Dr. Hiroki Nishiyama, Prof. Dr. Ikuyoshi Tomita and Prof. Dr. Shinsuke Inagi
A potential gradient generated on a bipolar electrode allowed the formation of a concentration gradient of a CuI polymerization catalyst through the one-electron reduction of CuII, resulting in the gradient growth of polymer brushes from an initiator-modified substrate surface set close to a bipolar electrode. These polymer brushes could be fabricated in three-dimensional gradient shapes with control over thickness, steepness, and modified area.
Control of Stem-Cell Behavior by Fine Tuning the Supramolecular Assemblies of Low-Molecular-Weight Gelators
Dr. Laurent Latxague, Dr. Michael A. Ramin, Ananda Appavoo, Pierre Berto, Mathieu Maisani, Camille Ehret, Dr. Olivier Chassande and Prof. Philippe Barthélémy
Culture medium: Glycosyl-nucleoside bola-amphiphiles (GNBAs) are low-molecular-weight gelators that allow the culture of isolated stem cells in a gel matrix. The reported results highlight the role of the supramolecular organizations of the matrix on the behavior of stem cells in 3D environments.
Iron-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrosilylation of 1,1-Disubstituted Alkenes
Jianhui Chen, Biao Cheng, Minyi Cao and Prof. Zhan Lu
Iron clad: The highly regio- and enantioselective iron-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov hydrosilylation of 1,1-disubstituted aryl alkenes was developed using iminopyridine oxazoline ligands to afford chiral organosilanes. Additional derivatization of these products lead to chiral organosilanols, cyclic silanes, phenol derivatives, and 3-substituted 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.
Hybrid Fibers Made of Molybdenum Disulfide, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Solid-State, Flexible, Asymmetric Supercapacitors
Dr. Gengzhi Sun, Xiao Zhang, Rongzhou Lin, Jian Yang, Prof. Hua Zhang and Prof. Peng Chen
On fiber: A solid-state, asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated by using flexible hybridized fibers of MoS2-rGO/MWCNT and rGO/MWCNT as the anode and cathode, respectively (MWCNT: multi-walled carbon nanotube, rGO: reduced graphene oxide). This fiber-based asymmetric supercapacitor can operate in a wide potential window of 1.4 V with high Coulombic efficiency, good rate and cycling stability, and improved energy density.
Fabrication of Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Porous Films of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Copper Surfaces
Yuting Luo, Dr. Juan Li, Jie Zhu, Ye Zhao and Prof. Xuefeng Gao
Water-drop ejector seat: A facile, cheap, and scalable electrodeposition approach gives copper surfaces coated with porous films made of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The films have condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) properties, that is, droplets move across and even jump from the surface (see time-laps photo). The key to the film preparation is the control over preferential growth of isotropic nanoparticles and the synergistic use of the hydrogen-evolution reaction releasing tiny bubbles as pore-making templates.
Spatially Resolved Quantification of Gadolinium(III)-Based Magnetic Resonance Agents in Tissue by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry after In Vivo MRI
Dr. Michaela Aichler, Katharina Huber, Dr. Franz Schilling, Dr. Fabian Lohöfer, Dr. Katja Kosanke, Dr. Reinhard Meier, Prof.Dr. Ernst J. Rummeny, Prof. Dr. Axel Walch and Dr. Moritz Wildgruber
Contrast Agents: As a consequence of nonlinear correlation between the contrast agent concentration in tissue and the MRI signal obtained in vivo, quantification of certain biological or pathophysiological processes by MRI remains a challenge. MALDI imaging is a valuable tool for corroborating the in vivo imaging MRI signals. This method enabled in situ quantification of the contrast agent directly in tissue with high spatial resolution.
Hypercrosslinked Phenolic Polymers with Well-Developed Mesoporous Frameworks
Dr. Jinshui Zhang, Dr. Zhen-An Qiao, Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Xueguang Jiang, Dr. Song-Hai Chai, Dr. Hanfeng Lu, Kimberly Nelson and Prof. Sheng Dai
Soft chemistry: The hypercrosslinking of aromatic backbones through Friedel–Crafts alkylation reaction is demonstrated as an efficient pathway for the nanotexturation of phenolic polymers with a robust mesoporous framework. The method takes advantage of bridge-derived micropores for the insertion of solvents for template extraction.
The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase
Dr. Isabel Peña, Dr. Carlos Cabezas and Prof. José L. Alonso
Intramolecular hydrogen bonds: The simplest nucleoside uridine has been placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and structurally characterized by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties (see picture) have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.
