Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 33

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Peter Gregory, Deputy Editors: Martin Ottmar, Carolina Novo da Silva, Lorna Stimson

Online ISSN: 1521-4095

Associated Title(s): Advanced Energy Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 161
  1. Communications

    1. Magnetic-Mechanical-Electrical-Optical Coupling Effects in GaN-Based LED/Rare-Earth Terfenol-D Structures

      Mingzeng Peng, Yan Zhang, Yudong Liu, Ming Song, Junyi Zhai and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402824

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      In this work, a multi-field coupling structure is designed and investigated, which combines GaN-based optoelectronic devices and Terfenol-D. The abundant coupling effects and multifunctionalities among magnetics, mechanics, electrics, and optics have been investigated by a combination of nonmagnetic GaN-based piezoelectronic optoelectronic characteristics and giant magnetomechanical properties of Terfenol-D. A few potential new areas of studies are proposed.

    2. Hierarchical Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Nanoplates with Exposed {010} Planes as High-Performance Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Lai Chen, Yuefeng Su, Shi Chen, Ning Li, Liying Bao, Weikang Li, Zhao Wang, Meng Wang and Feng Wu

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402541

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      Hierarchical Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes are designed and synthesized. In combination with the advantages from the hierarchical archi­tecture and the exposed electrochemically active {010} planes of layered materials, this material satisfies both efficient ion and electron transport and thus shows superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability.

    3. Switchable Water-Adhesive, Superhydrophobic Palladium-Layered Silicon Nanowires Potentiate the Angiogenic Efficacy of Human Stem Cell Spheroids

      Jungmok Seo, Jung Seung Lee, Kihong Lee, Dayeong Kim, Kisuk Yang, Sera Shin, Chandreswar Mahata, Hwae Bong Jung, Wooyoung Lee, Seung-Woo Cho and Taeyoon Lee

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402273

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      A switchable water-adhesive, super­hydrophobic nanowire surface is developed for the formation of functional stem cell spheroids. The sizes of hADSC spheroids are readily controllable on the surface. Our surface increases cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, which improves viability and paracrine secretion of the spheroids. Accordingly, the hADSC spheroids produced on the surface exhibit significantly enhanced angiogenic efficacy.

    4. Controlled Functionalization of Carbonaceous Fibers for Asymmetric Solid-State Micro-Supercapacitors with High Volumetric Energy Density

      Dingshan Yu, Kunli Goh, Qiang Zhang, Li Wei, Hong Wang, Wenchao Jiang and Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403061

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      A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2-coated reduced graphene oxide/single walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility.

    5. All-Organic and Fully-Printed Semitransparent Photodetectors based on Narrow Bandgap Conjugated Molecules

      Giuseppina Pace, Andrea Grimoldi, Dario Natali, Marco Sampietro, Jessica E. Coughlin, Guillermo C. Bazan and Mario Caironi

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402918

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      All-organic, fully-printed and semitransparent photodetectors with a broad wavelength band response, based on a ternary blend comprising narrow band-gap small molecules, are demonstrated. The ternary blend with a semiconducting polymer allows for the optimal printing of small molecules, suppressing strong phase segregation, and uncontrolled crystallization. The insertion of a suitable interlayer enables the adoption of polymer transparent top and bottom printed electrodes, thus making light detection possible from both device sides.

    6. Spin Crossover Probes Confer Multistability to Organic Conducting Polymers

      Yong-Sung Koo and José Ramón Galán-Mascarós

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402579

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      Switchable organic conductors can be readily obtained by combining organic conducting polymers (CPs), with the unparalleled bistability of spin crossover (SCO) complexes. Here we report how CPs with embedded SCO components exhibit synergic multistability. Upon acting on the SCO probes by external stimuli (thermal activation in this case), the spin transition induces up to a 300% difference in the electrical conductivity of the CP component between the low spin and high spin regimes, and with a wide hysteresis at technologically relevant temperatures. Our results pave the way for the exploitation of the unique SCO switching capabilities in electronic devices.

    7. Enantiospecific Spin Polarization of Electrons Photoemitted Through Layers of Homochiral Organic Molecules

      Miguel Ángel Niño, Iwona Agnieszka Kowalik, Francisco Jesús Luque, Dimitri Arvanitis, Rodolfo Miranda and Juan José de Miguel

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402810

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      Electrons photoemitted through layers of purely organic chiral molecules become strongly spin-polarized even at room temperature and for double-monolayer thicknesses. The substitution of one enantiomer for its mirror image does not revert the sign of the spin polarization but its direction in space. These findings might lead to the obtention of highly efficient spin filters for spintronic applications.

    8. Hierarchical Vine-Tree-Like Carbon Nanotube Architectures: In-Situ CVD Self-Assembly and Their Use as Robust Scaffolds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Meng-Qiang Zhao, Hong-Jie Peng, Gui-Li Tian, Qiang Zhang, Jia-Qi Huang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Cheng Tang and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402488

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      Hierarchical vine-tree-like carbon nanotube architectures composed of vine-like single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapping around the tree-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes are fabricated through in-situ chemical vapor deposition self-assembly. The vine-tree-like nanoarchitectures exhibit excellent cycling stability and rate performance when employed as the cathode scaffolds for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    9. Room-Temperature Photoconductivity Far Below the Semiconductor Bandgap

      Zhiming Huang, Jinchao Tong, Jingguo Huang, Wei Zhou, Jing Wu, Yanqing Gao, Jinxing Lu, Tie Lin, Yanfeng Wei and Junhao Chu

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402352

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      A concept to stimulate photoconductivity in a semiconductor well below its bandgap in a metal–semiconductor–metal structure with sub-wavelength spacing is proposed. A potential well is induced in the semiconductor by external electromagnetic radiation to trap carriers from the metals. This opens an avenue to generate carriers by photons without adequate excitation energy and is expected to have great significance in modern materials.

    10. Gd-Encapsulated Carbonaceous Dots with Efficient Renal Clearance for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Hongmin Chen, Geoffrey D. Wang, Wei Tang, Trever Todd, Zipeng Zhen, Chu Tsang, Khan Hekmatyar, Taku Cowger, Richard B. Hubbard, Weizhong Zhang, John Stickney, Baozhong Shen and Jin Xie

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402964

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      Nanoprobes for MRI and optical imaging are demonstrated. Gd@C-dots possess strong fluorescence and can effectively enhance signals on T1-weighted MR images. The nanoprobes are low-toxic and despite a relatively large size, can be efficiently excreted by renal clearance from the host after systemic injection.

