Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 28 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Communications

    1. Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Hollow Bi2Se3 Nanoparticles for Timely Supply of Oxygen under Near-Infrared Light to Enhance the Radiotherapy of Cancer

      Guosheng Song, Chao Liang, Xuan Yi, Qi Zhao, Liang Cheng, Kai Yang and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504617

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      Hollow Bi2Se3 nanoparticles prepared by a cation exchange method are loaded with perfluorocarbon as an oxygen carrier. With these nanoparticles, a promising concept is demonstrated to enhance radiotherapy by not only using their X-ray-absorbing ability to locally concentrate radiation energy in the tumor, but also employing near-infrared light to trigger burst release of oxygen from the nanoparticles to overcome hypoxia-associated radio-resistance.

  2. Research News

    1. Morphological Engineering of CVD-Grown Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

      Qingqing Ji, Yu Zhang, Jianping Shi, Jingyu Sun, Yanfeng Zhang and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504762

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      Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) represent an emerging form of catalysts in facilitating efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution. The facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has enabled morphological engineering of monolayer TMDC catalysts toward developing abundant active edge sites within the 2D plane. Recent advances concerning CVD-grown TMDC electrocatalysts are highlighted here.

  3. Communications

    1. Understanding Nanostructuring Processes in Thermoelectrics and Their Effects on Lattice Thermal Conductivity

      Di Wu, Li-Dong Zhao, Fengshan Zheng, Lei Jin, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Jiaqing He

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505638

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      Cooling rates of molten PbTe-CdTe compositions play a determinant role in defining the nanoscale precipitate size distribution and the corresponding number densities, resulting in distinct trends of lattice thermal conductivity evolution with varying CdTe fractions.

  4. Research News

    1. Functionalization of Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

      Xin Chen and Aidan R. McDonald

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505345

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      Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterials with vast potential for industrial application. Herein recent efforts toward the chemical (covalent- and dative-bond-forming) functionalization of 2D TMDs are critically reviewed. Recent achievements are highlighted, along with areas where further detailed experimentation is required. This burgeoning field is very much in its infancy, but has already provided several important breakthroughs.

  5. Communications

    1. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA

      Michael B. Ross, Jessie C. Ku, Byeongdu Lee, Chad A. Mirkin and George C. Schatz

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505806

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      Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

    2. Precisely Controlled Ultrathin Conjugated Polymer Films for Large Area Transparent Transistors and Highly Sensitive Chemical Sensors

      Dongyoon Khim, Gi-Seong Ryu, Won-Tae Park, Hyunchul Kim, Myungwon Lee and Yong-Young Noh

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505946

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      An effective approach to deposit a uniform ultrathin polymer film over a large area with molecular level precision is demonstrated by the simple wire-wound bar-coating method. The bar-coated ultrathin films not only exhibit high transparency of up to 90% in the visible wavelength range but also high charge carrier mobility with a high degree of percolation through the uniformly covered polymer nanofibrils. They are capable of realizing highly sensitive multigas sensors and represent the first successful report of ethylene detection using a sensor based on organic field-effect transistors.

  6. Reviews

    1. Flexible and Stretchable Physical Sensor Integrated Platforms for Wearable Human-Activity Monitoringand Personal Healthcare

      Tran Quang Trung and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504244

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      Flexible and stretchable physical sensor-integrated platforms that can measure and quantify various physical parameters generated by the human body are attracting increasing attention. Their properties mean that the flexible and stretchable physical sensors and their hetero-integrated platforms with other biochemical sensors, actuators, and components for power sustainability and data transmission can be attached conformally to the surface of organs or skin, giving a new opportunity for human activity monitoring and personal healthcare.

  7. Progress Reports

    1. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior

      Cathal J. Kearney, Christopher R. Lucas, Fergal J. O'Brien and Carlos E. Castro

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504733

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      DNA origami can exploit the natural spatial addressability of DNA to create precise nanoscale shapes that can carry cargoes. This flexible design potential makes it an excellent candidate to direct or probe cell behavior. Here, the history and design principles of DNA origami and the recent advances and future challenges for these structures in biomedical applications including drug delivery are described.

    2. Delivering Nucleic-Acid Based Nanomedicines on Biomaterial Scaffolds for Orthopedic Tissue Repair: Challenges, Progress and Future Perspectives

      Rosanne M. Raftery, David P. Walsh, Irene Mencía Castaño, Andreas Heise, Garry P. Duffy, Sally-Ann Cryan and Fergal J. O'Brien

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505088

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      Design and development of biomaterial scaffolds for delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics is reviewed. The scaffold acts as a delivery device as well as allowing for cell ingrowth. As cells infiltrate the material they take up the vector-nucleic acid complex and protein expression can be modulated to enhance tissue repair.

  8. Communications

    1. Tissue-Integratable and Biocompatible Photogelation by the Imine Crosslinking Reaction

      Yunlong Yang, Jieyuan Zhang, Zhenzhen Liu, Qiuning Lin, Xiaolin Liu, Chunyan Bao, Yang Wang and Linyong Zhu

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505336

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      A novel photogelling mechanism by the phototriggered-imine-crosslinking (PIC) reaction is demonstrated. Hyaluronic acid grafted with o-nitrobenzene, a photogenerated aldehyde group, can quickly photo-crosslink with amino-bearing polymers or proteins. Once the in situ photogelling on a wound occurs, the PIC gelling process can well integrate a hydrogel with surrounding tissue by covalent bonding, thus making it a powerful tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    2. Magnetic-Assisted Noncontact Triboelectric Nanogenerator Converting Mechanical Energy into Electricity and Light Emissions

      Long-Biao Huang, Gongxun Bai, Man-Chung Wong, Zhibin Yang, Wei Xu and Jianhua Hao

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505839

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      A magnetic-assisted noncontact triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is developed by combining a magnetic responsive layer with a TENG. The novel TENG device is applied to harvest mechanical energy which can be converted into electricity and light emissions. This work has potential for energy harvesting, magnetic sensor, self-powered electronics and optoelectronics applications.

  9. Reviews

    1. Biomaterial-Enhanced Cell and Drug Delivery: Lessons Learned in the Cardiac Field and Future Perspectives

      Hugh S. O'Neill, Laura B. Gallagher, Janice O'Sullivan, William Whyte, Clive Curley, Eimear Dolan, Aamir Hameed, Joanne O'Dwyer, Christina Payne, Daniel O'Reilly, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernandez, Ellen T. Roche, Fergal J O'Brien, Sally Ann Cryan, Helena Kelly, Bruce Murphy and Garry P. Duffy

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505349

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      Advances in cell and drug delivery platforms comprise the use of a biomaterial depot which can be delivered in a minimally invasive fashion. These materials can be delivered site specifically and can permit the controlled release of biotherapeutics in a multimodal fashion.

  10. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-Range Proton Conduction across Free-Standing Serum Albumin Mats

      Nadav Amdursky, Xuhua Wang, Paul Meredith, Donal D. C. Bradley and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505337

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      Free-standing serum-albumin mats can transport protons over millimetre length-scales. The results of photoinduced proton transfer and voltage-driven proton conductivity measurements, together with temperature dependent and isotope effect studies, suggest that oxo-amino-acids of the protein serum albumin play a major role in the translocation of protons via an “over-the-barrier” hopping mechanism. The use of proton-conducting protein mats opens new possibilities for bioelectronic interfaces.

