Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 28 Issue 45

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Communications

    1. Improved Li+ Storage through Homogeneous N-Doping within Highly Branched Tubular Graphitic Foam

      Jinyang Dong, Yanming Xue, Chao Zhang, Qunhong Weng, Pengcheng Dai, Yijun Yang, Min Zhou, Cuiling Li, Qiuhong Cui, Xiaohong Kang, Chengchun Tang, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg and Xi Wang

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603692

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      A novel carbon structure, highly branched homogeneous-N-doped graphitic (BNG) tubular foam, is designed via a novel N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediated chemical vapor deposition method. More structural defects are found at the branched portions as compared with the flat tube domains providing abundant active sites and spacious reservoirs for Li+ storage. An individual BNG branch nanobattery is constructed and tested using in situ transmission electron microscopy and the lithiation process is directly visualized in real time.

    2. Activatable Photoacoustic Nanoprobes for In Vivo Ratiometric Imaging of Peroxynitrite

      Jianjian Zhang, Xu Zhen, Paul Kumar Upputuri, Manojit Pramanik, Peng Chen and Kanyi Pu

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604764

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      Organic semiconducting nanoprobes doped with bulky borane can undergo specific activation by ONOO even at tumor-relevant acidic pH (6.8), permitting in vivo ratiometric photoacoustic imaging of ONOO in the tumor environment of living mice.

    3. Alkyl Side-Chain Engineering in Wide-Bandgap Copolymers Leading to Power Conversion Efficiencies over 10%

      Tao Liu, Xuexue Pan, Xiangyi Meng, Yu Liu, Donghui Wei, Wei Ma, Lijun Huo, Xiaobo Sun, Tack Ho Lee, Minjuan Huang, Hyosung Choi, Jin Young Kim, Wallace C. H. Choy and Yanming Sun

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604251

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      A series of wide-bandgap (WBG) copolymers with different alkyl side chains are synthesized. Among them, copolymer PBT1-EH with moderatly bulky side chains on the acceptor unit shows the best photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency over 10%. The results suggest that the alkyl side-chain engineering is an effective strategy to further tuning the optoelectronic properties of WBG copolymers.

    4. Direct Photoalignment and Optical Patterning of Molecular Thin Films

      Linus Pithan, Paul Beyer, Laura Bogula, Anton Zykov, Peter Schäfer, Jonathan Rawle, Chris Nicklin, Andreas Opitz and Stefan Kowarik

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604382

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      A novel strategy for direct photoalignment of molecular materials using optothermal re-orientation is introduced. Photoalignment for molecular materials such as the organic semiconductor tetracene is shown, without relying on additional photoreactive dopants or alignment layers. Patterning and polarized light emission, e.g., for polarized organic light emitting diodes is demonstrated.

    5. Epitaxially Self-Assembled Alkane Layers for Graphene Electronics

      Young-Jun Yu, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Ji Il Choi, Yoon Su Shim, Chul-Ho Lee, Seok Ju Kang, Sunwoo Lee, Kwang Taeg Rim, George W. Flynn, James Hone, Yong-Hoon Kim, Philip Kim, Colin Nuckolls and Seokhoon Ahn

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603925

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      The epitaxially grown alkane layers on graphene are prepared by a simple drop-casting method and greatly reduce the environmentally driven doping and charge impurities in graphene. Multiscale simulation studies show that this enhancement of charge homogeneity in graphene originates from the lifting of graphene from the SiO2 surface toward the well-ordered and rigid alkane self-assembled layers.

    6. Efficient and Air-Stable Mixed-Cation Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells with n-Doped Organic Electron Extraction Layers

      Zhiping Wang, David P. McMeekin, Nobuya Sakai, Stephan van Reenen, Konrad Wojciechowski, Jay B. Patel, Michael B. Johnston and Henry J. Snaith

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604186

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      Air-stable doping of the n–type fullerene layer in an n–i–p planar heterojunction perovskite device is capable of enhancing device efficiency and improving device stability. Employing a (HC(NH2)2)0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 perovskite as the photoactive layer, glass–glass laminated devices are reported, which sustain 80% of their “post burn-in” efficiency over 3400 h under full sun illumination in ambient conditions.

    7. Molecularly Tuned Free Volume of Vapor Cross-Linked 6FDA-Durene/ZIF-71 MMMs for H2/CO2 Separation at 150 °C

      Susilo Japip, Kuo-Sung Liao and Tai-Shung Chung

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603833

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      The H2/CO2 separation properties of di/triamine vapor cross-linked mixed matrix membranes with molecularly tuned free-volume at 150 °C are reported. Free-volume is molecularly tuned by altering the degree of chain-motion using cross-linkers with different chain length. A more restricted degree of chain-motion is achieved in the cross-linked network and the resultant membrane has a higher H2/CO2 selectivity at 150 °C.

    8. Coherent Control of Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Metasurface

      Huifang Zhang, Ming Kang, Xueqian Zhang, Wengao Guo, Changgui Lv, Yanfeng Li, Weili Zhang and Jiaguang Han

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604252

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      Efficient control over the conversion of optical angular momentum from spin to orbital form in a metasurface system is achieved. Under coherent symmetric incidence, it can support nearly 100% conversion and unitary output, while it can support 50% conversion with 25% transmittance under one beam incidence.

    9. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells

      Masoud Ghasemi, Long Ye, Qianqian Zhang, Liang Yan, Joo-Hyun Kim, Omar Awartani, Wei You, Abay Gadisa and Harald Ade

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604603

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      A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend.

    10. Detecting 100 fW cm−2 Light with Trapped Electron Gated Organic Phototransistors

      Yang Zhang, Yongbo Yuan and Jinsong Huang

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603969

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      Ultraweak light detection with solid-state and cooling-free photodetectors is important for both fundamental research and practical applications. A general phototransistor architecture for detecting ultraviolet–visible light down to 100 fW cm−2 at room temperature is demonstrated. The exceptional sensitivity stems from an amplification process triggered by incident light. A responsivity of ≈107 A W−1 is achieved.

    11. Ultrahigh Energy Storage Performance of Lead-Free Oxide Multilayer Film Capacitors via Interface Engineering

      Zixiong Sun, Chunrui Ma, Ming Liu, Jin Cui, Lu Lu, Jiangbo Lu, Xiaojie Lou, Lei Jin, Hong Wang and Chun-Lin Jia

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604427

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      Ultrahigh energy storage density of 52.4 J cm−3 with optimistic efficiency of 72.3% is achieved by interface engineering of epitaxial lead-free oxide multilayers at room temperature. Moreover, the excellent thermal stability of the performances provides solid basis for widespread applications of the thin film systems in modern electronic and power modules in harsh working environments.

    12. Enhancing CO2 Capture using Robust Superomniphobic Membranes

      Florian Geyer, Clarissa Schönecker, Hans-Jürgen Butt and Doris Vollmer

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603524

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      Superomniphobic membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture are introduced. Concentrated aqueous amine solutions stay on the topmost part of the membranes, providing a large liquid/CO2 interface. Wetting of the membrane, which reduces the capture efficiency, is prevented. The CO2 capture rates using the chemically, mechanically, and thermally stable superomniphobic membranes are enhanced by up to 40% relative to commercial membranes.

    13. Haloperoxidase Mimicry by CeO2−x Nanorods Combats Biofouling

      Karoline Herget, Patrick Hubach, Stefan Pusch, Peter Deglmann, Hermann Götz, Tatiana E. Gorelik, Il'ya A. Gural'skiy, Felix Pfitzner, Thorben Link, Stephan Schenk, Martin Panthöfer, Vadim Ksenofontov, Ute Kolb, Till Opatz, Rute André and Wolfgang Tremel

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603823

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      CeO2−x nanorods are functional mimics of natural haloperoxidases. They catalyze the oxidative bromination of phenol red to bromophenol blue and of natural signaling molecules involved in bacterial quorum sensing. Laboratory and field tests with paint formulations containing 2 wt% of CeO2−x nanorods show a reduction in biofouling comparable to Cu2O, the most typical biocidal pigment.