Developing Conjugated Polymers with High Electron Affinity by Replacing a CC Unit with a BN Unit
Dr. Chuandong Dou, Dr. Zicheng Ding, Zijian Zhang, Prof. Zhiyuan Xie, Prof. Jun Liu and Prof. Lixiang Wang
Transforming units: Disclosed herein is a novel strategy to decrease both LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers, by about 0.6 eV, through replacement of a CC unit by a BN unit. The replacement transforms the resulting polymer from an electron donor into an electron acceptor.
Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by a Dinuclear Copper Complex in a Neutral Aqueous Solution
Xiao-Jun Su, Meng Gao, Prof. Dr. Lei Jiao, Prof. Dr. Rong-Zhen Liao, Prof. Per E. M. Siegbahn, Prof. Dr. Jin-Pei Cheng and Prof. Dr. Ming-Tian Zhang
CuIII not CuIV: A robust dinuclear CuII complex catalyzed water oxidation in a neutral aqueous solution. The OO bond formation was proceeded by an intramolecular interaction between two CuIII centers rather than by the high-oxidation-state CuIVO moiety as previously reported.
Porous Solids Arising from Synergistic and Competing Modes of Assembly: Combining Coordination Chemistry and Covalent Bond Formation
Ananya Dutta, Dr. Kyoungmoo Koh, Dr. Antek G. Wong-Foy and Prof. Adam J. Matzger
Teamwork saves the day when coordination chemistry and covalent bond formation can both occur in a single material. A balance between the incubation time of the organic components and solvent decomposition/base formation governs the competition between the two processes and determines the phase outcome. Even the temporary formation of reversible connections between components can be leveraged to make new phases.
Chelation-Driven Rearrangement of Primary Alkyl Aminopalladation Products to Stable Trisubstituted Alkyl–Palladium Complexes
Dr. Carolyn F. Rosewall, Dr. Erica L. Ingalls, Dr. Werner Kaminsky and Prof. Dr. Forrest E. Michael
Equilibration: A set of alkyl–palladium complexes can be subtly tuned to form the thermodynamically favored complex with either the primary or the trisubstituted alkyl complexes, depending on the substrate and the reaction conditions that are used. The mechanism for the rearrangement and the factors that drive the change in stability are discussed.
Water-Soluble Triazabutadienes that Release Diazonium Species upon Protonation under Physiologically Relevant Conditions
Flora W. Kimani and Dr. John C. Jewett
Just add water: Triazabutadienes readily release diazonium species in a pH-dependent manner in a series of buffer solutions with pH ranges similar to those found in living systems. These compounds offer one of the mildest ways of generating diazonium species in aqueous solutions.
Rapid Formation of a Supramolecular Polypeptide–DNA Hydrogel for In Situ Three-Dimensional Multilayer Bioprinting
Chuang Li, Alan Faulkner-Jones, Dr. Alison R. Dun, Dr. Juan Jin, Dr. Ping Chen, Dr. Yongzheng Xing, Prof. Zhongqiang Yang, Prof. Zhibo Li, Dr. Wenmiao Shu, Prof. Dongsheng Liu and Prof. Rory R. Duncan
Printed DNA hydrogel: The rapid formation of a supramolecular polypeptide–DNA hydrogel with self-healing properties and a high mechanical strength is described. The hydrogel was used for in situ multilayer three-dimensional bioprinting and cell printing, which produced structures that contain living cells with normal cellular functions, and is fully biodegradable by proteases or nucleases.
Intercalation of Highly Dispersed Metal Nanoclusters into a Layered Metal Oxide for Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting
Takayoshi Oshima, Dr. Daling Lu, Prof. Dr. Osamu Ishitani and Prof. Dr. Kazuhiko Maeda
Efficient photocatalyst: Platinum nanoclusters with a diameter of about 1 nm were intercalated into the interlayer nanospace of KCa2Nb3O10 nanosheets using the electrostatic attraction between a cationic Pt complex and a negatively charged Ca2Nb3O10− sheet. This process provides an efficient photocatalyst for water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen (see picture).
Identification of Structure–Activity Relationships from Screening a Structurally Compact DNA-Encoded Chemical Library
Dr. Raphael M. Franzini, Dr. Torun Ekblad, Dr. Nan Zhong, Moreno Wichert, Willy Decurtins, Angela Nauer, Mauro Zimmermann, Dr. Florent Samain, Dr. Jörg Scheuermann, Dr. Peter J. Brown, Prof. Dr. Jonathan Hall, Dr. Susanne Gräslund, Prof. Dr. Herwig Schüler and Prof. Dr. Dario Neri
Panning for protein binders: A novel DNA-encoded chemical library enabled the rapid discovery of structurally compact hit compounds for varied proteins. Library screening provided nanomolar small-molecule ligands for several target proteins and information on structural features important for binding.
Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots
Xiao Zhang, Prof. Haiming Xie, Zhengdong Liu, Chaoliang Tan, Dr. Zhimin Luo, Dr. Hai Li, Jiadan Lin, Dr. Liqun Sun, Prof. Wei Chen, Prof. Zhichuan Xu, Prof. Linghai Xie, Prof. Wei Huang and Prof. Hua Zhang
Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) with lateral size of 4.9±1.6 nm and thickness of 1.9±0.9 nm (ca. 4±2 layers) are synthesized in solution by a top-down approach. The mixture of BPQDs and polyvinylpyrrolidone is successfully used as active layer in a flexible memory device with a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect.
Graphene Liquid Marbles as Photothermal Miniature Reactors for Reaction Kinetics Modulation
Wei Gao, Hiang Kwee Lee, Dr. Jonathan Hobley, Prof. Tianxi Liu, Dr. In Yee Phang and Prof. Xing Yi Ling
The fabrication of graphene liquid marbles as photothermal miniature reactors with high mechanical robustness is demonstrated. The reaction temperature can be precisely controlled between 21 and 135 °C by tuning the laser power applied. This allows their application for the modulation and acceleration of reaction kinetics and overcomes the lack of heating mechanism in conventional liquid marble reactors.
A New Way to Silicone-Based Peptide Polymers
Dr. Said Jebors, Jeremie Ciccione, Soultan Al-Halifa, Dr. Benjamin Nottelet, Prof. Christine Enjalbal, Céline M'Kadmi, Dr. Muriel Amblard, Prof. Ahmad Mehdi, Prof. Jean Martinez and Prof. Gilles Subra
Hybrid peptides: Silicone-containing peptide polymers are obtained from hybrid hydroxydimethylsilyl peptide blocks as monomeric units. This general strategy proceeds in water and is applicable to any type of peptide, yielding linear or branched polymer chains.
Selective and Potent Proteomimetic Inhibitors of Intracellular Protein–Protein Interactions
Dr. Anna Barnard, Dr. Kérya Long, Dr. Heather L. Martin, Dr. Jennifer A. Miles, Dr. Thomas A. Edwards, Dr. Darren C. Tomlinson, Dr. Andrew Macdonald and Prof. Andrew J. Wilson
Picky mimics: Inhibition of protein–protein interactions represents a major challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. Using a library of N-alkylated aromatic oligoamides it is demonstrated that helix mimetics, which reproduce their biophysical binding selectivity in a cellular context, can be identified.
Interactions on Surfaces
Highly Enantioselective Adsorption of Small Prochiral Molecules on a Chiral Intermetallic Compound
Dr. Jan Prinz, Dr. Oliver Gröning, Prof. Dr. Harald Brune and Dr. Roland Widmer
Intermetallic compounds as chiral templates: PdGa has a chiral crystal structure. Adsorption of prochiral molecules on single crystal surfaces leads to the formation of only one of the two possible enantiomeric complexes at room temperature. This proof-of-principle is highly promising for applications of chiral intermetallics as stable and enantioselective catalytic materials.
Lithium Storage Materials
Rutile TiO2 Submicroboxes with Superior Lithium Storage Properties
Dr. Xin-Yao Yu, Hao Bin Wu, Le Yu, Fei-Xiang Ma and Prof. Xiong Wen (David) Lou
Rutile TiO2 submicroboxes were synthesized by a facile templating strategy. A solvothermal method was developed to first deposit a uniform TiO2 layer on Fe2O3 submicrocube templates. Unexpectedly, the rutile TiO2 phase is formed after annealing in air. Compared to other rutile TiO2 materials, these submicroboxes have unprecedented lithium storage properties in terms of specific capacity, long-term cycling stability, and rate capability.
A Scalable Biomimetic Synthesis of Resveratrol Dimers and Systematic Evaluation of their Antioxidant Activities
Bryan S. Matsuura, Mitchell H. Keylor, Bo Li, YuXuan Lin, Shelby Allison, Prof. Dr. Derek A. Pratt and Prof. Dr. Corey R. J. Stephenson
Persistence pays off: A concise synthesis of the resveratrol oligomers quadrangularin A and pallidol was achieved by leveraging the persistence of 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol derived radical and quinone methide intermediates. Evaluation of these compounds as radical-trapping antioxidants is presented and the results demonstrate that this mode of action is unlikely to account for the observed biological activity.
Highly Fluorescent and Water-Soluble Diketopyrrolopyrrole Dyes for Bioconjugation
Dr. Elodie Heyer, Pauline Lory, Dr. Jérôme Leprince, Dr. Mathieu Moreau, Prof. Anthony Romieu, Prof. Massimo Guardigli, Prof. Aldo Roda and Dr. Raymond Ziessel
All-in-one solution! A simple but very effective synthetic strategy to make diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) dyes water-soluble and highly fluorescent in aqueous media for bioconjugation to proteins is presented. Bovine serum albumin-DPP conjugates with unprecedentedly high quantum yields were obtained, thus enabling detection of minute amounts of fluorescent proteins through epifluorescence microscopy.
Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Dearomative Cyclization for the Efficient Synthesis of Terpenes and Steroids
Kang Du, Pan Guo, Yuan Chen, Zhen Cao, Dr. Zheng Wang and Prof. Dr. Wenjun Tang
One, two, three: An enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization was developed for the efficient construction of a series of chiral tricyclic phenanthrenone derivatives bearing all-carbon quaternary centers. This method was applied in highly efficient syntheses of a kaurene intermediate, the skeleton of the anabolic steroid boldenone, and the antimicrobial diterpene (−)-totaradiol.
Reversible Reconfiguration of DNA Origami Nanochambers Monitored by Single-Molecule FRET
Dr. Barbara Saccà, Dr. Yuji Ishitsuka, Dr. Rebecca Meyer, Andreas Sprengel, Elisa-Charlott Schöneweiß, Prof. G. Ulrich Nienhaus and Prof. Christof M. Niemeyer
Inspired by their natural counterparts, dynamic compartmentalization systems were realized, in which the switchable mechanical movement of small DNA motifs was integrated into a DNA origami scaffold. The kinetics of the movement was determined by distance-dependent energy transfer between two fluorophores.
Preparation of Nanocrystalline Silicon from SiCl4 at 200 °C in Molten Salt for High-Performance Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
Ning Lin, Ying Han, Liangbiao Wang, Jianbin Zhou, Jie Zhou, Dr. Yongchun Zhu and Prof. Yitai Qian
Reduction of SiCl4 with metallic Mg is realized in molten AlCl3 at the low temperature of 200 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. AlCl3 not only acts as a molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. The as-prepared Si nanoparticles are highly crystalline, which is highly desirable for high-performance Li-ion batteries.
Base-Promoted Coupling of Carbon Dioxide, Amines, and N-Tosylhydrazones: A Novel and Versatile Approach to Carbamates
Wenfang Xiong, Dr. Chaorong Qi, Haitao He, Lu Ouyang, Prof. Dr. Min Zhang and Prof. Dr. Huanfeng Jiang
Carbene intermediate? No! An unprecedented strategy for the synthesis of a range of organic carbamates through the coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and N-tosylhydrazones is reported. The base-promoted reaction is proposed to proceed via a carbocation intermediate and is characterized by excellent functional group tolerance and a wide substrate scope.
Photocatalytic H2 Production
Palladium versus Platinum: The Metal in the Catalytic Center of a Molecular Photocatalyst Determines the Mechanism of the Hydrogen Production with Visible Light
Michael G. Pfeffer, Dr. Bernhard Schäfer, Dr. Grigory Smolentsev, Dr. Jens Uhlig, Dr. Elena Nazarenko, Dr. Julien Guthmuller, Dr. Christian Kuhnt, Dr. Maria Wächtler, Prof. Dr. Benjamin Dietzek, Prof. Dr. Villy Sundström and Prof. Dr. Sven Rau
Show your metal: The mechanism of the visible light-driven hydrogen production with an intramolecular photocatalyst depends on the nature of the catalytically active metal center. In Ru–M systems, where M=Pt or Pd, palladium forms metal colloids as initial step, whereas platinum shows a high stability and there is no change in the (N^N)PtCl2 coordination sphere.
Natural Product Synthesis
Total Synthesis of (−)-Caprazamycin A
Hugh Nakamura, Dr. Chihiro Tsukano, Motohiro Yasui, Shinsuke Yokouchi, Dr. Masayuki Igarashi and Prof. Dr. Yoshiji Takemoto
Abra‘capraza’: Caprazamycin A has significant antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). The first total synthesis is herein reported and features the scalable preparation of the syn-β-hydroxy amino acid with a thiourea-catalyzed diastereoselective aldol reaction, construction of a diazepanone with an unstable fatty-acid side chain, and global deprotection with hydrogenation.
Heterogeneous Water Oxidation: Surface Activity versus Amorphization Activation in Cobalt Phosphate Catalysts
Diego González-Flores, Irene Sánchez, Dr. Ivelina Zaharieva, Katharina Klingan, Jonathan Heidkamp, Dr. Petko Chernev, Dr. Prashanth W. Menezes, Prof. Dr. Matthias Driess, Prof. Dr. Holger Dau and Dr. Mavis L. Montero
The complete transformation during catalytic operation of crystalline and surface-active Co3(PO4)2⋅8 H2O into amorphous and volume-active cobalt oxide reveals basic features of heterogeneous water oxidation catalysis, which is discussed as a convolution of three phenomena: surface catalysis, volume catalysis, and restructuring of the material under operation.