    2. Exciton–Plasmon Coupling and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Monolayer Semiconductors Hybridized with Ag Nanoparticles

      Weijie Zhao, Shunfeng Wang, Bo Liu, Ivan Verzhbitskiy, Shisheng Li, Francesco Giustiniano, Daichi Kozawa, Kian Ping Loh, Kazunari Matsuda, Koichi Okamoto, Rupert F. Oulton and Goki Eda

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504478

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      Exciton–plasmon coupling in hybrids of a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide and Ag nanoparticles is investigated in weak and strong coupling regimes. In the weak coupling regime, both absorption enhancement and Purcell effect collectively modify the photoluminescence properties of the semiconductor. In the strong coupling regime, we observe electromagnetically induced transparency dips evidencing coherent energy exchange between excitons and plasmons.

    3. Kinetically Controlling Surface Structure to Construct Defect-Rich Intermetallic Nanocrystals: Effective and Stable Catalysts

      Hongpan Rong, Junjie Mao, Pingyu Xin, Dongsheng He, Yuanjun Chen, Dingsheng Wang, Zhiqiang Niu, Yuen Wu and Yadong Li

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504831

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      Kinetic control of surface defects is achieved and cubic, concave cubic, and defect-rich cubic intermetallic Pt3Sn nanocrystals are prepared for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. The generality of this kinetic approach is demonstrated by the fabrication of Pt–Mn nanocrystals with different surface defects. The defect-rich nanocrystals exhibit high catalytic activity and stability concurrently, indicating their potential application in fuel cells.

    4. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling

      Qingfeng Dong, Jingfeng Song, Yanjun Fang, Yuchuan Shao, Stephen Ducharme and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505244

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      Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a pin structure.

  11. Research News

    1. New-Generation Graphene from Electrochemical Approaches: Production and Applications

      Sheng Yang, Martin R. Lohe, Klaus Müllen and Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505326

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      Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite has emerged as a promising wet chemical method with advantages such as upscalability, solution processability and eco-friendliness. As a new generation of graphene material, exfoliated graphene from electrochemical approaches suggests great prospect towards high-performance devices. The recent progress in this field is summarized and the prospective applications of exfoliatedgraphene materials are highlighted.

    2. Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels

      Zia Ullah Khan, Jesper Edberg, Mahiar Max Hamedi, Roger Gabrielsson, Hjalmar Granberg, Lars Wågberg, Isak Engquist, Magnus Berggren and Xavier Crispin

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505364

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      A full description of the thermoelectric properties of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) is reported versus oxidation level: electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and ZT. This family of polymer is composited with nanofibrillated cellulose to create elastic aerogels with mechano-resistive and thermoelectric properties explored for pressure and temperature dual-parameter sensors.

  12. Communications

    1. Local Field Modulation Induced Three-Order Upconversion Enhancement: Combining Surface Plasmon Effect and Photonic Crystal Effect

      Ze Yin, Hang Li, Wen Xu, Shaobo Cui, Donglei Zhou, Xu Chen, Yongsheng Zhu, Guanshi Qin and Hongwei Song

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502943

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      A 2D surface plasmon photonic crystal (SPPC) is achieved by implanting gold nanorods onto the periodic surface apertures of the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) opal photonic crystals. On the surface of the SPPC, the overall upconversion luminescence intensity of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ under 980 nm excitation is improved more than 103 folds. The device is easily shifted to the transparent flexible substrate, applied to flexible display.

    2. Crystal Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Perfectly Oriented Non-Doped Pt-Based Emitting Layer

      Kwon-Hyeon Kim, Jia-Ling Liao, Si Woo Lee, Bomi Sim, Chang-Ki Moon, Gene-Hsiang Lee, Hyo Jung Kim, Yun Chi and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504451

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      Organic light-emitting diode with external quantum efficiency of 38.8% are realized using a Pt-based thin-film emitting layer with photoluminescence quantum yield of 96% and Θ of 93%. The emitting dipole orientation of the thin films fabricated using Pt complexes is investigated and discussed the structural relationship between X-ray structural analyses and structures in thin films based on quantum chemical calculations.

    3. High-Performance Green OLEDs Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence with a Power Efficiency of over 100 lm W−1

      Yuki Seino, Susumu Inomata, Hisahiro Sasabe, Yong-Jin Pu and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503782

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      A green organic light-emitting device (OLED) with an extremely high power efficiency of over 100 lm W−1 is realized through energy transfer from an exciplex. An optimized OLED showed a maximum external efficiency of 25.7%, and a power efficiency of 79.4 lm W−1 at 1000 cd m−2, which is 1.6-times higher than that of state-of-the-art green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) OLEDs.

    4. Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices

      M. Q. Mehmood, Shengtao Mei, Sajid Hussain, Kun Huang, S. Y. Siew, Lei Zhang, Tianhang Zhang, Xiaohui Ling, Hong Liu, Jinghua Teng, Aaron Danner, Shuang Zhang and Cheng-Wei Qiu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504532

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      A multifocus optical vortex metalens, with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, is presented that focuses three longitudinal vortices with distinct topological charges at different focal planes. The design largely extends the flexibility of tuning the number of vortices and their focal positions for circularly polarized light in a compact device, which provides the convenience for nanomanipulation of optical vortex.

  13. Progress Reports

    1. Design of Novel Visible Light Active Photocatalyst Materials: Surface Modified TiO2

      Michael Nolan, Anna Iwaszuk, Aoife K. Lucid, John J. Carey and Marco Fronzi

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504894

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      Modification of the paradigm photocatalyst TiO2 with molecular sized metal oxide nanoclusters can impart visible light activity and enhanced oxidation activity. Design of the photocatalysts through density functional theory simulations, together with experiments, allows rational discovery of new visible light active photocatalyst materials.

  14. Communications

    1. Extraordinarily Strong Interlayer Interaction in 2D Layered PtS2

      Yuda Zhao, Jingsi Qiao, Peng Yu, Zhixin Hu, Ziyuan Lin, Shu Ping Lau, Zheng Liu, Wei Ji and Yang Chai

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504572

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      Experimental and theoretical studies are presented on a new member of group-10 transition metal dichalcogenide, platinum disulfide (PtS2). The indirect bandgap of PtS2 can be drastically tuned from 1.6 eV (monolayer) to 0.25 eV (bulk counterpart), and the interlayer mechanical coupling is almost isotropic. It can be explained by strongly interlayer interaction from the pz orbital hybridization of S atoms.

    2. Monolithic 3D CMOS Using Layered Semiconductors

      Angada B. Sachid, Mahmut Tosun, Sujay B. Desai, Ching-Yi Hsu, Der-Hsien Lien, Surabhi R. Madhvapathy, Yu-Ze Chen, Mark Hettick, Jeong Seuk Kang, Yuping Zeng, Jr-Hau He, Edward Yi Chang, Yu-Lun Chueh, Ali Javey and Chenming Hu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505113

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      Monolithic 3D integrated circuits using transition metal dichalcogenide materials using low temperature processing are reported. A variety of digital and analog circuits are implemented on two sequentially integrated layers of devices. Inverter circuit operation at ultra-low supply voltage of 150 mV is achieved paving way for high-density, ultra-low-voltage, and ultra-low-power applications.