    14. Assembling Polyoxo-Titanium Clusters and CdS Nanoparticles to a Porous Matrix for Efficient and Tunable H2-Evolution Activities with Visible Light

      Zhiqiang Jiang, Jinxiu Liu, Meiyan Gao, Xi Fan, Lei Zhang and Jian Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603369

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      Polyoxo-titanium clusters (PTCs) are applied to construct highly efficient ternary PTC/CdS/MIL-101 visible-light-range H2-evolution photocatalysts. The application of PTCs not only increases the photocatalytic activities but also provides a molecular tool to tune them.

    15. Graphene-Based Biosensors: Going Simple

      Eden Morales-Narváez, Luis Baptista-Pires, Alejandro Zamora-Gálvez and Arben Merkoçi

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604905

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      Perspectives on a new generation of biosensing devices are discussed based on the synergy between flexible, lightweight, easy-to-use, versatile, and cost-effective materials (paper and plastic), along with the outstanding properties of graphene derivatives.

  2. Reviews

    1. Sensing at the Surface of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

      Wangyang Fu, Lin Jiang, Erik P. van Geest, Lia M. C. Lima and Grégory F. Schneider

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603610

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      The work done so far on biochemical sensing at the surface of a (chemically functionalized) graphene field-effect transistor and the challenges that lie ahead, including the recent progress in meeting the ever increasing demand for sensitivity by overcoming the obstacle of Debye screening, are discussed.

  3. Communications

    1. Efficient Functionalization of Additives at Supramolecular Material Surfaces

      Olga J. G. M. Goor, Henk M. Keizer, Anne L. Bruinen, Moniek G. J. Schmitz, Ron M. Versteegen, Henk M. Janssen, Ron M. A. Heeren and Patricia Y. W. Dankers

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604652

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      Selective surface modification reactions can be performed on additives that are supramolecularly incorporated into supramolecular materials. Hereby, processing of the material, that regularly requires harsh processing conditions (i.e., the use of organic solvents and/or high temperatures), and functionalization can be decoupled. Moreover, high-resolution depth profiling by time-of-flight (ToF) secondary-ion mass spectrometry clearly shows distinct differences in surface and bulk material composition.

    2. Pyroprotein-Based Electronic Textiles with High Stability

      Jun Woo Jeon, Se Youn Cho, Yu Jin Jeong, Dong Seok Shin, Na Rae Kim, Young Soo Yun, Hyun-Tae Kim, Soo Bong Choi, Won G. Hong, Hae Jin Kim, Hyoung-Joon Jin and Byung Hoon Kim

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605479

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      Thermally reducible pyroprotein-based electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabricated using graphene oxide and a pyroprotein such as cocoon silk and spider web without any chemical agents. The electrical conductivity of the e-textile is 11.63 S cm−1, which is maintained even in bending, washing, and temperature variation.

    3. Noble-Metal-Free Hybrid Membranes for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

      Xuyang Wang, Xin Gan, Tao Hu, Kazunori Fujisawa, Yu Lei, Zhong Lin, Ben Xu, Zheng-Hong Huang, Feiyu Kang, Mauricio Terrones and Ruitao Lv

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603617

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      Free-standing and flexible WS2/WO2.9/C hybrid membranes are synthesized and used as catalytic electrodes for electrochemical hydrogen evolution, exhibiting a high and stable catalytic activity. In virtue of the synergetic effect, a low onset overpotential of 20 mV and a Tafel slope of 36 mV dec−1 are achieved.

    4. Efficient Charge Transfer and Fine-Tuned Energy Level Alignment in a THF-Processed Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell with 11.3% Efficiency

      Zhong Zheng, Omar M. Awartani, Bhoj Gautam, Delong Liu, Yunpeng Qin, Wanning Li, Alexander Bataller, Kenan Gundogdu, Harald Ade and Jianhui Hou

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604241

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      Fullerene-free organic solar cells show over 11% power conversion efficiency, processed by low toxic solvents. The applied donor and acceptor in the bulk heterojunction exhibit almost the same highest occupied molecular orbital level, yet exhibit very efficient charge creation.

    5. Converting Red Blood Cells to Efficient Microreactors for Blood Detoxification

      Can Xu, Xiangyu Yang, Xiao Fu, Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Zhantong Wang, Nan Lu, Yijing Liu, Wenpei Fan, Fuwu Zhang, Gang Niu, Shuo Hu, Iqbal Unnisa Ali and Xiaoyuan Chen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603673

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      A simple method to convert red blood cells (RBCs) into efficient microreactors is reported. Triton X-100 is employed at finely tuned concentrations to render RBCs highly permeable to substrates, while low concentrations of glutaraldehyde are used to stabilize cells. The ability for blood detoxification of these microreactors is demonstrated.

    6. Ultrasensitive SERS Detection by Defect Engineering on Single Cu2O Superstructure Particle

      Jie Lin, Yang Shang, Xiaoxia Li, Jian Yu, Xiaotian Wang and Lin Guo

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604797

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      A Cu2O superstructure is constructed through a recrystallization-induced self-assembly strategy. Single Cu2O superstructure particle exhibits an outstanding surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy performance with the limit of detection as low as 10−9 mol L−1 and metal comparable enhancement factor (8 × 105) due to the synergetic effect of vacancies defect-facilitated charge-transfer process and copper vacancies defect-induced electrostatic adsorption.

  4. Reviews

    1. Electrically Rechargeable Zinc–Air Batteries: Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives

      Jing Fu, Zachary Paul Cano, Moon Gyu Park, Aiping Yu, Michael Fowler and Zhongwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604685

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      Electrically rechargeable zinc–air batteries lie at the heart of emerging energy-storage technologies, such as electric vehicles and wearable devices, benefiting from their high energy density and environmental friendliness. The current status and challenges faced by electrically rechargeable zinc–air batteries are discussed in detail. The potential solutions to these problems are thoroughly investigated.

  5. Communications

    1. Efficient Cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complex with Superior Operational Stability

      Zhi-Qiang Zhu, Kody Klimes, Sean Holloway and Jian Li

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605002

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      A tetradentate cyclometalated Pt(II) complex (PtN3N) is developed as an efficient, stable phosphorescent emitter. One PtN3N device exhibits an estimated LT97 of 2057 h at an initial luminance of 1000 cd m–2, while maintaining an external quantum efficiency of 15.3% at such high brightness, demonstrating performance to overcome the last technical barrier to the commercialization of Pt complexes for many applications.

    2. Flash-Induced Self-Limited Plasmonic Welding of Silver Nanowire Network for Transparent Flexible Energy Harvester

      Jung Hwan Park, Geon-Tae Hwang, Shinho Kim, Jeongmin Seo, Hong-Jin Park, Kyoungsik Yu, Taek-Soo Kim and Keon Jae Lee

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603473

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      The outstanding performance (sheet resistance of 5 Ω sq–1 at transmittance of 90%) and strongly adhesive (30.7 J m–2) silver nanowires (AgNWs) are fabricated using flash-induced plasmonic welding (FPW) based on theoretical research of photothermal interactions. The FPW-processed AgNWs are utilized as electrodes of a transparent flexible energy harvester, and this device exhibits excellent transmittance and high electric output performance. The FPW methodology provides a high-tech solution for transparent flexible electronics.

