Macromolecular Rapid Communications

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 19
  1. Feature Articles

    1. Porous Polymers Based on Aryleneethynylene Building Blocks

      Uwe H. F. Bunz, Kai Seehafer, Florian L. Geyer, Markus Bender, Ingo Braun, Emanuel Smarsly and Jan Freudenberg

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400220

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      The synthesis and properties of conjugated microporous polymers (CMP) based on alkyne building blocks are reviewed. The formed species are fascinating materials of indigenous porosity; the CMPs are extremely air, water, and temperature stable and they are also chemically robust and promise applications as catalysts, catalyst scaffolds, and gas storage moduli. The accessibility of a large number of different building blocks makes the amorphous CMPs also fascinating study objects from a structural and synthetic stand point.

  2. Reviews

    1. Challenges and Solutions for Joining Polymer Materials

      Xin Jin, Lars Heepe, Jan Strueben, Rainer Adelung, Stanislav N. Gorb and Anne Staubitz

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400200

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      The fundamental mechanisms of adhesion in general and for polymer-polymer adhesion in particular are discussed. For this type of adhesion, interdiffusion processes tend to be most important. They depend to a large extent on the miscibility of the polymers. However, for two different low surface energy polymers, this adhesion mechanism does not play a role and more effective methods for achieving adhesion are required. As an alternative to wet chemical treatments or plasma treatments, a novel, facilitated mechanical interlocking process with concave interfacial crystalline fillers is discussed.

  3. Communications

    1. Cell-Friendly Inverse Opal-Like Hydrogels for a Spatially Separated Co-Culture System

      Jaeyun Kim, Sidi A. Bencherif, Weiwei Aileen Li and David J. Mooney

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400278

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      Cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels (IOHs) allowing both cell encapsulation within the hydrogel matrix and cell seeding on surfaces are prepared. Alginate microbeads as a cell-friendly sacrificial template are removed by a chelating agent with minimal cellular toxicity. The outer surface of the macropores provides space for another cell type to adhere. IOHs allow co-culture of different types of cells to create complex cellular microenvironments.

    2. Kinetic Analysis of Mechanochemical Chain Scission of Linear Poly(phthalaldehyde)

      Gregory I. Peterson and Andrew J. Boydston

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400271

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      Sonication of a low ceiling temperature polymer leads to rapid depolymerization of the fragmented chains. The absence of lower-molecular-weight byproducts facilitates the determination of the molecular-weight-dependent first-order rate constants for polymer scission, for a wide range of molecular weights, and from a single sonication experiment.

    3. Natural Anionic Polymer Acts as Highly Efficient Trypsin Inhibitor Based on an Electrostatic Interaction Mechanism

      Yan Lv, Jianbin Zhang, Yizhe Song, Bing Wang, Shujun Wang, Shan Zhao, Guojun Lv and Xiaojun Ma

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400267

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      A natural anionic polymer, sodium alginate, is added to protect insulin from trypsin degradation. Its mechanism may be attributed to preventing the trypsin active site from accessing the macromolecular substrates. Such a polymeric inhibitor, based on electrostatic interactions with trypsin, is independent of drugs. Hence, it can be used in all kinds of dosage formulation as a promising pharmaceutical excipient.

    4. Three-Dimensional Block Copolymer Nanostructures by the Solvent-Annealing-Induced Wetting in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

      Chiang-Jui Chu, Pei-Yun Chung, Mu-Huan Chi, Yi-Huei Kao and Jiun-Tai Chen

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400222

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      Three-dimensional block copolymer nanostructures confined in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are studied. Polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) nanostructures are formed by the solvent-annealing-induced wetting in AAO templates. The morphologies of the block copolymer nanostructures are found to be controlled by the type of the annealing solvent. When the block copolymer wets the nanopores in toluene vapors, the perpendicular morphology is observed. When the block copolymer wets the nanopores in co-solvent vapors (toluene/hexane = 3:2), the circular or helical morphologies are obtained.