    11. Efficient and Uniform Planar-Type Perovskite Solar Cells by Simple Sequential Vacuum Deposition

      Chang-Wen Chen, Hao-Wei Kang, Sheng-Yi Hsiao, Po-Fan Yang, Kai-Ming Chiang and Hao-Wu Lin

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402461

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      A novel sequential layer-by-layer sub-100 °C vacuum-sublimation method to fabricate planar-type organometal halide perovskite solar cells is developed. Very uniform and highly crystalline perovskite thin films with 100% surface coverage are produced. The cells attain maximum and average efficiencies up to 15.4% and 14%, respectively. This low- temperature, all-vacuum process is suitable for a wide variety of rigid and flexible applications.

  2. Reviews

    1. Magnetically Engineered Semiconductor Quantum Dots as Multimodal Imaging Probes

      Lihong Jing, Ke Ding, Stephen V. Kershaw, Ivan M. Kempson, Andrey L. Rogach and Mingyuan Gao

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402296

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      Light-emitting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) combined with magnetic components offer appealing potential for biomedical applications. This review summarizes recent achievements in contemporary synthesis strategies identifying the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, describes multimodal imaging of tumors in vivo, examines current understanding of the toxicity of QDs/magnetic nanoparticles, and discusses key challenges in reaching clinical applications with these materials and the perspectives for their future use in biomedical imaging.

  3. Communications

    1. High Efficiency in a Solution-Processed Thermally Activated Delayed-Fluorescence Device Using a Delayed-Fluorescence Emitting Material with Improved Solubility

      Yong Joo Cho, Kyoung Soo Yook and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402188

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      High quantum efficiency above 18% in a solution-processed thermally activated delayed-fluorescence device is achieved by modifying a common delayed-fluorescence emitter with a tert-butyl substituent.

    2. Combined Optical and Electronic Sensing of Epithelial Cells Using Planar Organic Transistors

      Marc Ramuz, Adel Hama, Miriam Huerta, Jonathan Rivnay, Pierre Leleux and Róisín M. Owens

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401706

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      A planar, conducting-polymer-based transistor for combined optical and electronic monitoring of live cells provides a unique platform for monitoring the health of cells in vitro. Monitoring of MDCK-I epithelial cells over several days is shown, along with a demonstration of the device for toxicology studies, of use in future drug discovery or diagnostics applications.

    3. Microcavity-Enhanced Light-Trapping for Highly Efficient Organic Parallel Tandem Solar Cells

      Lijian Zuo, Chu-Chen Chueh, Yun-Xiang Xu, Kung-Shih Chen, Yue Zang, Chang-Zhi Li, Hongzheng Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402782

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      A high-performance parallel tandem solar cell employing ultra-thin Ag as the intermediate anode is demonstrated, which comprises a semitransparent front sub-cell and a microcavity assisted back sub-cell. In addition to the extended optical field as a result of the tandem architecture, the prominent microcavity resonance formed in the back sub-cell enables such parallel tandem configuration to possess high light utilization efficiency (the peak EQE value is over 80%) and high photovoltaic performance of 9.2%. This study establishes an effective architecture that can be generally applicable to all organic materials for improving their performance.

    4. Injectable Smart Phase-Transformation Implants for Highly Efficient In Vivo Magnetic-Hyperthermia Regression of Tumors

      Yu Chen, Ling Jiang, Ronghui Wang, Ming Lu, Qunxia Zhang, Yang Zhou, Zhigang Wang, Guangming Lu, Ping Liang, Haitao Ran, Hangrong Chen and Yuanyi Zheng

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402509

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      A minimally invasive, highly efficient and versatile strategy is proposed for localized tumor regression by developing a smart injectable liquid-solid phase-transformation organic-inorganic hybrid composite material, i.e., magnetic Fe powder-dispersed PLGA (Fe/PLGA) implants formagnetic-hyperthermiatherapy of cancer.

    5. Back Gated Multilayer InSe Transistors with Enhanced Carrier Mobilities via the Suppression of Carrier Scattering from a Dielectric Interface

      Wei Feng, Wei Zheng, Wenwu Cao and PingAn Hu

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402427

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      The back gate multilayer InSe FETs exhibit ultrahigh carrier mobilities, surpassing all the reported layer semiconductor based electronics with the same device configuration, which is achieved by the suppression of the carrier scattering from interfacial coulomb impurities or surface polar phonons at the interface of an oxidized dielectric substrate. The room-temperature mobilities of multilayer InSe transistors increase from 64 cm2V−1s−1 to 1055 cm2V−1s−1 using a bilayer dielectric of poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/Al2O3. The transistors also have high current on/off ratios of 1 × 108, low standby power dissipation, and robust current saturation in a broad voltage range.

  4. Reviews

    1. Exploring Actinide Materials Through Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

      Wei-Qun Shi, Li-Yong Yuan, Cong-Zhi Wang, Lin Wang, Lei Mei, Cheng-Liang Xiao, Li Zhang, Zi-Jie Li, Yu-Liang Zhao and Zhi-Fang Chai

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304323

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      The rapid development of synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques offers tremendous opportunities for brilliant and challenging research in actinide-based materials nowadays. This review addresses recent research progresses in actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques, with emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy.

  5. Communications

    1. Highly Reversible and Large Lithium Storage in Mesoporous Si/C Nanocomposite Anodes with Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in a Carbon Framework

      Renyuan Zhang, Yuanjin Du, Dan Li, Dengke Shen, Jianping Yang, Zaiping Guo, Hua Kun Liu, Ahmed A. Elzatahry and Dongyuan Zhao

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402813

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      A magnesiothermic reduction approach is designed to synthesize mesoporous Si/C nanocomposites with ultrasmall, uniform silicon nanoparticles (ca. 3 nm) embedded in a rigid mesoporous carbon framework. The resultant mesoporous Si/C nanocomposites present excellent performance with high reversible capacity, good coulombic efficiency and rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability in lithium-ion battery applications.