  6. Progress Reports

    1. Recent Progress in the Development of Printed Thin-Film Transistors and Circuits with High-Resolution Printing Technology

      Kenjiro Fukuda and Takao Someya

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602736

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      High-resolution printing technologies enable high-resolution patterning and fast operation of printed electronics. This article summarizes recent progress in printed thin-film transistors and integrated circuits in terms of their materials, printing technologies, and applications. The development of functional inks, high-resolution printing technologies, and applications of printed electronics are summarized and discussed to exemplify the potential of printed electronics.

  7. Communications

    1. A New Nonfullerene Electron Acceptor with a Ladder Type Backbone for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

      Nailiang Qiu, Huijing Zhang, Xiangjian Wan, Chenxi Li, Xin Ke, Huanran Feng, Bin Kan, Hongtao Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yan Lu and Yongsheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604964

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      Nonfullerene acceptor FDICTF (2,9-bis(2methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)indanone))-7,​12-​dihydro-​4,​4,​7,​7,​12,​12-​hexaoctyl-​4H-​cyclopenta[2″,​1″:5,​6;3″,​4″:5′,​6′]​diindeno[1,​2-​b:1′,​2′-​b′]dithiophene) modified by fusing the fluorene core in a precursor, yields 10.06% high power conversion efficiency, and demonstrates that the ladder and fused core backbone in A–D–A structure molecules is an effective design strategy for high-performance nonfullerene acceptors.

    2. Supramolecular Adaptive Nanomotors with Magnetotaxis Behavior

      Fei Peng, Yingfeng Tu, Yongjun Men, Jan C. M. van Hest and Daniela A. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604996

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      With a convenient bottom-up approach, magnetic metallic nickel is grown in situ of a supramolecular nanomotor using the catalytic activities of preloaded platinum nanoparticles. After introducing magnetic segments, simultaneous guidance and steering of catalytically powered motors with additional magnetic fields are achieved. Guided motion in a tissue model is demonstrated.

    3. High-Electron-Mobility and Air-Stable 2D Layered PtSe2 FETs

      Yuda Zhao, Jingsi Qiao, Zhihao Yu, Peng Yu, Kang Xu, Shu Ping Lau, Wu Zhou, Zheng Liu, Xinran Wang, Wei Ji and Yang Chai

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604230

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      The electrical and optical measurements, in combination with density functional theory calculations, show distinct layer-dependent semiconductor-to-semimetal evolution of 2D layered PtSe2. The high room-temperature electron mobility and near-infrared photo­response, together with much better air-stability, make PtSe2 a versatile electronic 2D layered material.

    4. Noble-Metal-Free Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity: The Impact of Ball Milling Anatase Nanopowders with TiH2

      Xuemei Zhou, Ning Liu, Jochen Schmidt, Axel Kahnt, Andres Osvet, Stefan Romeis, Eva M. Zolnhofer, Venkata Ramana Reddy Marthala, Dirk M. Guldi, Wolfgang Peukert, Martin Hartmann, Karsten Meyer and Patrik Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604747

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      Ball milling TiO2 anatase together with TiH2 can create an effective photocatalyst. The process changes the lattice and electronic structure of anatase. Lattice deformation created by mechanical impact combined with hydride incorporation yield electronic gap-states close to the conduction band of anatase. These provide longer lifetimes of photogenerated charge carriers and lead to an intrinsic cocatalytic activation of anatase for H2 evolution.

  8. Progress Reports

    1. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials

      Kyung Sun Park, Jangmi Baek, Yoonkyung Park, Lynn Lee, Jinho Hyon, Yong-Eun Koo Lee, Nabeen K. Shrestha, Youngjong Kang and Myung Mo Sung

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603285

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      The manufacturing of high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement on a substrate. Innovative crystal growth and patterning methods for organic electronic materials have been developed to obtain high performance organic electronics. Notably, effective heterogeneous integration of single-crystal organic semiconductors in a monolithic way will enable considerable progress to be made towards a new era of high-performance organic electronics.

  9. Reviews

    1. Organic Planar Heterojunctions: From Models for Interfaces in Bulk Heterojunctions to High-Performance Solar Cells

      Kyohei Nakano and Keisuke Tajima

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603269

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      Heterojunctions of organic semiconductors are the most important element in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The recent progress in research on planar heterojunctions is reviewed with respect to a fundamental understanding of the photophysical processes at the donor/acceptor interfaces in OPVs. This provides valuable information to overcome the current limitations regarding the performance of OPVs.

  10. Progress Reports

    1. Targeting Nanocarriers with Anisamide: Fact or Artifact?

      Athanasia Dasargyri, Carole D. Kümin and Jean-Christophe Leroux

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603451

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      Anisamide is a targeting ligand that is being investigated for the targeting of tumoral tissues by nanocarriers. This ligand, inspired by the structure of benzamide-based tumor-imaging compounds, is believed to interact with the Sigma-1 receptor, but an important body of evidence questions this mechanism of action. A possible nonspecific effect could explain the variable and limited antitumor efficacy of anisamide-functionalized nanoformulations tested in vivo, none of which have reached the clinical stage.

  11. Communications

    1. S-Doped N-Rich Carbon Nanosheets with Expanded Interlayer Distance as Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Jiqian Yang, Xianlong Zhou, Dihua Wu, Xudong Zhao and Zhen Zhou

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604108

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      2D composites with S doping into N-rich carbon nanosheets are fabricated, whose interlayer distance becomes large enough for Na+ insertion and diffusion. The large surface area and stable structure also provide more sites for Na+ adsorption, leading to high Na-storage capacity and excellent rate performance. Moreover, Faradaic reactions between Na+ and tightly bound S is beneficial for further improvement of Na-storage capacity.

    2. High-Performance THz Emitters Based on Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Heterostructures

      Yang Wu, Mehrdad Elyasi, Xuepeng Qiu, Mengji Chen, Yang Liu, Lin Ke and Hyunsoo Yang

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603031

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      A low-cost, intense, broadband, noise resistive, magnetic field controllable, flexible and low power driven THz emitter based on thin nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic metallic heterostructures is demonstrated. The THz emission origins from the inverse spin Hall Effect. The proposed devices are not only promising for a wide range THz equipment, but also offering an alternative approach to characterize spin-orbit interaction in nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic bilayers.

    3. Tailoring Graphene Oxide-Based Aerogels for Efficient Solar Steam Generation under One Sun

      Xiaozhen Hu, Weichao Xu, Lin Zhou, Yingling Tan, Yang Wang, Shining Zhu and Jia Zhu

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604031

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      Graphene oxide-based aerogels with carefully tailored properties are developed to enable efficient solar steam generation. Aerogels, with inherent porous structures, are excellent thermal insulators and provide channels for water supply and vapor escape. With enhanced absorption and hydrophilicity by incorporation of carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate, the resulting aerogels can enable efficient (≈83%) solar steam generation under one-sun illumination.

    4. Artificial Olfactory System for Trace Identification of Explosive Vapors Realized by Optoelectronic Schottky Sensing

      Linjuan Guo, Zheng Yang and Xincun Dou

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604528

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      A rapid, ultrasensitive artificial olfactory system based on an individual optoelectronic Schottky junction is demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosive vapors, including military explosives and improvised explosives.

    5. Thrombin-Responsive Transcutaneous Patch for Auto-Anticoagulant Regulation

      Yuqi Zhang, Jicheng Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Nicholas J. Hanne, Zheng Cui, Chenggen Qian, Chao Wang, Hongliang Xin, Jacqueline H. Cole, Caterina M. Gallippi, Yong Zhu and Zhen Gu

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604043

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      A thrombin-responsive closed-loop patch is developed for prolonged heparin delivery in a feedback-controlled manner. This microneedle-based patch can sense activated thrombin and subsequently releases heparin to prevent coagulation in the blood flow. This “smart” heparin patch can be transcutaneously inserted into skin without drug leakage and can sustainably regulate blood coagulation in response to thrombin.