    5. Photoluminescent Nematic Liquid Crystalline Elastomer with a Thermomechanical Emission Variation Function

      Renbo Wei, Yaning He, Xiaogong Wang and Patrick Keller

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400264

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      Nematic liquid crystalline elastomer (LCE) microactuators with simultaneous thermomechanical deformation and photoluminescence emission variation functions are developed. During the heating process, the PL emission of the LCE micropillars under blue light excitation is observed to become significantly weak when the micropillars contracted at TNI. When cooling down, the emission completely recovers as the micropillars stretched back to their original shape.

    6. Highly Sensitive Dual-Mode Fluorescence Detection of Lead Ion in Water Using Aggregation-Induced Emissive Polymers

      Sukanta Kumar Saha, Khama Rani Ghosh, Jian Ping Gao and Zhi Yuan Wang

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400254

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      A series of fluorene-based conjugated polymers containing the aggregation-induced emissive-active tetraphenylethene and dicarboxylate pseudocrown as a receptor exhibits a unique dual-mode sensing ability for selective detection of lead ion in water with a concentration as low as 10−8 M.

    7. A Supramolecular Strategy for Self-Mobile Adsorption Sites in Affinity Membrane

      Ligang Lin, Meimei Dong, Chunyu Liu, Chenjie Wei, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Sun and Hui Ye

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400289

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      Enhanced sites working efficiency: A novel supramolecular membrane with self-mobile adsorption sites is designed for biomolecules purification. The polyrotaxanes with mobile sites provide supramolecular atmosphere, and the abundant pores in membrane matrix provide 3D channels for efficient work. During membrane filtration, the sites can rotate and/or slide along the axial chain, which results in the enhanced adsorption performance.

    8. Shape Memory Particles Capable of Controlled Geometric and Chemical Asymmetry made from Aliphatic Polyesters

      Sarah M. Brosnan, Anne-Martine S. Jackson, Yapei Wang and Valerie Sheares Ashby

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400199

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      A novel technique for creating monodisperse shape memory particles is reported. A soft mold is used to uniformly deform particles of complex shapes to other well-defined shapes, harvest them without aggressive solvents or heat, and then return them to their original shapes upon heating above a preselected triggering temperature. Particles are synthesized from a broad range of materials and additionally are capable of both chemical and physical asymmetry.

    9. Solvent Vapor Annealing: An Efficient Approach for Inscribing Secondary Nanostructures onto Electrospun Fibers

      Jianzhao Liu, Adam J. P. Bauer and Bingbing Li

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400274

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      This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the solvent vapor annealing (SVA) method can be utilized to introduce structural hierarchy to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-based fibers. The acetone vapor can delocalize amorphous chains and redeposit them onto the existing crystal edges, leading to hierarchically structured fibers. This facile approach provides new insight into the design and fabrication of hierarchical poly­meric materials.

    10. Bacterial Cellulose Nanopaper as Reinforcement for Polylactide Composites: Renewable Thermoplastic NanoPaPreg

      Thanit Montrikittiphant, Min Tang, Koon-Yang Lee, Charlotte K. Williams and Alexander Bismarck

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400181

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      High-performance renewable bacterial cellulose nanopaper reinforced polylactide laminates are produced using the PaPreg manufacturing concept. NanoPaPregs with tensile stiffness and strength of 6.5 GPa and 125 MPa, respectively, are obtained. The image shows a scanning electron micrograph of a fractured nanoPaPreg (the scale bar represents 5 μm).

    11. Dual Thermo- and pH-Responsive Zwitterionic Sulfobataine Copolymers for Oral Delivery System

      Ching-Yi Chen and Hsiang-Ling Wang

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400161

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      A novel series of zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) copolymers exhibit pH-dependent thermal soluble–insoluble phase transition due to the strong electrostatic interaction between intra- and inter-chains of the copolymers. The tunable phase transition of the copolymers has successfully utilized to encapsulate curcumin and show slow drug release profiles in extremely acidic condition, indicating their potential for oral drug delivery system.