  15. Research News

    1. Device Engineered Organic Transistors for Flexible Sensing Applications

      Yaping Zang, Dazhen Huang, Chong-an Di and Daoben Zhu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505034

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      Recent efforts in developing highly sensitive and specific flexible sensors in terms of active-layer thickness modulation, functional receptor implantation and device geometry optimization are briefly summarized with an outlook on future requirements.

  16. Communications

    1. MoS2-Based Tactile Sensor for Electronic Skin Applications

      Minhoon Park, Yong Ju Park, Xiang Chen, Yon-Kyu Park, Min-Seok Kim and Jong-Hyun Ahn

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505124

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      A conformal tactile sensor based on MoS2 and graphene is demonstrated. The MoS2 tactile sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity, high uniformity, and good repeatability in terms of various strains. In addition, outstanding flexibility enables MoS2 strain tactile sensor to realize conformally on the finger tip. The MoS2-based tactile sensor can be utilized for wearable electronics such as electronic skin.

    2. Periodically Diameter-Modulated Semiconductor Nanowires for Enhanced Optical Absorption

      Minjee Ko, Seong-Ho Baek, Bokyung Song, Jang-Won Kang, Shin-Ae Kim and Chang-Hee Cho

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505144

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      A diameter-modulated silicon nanowire array to enhance the optical absorption across broad spectral range is presented. Periodic shape engineering is achieved using conventional semiconductor processes and the unique optical properties are analyzed. The periodicity in the diameter of the silicon nanowires enables stronger and more closely spaced optical resonances, leading to broadband absorption enhancement.

    3. Bandgap Engineering of Lead-Halide Perovskite-Type Ferroelectrics

      Heng-Yun Ye, Wei-Qiang Liao, Chun-Li Hu, Yi Zhang, Yu-Meng You, Jiang-Gao Mao, Peng-Fei Li and Ren-Gen Xiong

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505224

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      Semiconducting ferroelectricity is realized in hybrid perovskite-type compounds (cyclohexylammonium)2PbBr4−4xI4x (x = 0–1). By adjusting the composition x, the bandgap is successfully tuned from previously reported 3.65 eV to as low as 2.74 eV, and the excellent ferroelectricity was kept intact. This finding may contribute to improving the photoelectronic and/or photovoltaic performance of the hybrid perovskite-type compounds.

    4. One-Shot Immunomodulatory Nanodiamond Agents for Cancer Immunotherapy

      Yu Zhang, Zhifen Cui, Huating Kong, Kai Xia, Liang Pan, Jiang Li, Yanhong Sun, Jiye Shi, Lihua Wang, Ying Zhu and Chunhai Fan

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201506232

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      The use of functional nanodiamonds (fNDs) to deliver CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) for sustained immunostimulation is reported. It is demonstrated that monotherapy using this immunostimulatory agent significantly suppresses the tumor growth in two murine tumor models. This fND-based nanoagent opens new opportunities for immunotherapy, as well as clinical applications of various types of therapeutic nucleic acids.

    5. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors

      Suhas Kumar, Catherine E. Graves, John Paul Strachan, Emmanuelle Merced Grafals, Arthur L. David Kilcoyne, Tolek Tyliszczak, Johanna Nelson Weker, Yoshio Nishi and R. Stanley Williams

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505435

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      Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in-operando X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. This approach allows a physical description of the evolution of conduction channel and eventual device failure. The observed ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-driven oxygen migration.

    6. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Kun Fu, Yibo Wang, Chaoyi Yan, Yonggang Yao, Yanan Chen, Jiaqi Dai, Steven Lacey, Yanbin Wang, Jiayu Wan, Tian Li, Zhengyang Wang, Yue Xu and Liangbing Hu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505391

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      All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm−2, which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy storage devices.

    7. Stretchable and Multimodal All Graphene Electronic Skin

      Dong Hae Ho, Qijun Sun, So Young Kim, Joong Tark Han, Do Hwan Kim and Jeong Ho Cho

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505739

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      A transparent and stretchable all-graphene multifunctional electronic skin sensor matrix is developed. Three different functional sensors are included in this matrix: humidity, thermal, and pressure sensors. These are judiciously integrated into a layer-by-layer geometry through a simple lamination process.

    8. Unclonable Plasmonic Security Labels Achieved by Shadow-Mask-Lithography-Assisted Self-Assembly

      Yuanhui Zheng, Cheng Jiang, Soon Hock Ng, Yong Lu, Fei Han, Udo Bach and J. Justin Gooding

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505022

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      An unclonable plasmonic anti-counterfeiting strategy is demonstrated, which involves the use of molecule-embedded metal@silica core–shell nanoparticles as information carriers. A shadow-mask-lithography-assisted self-assembly is developed for the fabrication of the plasmonic security labels. The produced security labels show multiple sets of coding information that are highly unique, technically unreplicable, and can be robustly decoded by portable microscopes within seconds.

    9. Iodine Migration and its Effect on Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells

      Cheng Li, Steffen Tscheuschner, Fabian Paulus, Paul E. Hopkinson, Johannes Kießling, Anna Köhler, Yana Vaynzof and Sven Huettner

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503832

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      The migration and accumulation of iodide ions create a modulation of the respective interfacial barriers causing the hysteresis in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite based solar cells. Iodide ions are identified as the migrating species by measuring temperature dependent current-transients and photoelectron spectroscopy. The involved changes in the built-in potential due to ion migration are directly measured by electroabsorption spectroscopy.

    10. Photocrosslinking of Silk Fibroin Using Riboflavin for Ocular Prostheses

      Matthew B. Applegate, Benjamin P. Partlow, Jeannine Coburn, Benedetto Marelli, Christopher Pirie, Roberto Pineda, David L. Kaplan and Fiorenzo G. Omenetto

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504527

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      A novel method to photocrosslink silk fibroin protein is reported, using riboflavin (vitamin B2) as a photoinitiator and the mechanism of crosslinking is determined. Exposure of riboflavin-doped liquid silk solution to light results in the formation of a transparent, elastic hydrogel. Several applications for this new material are investigated including corneal reshaping to restore visual acuity and photolithography.

    11. High-Precision Twist-Controlled Bilayer and Trilayer Graphene

      Xu-Dong Chen, Wei Xin, Wen-Shuai Jiang, Zhi-Bo Liu, Yongsheng Chen and Jian-Guo Tian

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505129

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      Twist-controlled bilayer graphene (tBLG) and double-twisted trilayer graphene (DTTG) with high precision are fabricated and their controllable optoelectronic properties are investigated for the first time. The successful fabrication of tBLG and DTTG with designated θ provides an attractive starting point for systematic studies of interlayer coupling in misoriented few-layer graphene systems with well-defined geometry.

    12. Highly Conductive and Thermally Stable Ion Gels with Tunable Anisotropy and Modulus

      Ying Wang, Ying Chen, Jianwei Gao, Hyun Gook Yoon, Liyu Jin, Maria Forsyth, Theo J. Dingemans and Louis A. Madsen

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505183

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      A new liquid crystalline ion gel exhibits unprecedented properties: conductivity up to 8 mS cm−1, thermal stability to 300 °C, electrochemical window to 6.1 V, as well as adjustable transport anisotropy (up to 3.5×) and elastic modulus (0.03–3 GPa). The combination of ionic liquid and magnetically oriented rigid-rod polyanion provides widely tunable properties for use in diverse electrochemical devices.