    6. Surface-Charge-Mediated Formation of H-TiO2@Ni(OH)2 Heterostructures for High-Performance Supercapacitors

      Qingqing Ke, Cao Guan, Xiao Zhang, Minrui Zheng, Yong-Wei Zhang, Yongqing Cai, Hua Zhang and John Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604164

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      An electrochemically favorable Ni(OH)2 with porously hierarchical structure and ultrathin nanosheets in a core–shell structure H-TiO2@Ni(OH)2 is achieved through modulating the surface chemical activity of TiO2 by hydrogenation, which creates a defect-rich surface of TiO2, thereby facilitating the subsequent nucleation and growth of Ni(OH)2. These configuration-tailored H-TiO2@Ni(OH)2 core–shell nanowires exhibit a superior electrochemical performance and good flexibility.

    7. Recyclable and Green Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Qijie Liang, Qian Zhang, Xiaoqin Yan, Xinqin Liao, Linhong Han, Fang Yi, Mingyuan Ma and Yue Zhang

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604961

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      A recyclable and green triboelectronic nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on triboelectrification and designed cascade reactions. Once triggered by water, the TENG can fully dissolve and degrade into environmentally benign end products. With features of rapid dissolution, reproductivity, and green electronic, the TENG has potential of serving as clearable energy harvester and nanosensor for health monitoring and motion sensing.

    8. Formation of Onion-Like NiCo2S4 Particles via Sequential Ion-Exchange for Hybrid Supercapacitors

      Bu Yuan Guan, Le Yu, Xiao Wang, Shuyan Song and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605051

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      Onion-like NiCo2S4 particles with unique hollow structured shells are synthesized by a sequential ion-exchange strategy. With the structural and compositional advantages, these unique onion-like NiCo2S4 particles exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance as an electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors.

    9. Bifunctional Oxygen Reaction Catalysis of Quadruple Manganese Perovskites

      Ikuya Yamada, Hiroshi Fujii, Akihiko Takamatsu, Hidekazu Ikeno, Kouhei Wada, Hirofumi Tsukasaki, Shogo Kawaguchi, Shigeo Mori and Shunsuke Yagi

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603004

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      Bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution/reduction reaction (OER/ORR) are desirable for the development of energy conversion technologies. It is discovered that the manganese quadruple perovskites CaMn7O12 and LaMn7O12 show bifunctional catalysis in the OER/ORR. A possible origin of high OER activity is the unique surface structure through corner-shared planar MnO4 and octahedral MnO6 units to promote direct O[BOND]O bond formations.

    10. Defect-Resistant Radiative Performance of m-Plane Immiscible Al1−xInxN Epitaxial Nanostructures for Deep-Ultraviolet and Visible Polarized Light Emitters

      Shigefusa F. Chichibu, Kazunobu Kojima, Akira Uedono and Yoshitaka Sato

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603644

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      Planar vacuum-fluorescent-display devices emitting polarized UV-C, blue, and green light are demonstrated using immiscible Al1−xInxN nanostructures grown in nonpolar m-directions. Despite the presence of high concentration of nonradiative recombination centers, the Al1−xInxN nanostructures emit polarized light with the luminescence lifetimes of 22–32 ps at 300 K. This defect-resistant radiative performance suggests supernormal localized characteristics of electron–hole pairs.

    11. Small Photoblinking Semiconductor Polymer Dots for Fluorescence Nanoscopy

      Xuanze Chen, Rongqin Li, Zhihe Liu, Kai Sun, Zezhou Sun, Danni Chen, Gaixia Xu, Peng Xi, Changfeng Wu and Yujie Sun

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604850

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      Two types of small photoblinking Pdots with high brightness, strong photostability, and favorable biocompatibility, are designed. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging is achieved using these Pdots. Imaging of subcellular structures demonstrates that these small photoblinking Pdots are outstanding probes for fast, long-term super-resolution fluorescence imaging.

    12. 50-Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control

      Jianhai Li, Leimeng Xu, Tao Wang, Jizhong Song, Jiawei Chen, Jie Xue, Yuhui Dong, Bo Cai, Qingsong Shan, Boning Han and Haibo Zeng

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603885

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      Solution-processed CsPbBr3 quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with a 50-fold external quantum efficiency improvement (up to 6.27%) are achieved through balancing surface passivation and carrier injection via ligand density control (treating with hexane/ethyl acetate mixed solvent), which induces the coexistence of high levels of ink stability, photoluminescence quantum yields, thin-film uniformity, and carrier-injection efficiency.

    13. Development of Glassy Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystals for Solid Proton-Conductive Materials

      Tsubasa Kobayashi, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takashi Kato and Hiroyuki Ohno

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604429

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      Glassy bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals are developed to be a matrix having a hydrophilic infinite periodic minimal surface (IPMS). They function as a scaffold for water, leading to the formation of a 3D continuous hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules along the IPMS. This material design is advantageous for developing novel electrolytes with rigidity and high proton conductivity.

    14. Guiding Cell Attachment in 3D Microscaffolds Selectively Functionalized with Two Distinct Adhesion Proteins

      Benjamin Richter, Vincent Hahn, Sarah Bertels, Tanja K. Claus, Martin Wegener, Guillaume Delaittre, Christopher Barner-Kowollik and Martin Bastmeyer

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604342

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      The combination of three different photoresists into a single direct laser written 3D microscaffold permits functionalization with two bioactive full-length proteins. The cell-instructive microscaffolds consist of a passivating framework equipped with light activatable constituents featuring distinct protein-binding properties. This allows directed cell attachment of epithelial or fibroblast cells in 3D.

    15. In Operando Mechanism Analysis on Nanocrystalline Silicon Anode Material for Reversible and Ultrafast Sodium Storage

      Lei Zhang, Xianluo Hu, Chaoji Chen, Haipeng Guo, Xiaoxiao Liu, Gengzhao Xu, Haijian Zhong, Shuang Cheng, Peng Wu, Jiashen Meng, Yunhui Huang, Shixue Dou and Huakun Liu

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604708

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      The electrochemical mechanism of nanocrystalline silicon anode in sodium ion batteries is first studied via in operando Raman and in operando X-ray diffraction. An irreversible structural conversion from crystalline silicon to amorphous silicon takes place during the initial cycles, leading to ultrafast reversible sodium insertion in the newly generated amorphous silicon. Furthermore, an optimized silicon/carbon composite has been developed to further improve its electrochemical performance.

    16. The Application of a Small-Molecule-Based Ternary Memory Device in Transient Thermal-Probing Electronics

      Feng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hui-Long Dong, Qing-Feng Xu, Jing-Hui He, You-Yong Li, Jun Jiang and Jian-Mei Lu

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604162

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      A small-molecule-based ternary memory device is used in transient thermal-probing electronics. The PYAE-based memory device is featured with three electrical transition signals (“0,” “1,” and “2”), while the heated PYAE-based device is only characterized by two electrical transition signals (“1” and “2”). The organic layer of the used devices can be recovered and reused.

    17. Temperature and Thickness Dependences of the Anisotropic In-Plane Thermal Conductivity of Black Phosphorus

      Brandon Smith, Bjorn Vermeersch, Jesús Carrete, Eric Ou, Jaehyun Kim, Natalio Mingo, Deji Akinwande and Li Shi

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603756

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      The anisotropic basal-plane thermal conductivities of thin black phosphorus obtained from a new four-probe measurement exhibit much higher peak values at low temperatures than previous reports. First principles calculations reveal the important role of crystal defects and weak thickness dependence that is opposite to the case of graphene and graphite due to the absence of reflection symmetry in puckered phosphorene.