    12. Scalable Antifouling Reverse Osmosis Membranes Utilizing Perfluorophenyl Azide Photochemistry

      Brian T. McVerry, Mavis C. Y. Wong, Kristofer L. Marsh, James A. T. Temple, Catalina Marambio-Jones, Eric M. V. Hoek and Richard B. Kaner

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400226

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      Biofouling is considered the “Achilles heel” of membrane-based water treatment. A method is presented that utilizes perfluorophenyl azide photochemistry to modify the surface of reverse osmosis membranes with hydrophilic brush polymers that prevent irreversible fouling. The modification is complete in minutes, performed under ambient conditions, and maintains the roll-to-roll manufacturing of current reverse osmosis membranes.

    13. Solution-Processable Donor–Acceptor Polymers with Modular Electronic Properties and Very Narrow Bandgaps

      Michael E. Foster, Benjamin A. Zhang, Dustin Murtagh, Yi Liu, Matthew Y. Sfeir, Bryan M. Wong and Jason D. Azoulay

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400228

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      Bridgehead imine-substituted cyclopentadithiophene structural units, in combination with highly electronegative acceptors that exhibit progressively delocalized π-systems, afford the capability to fine-tune structural and electronic properties so as to achieve modular donor–acceptor copolymers with broad- and long-wavelength light absorption in the infrared, and solution-processable materials with some of the narrowest bandgaps reported to date.

    14. A Deeper Insight into the Postpolymerization Modification of Polypenta Fluorophenyl Methacrylates to Poly(N-(2-Hydroxypropyl) Methacrylamide)

      Nicole Mohr, Matthias Barz, Romina Forst and Rudolf Zentel

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400249

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      The activated ester approach is an extremely versatile pathway to libraries of poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide) (PHPMA)-based polymers with identical degrees of polymerization but different amounts of functionalization. Precise control of reaction conditions yield polymers with identical solution characteristics like conventionally synthesized PHPMA and therefore supports the conclusion that the conversion of the activated ester is complete and free of side reactions.

    15. Development of Glassy Step-Growth Thiol-Vinyl Sulfone Polymer Networks

      Maciej Podgórski, Shunsuke Chatani and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400260

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      Thermomechanical properties of neat phosphine-catalyzed thiol-Michael networks fabricated in a controlled manner are reported. When highly reactive vinyl sulfone monomers are used as Michael acceptors, glassy network polymers are obtained with glass transition temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Also, the effect of side-chain functionality on the mechanical properties of thiol-vinyl sulfone networks is investigated.

    16. Facile Synthesis of Brush Poly(phosphoamidate)s via One-Pot Tandem Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

      Liang Ding, Jun Qiu, Jun Wei and Zhenshu Zhu

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201400050

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      The brush poly(phosphoamidate)s are successfully synthesized by a combination of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) following a commutative two-step procedure. Using Grubbs ruthenium-based catalysts for tandem catalysis, the brush poly(phosphoamidate) is prepared directly by one-pot sequential ROMP and ATRP via an inimer having both a seven-membered cyclic phosphoamidate ROMP monomer functionality and an α-bromoisobutyrate ATRP initiator functionality.

    17. One-Pot Synthesis of Multifunctional Polymers by Light-Controlled Radical Polymerization and Enzymatic Catalysis with Candida antarctica Lipase B

      Emin Hrsic, Helmut Keul and Martin Möller

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300512

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      Multifunctional methacrylate-based polymers with well-defined microstructure and block copolymers are prepared with a straightforward one-pot reaction process that combines enzymatic transacylation, which catalyzes the synthesis of functional monomers, with light-controlled polymerization (which is used for in situ polymerization of functional monomers).

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