    13. Single-Atom Pt as Co-Catalyst for Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Evolution

      Xiaogang Li, Wentuan Bi, Lei Zhang, Shi Tao, Wangsheng Chu, Qun Zhang, Yi Luo, Changzheng Wu and Yi Xie

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505281

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      Isolated single-atom platinum (Pt) embedded in the sub-nanoporosity of 2D g-C3N4 as a new form of co-catalyst is reported. The highly stable single-atom co-catalyst maximizes the atom efficiency and alters the surface trap states of g-C3N4, leading to significantly enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity, 8.6 times higher than that of Pt nanoparticles and up to 50 times that for bare g-C3N4.

  17. Research News

    1. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of the Surface Chemistry of Nanostructured Materials

      Susan Dick, Magdalena P. Konrad, Wendy W. Y. Lee, Hannah McCabe, John N. McCracken, Taifur M. D. Rahman, Alan Stewart, Yikai Xu and Steven E. J. Bell

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505355

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      Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technique for probing the chemical structure of adsorbed surface layers on nanostructured materials. Currently, it is predominantly used for detecting the adsorption of small molecules, but it also provides information on the surface chemistry of enhancing materials themselves. This is important since it is the surface chemistry that governs the interaction of the materials with their environment.

  18. Communications

    1. Soft Surfaces for the Reversible Control of Thin-Film Microstructure and Optical Reflectance

      Jay M. Taylor, Christos Argyropoulos and Stephen A. Morin

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505575

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      A micromechano optical material is rapidly and reversibly switched between distinct states of reflectance by simply stretching and relaxing the hybrid structure. The material is fabricated and controlled by leveraging the ability of soft elastic substrates to regulate the growth and morphological evolution of a chemically deposited polycrystalline thin film.

    2. Evaporative Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods into Macroscopic 3D Plasmonic Superlattice Arrays

      Penghui Li, Yong Li, Zhang-Kai Zhou, Siying Tang, Xue-Feng Yu, Shu Xiao, Zhongzhen Wu, Quanlan Xiao, Yuetao Zhao, Huaiyu Wang and Paul K. Chu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505617

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      Millimeter-scale 3D superlattice arrays composed of dense, regular, and vertically aligned gold nanorods are fabricated by evaporative self-assembly. The regular organization of the gold nanorods into a macroscopic superlattice enables the production of a plasmonic substrate with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as reliability in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The work bridges the gap between nanoscale materials and macroscopic applications.

    3. Identifying Fundamental Limitations in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Wei Lin Leong, Zi-En Ooi, Dharani Sabba, Chenyi Yi, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Michael Graetzel, Jeffrey M. Gordon, Eugene A. Katz and Nripan Mathews

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505480

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      The temperature dependence of the principal photovoltaic parameters of perovskite photovoltaics is studied. The recombination activation energy is in good agreement with the perovskite's bandgap energy, thereby placing an upper bound on open-circuit voltage. The photocurrent increases moderately with temperature and remains high at low temperature, reinforcing that the cells are not hindered by insufficient thermally activated mobility or carrier trapping by deep defects.

    4. Crosslinked Remote-Doped Hole-Extracting Contacts Enhance Stability under Accelerated Lifetime Testing in Perovskite Solar Cells

      Jixian Xu, Oleksandr Voznyy, Riccardo Comin, Xiwen Gong, Grant Walters, Min Liu, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Xinzheng Lan and Edward H. Sargent

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505630

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      A crosslinked hole-extracting electrical contact is reported that simultaneously improves the stability and lowers the hysteresis of perovskite solar cells. Polymerizable monomers and crosslinking processes are developed to obviate in-situ degradation of underlying perovskite. The crosslinked material is band-aligned with perovskite. The required free carrier density is induced by a high-work-function metal oxide layer atop the device, following a remote-doping strategy.

    5. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality

      Yuchen Wu, Jiangang Feng, Bin Su and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503235

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      Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity.

  19. Research News

    1. Engineering Metallic Nanoparticles for Enhancing and Probing Catalytic Reactions

      Gillian Collins and Justin D. Holmes

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503970

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      Designing colloidal metal nanoparticles for catalytic applications is expanding to new platforms with the incorporation of complex chemical and physical features. This research news highlights how tailoring the structure, composition, surface chemistry and optical properties of colloidal catalysts can enhance catalytic performance and enable new insight into reaction mechanisms.

  20. Communications

    1. Active Morphology Control for Concomitant Long Distance Spin Transport and Photoresponse in a Single Organic Device

      Xiangnan Sun, Amilcar Bedoya-Pinto, Zupan Mao, Marco Gobbi, Wenjing Yan, Yunlong Guo, Ainhoa Atxabal, Roger Llopis, Gui Yu, Yunqi Liu, Andrey Chuvilin, Felix Casanova and Luis E. Hueso

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503831

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      Long distance spin transport and photoresponse is demonstrated in single F16CuPc spin valve. By introducing a low-temperature strategy for controlling the morphology of the organic layer during the fabrication of molecular spin valve, a large spin diffusion length up to 180 nm has been achieved at room temperature. The magnetoresistive and photoresponsive signals are simultaneously observed even in an air atmosphere.

    2. Thermal Scanning at the Cellular Level by an Optically Trapped Upconverting Fluorescent Particle

      Paloma Rodríguez-Sevilla, Yuhai Zhang, Patricia Haro-González, Francisco Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco Jaque, José García Solé, Xiaogang Liu and Daniel Jaque

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505020

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      3D optical manipulation of a thermal-sensing upconverting particle allows for the determination of the extension of the thermal gradient created in the surroundings of a plasmonic-mediated photothermal-treated HeLa cancer cell.

  21. Research News

    1. New Developments in Smart Bandage Technologies for Wound Diagnostics

      Anna McLister, Jolene McHugh, Jill Cundell and James Davis

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504829

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      The availability of sensors that can measure wound pH, either in the clinic or at home, could significantly improve clinical outcomes, particularly in the early identification of complications such as infection. New materials and electrochemical research strategies that are being targeted at wound diagnostics and the design of smart dressings are identified.

  22. Communications

    1. Extremely Weak van der Waals Coupling in Vertical ReS2 Nanowalls for High-Current-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Qin Zhang, Shuangjie Tan, Rafael G. Mendes, Zhongti Sun, Yongting Chen, Xin Kong, Yinghui Xue, Mark H. Rümmeli, Xiaojun Wu, Shengli Chen and Lei Fu

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505498

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      The synthesis of vertical ReS2 nanowalls on 3D graphene foam (V-ReS2/3DGF) is demonstrated by a chemical vapor deposition route. The vertical nanowall structure leads to an effective exposure of active sites and enhances the lithium interaction with all of the layers. When serving as anode material for lithium ion battery, the V-ReS2/3DGF composite demonstrates excellent cycling stability at high-current-density.

    2. Photothermoelectric Effects in Nanoporous Silicon

      Yu-Sheng Lai, Chao-Yang Tsai, Chin-Kai Chang, Cheng-Yin Huang, Vincent K. S. Hsiao and Yuhlong Oliver Su

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504990

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      The first observation of the photothermoelectric effect in a nanoporous silicon (NPSi) device indicates that the photocurrent is dependent on the position of light-induced local heating from the illumination at the Au-electrode/NPSi interface.