    18. Black Phosphorus Nanosheet-Based Drug Delivery System for Synergistic Photodynamic/Photothermal/Chemotherapy of Cancer

      Wansong Chen, Jiang Ouyang, Hong Liu, Min Chen, Ke Zeng, Jianping Sheng, Zhenjun Liu, Yajing Han, Liqiang Wang, Juan Li, Liu Deng, You-Nian Liu and Shaojun Guo

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603864

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      A black phosphorus (BP)-based drug delivery system for synergistic photodynamic/photothermal/chemotherapy of cancer is constructed. As a 2D nanosheet, BP shows super high drug loading capacity and pH-/photoresponsive drug release. The intrinsic photothermal and photodynamic effects of BP enhance the antitumor activities. The synergistic photodynamic/photothermal/chemotherapy makes BP-based drug delivery system a multifunctional nanomedicine platform.

    19. Pure Formamidinium-Based Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with High Efficiency and Low Driving Voltage

      Lei Meng, En-Ping Yao, Ziruo Hong, Huajun Chen, Pengyu Sun, Zhanlue Yang, Gang Li and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603826

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      A formamidinium(FA)-based perovskite has shown superior optoelectronic properties including better stability than methylammonium-based counterparts. Here, pure FA-perovskite-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency are reported. Interestingly, the LED clearly shows a sub-bandgap emission at 1.7 V (bandgap 2.3 eV). This important discovery provides further insights of the charge transport mechanism in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

    20. Bright Multicolor Bandgap Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots for Electroluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes

      Fanglong Yuan, Zhibin Wang, Xiaohong Li, Yunchao Li, Zhan'ao Tan, Louzhen Fan and Shihe Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604436

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      Multicolor bandgap fluorescent carbon quantum dots (MCBF-CQDs) from blue to red with quantum yield up to 75% are synthesized using a solvothermal method. For the first time, monochrome electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with MCBF-CQDs directly as an active emission layer are fabricated. The maximum luminance of blue LEDs reaches 136 cd m−2, which is the best performance for CQD-based monochrome electroluminescent LEDs.

    21. Multidirectional Artificial Muscles from Nylon

      Seyed M. Mirvakili and Ian W. Hunter

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604734

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      Multidirectional artificial muscles are made from highly oriented nylon filaments. Thanks to the low thermal conductivity of nylon and its anisotropic thermal expansion, bending occurs when a nylon beam is differentially heated. This heat can be generated via a Joule heating mechanism or high power laser pulses.

    22. Surfactant-Free Aqueous Synthesis of Pure Single-Crystalline SnSe Nanosheet Clusters as Anode for High Energy- and Power-Density Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Shuang Yuan, Yun-Hai Zhu, Wang Li, Sai Wang, Dan Xu, Lin Li, Yu Zhang and Xin-Bo Zhang

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602469

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      SnSe with 3D hierarchical nanostructure composed of interconnected single-crystal SnSe nanosheets is synthesized via a fast and effective strategy. Unexpectedly, when used as anode material for Na-ion batteries (NIBs), the SnSe exhibits a high capacity (738 mAh g−1), superior rate capability (40 A g−1), and high energy density in full cell. These results provide the possibility of SnSe use as NIBs anodes.

    23. Atomically Thin Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanofilm for Cu Protection: The Importance of Film Perfection

      Majharul Haque Khan, Sina S. Jamali, Andrey Lyalin, Paul J. Molino, Lei Jiang, Hua Kun Liu, Tetsuya Taketsugu and Zhenguo Huang

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603937

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      Outstanding protection of Cu by high-quality boron nitride nanofilm (BNNF) 1–2 atomic layers thick in salt water has been observed, while defective BNNF accelerates the reaction of Cu toward water. The chemical stability, insulating nature, and impermeability of ions through the BN hexagons render BNNF a great choice for atomic scale protection.

    24. Shape-Persistent Graphite Replica of Metal Wires

      Martin Pfeffermann, Michael Wuttke, Xinliang Feng, Akimitsu Narita and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603732

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      A facile one-step procedure for a template-assisted fabrication of hollow carbon tubes is reported, using organic halides as carbon source. The shape-persistent tubes are obtained with arbitrary shapes as hollow replica of the metal template. They feature a high quality of graphite, and a high conductivity of 1.31 ± 0.05 · 106 S·m-1.

    25. Extending the Life of Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries by Reaction of Lithium Dendrites with a Novel Silica Nanoparticle Sandwiched Separator

      Kai Liu, Denys Zhuo, Hyun-Wook Lee, Wei Liu, Dingchang Lin, Yingying Lu and Yi Cui

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603987

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      A reaction-protective separator that slows the growth of lithium dendrites penetrating into the separator is produced by sandwiching silica nanoparticles between two polymer separators. The reaction between lithium dendrites and silica nanoparticles consumes the dendrites and can extend the life of the battery by approximately five times.

    26. Piezophototronic-Effect-Enhanced Electrically Pumped Lasing

      Xun Yang, Lin Dong, Chongxin Shan, Junlu Sun, Nan Zhang, Shuangpeng Wang, Mingming Jiang, Binghui Li, Xiuhua Xie and Dezhen Shen

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602832

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      This study demonstrates significant improvements of ZnO nanowire lasers by the piezophototronic effect. The laser output power can be enhanced by a factor of 4.96, and the threshold voltage can be decreased from 48 to 20 V by applying pressure. The mechanism of the improved performance can be attributed to the enhanced carrier injection and recombination due to the piezophototronic effect.

    27. Metal–Semiconductor Phase-Transition in WSe2(1-x)Te2x Monolayer

      Peng Yu, Junhao Lin, Linfeng Sun, Quang Luan Le, Xuechao Yu, Guanhui Gao, Chuang-Han Hsu, Di Wu, Tay-Rong Chang, Qingsheng Zeng, Fucai Liu, Qi Jie Wang, Horng-Tay Jeng, Hsin Lin, Achim Trampert, Zexiang Shen, Kazu Suenaga and Zheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603991

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      The metal–semiconductor phase-transition in the ternary transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayer was achieved by alloying Te into WSe2 (WSe2(1-x)Te2x, where x = 0%–100%). The optical band gaps of the WSe2(1-x)Te2x monolayer can be tuned from 1.67 to 1.44 eV (2H semiconductor) and drop to 0 eV (1Td metal), which opens up an exciting opportunity in functional electronic/optoelectronic devices.

    28. CsxWO3 Nanorods Coated with Polyelectrolyte Multilayers as a Multifunctional Nanomaterial for Bimodal Imaging-Guided Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Treatment

      Wei Guo, Chongshen Guo, Nannan Zheng, Tiedong Sun and Shaoqin Liu

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604157

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      CsxWO3 nanorods coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers are developed as “four-in-one” multifunctional nanomaterials with significant potential for computed tomography/photoacoustic tomography bimodal imaging-guided photothermal/photodynamic cancer treatment.

    29. Dynamic Self-Assembly Encodes A Tri-stable Au–TiO2 Photocatalyst

      Qi Zhang, Wen-Zhi Wang, Jing-Jing Yu, Da-Hui Qu and He Tian

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604948

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      A tri-stable switchable catalyst is encoded by pH-controlled dynamic self-assembly of gold and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Through precise adjustment of the integrated dynamic covalent and noncovalent self-assembly process of the two types of nanoparticles, the photocatalytic activity of the hybrid system is modulated by switching pH conditions between tri-stable “highly active”, “active”, and “inactive” states.

