Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Reviews in Angewandte Chemie, written by leading experts, summarize the important results of recent research on topical subjects in all branches of chemistry, point to unresolved problems, and discuss possible developments. Although review articles are generally written upon invitation of the editor, unsolicited manuscripts are also welcome provided they are in keeping with the character of the journal.
Dr. Franziska S. Hanschen, Dr. Evelyn Lamy, Prof. Dr. Monika Schreiner, Prof. Dr. Sascha Rohn
Vegetables such as broccoli contain a variety of cancer-preventing agents, among them glucosinolates. These sulfur-containing compounds are precursors to a variety of enzymatically or chemically formed breakdown products that affect the quality of food with regard to nutritional value, flavor, and beneficial health effects. This review provides an overview over the reactivity of glucosinolates and their breakdown products.
Formation of Nanoparticles and Nanostructures—An Industrial Perspective on CaCO3, Cement, and Polymers
Dr. Jens Rieger, Dr. Matthias Kellermeier, Dr. Luc Nicoleau
Intermediate nanostructures occurring during crystallization reactions play an important role in understanding and controlling the formation of particles and hybrid materials. The use of polymers allows the range of achievable properties to be broadened through their specific effects at the nanoscale—as is exemplified in this Review with calcium carbonate, zinc oxide, and cementitious systems.
M. Sc. Moritz C. Baier, Dr. Martin A. Zuideveld, Prof. Dr. Stefan Mecking
“Post-metallocene” polymerization catalysis research ranges from fundamental mechanistic studies via catalyst design to material properties of polyolefins. A common goal of these studies is the creation of practically useful new materials or processes. A comprehensive overview of post-metallocene polymerization catalysts that have been put into practice is provided. The decisive properties for this success of a given catalyst structure are delineated.
Prof. Dr. Uwe Bornscheuer, Prof. Dr. Klaus Buchholz, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Seibel
A stubborn raw material: The conversion of cellulosic biomass into low-price biofuels and high-value-added chemicals is a very challenging goal. This Review addresses the development of the enzymatic catalytic degradation of (ligno)cellulose (see picture), including achievements in the areas of chemical-reaction engineering, structural biochemistry, and catalyst design.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of Noble-Metal Nanoparticles and their Assemblies by Electron Tomography
Prof. Dr. Sara Bals, Dr. Bart Goris, Prof. Dr. Luis M. Liz-Marzán, Prof. Dr. Gustaaf Van Tendeloo
A sight for small eyes: In 3D investigations of metal nanoparticles and their assemblies, electron tomography has become a versatile tool to understand the connection between the properties and structure or composition of nanomaterials. The different steps of an electron tomography experiment are discussed and how quantitative 3D information can be obtained even at the atomic scale is shown.
Prof. Michael Levitt
The computer industry should have received a share of the 2013 Nobel prize in chemistry as its massive research and development efforts led to unimaginable gains in computer speed (see table). This means that the cost of a particular calculation today is 100 000 000 less than it was at the beginning of Michael Levitt’s scientific career as pointed out in his very personal account on the occasion of having received the Nobel prize.
Prof. James Edward Rothman
Cells contain small membrane-enclosed vesicles which transport many kinds of cargo between the compartments of the cell. The result is a choreographed program of secretory, biosynthetic and endocytic protein traffic that serves the cell’s internal physiologic needs.
Anne C. Conibear, Prof. David J. Craik
Climbing up the ladder: Theta defensins are the only known cyclic backbone peptides from mammals and are characterized by the cyclic cystine ladder motif. They have promising applications as antimicrobials and peptide drug scaffolds, but little is known about their distribution in primate species or biosynthesis from two gene products. The Review discusses the progress in understanding the chemistry and biology of theta defensins and highlights remaining challenges and questions.
The Hydrophobic Effect Revisited—Studies with Supramolecular Complexes Imply High-Energy Water as a Noncovalent Driving Force
Dr. Frank Biedermann, Prof. Dr. Werner M. Nau, Prof. Dr. Hans-Jörg Schneider
Overcoming a phobia: Hydrophobic effects are traditionally described by the association of two lipophilic molecules, which then need less water molecules for solvation than two separate solutes, thus leading to either entropy or enthalpy gain. Investigations with supramolecular complexes have shown that another mechanism based on the replacement of hydrogen-bond-deficient high-energy water molecules in cavities can play a decisive role.
Development of Multiscale Models for Complex Chemical Systems: From H+H2 to Biomolecules (Nobel Lecture)
Prof. Martin Karplus
Although the laws governing the motions of atoms are quantum mechanical, the key realization that made possible the simulation of the dynamics of complex systems, including biomolecules, was that a classical mechanical description of the atomic motions is adequate in most cases. From M. Karplus’ own perspective, this realization was derived from calculations on the symmetric exchange reaction, H+H2H2+H.
Prof. Arieh Warshel
A detailed understanding of the action of biological molecules is a pre-requisite for advances in health sciences, however, using a full quantum mechanical representation of large molecular systems is practically impossible. The solution to this has emerged from the realization that large systems can be spatially divided into a region where the quantum mechanical description is essential, with the remainder of the system being represented by empirical force fields.
Dr. Michael Hellwig, Prof. Dr. Thomas Henle
Food for thought: The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described by Louis-Camille Maillard in 1912 is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. Corresponding reactions occur in the body and are important in diabetes and ageing processes. A historical overview of the most important findings is given in this Review.