    2. Orientationally Ordered Colloidal Co-Dispersions of Gold Nanorods and Cellulose Nanocrystals

      Qingkun Liu, Michael G. Campbell, Julian S. Evans and Ivan I. Smalyukh

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402699

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      Nematic-like and helicoidally orientational self-assemblies of gold nanorods co-dispersed with cellulose nanocrystals to form liquid crystalline phases are developed. Polarization-sensitive extinction spectra and two-photon luminescence imaging are used to characterize orientations and spatial distributions of gold nanorods. Cholesteric-isotropic phase coexistence and continuous domains of single-phase regions are observed and qualitatively discussed on the basis of entropic and electrostatic interactions in co-dispersions of rigid rods of different aspect ratios. Potential applications include biologically compatible plasmonic composite nanomaterials for solar biofuel production and polarization-sensitive plasmonic papers and fabrics.

    3. Anomalous Surface Fatigue in a Nano-Layered Material

      Liu Yang, Daniel M. Czajkowsky, Jielin Sun, Jun Hu and Zhifeng Shao

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401906

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      Nanoscale materials fatigue within a single 7 Å layer of a 2D nano-layered material, muscovite mica, resembles fatigue in macroscopic systems except for two remarkable properties: first, there is an Å-scale precision in the depth of the damage and second, there are sharply defined “magical” stresses, beyond yield, at which the surface remains intact regardless of the number of applications of stress.

    4. Single Nanoparticle Detection and Sizing Using a Nanofiber Pair in an Aqueous Environment

      Xiao-Chong Yu, Bei-Bei Li, Pan Wang, Limin Tong, Xue-Feng Jiang, Yan Li, Qihuang Gong and Yun-Feng Xiao

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402085

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      Single nanoparticle detection and sizing is demonstrated using a nanofiber pair in an aqueous environment. The sizing of nanoparticles with a single radius (100 nm) and of mixed nanoparticles with different radii (100 nm and 170 nm) are both realized, and the experimental results agree well with predictions of Rayleigh–Gans scattering, by taking the inhomogeneous field distribution of the nanofibers into account.

    5. Solvent Annealing of Perovskite-Induced Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic-Device Efficiency Enhancement

      Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Cheng Bi, Yuchuan Shao, Yongbo Yuan and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401685

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      Solvent-annealing is found to be an effective method to increase the grain size and carrier diffusion lengths of trihalide perovskite materials. The carrier diffusion length of MAPbI3 is increased to over 1 μm. The efficiency remains above 14.5% when the MAPbI3 thickness changes from 250 nm to 1 μm, with the highest efficiency reaching 15.6%.

    6. MSN-Mediated Sequential Vascular-to-Cell Nuclear-Targeted Drug Delivery for Efficient Tumor Regression

      Limin Pan, Jianan Liu, Qianjun He and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402752

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      Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with peptides are developed for sequential drug delivery. The RGD peptide is used for vasculature/cell membrane targeting and the TAT peptide for nuclear targeting. Using this delivery strategy, a tumor in a murine xenograft model is successfully regressed.

    7. Design and Fabrication of Novel Stretchable Device Arrays on a Deformable Polymer Substrate with Embedded Liquid-Metal Interconnections

      Jangyeol Yoon, Soo Yeong Hong, Yein Lim, Seung-Jung Lee, Goangseup Zi and Jeong Sook Ha

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402588

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      Stretchable devices are fabricated on a newly designed deformable substrate. Active devices attached on the stiff islands are electrically connected by an embedded EGaIn interconnection, which ensures protection from external damage. In this structure, the local strain in the active device area is estimated to be less than 1% under applied strain of 30% by analysis of the strain distribution using the finite element method.

    8. Grating-Structured Freestanding Triboelectric-Layer Nanogenerator for Harvesting Mechanical Energy at 85% Total Conversion Efficiency

      Yannan Xie, Sihong Wang, Simiao Niu, Long Lin, Qingshen Jing, Jin Yang, Zhengyun Wu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402428

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      A newly-designed triboelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated which is composed of a grating-segmented freestanding triboelectric layer and two groups of interdigitated electrodes with the same periodicity. The sliding motion of the grating units across the electrode fingers can be converted into multiple alternating currents through the external load due to the contact electrification and electrostatic induction. Working in non-contact mode, the device shows excellent stability and the total conversion efficiency can reach as high as 85% at low operation frequency.

  6. Reviews

    1. Hydrogels and Scaffolds for Immunomodulation

      Ankur Singh and Nicholas A. Peppas

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402105

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      Biomedical researchers and clinicians have been continuously shifting focus towards engineered approaches at multiple length-scales that could target organs like lymph nodes, lymphoid residing cells and their intracellular compartments, function as surrogate lymphoid-like tissues, and deliver multiple biomolecules that could modulate the extent of the immune response. Here we discuss emerging hydrogel and scaffold-based strategies for fighting against cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases as well creating immune cell microenvironments.

  7. Communications

    1. Photoinduced Diffusion Through Polymer Networks

      Yuan Meng, Christopher R. Fenoli, Alan Aguirre-Soto, Christopher N. Bowman and Mitchell Anthamatten

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402097

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      Photomediated addition-fragmentation chemistry is applied to demonstrate the precisely controlled diffusion of chemical species through polymer networks. Fluorescent groups connected to polymer networks by allyl sulfide moieties become mobile upon irradiation with UV light due to radical-mediated addition-fragmentation bond exchange. Photoinduced transport through the bulk, into solution, and across film interfaces is demonstrated.

  8. Reviews

    1. Two-Dimensional Soft Nanomaterials: A Fascinating World of Materials

      Xiaodong Zhuang, Yiyong Mai, Dongqing Wu, Fan Zhang and Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401857

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      Two-dimensional (2D) soft nanomaterials are reviewed, including graphene, BxCyNz nanosheets, 2D polymers, covalent organic frameworks, and 2D supramolecular organic nanostructures, etc. The basic concepts, molecular design principles, and primary synthesis approaches developed for 2D soft nanomaterials in the past five years are introduced.

  9. Communications

    1. Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals for Solar Energy Conversion

      Patrick O. Saboe, Carolyn E. Lubner, Nicholas S. McCool, Nella M. Vargas-Barbosa, Hengjing Yan, Stanley Chan, Bryan Ferlez, Guillermo C. Bazan, John H. Golbeck and Manish Kumar

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402375

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      Two-dimensional photosynthetic protein crystals provide a high density of aligned reaction centers. We reconstitute the robust light harvesting protein Photosystem I into a 2D crystal with lipids and integrate the crystals into a photo-electrochemical device. A 4-fold photocurrent enhancement is measured by incorporating conjugated oligoelectrolytes to form a supporting conductive bilayer in the device which produces a high photocurrent of ∼600 μA per mg PSI deposited.