    3. Athermal Azobenzene-Based Nanoimprint Lithography

      Christian Probst, Christoph Meichner, Klaus Kreger, Lothar Kador, Christian Neuber and Hans-Werner Schmidt

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505552

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      A novel nanoimprint lithography technique based on the photofluidization effect of azobenzene materials is presented. The tunable process allows for imprinting under ambient conditions without crosslinking reactions, so that shrinkage of the resist is avoided. Patterning of surfaces in the regime from micrometers down to 100 nm is demonstrated.

  23. Research News

    1. Flexible and Stretchable Optoelectronic Devices using Silver Nanowires and Graphene

      Hanleem Lee, Meeree Kim, Ikjoon Kim and Hyoyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505559

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      The latest developments regarding the use of graphene and AgNWs for flexible and stretchable electronic devices are introduced in the field of optoelectronics-related applications, with a focus on flexible and stretchable devices with novel structures driven by the intrinsic properties of the nanodimensional materials. The specialty of these applications is discussed in comparison with other flexible devices.

  24. Communications

    1. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials

      Xi Ling, Yuxuan Lin, Qiong Ma, Ziqiang Wang, Yi Song, Lili Yu, Shengxi Huang, Wenjing Fang, Xu Zhang, Allen L. Hsu, Yaqing Bie, Yi-Hsien Lee, Yimei Zhu, Lijun Wu, Ju Li, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Mildred Dresselhaus, Tomás Palacios and Jing Kong

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505070

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      Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

    2. A Stretchable Graphitic Carbon/Si Anode Enabled by Conformal Coating of a Self-Healing Elastic Polymer

      Yongming Sun, Jeffrey Lopez, Hyun-Wook Lee, Nian Liu, Guangyuan Zheng, Chun-Lan Wu, Jie Sun, Wei Liu, Jong Won Chung, Zhenan Bao and Yi Cui

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504723

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      A high-capacity stretchable graphitic carbon/Si foam electrode is enabled by a conformal self-healing elastic polymer coating. The composite electrode exhibits high stretchability (up to 88%) and endures 1000 stretching-releasing cycles at 25% strain with detrimental resistance increase. Meanwhile, the electrode delivers a high reversible specific capacity of 719 mA g−1 and good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention after 100 cycles.

  25. Reviews

    1. Alignment and Patterning of Ordered Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductor Micro-/Nanocrystals for Device Applications

      Xiujuan Zhang, Jiansheng Jie, Wei Deng, Qixun Shang, Jincheng Wang, Hui Wang, Xianfeng Chen and Xiaohong Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504206

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      Large-area alignment and patterning of small-molecule organic semiconductor micro-/nanocrystals (SMOSNs) at desired locations is a prerequisite for their practical device applications. Recent strategies for alignment and patterning of ordered SMOSNs and their corresponding device applications are highlighted.

  26. Communications

    1. Ultrahigh Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment

      Vasyl Skrypnychuk, Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Pavlo I. Gordiichuk, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Andreas Herrmann, Michael F. Toney and David R. Barbero

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503422

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      A method to produce highly efficient and long range vertical charge transport is demonstrated in an undoped polythiophene thin film, with average mobilities above 3.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. These record high mobilities are achieved by controlled orientation of the polymer crystallites enabling the most efficient and fastest charge transport along the chain backbones and across multiple chains. The significant increase in mobility shown here may present a new route to producing faster and more efficient optoelectronic devices based on organic materials.

    2. High Power–High Energy Sodium Battery Based on Threefold Interpenetrating Network

      Changbao Zhu, Peter Kopold, Peter A. van Aken, Joachim Maier and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505943

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      A 3D tricontinuous Na3V2(PO4)3: reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube cathode is directly deposited on the current collector without any conductive additives or binders by a facile electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique. Such an electrode displays excellent rate capability and long cycling stability, which is rather typical of supercapacitors but is connected here with the much higher energy density of an efficient battery electrode.

    3. Strongly Enhanced Water Splitting Performance of Ta3N5 Nanotube Photoanodes with Subnitrides

      Lei Wang, Xuemei Zhou, Nhat Truong Nguyen, Imgon Hwang and Patrik Schmuki

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505312

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      Subnitrides strongly enhance the efficiency of Ta3N5–nanotube photoanodes in photochemical water splitting. The present work demonstrates how to fabricate Ta3N5 nanotube layers with a controlled subnitride layer at the interface to the back contact. The insertion of this subnitride layer has a strong influence on the electron transfer to the back contact, and as a result leads to a drastic shift in photocurrent onset potential and a considerable enhancement of photocurrent conversion efficiency.

    4. Poly(TEMPO)/Zinc Hybrid-Flow Battery: A Novel, “Green,” High Voltage, and Safe Energy Storage System

      Jan Winsberg, Tobias Janoschka, Sabine Morgenstern, Tino Hagemann, Simon Muench, Guillaume Hauffman, Jean-François Gohy, Martin D. Hager and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505000

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      The combination of a polymer-based 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO) catholyte and a zinc anode, together with a cost-efficient size exclusion membrane, builds a new type of semi-organic, “green,” hybrid-flow battery, which features a high potential range of up to 2 V, high efficiencies, and a long life time.

    5. Directed Growth of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their Derived Carbon-Based Network for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction

      Zhenhua Li, Mingfei Shao, Lei Zhou, Ruikang Zhang, Cong Zhang, Min Wei, David G. Evans and Xue Duan

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505086

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      A honeycomb-like carbon-based network is obtained by in situ nucleation and directed growth of MOFs arrays on the surface of LDHs nanoplatelets, followed by a subsequent pyrolysis process, which exhibits largely enhanced electrocatalytic ORR performances. A successful paradigm for the directed growth of highly-oriented MOFs arrays is demonstrated, with potential applications for energy storage and conversion.

    6. P-Type Polar Transition of Chemically Doped Multilayer MoS2 Transistor

      Xiaochi Liu, Deshun Qu, Jungjin Ryu, Faisal Ahmed, Zheng Yang, Daeyeong Lee and Won Jong Yoo

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505154

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      A high-performance multilayer MoS2 p-type field-effect transistor is realized via controllable chemical doping, which shows an excellent on/off ratio of 109 and a maximum hole mobility of 132 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 133 K. The developed technique will enable 2D materials to be used for future high-efficiency and low-power semiconductor device applications.

    7. Ultrasensitive In Situ Fluorescence Analysis using Modulated Fluorescence Interference Contrast at Nanostructured Polymer Surfaces

      Xiaopei Deng, Siheng He, Fan Xie, Christian Friedmann, Henry Hess and Joerg Lahann

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505197

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      The precise modulation of fluorescence interference contrast is achieved by introducing a nanoscopically engineered spacer layer prepared by chemical vapor deposition of functional polymers. These novel imaging substrates are chemically identical throughout their entire detection area, yet present patterns of nanoscale thickness. A protein binding cascade is studied in real time and in the presence of high background noise.

    8. A Rational Strategy for Graphene Transfer on Substrates with Rough Features

      Jin-Yong Hong, Yong Cheol Shin, Ahmad Zubair, Yunwei Mao, Tomás Palacios, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Sung Hyun Kim and Jing Kong

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505527

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      A very simple, yet effective, approach is developed for transferring chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene from a growth substrate onto substrates with rough features. This novel and facile method not only results in satisfactory transfer on substrates with terraces or grooves, but also gives rise to a successful result for uneven growth substrates.

