Angewandte Chemie International Edition

Cover image for Vol. 55 Issue 19

Editor: Peter Gölitz, Deputy Editors: Neville Compton, Haymo Ross

Online ISSN: 1521-3773

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemistryOpen, ChemPlusChem, Zeitschrift für Chemie

Download the
OnlineOpen Order Form
For review-type articles
For any other articles

Open Access

Open Access Defined

Angewandte Chemie International Edition offers authors a variety of ways to make their work open access, either through a GOLD route where the final published version is made open access through our OnlineOpen service (fee applicable) or a GREEN route, also known as self-archiving, where the submitted or accepted version is made available by the authors through, for example, a noncommercial subject-based repository such as PubMed Central.

Complete details of our Editorial Policies and the options available to our authors are given below. Any questions should be directed to the Editorial Office via email to angewandte@wiley-vch.de.

Gold Open Access

OnlineOpen

OnlineOpen is available to authors who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library. When appropriate, Wiley-VCH submits OnlineOpen articles to PubMed Central. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author′s funding agency, or the author′s institution pays an Article Publication Charge (APC), and the article is made open access under the terms of a Creative Commons license.

1. Author benefits

Retained copyright: Authors retain copyright of their article and are given a choice of Creative Commons license under which to publish their work.

Rapid dissemination: With OnlineOpen, the published article (Version of Record) is immediately available for download/reuse by readers irrespective of whether they or their institution has a subscription to the journal.

High visibility: OnlineOpen articles are easily recognized on Wiley Online Library by the purple unlocked padlock icon, and they routinely appear in the journal′s Most Accessed and Most Cited lists.

Funder compliant: Funding agencies and institutions are increasingly requiring that authors make their published work freely available. With OnlineOpen, there is no embargo period, and the version available is the professionally copyedited and typeset article (Version of Record).

2. Eligibility

The OnlineOpen option is offered only to those authors whose article has been accepted for publication, and only at the point when the article is accepted to ensure that the OnlineOpen option has no influence on the peer-review process and editorial decision. All articles submitted to the journal, including those ultimately published OnlineOpen, go through the standard peer-review process and are accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

3. How OnlineOpen Works

Authors of accepted articles can opt to make their article open access; the authors, their funding agency or institution must pay a fee in order for the published article to be made open access. The Angewandte Chemie International Edition OnlineOpen fee is fixed:

€5000 (Review-type articles) / €3500 (all other contribution types)

Authors wishing to take advantage of the OnlineOpen service should return a completed order form as soon after acceptance as possible. The form will be processed, and if appropriate an invoice will be issued. The publication fee should be paid within 30 days by the author, funding agency, or institution. Payment must be received in full for the article to be published OnlineOpen.

Authors whose institution or funding agency has a Wiley Open Access account should still return the order form. However, upon approval by the account holders, payment will be taken directly from the account without any administrative burden on the author. Further details about Wiley Open Access accounts and a complete list of account holders can be found via www.wileyopenaccess.com/.

All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article published in the journal. The accepted articles are prepared for publication in the usual manner and are posted online on Wiley Online Library with the full range of features associated with the journal. All articles are archived for perpetuity and are registered at relevant Abstracting and Indexing Services and at CrossRef.

4. Copyright and Open Access Licenses

Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright and have a choice of Creative Commons licenses (which may be updated from time to time). Authors are free to choose one of the following licensing arrangements:


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND)


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC-BY-NC)

Authors funded by agencies with recognized mandates requiring the use of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) will be permitted to publish under that license in accordance with their funder mandates. These agencies include the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Charity Open Access Fund (Arthritis Research UK, Breast Cancer Campaign, the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research and the Wellcome Trust), Research Councils UK (RCUK), and the Wellcome Trust.

For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions, please see below.

5. Compliant with Funder Mandates/Open Access Policies

OnlineOpen is fully compliant with open access mandates, meeting the requirements of funding organizations where these apply, including but not limited to:

Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Charity Open Access Fund (COAF): Arthritis Research UK, Breast Cancer Campaign, the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Leukaemia & Lymphoma, the Wellcome Trust

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

Research Councils UK: MRC, BBSRC, AHRC, ESRC, EPSRC, NERC, STFC

Telethon Italy

US National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Wellcome Trust

Further information on funder mandates and open access policies is given elsewhere.