    30. Li-Ion Synaptic Transistor for Low Power Analog Computing

      Elliot J. Fuller, Farid El Gabaly, François Léonard, Sapan Agarwal, Steven J. Plimpton, Robin B. Jacobs-Gedrim, Conrad D. James, Matthew J. Marinella and A. Alec Talin

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604310

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      Nonvolatile redox transistors (NVRTs) based upon Li-ion battery materials are demonstrated as memory elements for neuromorphic computer architectures with multi-level analog states, “write” linearity, low-voltage switching and low power dissipation. Simulations of backpropagation using the device properties reaches ideal classification accuracy. Physics-based simulations predict energy costs per “write” operation of <10 aJ when scaled to 200 × 200 nm.

    31. Dually Ordered Porous TiO2-rGO Composites with Controllable Light Absorption Properties for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

      Yu Yang, Quan Jin, Dan Mao, Jian Qi, Yanze Wei, Ranbo Yu, Anran Li, Shuzhou Li, Huijun Zhao, Yanwen Ma, Lianhui Wang, Wenping Hu and Dan Wang

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604795

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      Quadruple layered TiO2 films with controllable macropore size are prepared via a confinement self-assembly method. Inverse opal structure with ordered mesoporous (IOM) presents unique light reflection and scattering ability with different wavelength. Cyan light (400–600 nm) is reflected and scattered by IOM-195, which is in accord with N719 absorption spectra. By manipulating macropore size, different light response is obtained.

    32. Networking Pyrolyzed Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks by Carbon Nanotubes Improves Conductivity and Enhances Oxygen-Reduction Performance in Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cells

      Chao Zhang, Yu-Cheng Wang, Bing An, Ruiyun Huang, Cheng Wang, Zhiyou Zhou and Wenbin Lin

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604556

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      A high-performance nonprecious-metal oxygen-reduction electrocatalyst is prepared via in situ growth of bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) followed by adsorption of furfuryl alcohol and pyrolysis. The networking boosts the conductivity and performance in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, yielding a maximal power density of 820 mW cm−2.

    33. The Importance of Materials Design to Make Ions Flow: Toward Novel Materials Platforms for Bioelectronics Applications

      Celia M. Pacheco-Moreno, Murielle Schreck, Alberto D. Scaccabarozzi, Philippe Bourgun, Guillaume Wantz, Molly M. Stevens, Olivier J. Dautel and Natalie Stingelin

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604446

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      Chemical design criteria for materials for bioelectronics applications using a series of copolymer derivatives based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) are established. Directed chemical design via side-chain functionalization with polar groups allows manipulation of ion transport and ion-to-electron transduction. Insights gained will permit increased use of the plethora of materials employed in the organic electronics area for application in the bioelectronics field.

    34. Solution-Processed MoS2/Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Photodetectors

      Yan Wang, Raymond Fullon, Muharrem Acerce, Christopher E. Petoukhoff, Jieun Yang, Chenggan Chen, Songnan Du, Sin Ki Lai, Shu Ping Lau, Damien Voiry, Deirdre O'Carroll, Gautam Gupta, Aditya D. Mohite, Shengdong Zhang, Hang Zhou and Manish Chhowalla

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603995

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      Integration of organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites with metallic or semiconducting phases of 2D MoS2 nanosheets via solution processing is demonstrated. The results show that the collection of charge carriers is strongly dependent on the electronic properties of the 2D MoS2 with metallic MoS2 showing high responsivity and the semiconducting phase exhibiting high on/off ratios.

    35. Conductance Oscillations in a Graphene/Nanocluster Hybrid Material: Toward Large-Area Single-Electron Devices

      Florian Godel, Louis Donald Notemgnou Mouafo, Guillaume Froehlicher, Bernard Doudin, Stéphane Berciaud, Yves Henry, Jean-François Dayen and David Halley

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604837

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      Large assemblies of self-organized aluminum nanoclusters embedded in an oxide layer are formed on graphene templates and used to build tunnel-junction devices. Unexpectedly, single-electron-transport behavior with well-defined Coulomb oscillations is observed for a record junction area of up to 100 µm2 containing millions of metal islands. Such graphene–metal nanocluster hybrid materials offer new prospects for single-electron electronics.

  12. Reviews

    1. Recent Progress in Ionic Iridium(III) Complexes for Organic Electronic Devices

      Dongxin Ma, Taiju Tsuboi, Yong Qiu and Lian Duan

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603253

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      Ionic iridium(III) complexes show high promise for organic electronic devices owing to their excellent luminescence of virtually all colors. Recent progress on material design, characterization, and applications of ionic iridium(III) complexes is highlighted, pointing out their great potential for future organic displays, lighting, and data record storage.

  13. Communications

    1. Stretchable Porous Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Hybrid Nanocomposite for Harvesting Mechanical Energy

      You Jun Fan, Xian Song Meng, Hua Yang Li, Shuang Yang Kuang, Lei Zhang, Ying Wu, Zhong Lin Wang and Guang Zhu

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603115

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      A stretchable porous nanocomposite (PNC) is reported based on a hybrid of a multiwalled carbon nanotubes network and a polydimethylsiloxane matrix for harvesting energy from mechanical interactions. The deformation-enabled energy-generating process makes the PNC applicable to various mechanical interactions, including pressing, stretching, bending, and twisting. It can be potentially used as an energy solution for wearable electronics.

    2. Multifunctional Benzoquinone Additive for Efficient and Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

      Chuanjiang Qin, Toshinori Matsushima, Takashi Fujihara and Chihaya Adachi

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603808

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      Device stability of planar perovskite solar cells is improved by virtue of multifunctional BQ additive. The morphology and crystal quality of the perovskite films are improved because BQ slows the rate of perovskite crystal formation. Electron transfer from perovskite to BQ reduces charge recombination losses, and the oxidizing ability of BQ effectively suppresses the formation of metallic lead and improves device lifetime.

    3. Fluorogenic 2D Peptidosheet Unravels CD47 as a Potential Biomarker for Profiling Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Tissues

      Yun-Han Ma, Wei-Tao Dou, Yu-Fei Pan, Li-Wei Dong, Ye-Xiong Tan, Xiao-Peng He, He Tian and Hong-Yang Wang

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604253

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      A 2D peptidosheet unravels CD47 as a potential biomarker to image hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells and tissues. Supramolecular assembly between water-soluble 2D MoS2 and a peptide probe produces the 2D peptidosheet suited for the profiling of hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma tissues over healthy tissues on clinical specimens.

    4. An Arbitrary Color Light Emitter

      Wei-Chun Tan, Yu-Chi Chen, Yi-Rou Liou, Han-Wen Hu, Mario Hofmann and Yang-Fang Chen

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604076

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      The integration of a light emitting transistor based on graphene/insulator/semiconductor with downconversion emitters enables the manipulation of emitted light covering the whole chromaticity space, including white light emission. This novel arbitrary color light emitter offers a promising approach for new applications in optoelectronic devices ranging from displays to solid state lighting.

  14. Research News

    1. Semiconductor Metal–Organic Frameworks: Future Low-Bandgap Materials

      Muhammad Usman, Shruti Mendiratta and Kuang-Lieh Lu

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605071

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      Bandgap engineering, the presence of a functional organic component along with an inorganic counterpart, self-assembly, and easy tunability of structural properties make metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) more versatile than organic or inorganic semiconductors for developing efficient semiconducting materials, for their use in field-effect transistors and sensors for the microelectronics industry.

  15. Communications

    1. Near-Infrared Electrophosphorescence up to 1.1 µm using a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Molecule as Triplet Sensitizer

      Ryo Nagata, Hajime Nakanotani and Chihaya Adachi

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604265

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      A tenfold improvement in the external electroluminescence quantum efficiency of NIR electrophosphorescence is demonstrated compared to devices with conventional fluorescent materials as host, by applying the concept of thermally activated delayed fluorescence to achieve an emitter layer capable of efficient spin conversion. This device architecture can maximize the performance of an organic-semiconductor-based NIR light source.