    9. Oriented Nano–Microstructure-Assisted Controllable Fabrication of Metal–Organic Framework Membranes on Nickel Foam

      Yuxiu Sun, Fan Yang, Qi Wei, Naixin Wang, Xi Qin, Shaokang Zhang, Bin Wang, Zuoren Nie, Shulan Ji, Hui Yan and Jian-Rong Li

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505437

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      Oriented nano–microstructure-assisted controllable fabrication, a facile and versatile preparation strategy, is developed to fabricate metal–organic framework (MOF) membranes. With this method, several MOF membranes with tailored structures are prepared, including HKUST-1 (with 3D pores) and M3(HCOO)6 (with 1D pores; M = Co, Mn, and Mg) membranes, which demonstrate good performances in gas separations.

    10. High-Resolution and High-Throughput Plasmonic Photopatterning of Complex Molecular Orientations in Liquid Crystals

      Yubing Guo, Miao Jiang, Chenhui Peng, Kai Sun, Oleg Yaroshchuk, Oleg Lavrentovich and Qi-Huo Wei

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201506002

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      A plasmonic photopatterning technique is proposed and demonstrated for aligning the molecular orientation in liquid crystals (LCs) in patterns with designer complexity. Using plasmonic metamasks in which target molecular directors are encoded, LC alignments of arbitrary planar patterns can be achieved in a repeatable and scalable fashion withunprecedentedly high spatial resolution and high throughput.

    11. Porous Organic Cage Thin Films and Molecular-Sieving Membranes

      Qilei Song, Shan Jiang, Tom Hasell, Ming Liu, Shijing Sun, Anthony K. Cheetham, Easan Sivaniah and Andrew I. Cooper

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505688

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      Porous organic cage molecules are fabricated into thin films and molecular-sieving membranes. Cage molecules are solution cast on various substrates to form amorphous thin films, with the structures tuned by tailoring the cage chemistry and processing conditions. For the first time, uniform and pinhole-free microporous cage thin films are formed and demonstrated as molecular-sieving membranes for selective gas separation.

  27. Reviews

    1. Recent Developments in Graphene-Based Membranes: Structure, Mass-Transport Mechanism and Potential Applications

      Pengzhan Sun, Kunlin Wang and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502595

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      Novel mass transport through graphene-based membranes, with respect to recent advances, is reviewed, including experimental discoveries and theoretical results. Knowledge of the present state of this topic will assist in a better understanding of the mass-transport mechanism and optimization of the structural design of graphene porous materials toward production of controllable membranes for future applications in filtration, separation, water desalination, proton conductors, and energy storage, etc.

  28. Communications

    1. Quantum Plasmonics: Optical Monitoring of DNA-Mediated Charge Transfer in Plasmon Rulers

      Sarah Lerch and Björn M. Reinhard

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503885

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      Plasmon coupling between DNA-tethered gold nanoparticles is investigated by correlated single particle spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy for interparticle separations between 0.5 and 41 nm. Spectral characterization reveals a weakening of the plasmon coupling due to DNA-mediated charge transfer for separations up to 2.8 nm. Electromagnetic simulations indicate a coherent charge transfer across the DNA.

    2. Self-Supported Nanotube Arrays of Sulfur-Doped TiO2 Enabling Ultrastable and Robust Sodium Storage

      Jiangfeng Ni, Shidong Fu, Chao Wu, Joachim Maier, Yan Yu and Liang Li

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504412

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      Self-supported nanotube arrays of sulfur-doped TiO2 on metal substrates are fabricated using electrochemical anodization and subsequent sulfidation. The nanotube arrays can serve as efficient anode for sodium storage, enabling ultrastable cycling (retaining 91% of the 2nd capacity up to 4400 cycles) and robust rate capability (167 mAh g−1 at 3350 mA g−1), remarkably outperforming any other reported TiO2 based electrodes.

    3. Single Crystal Formamidinium Lead Iodide (FAPbI3): Insight into the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties

      Qifeng Han, Sang-Hoon Bae, Pengyu Sun, Yao-Tsung Hsieh, Yang (Michael) Yang, You Seung Rim, Hongxiang Zhao, Qi Chen, Wangzhou Shi, Gang Li and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505002

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      5 mm scale large FAPbI3 single crystal and corresponding photoconductive properties are shown in this paper. The phase transition of FAPbI3 between the α-phase and δ-phase has been studied. The carrier mobility is 4.4 cm2 V−1 s−1 with a lifetime of 484 ns in the bulk of the single crystal. Finally, photodetectors based on single crystal FAPbI3 are demonstrated.

    4. Hyperbolically Patterned 3D Graphene Metamaterial with Negative Poisson's Ratio and Superelasticity

      Qiangqiang Zhang, Xiang Xu, Dong Lin, Wenli Chen, Guoping Xiong, Yikang Yu, Timothy S. Fisher and Hui Li

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505409

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      A hyperbolically patterned 3D graphene metamaterial (GM) with negative Poisson's ratio and superelasticity, is highlighted in this research. It is synthesized by a modified hydrothermal approach and subsequent oriented freeze-casting strategy. GM presents a tunable Poisson's ratio by adjusting the structural porosity, macroscopic aspect ratio (L/D), and freeze-casting conditions. Such GM suggests promising applications as soft actuators, sensors, robust shock absorbers, and environmental remediation.

    5. Metallic Nanobrushes Made using Ambient Droplet Sprays

      Depanjan Sarkar, Maheswari Kavirajan Mahitha, Anirban Som, Anyin Li, Michael Wleklinski, Robert Graham Cooks and Thalappil Pradeep

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505127

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      An ambient solution-state method of making uniform nanobrushes composed of oriented 1D silver nanowires (NWs) with aspect ratios of 102–104 is reported. These structures are grown over cm2 areas on conducting surfaces. Assemblies of NWs form uniform nanobrush structures, which can capture micron-sized objects, such as bacteria and particulate matter. Variation in composition produces unique structures with catalytic properties.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Soft Materials with Recoverable Shape Factors from Extreme Distortion States

      Jonathan Goff, Santy Sulaiman, Barry Arkles and James P. Lewicki

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503320

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      Elastomeric polysiloxane nanocomposites with elongations of >5000% (more than 3× greater than any previously reported material) with excellent shape recovery are presented. Highly deformable materials are desirable for the fabrication of stretchable implants and microfluidic devices. No cross-linking or domain formation is observed by a variety of analytical techniques, suggesting that their elastomeric behavior is caused by polymer chain entanglements.

    7. Soft Matter-Regulated Active Nanovalves Locally Self-Assembled in Femtoliter Nanofluidic Channels

      Yan Xu, Misato Shinomiya and Atsushi Harada

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505132

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      Well-tailored thermoresponsive polymer brushes locally self-assembled in tiny nanofluidic channels enable the active regulation of femtoliter-scale fluids. Such soft matter-regulated active nanovalves within nanofluidic channels could be extended to build well-controlled functional nanofluidic systems, allowing complex fluidic processes to be performed at the nanometer scales.

  29. Research News

    1. Color-Coded Batteries – Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics

      Colm O'Dwyer

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503973

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      By structuring any battery electrode material in the form of a photonic crystal, or as a 3D inverse opal, the electrochemical modification to structural color during discharge or charge provides a color-coded performance assessment and diagnostic method for in situ and operando methods to distinguish the type of process, the state of discharge or charge, and the cycle health of electrochemical energy-storage materials.