6. Order Form

To place an order for an accepted article currently in production or already published in this journal, authors should complete the OnlineOpen Order Form (also supplied at acceptance) and return it at their earliest convenience to the Editorial Office by fax or email.

7. Frequently Asked Questions

How do I order? Please complete and return the OnlineOpen Order Form to the Editorial Office; note, you should not try to order OnlineOpen until your manuscript has been accepted for publication.

Can I be invoiced? Yes. Please refer to the order form for detailed information.

Can I pay by credit card? Yes. Please refer to the order form for detailed information.

I have a question, whom do I ask? Please email your inquiry to angewandte@wiley-vch.de for a prompt reply.

My article has already been published. Can I order OnlineOpen retroactively? Yes.

Is prepayment required? Yes. Prepayment is required to activate OnlineOpen on Wiley Online Library and deposit of the article in the funding agency′s archive, as appropriate.

Are there any restrictions on the types of articles covered by OnlineOpen? No. The OnlineOpen service covers all article types.

Are OnlineOpen articles available in Early View? Yes. The OnlineOpen service is available for Early View articles once their DOI is available. Complete bibliographic information (volume, issue, page range) is not required.

Are OnlineOpen articles marked in Wiley Online Library? Yes. OnlineOpen articles are identified by means of a purple "open lock" icon.

Does the OnlineOpen program cover all funding agency archives or only select ones? If the OnlineOpen fee is paid, the published version of the article may be deposited in any subject-based or institutional repository. When appropriate, Wiley-VCH submits the OnlineOpen article (Version of Record) to PubMed Central (PMC) with no post-publication embargo, and the article may be mirrored to PubMed Central International (PMCI) repositories, such as Europe PMC and PMC Canada. Please note, in instances where the journal is not indexed by the US National Library of Medicine, PMC will only index papers that are funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).

How is the OnlineOpen program related to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH)′s public access policy? Wiley-VCH′s OnlineOpen program goes further than the requirements of the NIH public access policy. Under the NIH policy, the accepted version of an article is deposited by Wiley-VCH into PubMed Central, with a post-publication embargo of 12 months. If the OnlineOpen fee is paid, the NIH-funded article is deposited by Wiley-VCH into PubMed Central, with no embargo, and the article can also be deposited into other non-commercial subject or institutional repositories.

Wiley Open Access Journals

Journals such as Angewandte Chemie International Edition that offer an open-access option to their authors but are otherwise accessed by readers through subscriptions are commonly termed “hybrid” journals. In contrast, there are journals that publish only open-access articles, and these are commonly referred to as fully open-access or just open-access journals. Wiley has an extensive portfolio of open-access journals, which can be browsed at www.wileyopenaccess.com/view/journals.

Some funding agencies require that researchers publish their work in fully open-access journals, and those authors are encouraged to consider ChemistryOpen, a high-impact fully open-access general chemistry journal from ChemPubSoc Europe. For further details, visit the journal´s homepage: www.chemistryopen.org.

Green Open Access

Authors unable or unwilling to pay the fees associated with OnlineOpen may make certain versions of their manuscript (e.g., the submitted or accepted versions but not the final published article) available on their personal website, in their company/institutional repository or archive, or in certain not-for-profit subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, after an embargo period.

Exact details are given in the Angewandte Chemie International Edition Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) agreed to by authors during the publication process. More information on the Wiley-VCH Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving is given below.

Submitted version

Authors of articles published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition are permitted to self-archive the submitted version immediately upon publication of the article. The submitted version is the author´s version that has not been peer-reviewed nor had any value added to it by Wiley-VCH (such as formatting or copy editing).

Accepted version

Authors of articles published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition are permitted to self-archive the accepted version after an embargo period of 12 months.

The accepted version of an article is the version that incorporates all amendments made during the peer-review process, but prior to the final published version (Version of Record, which includes: copy and stylistic edits, online and print formatting, citation and other linking, deposit in abstracting and indexing services, and the addition of bibliographic and other material).

Wiley-VCH Terms and Conditions

1. For OnlineOpen

From April 1st 2013, OnlineOpen articles are published under Creative Commons licenses as outlined here; OnlineOpen articles published prior to this date are subject to different terms and conditions, given below.

Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright of their articles under the selected Creative Commons license:


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND)


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC-BY-NC)


Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)

1a. Articles published under the CC-BY-NC-ND

The Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND) license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modifications or adaptations are made.

Copyright on any OnlineOpen article published under the CC-BY-NC-ND license is retained by the author(s). Authors grant Wiley-VCH a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as it is not used for commercial purposes, its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.

Use by non-commercial users

For non-commercial and non-promotional purposes individual users may access, download, copy, display and redistribute to colleagues OnlineOpen articles, as well as adapt, translate, text- and data-mine the content subject to the following conditions:

The authors´ moral rights are not compromised. These rights include the right of “paternity” (also known as “attribution”—the right for the author to be identified as such) and “integrity” (the right for the author not to have the work altered in such a way that the author´s reputation or integrity may be impugned). Where content in the article is identified as belonging to a third party, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content. If article content is copied, downloaded or otherwise reused for non-commercial research and education purposes, a link to the appropriate bibliographic citation (authors, journal, article title, volume, issue, page numbers, DOI and the link to the definitive published version on Wiley Online Library) should be maintained. Copyright notices and disclaimers must not be deleted. Any translations, for which a prior translation agreement with Wiley-VCH has not been agreed, must prominently display the statement: “This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in a Wiley-VCH publication. The publisher has not endorsed this translation.”

Use by commercial "for-profit" organizations

Use of OnlineOpen articles for commercial, promotional, or marketing purposes requires further explicit permission from Wiley-VCH and will be subject to a fee.

All requests to republish the article (in whole or in part) in another work such as a book or journal article (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) or reuse of figures, tables and text extracts can be cleared directly from the point of content using the automated RightsLink service. Simply click on the ′Request Permission′ link to complete your order or contact (rights@wiley-vch.de). For other commercial, promotional or marketing purposes, please contact Marion Schulz (mschulz@wiley.com).

Commercial purposes include: Copying or downloading of articles, or linking to such articles for further redistribution, sale or licensing; Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content; The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (for example, a compilation produced for marketing purposes, inclusion in a sales pack, etc.); Linking to article content in e-mails redistributed for promotional, marketing or educational purposes; Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation such as marketing products.

Print reprints of OnlineOpen articles can be purchased from chem-reprints@wiley-vch.de.

Disclaimer

OnlineOpen articles posted to repositories or websites are without warranty from Wiley-VCH of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Wiley-VCH disclaims all liability for any loss or damage arising out of, or in connection, with the use of or inability to use the content.

1b. Articles published under the CC-BY-NC

The Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC-BY-NC) license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

Copyright in any OnlineOpen article published under the CC-BY-NC license is retained by the author(s). Authors grant Wiley-VCH a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as it is not used for commercial purposes and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.

Use by non-commercial users

For non-commercial and non-promotional purposes individual users may access, download, copy, display and redistribute to colleagues OnlineOpen articles, as well as adapt, translate, text- and data-mine the content subject to the following conditions:

The authors´ moral rights are not compromised. These rights include the right of “paternity” (also known as “attribution”—the right for the author to be identified as such) and “integrity” (the right for the author not to have the work altered in such a way that the author´s reputation or integrity may be impugned). Where content in the article is identified as belonging to a third party, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content. If article content is copied, downloaded or otherwise reused for non-commercial research and education purposes, a link to the appropriate bibliographic citation (authors, journal, article title, volume, issue, page numbers, DOI and the link to the definitive published version on Wiley Online Library) should be maintained. Copyright notices and disclaimers must not be deleted. Any translations, for which a prior translation agreement with Wiley-VCH has not been agreed, must prominently display the statement: “This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in a Wiley-VCH publication. The publisher has not endorsed this translation.”

Use by commercial "for-profit" organizations

Use of OnlineOpen articles for commercial, promotional, or marketing purposes requires further explicit permission from Wiley-VCH and will be subject to a fee.

All requests to republish the article (in whole or in part) in another work such as a book or journal article (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) or reuse of figures, tables and text extracts can be cleared directly from the point of content using the automated RightsLink service. Simply click on the ′Request Permission′ link to complete your order or contact (rights@wiley-vch.de). For other commercial, promotional or marketing purposes, please contact Marion Schulz (mschulz@wiley.com).