    2. High Efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells by Applying a Double In2S3/CdS Emitter

      Jeehwan Kim, Homare Hiroi, Teodor K. Todorov, Oki Gunawan, Masaru Kuwahara, Tayfun Gokmen, Dhruv Nair, Marinus Hopstaken, Byungha Shin, Yun Seog Lee, Wei Wang, Hiroki Sugimoto and David B. Mitzi

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402373

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      High efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells are reported by applying In2S3/CdS double emitters. This new structure offers high doping concentration within the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells resulting in a substantial enhancement in open circuit voltage. The 12.4% device is obtained with a record open circuit voltage deficit of 593 mV.

    3. Catechol-Mediated Reversible Binding of Multivalent Cations in Eumelanin Half-Cells

      Young Jo Kim, Wei Wu, Sang-Eun Chun, Jay F. Whitacre and Christopher J. Bettinger

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402295

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      Electrochemical storage systems that utilize divalent cations such as Mg2+ can improve the volumetric charge storage capacities compared to those that use monovalent ions. Here, a cathode based on naturally derived melanin pigments is used in secondary Mg2+ batteries. Redox active catechol groups in melanins permit efficient and reversible exchange of divalent Mg2+ cations to preserve charge storage capacity in biopolymer cathodes for more than 500 cycles.

    4. R/G/B/Natural White Light Thin Colloidal Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Devices

      Wan Ki Bae, Jaehoon Lim, Donggu Lee, Myeongjin Park, Hyunkoo Lee, Jeonghun Kwak, Kookheon Char, Changhee Lee and Seonghoon Lee

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400139

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      Bright, low-voltage driven colloidal quantum dot (QD)-based white light-emitting devices (LEDs) with practicable device performances are enabled by the direct exciton formation within quantum-dot active layers in a hybrid device structure. Detailed device characterization reveals that white-QLEDs can be rationalized as a parallel circuit, in which different QDs are connected through the same set of electrically common organic and inorganic charge transport layers.

    5. Break-up of Two-Dimensional MnO2 Nanosheets Promotes Ultrasensitive pH-Triggered Theranostics of Cancer

      Yu Chen, Delai Ye, Meiying Wu, Hangrong Chen, Linlin Zhang, Jianlin Shi and Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402572

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      Chemically exfoliated two-dimensional MnO2 nanosheets are successfully modified with amino-polyethylene glycol as a theranostic platform for ultrasensitive stimuli-responsive theranostics of cancer. The highly dispersed MnO2 nanosheets exhibit a unique break-up in the mildly acidic microenvironment of tumor tissues, which could substantially enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Such a pH-triggered breaking-up behavior could further promote the fast release of loaded anticancer drugs for concurrent pH-responsive drug release and circumvent the multidrug resistance of cancer cells.

    6. Amphiphilic Star Copolymer-Based Bimodal Fluorogenic/Magnetic Resonance Probes for Concomitant Bacteria Detection and Inhibition

      Yamin Li, Hansen Yu, Yinfeng Qian, Jinming Hu and Shiyong Liu

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402797

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      Four-arm star-shaped copolymers, TPE-star-P(DMA-co-BMA-co-Gd), containing TPE cores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature, T 1-type magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, and amphiphilic cationic arms, are synthesized. By taking advantage of noncovalent interactions between star copolymers and bacteria surface, bimodal fluorometric/MR detection and concomitantly inhibition of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in aqueous media are explored.

    7. Polymerization Kinetics in Three-Dimensional Direct Laser Writing

      Jonathan B. Mueller, Joachim Fischer, Frederik Mayer, Muamer Kadic and Martin Wegener

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402366

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      By in-situ measuring the scattered light during microstructure formation, the polymerization kinetics of three-dimensional direct laser writing are investigated in detail. Oxygen quenching, oxygen diffusion, and inhibitor depletion are shown to have substantial impact on the kinetic behavior. For typical photoresists based on multifunctional acrylates, the polymerization occurs in less than a millisecond.

    8. Exciton-Stimulated Molecular Transformation in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Yi-Lu Chang, Ying-Li Rao, Shaolong Gong, Grayson L. Ingram, Suning Wang and Zheng-Hong Lu

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402535

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      An exciton-stimulated molecular transformation in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) on a time scale of a few seconds under electrical bias is shown to reach nearly 100% under standard operating conditions, leading to color switching. It is reversible in both a thin film and an OLED when sufficient thermal energy is supplied. Such an exciton-stimulated molecular transformation suggests a new process which may be exploited for applications such as electrochromic and memory devices.

    9. Maximum Surface Charge Density for Triboelectric Nanogenerators Achieved by Ionized-Air Injection: Methodology and Theoretical Understanding

      Sihong Wang, Yannan Xie, Simiao Niu, Long Lin, Chang Liu, Yu Sheng Zhou and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402491

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      For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces has been introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of triboelectric nanogenerators’ output by surface modification.

    10. Converting Chemical Energy Into Electricity through a Functionally Cooperating Device with Diving–Surfacing Cycles

      Mengmeng Song, Mengjiao Cheng, Guannan Ju, Yajun Zhang and Feng Shi

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402237

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      A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving–surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity.

    11. 3.88% Efficient Tin Sulfide Solar Cells using Congruent Thermal Evaporation

      Vera Steinmann, R. Jaramillo, Katy Hartman, Rupak Chakraborty, Riley E. Brandt, Jeremy R. Poindexter, Yun Seog Lee, Leizhi Sun, Alexander Polizzotti, Helen Hejin Park, Roy G. Gordon and Tonio Buonassisi

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402219

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      Tin sulfide (SnS) as a promising absorber material in thin-film photovoltaic devices is described. Here, we confirm that SnS evaporates congruently, which provides facile composition control akin to cadmium telluride. We demonstrate a SnS heterojunction solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 3.88% (certified), and we present an empirical loss analysis to guide further performance improvements.