  30. Communications

    1. Ultraflexible In-Plane Micro-Supercapacitors by Direct Printing of Solution-Processable Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene

      Zhaoyang Liu, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Sheng Yang, Renhao Dong, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505304

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      A novel direct printing approach for fabrication of in-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) is demonstrated. Solution-processed graphene/conductive-polymer hybrid inks are utilized. The fabricated MSCs on paper substrates offer significant areal capacitance and excellent rate capability. An ultrathin MSC on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate (2.5 μm thick) exhibits “ultraflexiblity,” making it suitable for next-generation flexible microelectrochemical energy storage devices.

    2. Crack-Defined Electronic Nanogaps

      Valentin Dubois, Frank Niklaus and Göran Stemme

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504569

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      Achieving near-atomic-scale electronic nanogaps in a reliable and scalable manner will facilitate fundamental advances in molecular detection, plasmonics, and nanoelectronics. Here, a method is shown for realizing crack-defined nanogaps separating TiN electrodes, allowing parallel and scalable fabrication of arrays of sub-10 nm electronic nanogaps featuring individually defined gap widths.

    3. Template-Free 3D Microprinting of Metals Using a Force-Controlled Nanopipette for Layer-by-Layer Electrodeposition

      Luca Hirt, Stephan Ihle, Zhijian Pan, Livie Dorwling-Carter, Alain Reiser, Jeffrey M. Wheeler, Ralph Spolenak, János Vörös and Tomaso Zambelli

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504967

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      A novel 3D printing method for voxel-by-voxel metal printing is presented. Hollow atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers are used to locally supply metal ions in an electrochemical cell, enabling a localized electroplating reaction. By exploiting the deflection feedback of these probes, electrochemical 3D metal printing is, for the first time, demonstrated in a layer-by-layer fashion, enabling the fabrication of arbitrary-shaped geometries.

  31. Progress Reports

    1. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials

      Suji Choi, Hyunjae Lee, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Taeghwan Hyeon and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504150

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      Over the past decade, the technological advances in the field of flexible and stretchable electronics have burgeoned tremendously, enabling multifunctional biointegrated electronics and optoelectronics systems. Recent progresses in nanomaterials, device design, and system integration strategies for flexible and stretchable bioelectronics systems are reviewed in the context of wearable sensors/actuators, minimally invasive surgical tools, and soft implantable devices.

  32. Communications

    1. A Highly Sensitive Narrowband Nanocomposite Photodetector with Gain

      Liang Shen, Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Yongbo Yuan and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503774

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      A narrowband red light nanocomposite photodetector with gain is presented based on the polymer and fullerene derivative incorporating inorganic quantum dots. The introduced trap-induced hole injection dramatically improves the specific detectivity by 20-fold. A remarkable achievement is obtained with simultaneously increased linear dynamic range to 110 dB and improved noise equivalent power to 5 pW cm−2.

    2. Spectral Transition in Bio-Inspired Self-Assembled Peptide Nucleic Acid Photonic Crystals

      Or Berger, Eyal Yoskovitz, Lihi Adler-Abramovich and Ehud Gazit

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504160

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      The self-assembly of guanine-based peptide nucleic acid monomers into photonic crystals is described. A highly reflective lattice of guanine nanocrystals is found in the skin and ocular tissues of different species providing vivid structural colors. The fabricated guanine-based supramolecular structures respond to changes in osmolarity similar to the active spectral change mechanism employed by chameleons.

    3. Fluorine-Doped and Partially Oxidized Tantalum Carbides as Nonprecious Metal Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Acidic Media

      Xin Yue, Chunyong He, Chengyong Zhong, Yuanping Chen, San Ping Jiang and Pei Kang Shen

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504401

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      A nonprecious metal electrocatalyst based on fluorine-doped tantalum carbide with oxidative surface on graphitized carbon (TaCxFyOz/gC) has been developed by using a simple one-pot in situ ion exchange and adsorption method, and the TaCxFyOz/gC shows superior performance and durability for methanol oxidation reaction and extreme tolerance to CO poisoning in acidic media.

    4. Aligned Single-Crystalline Perovskite Microwire Arrays for High-Performance Flexible Image Sensors with Long-Term Stability

      Wei Deng, Xiujuan Zhang, Liming Huang, Xiuzhen Xu, Liang Wang, Jincheng Wang, Qixun Shang, Shuit-Tong Lee and Jiansheng Jie

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505126

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      A simple, low-cost blade coating method is developed for the large-area fabrication of single-crystalline aligned CH3NH3PbI3 microwire (MW) arrays. The solution-coating method is applicable to flexible substrates, enabling the fabrication of MW array-based photodetectors with excellent long-term stability, flexibility, and bending durability. Integrated devices from such photodetectors demonstrate high performance for high-resolution, flexible image sensors.

  33. Research News

    1. Hybrid Nanomaterials by Surface Grafting of Synthetic Polypeptides Using N-Carboxyanhydride (NCA) Polymerization

      Tushar Borase and Andreas Heise

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504474

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      Biomimetic interfaces and hybrid materials can be obtained by surface grafting synthetic polypeptides onto nanomaterials. This approach renders the materials biocompatible and responsive, and introduces functionality for bioconjugation. Surface grafting techniques can be employed on nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, planar surfaces, and porous structures.

  34. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Hybrid Polymer and Amorphous Silicon Multijunction Solar Cells with Effective Optical Management

      Hairen Tan, Alice Furlan, Weiwei Li, Kirill Arapov, Rudi Santbergen, Martijn M. Wienk, Miro Zeman, Arno H. M. Smets and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504483

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      Highly efficient hybrid multijunction solar cells are constructed with a wide-bandgap amorphous silicon for the front subcell and a low-bandgap polymer for the back subcell. Power conversion efficiencies of 11.6% and 13.2% are achieved in tandem and triple-junction configurations, respectively. The high efficiencies are enabled by deploying effective optical management and by using photoactive materials with complementary absorption.

    2. Experimental Realization of a Topological p–n Junction by Intrinsic Defect Grading

      Thomas Bathon, Simona Achilli, Paolo Sessi, Vladimir Andreevich Golyashov, Konstantin Aleksandrovich Kokh, Oleg Evgenievich Tereshchenko and Matthias Bode

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504771

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      A Bi2Te3 single crystal is grown with the modified Bridgman technique. The crystal has a nominal composition with a Te content of 61 mol% resulting in the existence of two distinct regions p- and n-doped, respectively; color-coded tunneling spectra are taken over 60 nm at the transition region.

  35. Research News

    1. Bio-Nano-Magnetic Materials for Localized Mechanochemical Stimulation of Cell Growth and Death

      Devrim Kilinc, Cindi L. Dennis and Gil U. Lee

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504845

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      Mechanochemical stimulation of cultured cells with magnetic tweezers-mediated pico­newton forces can modulate cell behavior, from promoting neural growth to killing targeted cancer cells. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles now permit optimum magnetic nanoparticles to be developed for in vivo targeting and mechanical stimulation, potentially leading to novel therapeutic approaches.