Commercial purposes include: Copying or downloading of articles, or linking to such articles for further redistribution, sale or licensing; Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content; The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (for example, a compilation produced for marketing purposes, inclusion in a sales pack, etc.); Linking to article content in e-mails redistributed for promotional, marketing or educational purposes; Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation such as marketing products.

Print reprints of OnlineOpen articles can be purchased from chem-reprints@wiley-vch.de.

Disclaimer

OnlineOpen articles posted to repositories or websites are without warranty from Wiley-VCH of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Wiley-VCH disclaims all liability for any loss or damage arising out of, or in connection, with the use of or inability to use the content.

1c. Articles published under the CC-BY

The Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial and non-commercial use of the article, as long as the author is properly attributed.

Copyright in any OnlineOpen article published under the CC-BY is retained by the author(s). Authors grant Wiley-VCH a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.

Use of the article in whole or part in any medium requires attribution suitable in form and content as follows: [Title of Article/Author/Journal Title and Volume/Issue. Copyright (c) [year] [copyright owner as specified in the Journal]. Links to the final article on Wiley-VCH´s website are encouraged where applicable.

The Creative Commons Attribution License does not affect the moral rights of authors, including without limitation the right not to have their work subjected to derogatory treatment. It also does not affect any other rights held by authors or third parties in the article, including trademark or patent rights, or the rights of privacy and publicity. Use of the article must not assert or imply, whether implicitly or explicitly, any connection with, endorsement or sponsorship of such use by the author, publisher or any other party associated with the article.

For any reuse or distribution, users must include the copyright notice and make clear to others that the article is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution license, linking to the relevant Creative Commons web page. Users may impose no restrictions on use of the article other than those imposed by the Creative Commons Attribution license.

To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the article is made available as is and without representation or warranties of any kind whether express, implied, statutory or otherwise and including, without limitation, warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, absence of defects, accuracy, or the presence or absence of errors.

Disclaimer

OnlineOpen articles posted to repositories or websites are without warranty from Wiley-VCH of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Wiley-VCH disclaims all liability for any loss or damage arising out of, or in connection, with the use of or inability to use the content.

1d. Articles not published under a Creative Commons license

OnlineOpen articles published prior to April 1st 2013 are not covered by a Creative Commons license. The final, published article is made open-access on Wiley-VCH´s publishing platform, Wiley Online Library, or any successor sites, and submitted to PubMed Central (PMC) and PMC mirror sites. Please note, in instances where the journal is not indexed by the US National Library of Medicine, PMC will only index papers that are funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). The article may also be posted to other repositories. At the time of deposit, such OnlineOpen articles include all changes made during peer review, copyediting, and publishing. Repositories and websites that host the article are responsible for incorporating any publisher-supplied amendments or retractions issued subsequently. A link from the article on the website or repository to the definitive published version of the article on Wiley´s platform is required.

OnlineOpen articles are protected by copyright but may be used as follows:

Use by non-commercial users

For non-commercial and non-promotional purposes individual users may access, download, copy, display and redistribute to colleagues OnlineOpen articles, as well as adapt, translate, text- and data-mine the content subject to the following conditions:

The authors´ moral rights are not compromised. These rights include the right of “paternity” (also known as “attribution”—the right for the author to be identified as such) and “integrity” (the right for the author not to have the work altered in such a way that the author´s reputation or integrity may be impugned). Where content in the article is identified as belonging to a third party, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content. If article content is copied, downloaded or otherwise reused for non-commercial research and education purposes, a link to the appropriate bibliographic citation (authors, journal, article title, volume, issue, page numbers, DOI and the link to the definitive published version on Wiley Online Library) should be maintained. Copyright notices and disclaimers must not be deleted. Any translations, for which a prior translation agreement with Wiley-VCH has not been agreed, must prominently display the statement: “This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in a Wiley-VCH publication. The publisher has not endorsed this translation.”

Use by commercial "for-profit" organizations

Use of OnlineOpen articles for commercial, promotional, or marketing purposes requires further explicit permission from Wiley-VCH and will be subject to a fee.