  16. Progress Reports

    1. Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs

      Tyler Fleetham, Guijie Li and Jian Li

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601861

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      Recent developments in square planar Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes for OLED applications have enabled dramatic improvements in electroluminescent performance, particularly through the application of N-heterocyclic carbene or tetradentate ligands, which now meet or exceed the performance of Ir complexes in many aspects. The progress in square planar metal complexes toward solving the challenges of developing efficient and stable blue emitters and their use for stable and efficient single-dopant white OLEDs are discussed.

  17. Communications

    1. Sub-50 nm Channel Vertical Field-Effect Transistors using Conventional Ink-Jet Printing

      Tessy Theres Baby, Manuel Rommel, Falk von Seggern, Pascal Friederich, Christian Reitz, Simone Dehm, Christian Kübel, Wolfgang Wenzel, Horst Hahn and Subho Dasgupta

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603858

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      A printed vertical field-effect transistor is demonstrated, which decouples critical device dimensions from printing resolution. A printed mesoporous semiconductor layer, sandwiched between vertically stacked drive electrodes, provides <50 nm channel lengths. A polymer-electrolyte-based gate insulator infiltrates the percolating pores of the mesoporous channel to accumulate charge carriers at every semiconductor domain, thereby, resulting in an unprecedented current density of MA cm−2.

  18. Reviews

    1. Design of Architectures and Materials in In-Plane Micro-supercapacitors: Current Status and Future Challenges

      Dianpeng Qi, Yan Liu, Zhiyuan Liu, Li Zhang and Xiaodong Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602802

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      In-plane micro-supercapacitors possess the merits of easy fabrication and integration into on-chip electronics, and offer new opportunities for the miniaturization and integration of energy-storage units for portable devices. Strategies to fabricate electrode finger arrays and the material engineering of in-plane micro-supercapacitors are discussed.

  19. Communications

    1. Efficient Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by a 3D Nanostructured Carbon Supported on Flexible Exfoliated Graphene Foil

      Yang Hou, Ming Qiu, Tao Zhang, Ji Ma, Shaohua Liu, Xiaodong Zhuang, Chris Yuan and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604480

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      A novel 3D Co[BOND]Nx|P complex-doped carbon grown on flexible exfoliated graphene foil is designed and constructed for both electrochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting. The coordination of CoNx active centers hybridized with that of neighboring P atoms enhances the electron transfer and optimizes the charge distribution of the carbon surface, which synergistically promote reaction kinetics by providing more exposed active sites.

    2. Core–Shell Gold Nanorod@Metal–Organic Framework Nanoprobes for Multimodality Diagnosis of Glioma

      Wenting Shang, Chaoting Zeng, Yang Du, Hui Hui, Xiao Liang, Chongwei Chi, Kun Wang, Zhongliang Wang and Jie Tian

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604381

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      One of the most significant challenges in the diagnosis of brain cancer is efficient in vivo imaging using nontoxic nanoprobes. Herein, core–shell gold nanorod@MIL-88(Fe) nanostars are successfully constructed as triple-modality imaging (computed tomography/magnetic-resonance imaging/photoacoustic imaging) nanoprobes that show low cytotoxicity, high contrast, high penetration depth, and high spatial resolution for accurate and noninvasive imaging and diagnosis of gliomas.

  20. Progress Reports

    1. Green Processing of Carbon Nanomaterials

      Masuki Kawamoto, Pan He and Yoshihiro Ito

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602423

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      The development of an environmentally friendly dispersion method for both safe and practical processing of carbon nanomaterials is a great challenge. Recent research progress on: i) covalent-bonding functionalization by means of energy-efficient and less-toxic chemical modification, and ii) non-covalent-bonding functionalization through physical modification using green solvents and dispersants, and chemical-free mechanical stimuli are highlighted, including their practical applications.

  21. Communications

    1. Thermally Active Liquid Crystal Network Gripper Mimicking the Self-Peeling of Gecko Toe Pads

      Hamed Shahsavan, Seyyed Muhammad Salili, Antal Jákli and Boxin Zhao

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604021

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      Self-peeling of gecko toes is mimicked by integration of film-terminated fibrillar adhesives to hybrid nematic liquid crystal network (LCN) cantilevers. A soft gripper is developed based on the gecko-inspired attachment/detachment mechanism. Performance of the fabricated gripper for transportation of thin delicate objects is evaluated by the optimum mechanical strength of the LCN and the maximum size of the adhesive patch.

    2. Temperature Dependence of Anisotropic Thermal-Conductivity Tensor of Bulk Black Phosphorus

      Bo Sun, Xiaokun Gu, Qingsheng Zeng, Xi Huang, Yuexiang Yan, Zheng Liu, Ronggui Yang and Yee Kan Koh

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603297

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      The anisotropic thermal-conductivity tensor of bulk black phosphorus (BP) for 80 ≤T ≤ 300 K is reported. Despite the anisotropy, phonons are predominantly scattered by the Umklapp processes in all the crystallographic orientations. It is also found that the phonon mean-free-paths of BP are rather long (up to 1 µm) in the through-plane direction.

    3. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

      Wanjun Liu, Yu Shrike Zhang, Marcel A. Heinrich, Fabio De Ferrari, Hae Lin Jang, Syeda Mahwish Bakht, Mario Moisés Alvarez, Jingzhou Yang, Yi-Chen Li, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Amir K. Miri, Kai Zhu, Parastoo Khoshakhlagh, Gyan Prakash, Hao Cheng, Xiaofei Guan, Zhe Zhong, Jie Ju, Geyunjian Harry Zhu, Xiangyu Jin, Su Ryon Shin, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci and Ali Khademhosseini

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604630

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      The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled extrusion of bioinks from a single printhead consisting of bundled capillaries synergized with programmed movement of the motorized stage.

    4. Significant Radiation Tolerance and Moderate Reduction in Thermal Transport of a Tungsten Nanofilm by Inserting Monolayer Graphene

      Shuyao Si, Wenqing Li, Xiaolong Zhao, Meng Han, Yanan Yue, Wei Wu, Shishang Guo, Xingang Zhang, Zhigao Dai, Xinwei Wang, Xiangheng Xiao and Changzhong Jiang

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604623

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      Tungsten–graphene multilayer composites are fabricated using a stacking method. The thermal resistance induced by the graphene interlayer is moderate. An ion-implantation method is used to verify the radiation tolerance. The results show that graphene inserted among tungsten films plays a dominant role in reducing radiation damage. Furthermore, the performance of different tungsten period-thicknesses in radiation tolerance is systematically analyzed.

    5. Large-Area and High-Quality 2D Transition Metal Telluride

      Jiadong Zhou, Fucai Liu, Junhao Lin, Xiangwei Huang, Juan Xia, Bowei Zhang, Qingsheng Zeng, Hong Wang, Chao Zhu, Lin Niu, Xuewen Wang, Wei Fu, Peng Yu, Tay-Rong Chang, Chuang-Han Hsu, Di Wu, Horng-Tay Jeng, Yizhong Huang, Hsin Lin, Zexiang Shen, Changli Yang, Li Lu, Kazu Suenaga, Wu Zhou, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Guangtong Liu and Zheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603471

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      Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscope. The low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2.

  22. Progress Reports

    1. Advanced Electron Holography Applied to Electromagnetic Field Study in Materials Science

      Daisuke Shindo, Toshiaki Tanigaki and Hyun Soon Park

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602216

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      Advances and applications of electron holography to the study of electromagnetic fields in various functional materials are presented. In particular, the development of split-illumination electron holography, which introduces a biprism in the illumination system of a holography electron microscope, enables highly accurate observations of electromagnetic fields and the expansion of the observable area.