    12. The Clash of Mechanical and Electrical Size-Effects in ZnO Nanowires and a Double Power Law Approach to Elastic Strain Engineering of Piezoelectric and Piezotronic Devices

      Antonio Rinaldi, Rodolfo Araneo, Salvatore Celozzi, Marialilia Pea and Andrea Notargiacomo

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401026

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      The piezoelectric performance of ultra-strength ZnO nanowires (NWs) depends on the subtle interplay between electrical and mechanical size-effects. “Size-dependent” modeling of compressed NWs illustrates why experimentally observed mechanical stiffening can indeed collide with electrical size-effects when size shrinks, thereby lowering the actual piezoelectric function from bulk estimates. “Smaller” is not necessarily “better” in nanotechnology.

    13. Highly Oriented Polymer Semiconductor Films Compressed at the Surface of Ionic Liquids for High-Performance Polymeric Organic Field-Effect Transistors

      Junshi Soeda, Hiroyuki Matsui, Toshihiro Okamoto, Itaru Osaka, Kazuo Takimiya and Jun Takeya

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401495

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      A novel and versatile method to align polymer semiconductors is demonstrated. Spreading and subsequent mechanical compression of a polymer thin film on an ionic liquid's surface yield a polymer thin film that has high uniaxial orientation of the polymer backbone, which is tested for typical polymer semiconductors of PB16TTT, PNDTBTC20, and P3HT. TFTs fabricated by the method exhibit significantly higher mobility compared to TFTs fabricated using a conventional spin-coating process.

    14. A Smart “Sense-Act-Treat” System: Combining a Ratiometric pH Sensor with a Near Infrared Therapeutic Gold Nanocage

      Peng Shi, Zhen Liu, Kai Dong, Enguo Ju, Jinsong Ren, Yingda Du, Zhengqiang Li and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402522

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      Herein, we design a “sense-act-treat” system via the combination of a ratiometric pH sensor with a therapeutic gold nanocage. Our design could “sense” the tumor through two-state switching of fluorescence and further provide chemotherapy and hyperthermia for “treating” the tumor, showing the potential for future biomedical applications.

    15. Carbazole-Based Hole-Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Esmaeil Sheibani, Peng Liu, Jinbao Zhang, Haining Tian, Nick Vlachopoulos, Gerrit Boschloo, Lars Kloo, Anders Hagfeldt and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402415

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      Two carbazole-based small molecule hole-transport materials (HTMs) are synthesized and investigated in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The HTM X51-based devices exhibit high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 6.0% and 9.8% in ssDSCs and PSCs, respectively. These results are superior or comparable to those of 5.5% and 10.2%, respectively, obtained for the analogous cells using the state-of-the-art HTM Spiro-OMeTAD.

    16. Boosting the Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Self-Organized Polymeric Hole Extraction Layers with High Work Function

      Kyung-Geun Lim, Hak-Beom Kim, Jaeki Jeong, Hobeom Kim, Jin Young Kim and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401775

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      A self-organized hole extraction layer (SOHEL) with high work function (WF) is designed for energy level alignment with the ionization potential level of CH3NH3PbI3. The SOHEL increases the built-in potential, photocurrent, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Thus, interface engineering of the positive electrode of solution-processed planar heterojunction solar cells using a high-WF SOHEL is a very effective way to achieve high device efficiency (PCE = 11.7% on glass).

    17. Binary-Metal Perovskites Toward High-Performance Planar-Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

      Fan Zuo, Spencer T. Williams, Po-Wei Liang, Chu-Chen Chueh, Chien-Yi Liao and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401641

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      A simple, low temperature solution process for Pb/Sn binary-metal perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells is demonstrated. Sn inclusion substantially influences the band-gap, crystallization kinetics, and thin-film formation leading to a broadened light absorption and enhanced film coverage on ITO/PEDOT:PSS. As a result, the optimized device shows a PCE exceeding 10%, which is the best result for binary-metal perovskite solar cells so far.

    18. Blue SHG Enhancement by Silver Nanocubes Photochemically Prepared on a RbTiOPO4 Ferroelectric Crystal

      Laura Sánchez-García, Mariola O. Ramírez, Pablo Molina, Francisco Gallego-Gómez, Luis Mateos, Eduardo Yraola, Joan J. Carvajal, Magdalena Aguiló, Francesc Díaz, Carmen de las Heras and Luisa E. Bausá

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401603

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      Silver nanocubes with low size dispersion have been selectively photo-deposited on the positive surface of a periodically poled RbTiOPO4 ferroelectric crystal. The obtained nanocubes show preferential orientations with respect to the substrate suggesting epitaxial growth. The plasmonic resonances supported by the nanocubes are exploited to enhance blue SHG at the domain walls.

    19. MOF-Derived Porous ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C Octahedra with Hollow Interiors for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Feng Zou, Xianluo Hu, Zhen Li, Long Qie, Chenchen Hu, Rui Zeng, Yan Jiang and Yunhui Huang

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402322

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      Novel porous ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C octahedra with hollow interiors are fabricated by a facile self-sacrificing template method involving the refluxing synthesis of hollow, metal-organic framework octahedra in solution and subsequent thermal annealing in N2. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these porous hollow ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C octahedra exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performances with high rate capability, high capacity, and excellent cycling stability.

    20. Electrochemical Synthesis on Nanoparticle Chains to Couple Semiconducting Rods: Coulomb Blockade Modulation Using Photoexcitation

      Long Pu, Abdullah Saud Abbas and Vivek Maheshwari

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402034

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      Hybrid nanostructures are made by coupling a room temperature coulomb blockade device with photoexcitable nano-rods. Direct electrochemical synthesis on nanoparticle chain arrays leads to the formation of semiconducting rods that are in direct contact with the nanoparticles and also spatial confined by them. This direct interfacing leads to mutual intermodulation between the two systems.

    21. Self-Powered Energy Fiber: Energy Conversion in the Sheath and Storage in the Core

      Zhibin Yang, Jue Deng, Hao Sun, Jing Ren, Shaowu Pan and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401972

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      A high-performance, self-powered, elastic energy fiber is developed that consists of an energy conversion sheath and an energy storage core. The coaxial structure and the aligned nanostructures at the electrode interface enable a high total energy-conversion and energy-storage performance that is maintained under bending and after stretching.