All requests to republish the article (in whole or in part) in another work such as a book or journal article (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) or reuse of figures, tables and text extracts can be cleared directly from the point of content using the automated RightsLink service. Simply click on the ′Request Permission′ link to complete your order or contact (rights@wiley-vch.de). For other commercial, promotional or marketing purposes, please contact Marion Schulz (mschulz@wiley.com).

Commercial purposes include: Copying or downloading of articles, or linking to such articles for further redistribution, sale or licensing; Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content; The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (for example, a compilation produced for marketing purposes, inclusion in a sales pack, etc.); Linking to article content in e-mails redistributed for promotional, marketing or educational purposes; Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation such as marketing products.

Print reprints of OnlineOpen articles can be purchased from chem-reprints@wiley-vch.de.

Disclaimer

OnlineOpen articles posted to repositories or websites are without warranty from Wiley-VCH of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Wiley-VCH disclaims all liability for any loss or damage arising out of, or in connection, with the use of or inability to use the content.

2. For Self-archiving

Under the applicable copyright transfer agreement between authors and Wiley-VCH, the former are permitted to self-archive either the submitted version (immediately upon publication of the final article) or accepted version (subject to an embargo period*) on the author′s personal website, the author′s company/institutional repository or archive, or certain not-for-profit subject-based repositories such as PubMed Central.

* Note, self-archiving of the accepted version is subject to a 12 month embargo period.

Submitted version: Self-archiving of the submitted version is not subject to an embargo period; authors can self-archive the submitted version immediately upon publication of their article on Wiley Online Library. Authors should include the following notice on the first page: “This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: [FULL CITE], which has been published in final form at [Link to final article using the DOI]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley-VCH Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Accepted version: Articles may be deposited into repositories on acceptance, but access to the article is subject to an embargo period of 12 months. The version posted must include the following notice on the first page: “This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: [FULL CITE], which has been published in final form at [Link to final article using the DOI]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley-VCH Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

The version posted may not be updated or replaced with the final published version (Version of Record). Authors may transmit, print and share copies of the self-archived version with colleagues, provided that there is no systematic distribution, e.g., a posting on a listserve, network or automated delivery.

The self-archived version (both the submitted and accepted versions) may be used under the following terms:

Use by non-commercial users

For non-commercial and non-promotional research and private study purposes individual users may view, print, download and copy self-archived articles, as well as text and data mine the content under the following conditions:

The authors´ moral rights are not compromised. These rights include the right of “paternity” (also known as “attribution”—the right for the author to be identified as such) and “integrity” (the right for the author not to have the work altered in such a way that the author´s reputation or integrity may be impugned). All reuse must be fully attributed.

Where content in the article is identified as belonging to a third party, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that any reuse complies with the copyright policies of the owner of that content.

Self-archived content may not be re-published verbatim in whole or in part, whether or not for commercial purposes, in print or online. This restriction does not apply to use of quotations with appropriate citation, or text and data mining provided that the mining output is restricted to short excerpts of text and data and excludes images (unless further consent is obtained from Wiley-VCH).

Use by commercial "for-profit" organizations

Use of self-archived articles for commercial, promotional, or marketing purposes requires further explicit permission from Wiley-VCH and will be subject to a fee.

All requests to republish the article (in whole or in part) in another work such as a book or journal article (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) or reuse of figures, tables and text extracts can be cleared directly from the point of content using the automated RightsLink service. Simply click on the ′Request Permission′ link to complete your order or contact (rights@wiley-vch.de). For other commercial, promotional or marketing purposes, please contact Marion Schulz (mschulz@wiley.com).

Commercial purposes include:

Copying or downloading of articles, or linking to such articles for further redistribution, sale or licensing;

Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;

The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (for example, a compilation produced for marketing purposes, inclusion in a sales pack etc.);

Linking to article content in e-mails redistributed for promotional, marketing or educational purposes;

Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation such as marketing products;

Use of article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes.

Print and digital reprints of articles can be purchased from chem-reprints@wiley-vch.de.

Disclaimer

Self-archived articles posted to repositories or websites are without warranty from Wiley-VCH of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. To the fullest extent permitted by law, Wiley-VCH disclaims all liability for any loss or damage arising out of, or in connection, with the use of or inability to use the content.

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