  23. Communications

    1. Giant Rashba Splitting in Pb1–xSnxTe (111) Topological Crystalline Insulator Films Controlled by Bi Doping in the Bulk

      Valentine V. Volobuev, Partha S. Mandal, Marta Galicka, Ondřej Caha, Jaime Sánchez-Barriga, Domenico Di Sante, Andrei Varykhalov, Amir Khiar, Silvia Picozzi, Günther Bauer, Perla Kacman, Ryszard Buczko, Oliver Rader and Gunther Springholz

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604185

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      The topological properties of lead-tin chalcogenice topological crystalline insulators can be widely tuned by temperature and composition. Here, it is shown that bulk Bi doping of epitaxial Pb1-xSnxTe (111) films induces a giant Rashba splitting at the surface that can be tuned by the doping level. Tight binding calculations identify their origin as Fermi level pinning by trap states at the surface.

  24. Reviews

    1. Anisotropic Materials for Skeletal-Muscle-Tissue Engineering

      Soumen Jana, Sheeny K. Lan Levengood and Miqin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201600240

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      Muscle-tissue-engineering approaches are reviewed, focusing on anisotropic matrices, including micropatternered substrates, and aligned microporous and aligned fibrous scaffolds. Challenges associated with engineering aligned matrices are highlighted and correlation of scaffold topographical, mechanical, and biochemical cues to cellular function and myogenic phenotype development is discussed.

  25. Communications

    1. Bimetal-Organic Framework Derived CoFe2O4/C Porous Hybrid Nanorod Arrays as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Xue-Feng Lu, Lin-Fei Gu, Jia-Wei Wang, Jun-Xi Wu, Pei-Qin Liao and Gao-Ren Li

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604437

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      Porous CoFe2O4/C NRAs supported on nickel foam@NC (denoted as NF@NC-CoFe2O4/C NRAs) are directly fabricated by the carbonization of bimetal-organic framework NRAs grown on NF@poly-aniline(PANI), and they exhibit high electrocatalytic activity, low overpotential, and high stability for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

    2. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Charge Transport in Organolead Halide Perovskite Microplate Field-Effect Transistors

      Dehui Li, Hung-Chieh Cheng, Yiliu Wang, Zipeng Zhao, Gongming Wang, Hao Wu, Qiyuan He, Yu Huang and Xiangfeng Duan

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601959

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      Transformation of unipolar n-type semiconductor behavior to ambipolar and finally to unipolar p-type behavior in CH3NH3PbI3 microplate field-effect transistors by thermal annealing is reported. The photoluminescence spectra essentially maintains the same features before and after the thermal annealing process, demonstrating that the charge transport measurement provides a sensitive way to probe low concentration defects in perovskite materials.

    3. Ultrastrong Boron Frameworks in ZrB12: A Highway for Electron Conducting

      Teng Ma, Hui Li, Xu Zheng, Shanmin Wang, Xiancheng Wang, Huaizhou Zhao, Songbai Han, Jian Liu, Ruifeng Zhang, Pinwen Zhu, Youwen Long, Jinguang Cheng, Yanming Ma, Yusheng Zhao, Changqing Jin and Xiaohui Yu

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604003

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      ZrB12, with a high symmetrical cubic structure, possesses both high hardness ≈27.0 GPa and ultralow electrical resistivity ≈18 µΩ·cm at room temperature. Both superior conductivity and hardness of ZrB12 are associated with the extended B[BOND]B 3D covalent bonding network as it is not only favorable for achieving high hardness, but also provides conducting channels for transporting electrons.

    4. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells

      Edward S. Barnard, Benedikt Ursprung, Eric Colegrove, Helio R. Moutinho, Nicholas J. Borys, Brian E. Hardin, Craig H. Peters, Wyatt K. Metzger and P. James Schuck

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603801

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      Using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p–n junction.

    5. Membrane-Based Gas Separation Accelerated by Hollow Nanosphere Architectures

      Jinshui Zhang, Jennifer Ann Schott, Yunchao Li, Wangcheng Zhan, Shannon M. Mahurin, Kimberly Nelson, Xiao-Guang Sun, Mariappan Parans Paranthaman and Sheng Dai

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603797

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      The coupling of hollow carbon nanospheres with triblock copolymers is a promising strategy to fabricate mixed-matrix membranes. This is because the symmetric microporous shells combine with the hollow space to promote gas transport and the unique soft–rigid molecular structure of triblock copolymers can accommodate a high loading of fillers without a significant loss of mechanical strength.

    6. Stacked-Layer Heterostructure Films of 2D Thiophene Nanosheets and Graphene for High-Rate All-Solid-State Pseudocapacitors with Enhanced Volumetric Capacitance

      Zhong-Shuai Wu, Yijun Zheng, Shuanghao Zheng, Sen Wang, Chenglin Sun, Khaled Parvez, Taichi Ikeda, Xinhe Bao, Klaus Müllen and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602960

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      Stacked-layer heterostructure films of 2D thiophene nanosheets and electrochemically exfoliated graphene are constructed for ultrahigh rate all-solid-state flexible pseudocapacitors and micro-supercapacitors with superior volumetric capacitance due to the synergetic effect of ultrathin pseudocapacitive thiophene nanosheets and capacitive electrochemically exfoliated graphene.

  26. Progress Reports

    1. Organic Spin-Valves and Beyond: Spin Injection and Transport in Organic Semiconductors and the Effect of Interfacial Engineering

      Hyuk-Jae Jang and Curt A. Richter

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602739

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      The progress on efficient spin-polarized carrier injection into organic semiconductors from ferromagnetic metals by using various interface engineering techniques, since the first observation of the spin-valve effect through organic semiconductors, is presented. In addition, efforts to realize long spin transport in single-crystalline organic semiconductors compared to organic thin films are discussed.

  27. Reviews

    1. Assembly and Electronic Applications of Colloidal Nanomaterials

      Jian Zhu and Mark C. Hersam

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603895

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      Artificial solids assembled from colloidal nanomaterials give rise to fascinating electronic materials with versatile properties, and allow large-scale and low-cost production of nanoelectronics on rigid or flexible substrates. Solution-based nanomaterial assembly techniques are systematically reviewed for field-effect transistor devices in three material categories: semiconductors, conductors, and dielectrics. The resulting comparative analysis reveals promising opportunities and remaining challenges for this field.

  28. Communications

    1. Versatile Molecular Functionalization for Inhibiting Concentration Quenching of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence

      Jiyoung Lee, Naoya Aizawa, Masaki Numata, Chihaya Adachi and Takuma Yasuda

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604856

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      Concentration quenching of thermally activated delayed fluorescence is found to be dominated by electron-exchange interactions, as described by the Dexter energy-transfer model. Owing to the short-range nature of the electron-exchange interactions, even a small modulation in the molecular geometric structure drastically affects the concentration-quenching, leading to enhanced solid-state photoluminescence and electroluminescence quantum efficiencies.

    2. Control of Periodic Zigzag Structures of DNA by a Simple Shearing Method

      Yun Jeong Cha and Dong Ki Yoon

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604247

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      A periodic zigzag structure of DNA material has been successfully fabricated by a simple shearing method. The periodicity of the pattern can be finely controlled by combining the mechanical shearing method with topographic patterns of microchannels. The resultant zigzag patterns can be used as a template to control the alignment of rod-like liquid crystals due to its highly regular periodicity.

    3. Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing

      Zhaochu Luo, Ziyao Lu, Chengyue Xiong, Tao Zhu, Wei Wu, Qiang Zhang, Huaqiang Wu, Xixiang Zhang and Xiaozhong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605027

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      In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.

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