    22. Polypyrrole-Derived Nitrogen and Oxygen Co-Doped Mesoporous Carbons as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Hydrazine Oxidation

      Yuying Meng, Xiaoxin Zou, Xiaoxi Huang, Anandarup Goswami, Zhongwu Liu and Tewodros Asefa

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401969

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      We demonstrate that polypyrrole-derived nitrogen and oxygen co-doped mesoporous carbons can serve as efficient, metal-free electrocatalysts for hydrazine oxidation reaction, with low overpotential and high current density. The materials’ structures and the nature and type of their dopants in them, which can be controlled by varying the synthetic conditions, can affect the electrocatalytic properties of the materials.

    23. On the Photo-Induced Charge-Carrier Generation within Monolayers of Self-Assembled Organic Donor–Acceptor Dyads

      Franz Fuchs, Mathieu Linares, Christiaan de Vet, Philippe Leclère, Renaud Demadrille and Benjamin Grévin

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401221

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      By means of STM and nc-AFM the self-assembly of a new donor–acceptor (DA) dyad molecule on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is identified and compared to molecular simulations. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements clearly show the photovoltaic activity of this model system under illumination. The optoelectronic properties and the local morphology of the DA dyad assembly are simultaneously probed by KPFM down to the level of one molecular monolayer.

    24. Dye-Loaded Ferritin Nanocages for Multimodal Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

      Peng Huang, Pengfei Rong, Albert Jin, Xuefeng Yan, Molly Gu Zhang, Jing Lin, Hao Hu, Zhe Wang, Xuyi Yue, Wanwan Li, Gang Niu, Wenbin Zeng, Wei Wang, Kechao Zhou and Xiaoyuan Chen

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400914

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      Multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT), for the therapy of cancer, based on a ferritin (FRT) nanocage loaded with the near-infrared dye IR820 (designated DFRT) is demonstrated. The dual roles of DFRT (in imaging and PTT) are successfully balanced by using two different excitation wavelengths: 550 nm for high quantum-yield fluorescence imaging on the one hand and 808 nm for photoacoustic imaging and PTT with high photothermal conversion efficiency on the other.

    25. A 4-Fold-Symmetry Hexagonal Ruthenium for Magnetic Heterostructures Exhibiting Enhanced Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Tunnel Magnetoresistance

      Zhenchao Wen, Hiroaki Sukegawa, Takao Furubayashi, Jungwoo Koo, Koichiro Inomata, Seiji Mitani, Jason Paul Hadorn, Tadakatsu Ohkubo and Kazuhiro Hono

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401959

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      A 4-fold-symmetry hexagonal Ru emerging in epitaxial MgO/Ru/Co2FeAl/MgO heterostructures is reported, in which an approximately Ru(02inline image3) growth attributes to the lattice matching between MgO, Ru, and Co2FeAl. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co2FeAl/MgO interface is substantially enhanced. The magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) incorporating this structure give rise to the largest tunnel magnetoresistance for perpendicular MTJs using low damping Heusler alloys.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assembling Ellipsoidal Particles at Fluid Interfaces using Switchable Dipolar Capillary Interactions

      Gary B. Davies, Timm Krüger, Peter V. Coveney, Jens Harting and Fernando Bresme

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402419

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      We demonstrate how to dynamically tune the assembly of anisotropic colloidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces using dipolar capillary interactions. We exploit a previously discovered first-order phase transition and show how to spontaneously turn off these dipolar capillary interactions by exceeding a critical field strength, providing unprecedented control of the bottom-up fabrication of soft materials.

    27. Optimizing the Electrical Energy Conversion Cycle of Dielectric Elastomer Generators

      Samuel Shian, Jiangshui Huang, Shijie Zhu and David R. Clarke

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402291

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      A strategy to control the electrical charge is developed to achieve high energy density of soft dielectric elastomer generators for energy harvesting. The strategy is analytically shown and experimentally demonstrated to produce the highest energy density ever reported for a soft generator.

    28. Giant Enhancement of Ferroelectric Retention in BiFeO3 Mixed-Phase Boundary

      Yen-Chin Huang, Yunya Y. Liu, Yi-Tsu Lin, Heng-Jui Liu, Qing He, Jiangyu Y. Li, Yi-Chun Chen and Ying-Hao Chu

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402442

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      A large enhancement of nano-domain retention is shown in the mixed-phase region on a strained BiFeO3 epitaxial film. The superior ferroelectric retention is attributed to a lower elastic energy density at phase boundaries, which act as periodic pinning centers for the domain wall motion. This study delivers a new pathway of incorporating elastic energy term to assist ferroelectric retention.

    29. A Biomimetic Multi-Stimuli-Response Ionic Gate Using a Hydroxypyrene Derivation-Functionalized Asymmetric Single Nanochannel

      Kai Xiao, Ganhua Xie, Pei Li, Qian Liu, Guanglei Hou, Zhen Zhang, Jie Ma, Ye Tian, Liping Wen and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402247

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      A highly efficient multi-stimuli-response ionic gate that can be activated separately or cooperatively by pH and UV light has been demonstrated by modifying the environmental stimuli-responsive molecule 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate into a track-etched single conical nanochannel. Such a multi-response ionic gate can find applications in areas such as electronics, actuators, and biosensors.

    30. Element Specific Monolayer Depth Profiling

      Sebastian Macke, Abdullah Radi, Jorge E. Hamann-Borrero, Martin Bluschke, Sebastian Brück, Eberhard Goering, Ronny Sutarto, Feizhou He, Georg Cristiani, Meng Wu, Eva Benckiser, Hanns-Ulrich Habermeier, Gennady Logvenov, Nicolas Gauquelin, Gianluigi A. Botton, Adam P. Kajdos, Susanne Stemmer, Georg A. Sawatzky, Maurits W. Haverkort, Bernhard Keimer and Vladimir Hinkov

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402028

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      The electronic phase behavior and functionality of interfaces and surfaces in complex materials are strongly correlated to chemical composition profiles, stoichiometry and intermixing. Here a novel analysis scheme for resonant X-ray reflectivity maps is introduced to determine such profiles, which is element specific and non-destructive, and which exhibits atomic-layer resolution and a probing depth of hundreds of nanometers.

    31. Plasmonic Hot Electron Induced Structural Phase Transition in a MoS2 Monolayer

      Yimin Kang, Sina Najmaei, Zheng Liu, Yanjun Bao, Yumin Wang, Xing Zhu, Naomi J. Halas, Peter Nordlander, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Jun Lou and Zheyu Fang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401802

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      A reversible 2H-to-1T phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer is realized by plasmonic hot electrons. This transition can be actively controlled by the incident light intensity, wavelength, sample areas, and perimeters, resulting in an effective shift of photoluminescence. The suggested configuration paves the way for plasmonic optoelectronic device applications of MoS2 in the future.