  36. Communications

    1. Ternary Artificial Nacre Reinforced by Ultrathin Amorphous Alumina with Exceptional Mechanical Properties

      Hewei Zhao, Yonghai Yue, Youwei Zhang, Lidong Li and Lin Guo

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505511

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      A novel ternary artificial nacre is developed through a vacuum-assisted filtration method, with reinforced ultrathin amorphous alumina that is grown in situ on the surface of GO. This ternary artificial nacre simultaneously shows exceptional strength and toughness, which have up to now been considered to be mutually exclusive. This novel material will play a role in the structuring of future materials.

    2. Impact of Interfacial Microstructure on Charge Carrier Transport in Solution-Processed Conjugated Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

      Mengmeng Li, Cunbin An, Tomasz Marszalek, Martin Baumgarten, Klaus Müllen and Wojciech Pisula

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503552

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      Surface roughness of the dielectric is precisely tuned allowing a fine control over solely the interfacial microstructure in the semicrystalline semiconductor polymer film without affecting the morphology in the upper layers. The interfacial microstructure is found to have only a minor impact on the transport originating from bypassing of interfacial defects by the charge carriers.

    3. Giant Energy Density and Improved Discharge Efficiency of Solution-Processed Polymer Nanocomposites for Dielectric Energy Storage

      Xin Zhang, Yang Shen, Ben Xu, Qinghua Zhang, Lin Gu, Jianyong Jiang, Jing Ma, Yuanhua Lin and Ce-Wen Nan

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503881

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      Large-aspect-ratio composite nanofibers with interior hierarchical interfaces are employed to break the adverse coupling of electric displacement and breakdown strength in flexible poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) nanocomposite films, a small loading of 3 vol% BaTiO3@TiO2 nanofibers gives rise to the highestenergy density (≈31.2 J cm−3) ever achieved in polymer nanocomposites dielectrics.

    4. Facet-Mediated Growth of High-Quality Monolayer Graphene on Arbitrarily Rough Copper Surfaces

      Hyo Chan Lee, Sae Byeok Jo, Eunho Lee, Min Seok Yoo, Hyun Ho Kim, Seong Kyu Lee, Wi Hyoung Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504190

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      A synthetic approach for high-quality graphene on rough Cu surfaces via chemical vapor deposition is proposed. High-quality graphene is synthesized on rough Cu surfaces by inducing surface faceting of Cu surfaces prior to graphene growth. The electron mobility of synthesized graphene on the rough Cu surfaces is enhanced to 10 335 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    5. High-Throughput Determination of Statistical Structure Information for Horizontal Carbon Nanotube Arrays by Optical Imaging

      Shibin Deng, Jingyi Tang, Lixing Kang, Yue Hu, Fengrui Yao, Qiuchen Zhao, Shuchen Zhang, Kaihui Liu and Jin Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505253

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      Optical multicolor imaging is used as a high-throughput statistical tool to determine the structure information of horizontally aligned carbon nanotube arrays on various substrates and in diverse environments. This high-throughput ability is achieved through the direct use of optical image information and an over 10-fold enhancement of the optical contrast by polarization manipulation.

    6. Electrochemical Capacitors with High Output Voltages that Mimic Electric Eels

      Hao Sun, Xuemei Fu, Songlin Xie, Yishu Jiang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505742

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      A new family of energy storage devices is created by mimicking the electric eel to obtain high output voltage. These novel energy storage devices are flexible, stretchable, and weavable fibers, which satisfy the needs of next-generation portable and wearable electronics. The devices have been fabricated via continuous fabrication technology to effectively power electronic watches and light-emitting diodes as two demonstrations.

    7. Dielectric Engineering of a Boron Nitride/Hafnium Oxide Heterostructure for High-Performance 2D Field Effect Transistors

      Xuming Zou, Chun-Wei Huang, Lifeng Wang, Long-Jing Yin, Wenqing Li, Jingli Wang, Bin Wu, Yunqi Liu, Qian Yao, Changzhong Jiang, Wen-Wei Wu, Lin He, Shanshan Chen, Johnny C. Ho and Lei Liao

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505205

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      A unique design of a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/HfO2 dielectric heterostructure stack is demonstrated, with few-layer h-BN to alleviate the surface optical phonon scattering, followed by the high-κ HfO2 deposition to suppress Coulombic impurity scattering so that high performance top-gated two-dimensional semiconductor transistors are achieved. Furthermore, this dielectric stack could also be extended to GaN-based transistors to enhance their performance.

    8. Trimetallic TriStar Nanostructures: Tuning Electronic and Surface Structures for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Nana Du, Chengming Wang, Xijun Wang, Yue Lin, Jun Jiang and Yujie Xiong

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504785

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      PtFeCo alloy nanostructures in a TriStar shape with tunable Fe and Co contents are developed for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). With electronic and surface structures well-tailored, the PtFeCo nanostructures exhibit the dramatically enhanced performance in HER against commercial Pt/C and other Pt-based nanoparticles.

    9. On the Efficiency Limit of Conjugated Polymer:Fullerene-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Markus C. Scharber

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504914

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      The power conversion efficiency potential of eight high-performance polymer–fullerene blends is investigated. All studied absorbers show the typical organic solar cell losses limiting their performance to ≈13%.

    10. Conductive Nanostructured Scaffolds Render Low Local Current Density to Inhibit Lithium Dendrite Growth

      Rui Zhang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Chen-Zi Zhao, Hong-Jie Peng, Jia-Le Shi, Jia-Qi Huang, Jinfu Wang, Fei Wei and Qiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504117

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      A nanostructured lithium metal anode employing an unstacked graphene “drum” and dual-salt electrolyte brings about a dendrite-free lithium depositing morphology. On the one hand, the unstacked graphene framework with ultrahigh specific surface area guarantees an ultralow local current density that prevents the growth of lithium dendrites. On the other hand, the stable, flexible, and compact solid electrolyte interphase layer induced by dual-salt electrolyte protects the deposited lithium layers.

    11. Enhancement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Metasurfaces

      Alexey P. Slobozhanyuk, Alexander N. Poddubny, Alexander J. E. Raaijmakers, Cornelis A. T. van den Berg, Alexander V. Kozachenko, Irina A. Dubrovina, Irina V. Melchakova, Yuri S. Kivshar and Pavel A. Belov

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504270

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      It is revealed that the unique properties of ultrathin metasurface resonators can improve magnetic resonance imaging dramatically. A metasurface formed when an array of metallic wires is placed inside a scanner under the studied object and a substantial enhancement of the radio­frequency magnetic field is achieved by means of subwavelength manipulation with metasurface, also allowing improved image resolution.

    12. High-Mobility Transistors Based on Large-Area and Highly Crystalline CVD-Grown MoSe2 Films on Insulating Substrates

      Jong-Soo Rhyee, Junyeon Kwon, Piyush Dak, Jin Hee Kim, Seung Min Kim, Jozeph Park, Young Ki Hong, Wongeon Song, Inturu Omkaram, Muhammad A. Alam and Sunkook Kim

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504789

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      Large-area and highly crystalline CVD–grown multilayer MoSe2 films exhibit a well-defined crystal structure (2H phase) and large grains reaching several hundred micrometers. Multilayer MoSe2 transistors exhibit high mobility up to 121 cm2 V−1 s−1 and excellent mechanical stability. These results suggest that high mobility materials will be indispensable for various future applications such as high-resolution displays and human-centric soft electronics.