    32. Scalable Nanopillar Arrays with Layer-by-Layer Patterned Overt and Covert Images

      Kyoung G. Lee, Bong Gill Choi, Byeong Il Kim, Terry Shyu, Myung Seok Oh, Sung Gap Im, Sung-Jin Chang, Tae Jae Lee, Nicholas A. Kotov and Seok Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401246

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      Transferring flexible and scalable nano­pillar arrays on a variety of unconventional substrates, including fabric, paper, and metals, is achieved by a single-step replication process using UV-curable polymers. Local alteration of the contact angle on the nanopillar arrays by LBL films creates selectively hidden images. They can be revealed by the breath and be used as for an innovative anti-counterfeit technology.

    33. Self-Assembled Metastable γ-Ga2O3 Nanoflowers with Hexagonal Nanopetals for Solar-Blind Photodetection

      Yue Teng, Le Xin Song, Anne Ponchel, Zheng Kun Yang and Juan Xia

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402047

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      Metastable γ-Ga2O3 nanoflowers assembled from hexagonal nanopetals are successfully constructed by the oxidation of metallic Ga in acetone solution. The nanoflowers with a hollow interior structure exhibit a short response time and a large light current–dark current ratio under a relatively low bias voltage, suggesting an especially important potential application in solar-blind photodetection.

    34. Color-Selective and CMOS-Compatible Photodetection Based on Aluminum Plasmonics

      Bob Y. Zheng, Yumin Wang, Peter Nordlander and Naomi J. Halas

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401168

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      A color-selective, band-engineered photodetector is demonstrated. The device uses two Schottky junctions to accumulate charge in an energy well which results in photocurrent gain and a plasmonic aluminum grating for photocurrent enhancement and red–green–blue color selectivity. This work provides a more intelligent way to design imaging sensors by integrating amplifiers and color filters directly into pixels.

    35. Enhancement of Ferroelectric Curie Temperature in BaTiO3 Films via Strain-Induced Defect Dipole Alignment

      Anoop R. Damodaran, Eric Breckenfeld, Zuhuang Chen, Sungki Lee and Lane W. Martin

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400254

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      The combination of epitaxial strain and defect engineering facilitates the tuning of the transition temperature of BaTiO3 to >800 °C. Advances in thin-film deposition enable the utilization of both the electric and elastic dipoles of defects to extend the epitaxial strain to new levels inducing unprecedented functionality and temperature stability in ferroelectrics.

    36. In Situ Controlled Growth of Titanium Nitride in Amorphous Silicon Nitride: A General Route Toward Bulk Nitride Nanocomposites with Very High Hardness

      Mirna Chaker Bechelany, Vanessa Proust, Christel Gervais, Rudy Ghisleni, Samuel Bernard and Philippe Miele

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402356

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      Bulk nanocomposites possessing very high hardness in which TiN nanocrystallites are homogeneously embedded in an amorphous Si3N4 matrix are produced from perhydropolysilazane and tetrakisdimethylaminotitanium. That is, a low-molecular-weight TiN molecule is mixed in controlled molar ratio with a polymeric Si3N4 precursor; further processing, including ammonolysis, warm pressing, and controlled nanocrystal growth, yields nanocomposites with the desired properties.

    37. Performance and Stability of Lead Perovskite/TiO2, Polymer/PCBM, and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells at Light Intensities up to 70 Suns

      Chunhung Law, Lukas Miseikis, Stiochko Dimitrov, Pabitra Shakya-Tuladhar, Xiaoe Li, Piers R. F. Barnes, James Durrant and Brian C. O'Regan

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402612

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      Three organic or hybrid photovoltaic technologies are compared with respect to performance and stability under the harsh regime of concentrated light. Although all three technologies show surprisingly high (and linear) photocurrents, and better than expected stability, no golden apples are awarded.

    38. Suppressed Charge Recombination in Inverted Organic Photovoltaics via Enhanced Charge Extraction by Using a Conductive Fullerene Electron Transport Layer

      Chang-Zhi Li, Chih-Yu Chang, Yue Zang, Huan-Xin Ju, Chu-Chen Chueh, Po-Wei Liang, Namchul Cho, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402276

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      Conductive fullerene electron-transporting layers (ETLs) have been developed to facilitate the solution processing of highly efficient inverted OSCs with PCE reaching 9.6%. Its high conductivity also allows devices to be fabricated independently of the ETL thickness (up to ∼50 nm). Transient photovoltage (TPV) measurements are used to shed light on how these conductive ETLs help suppress charge recombination in solar cells.

  10. Progress Reports

    1. Pt-Free Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Efficiency

      Sining Yun, Anders Hagfeldt and Tingli Ma

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402056

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      A design principle of counter electrode (CE) catalysts in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that links processing and structure of catalytic materials to their electrocatalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and cheaper Pt-free CE catalysts that replace expensive Pt electrodes to overcome the Pt challenge in the electrocatalytic fields. This concept further reduces the costs of DSSC's and promotes their industrialization.

  11. Communications

    1. Using “Click-e-Bricks” to Make 3D Elastomeric Structures

      Stephen A. Morin, Yanina Shevchenko, Joshua Lessing, Sen Wai Kwok, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam A. Stokes and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401642

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      Soft three dimensional, elastomeric structures and composite structures are easy to fabricate using click-e-bricks, and the internal architecture of these structures together with the capabilities built into the bricks themselves provide mechanical, optical, electrical, and fluidic functions.

    2. Donor–Acceptor Alternating Copolymer Nanowires for Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Jaewon Lee, Sae Byeok Jo, Min Kim, Heung Gyu Kim, Jisoo Shin, Haena Kim and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401203

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      A donor–acceptor conjugated copolymer enables the formation of nanowire systems that can be successfully introduced into bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A simple binary solvent mixture that makes polarity control possible allows kinetic control over the self-assembly of the crystalline polymer into a nanowire structure during the film-forming process. The enhanced photoconductivity of the nanowire-embedded photoactive layer efficiently facilitates photon harvesting in the solar cells. The resultant maximum power conversion efficiency is 8.2% in a conventional single-cell structure, revealing a 60% higher performance than in devices without nanowires.

    3. A Honeycomb-Layered Na3Ni2SbO6: A High-Rate and Cycle-Stable Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Dingding Yuan, Xinmiao Liang, Lin Wu, Yuliang Cao, Xinping Ai, Jiwen Feng and Hanxi Yang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401946

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      A honeycomb layered Na3Ni2SbO6 is synthesized as a cathode of sodium-ion batteries. This new host material exhibits a high capacity of 117 mAh g−1, a remarkable cyclability with 70% capacity retention over 500 cycles at a 2C rate, and a superior rate capability with >75% capacity delivered even at a very high rate of 30 C (6000 mA g−1). These results open a new perspective to develop high capacity and high rate Na-ion batteries for widespread electric energy storage applications.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Novel Electroforming-Free Nanoscaffold Memristor with Very High Uniformity, Tunability, and Density

      Shinbuhm Lee, Abhijeet Sangle, Ping Lu, Aiping Chen, Wenrui Zhang, Jae Sung Lee, Haiyan Wang, Quanxi Jia and Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401917

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      We develop a novel device structure using easy-to-grow nanoscaffold films to localize oxygen vacancy at vertical heterointerfaces. Our strategy is to design vertical interfaces using two structurally incompatible oxides, which are likely to generate a high concentration oxygen vacancy. We demonstrate nonlinear electroresistance at room temperature using these nanoscaffold devices. The resistance variations exceed two orders of magnitude with very high uniformity and tunability.

    5. Dielectric Effect on the Photovoltage Loss in Organic Photovoltaic Cells

      Song Chen, Sai-Wing Tsang, Tzung-Han Lai, John R. Reynolds and Franky So

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401987

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      The VOC loss in several polymer-fullerene solar cells is determined. Based on our data, a major source of photovoltage loss is attributed to the low dielectric constants of the polymers. Such loss is close to zero if the dielectric constant of the polymer-fullerene blend is close to 5.

    6. Orbital Occupancy and Charge Doping in Iron-Based Superconductors

      Claudia Cantoni, Jonathan E. Mitchell, Andrew F. May, Michael A. McGuire, Juan-Carlos Idrobo, Tom Berlijn, E. Dagotto, Matthew F. Chisholm, W. Zhou, Stephen J. Pennycook, Athena S. Sefat and Brian C. Sales

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401518

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      The intrinsic Fe local magnetic moment and Fe orbital occupations of iron-based superconductors are unveiled through the local, real-space capability of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM/EELS). Although the ordering of Fe moments needs to be suppressed for superconductivity to arise, the local, fluctuating Fe magnetic moment is enhanced near optimal superconductivity.

    7. Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphene: Multifunctional Electrode Materials for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries and Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Wei Ai, Zhimin Luo, Jian Jiang, Jianhui Zhu, Zhuzhu Du, Zhanxi Fan, Linghai Xie, Hua Zhang, Wei Huang and Ting Yu

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401427

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      N and S codoping of graphene is realized by a novel approach: covalent functionalization of graphene oxide using 2-aminothiophenol as a source of both N and S followed by thermal treatment. The resulting N- and S-codoped graphene has potential applications in high-performance lithium-ion batteries and as a metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

  12. Reviews

    1. Nano-Composites for Water Remediation: A Review

      Sarah J. Tesh and Thomas B. Scott

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401376

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      Nano-particles have unique reactive properties that make them a potential step forward for water treatment. Applying them, however, is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding their ecotoxicity. Nano-composite filters, where the particles are restrained within a bulk structure, could be the solution. This review looks at the range of nano-composites available and discusses what is holding back their application.

  13. Communications

    1. Fabric-Based Integrated Energy Devices for Wearable Activity Monitors

      Sungmook Jung, Jongsu Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon, Minbaek Lee and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402439

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      A wearable fabric-based integrated power supply system that generates the energy triboelectrically using human activities and stores the generated energy in the integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

    2. Strong Resonance Effect in a Lossy Medium-Based Optical Cavity for Angle Robust Spectrum Filters

      Kyu-Tae Lee, Sungyong Seo, Jae Yong Lee and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402117

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      The spectrum filters with wide viewing angle exploiting strong resonance effects in lossy media are demonstrated. The designed filters show significantly improved color purity and the angle robust characteristic can be preserved up to ±65° due to an interesting phase cancellation effect. This strategy could provide new routes for numerous applications, such as image sensors and displays.

    3. Interface Engineering for High-Performance Top-Gated MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors

      Xuming Zou, Jingli Wang, Chung-Hua Chiu, Yun Wu, Xiangheng Xiao, Changzhong Jiang, Wen-Wei Wu, Liqiang Mai, Tangsheng Chen, Jinchai Li, Johnny C. Ho and Lei Liao

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402008

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      Experimental evidence of the optimized interface engineering effects in MoS2 transistors is demonstrated. The MoS2/Y2O3/HfO2 stack offers excellent interface control. Results show that HfO2 layer can be scaled down to 9 nm, yet achieving a near-ideal sub-threshold slope (65 mv/dec) and the highest saturation current (526 μA/μm) of any MoS2 transistor reported to date.

    4. Directed Growth of Electroactive Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films Using Electrophoretic Deposition

      Idan Hod, Wojciech Bury, David M. Karlin, Pravas Deria, Chung-Wei Kung, Michael J. Katz, Monica So, Benjamin Klahr, Danni Jin, Yip-Wah Chung, Teri W. Odom, Omar K. Farha and Joseph T. Hupp

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401940

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      Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is used to assemble metal-organic framework (MOF) materials in nano- and micro-particulate, thin-film form. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by the successful deposition of 4 types of MOFs: NU-1000, UiO-66, HKUST-1 and Al-MIL-53. Additionally, EPD is used to pattern the growth of NU-1000 thin films that exhibit full electrochemical activity.

    5. Organic Polymorphs: One-Compound-Based Crystals with Molecular-Conformation- and Packing-Dependent Luminescent Properties

      Kai Wang, Hongyu Zhang, Shanyong Chen, Guochun Yang, Jibo Zhang, Wenjing Tian, Zhongmin Su and Yue Wang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401114

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      The present study of structure–property relationships and disclosure of fascinating amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) behavior of an organic molecule not only exhibits the individual effect of molecular conformation and arrangement on the emission properties of the crystal separately, but also indicates that some concealed elegant properties of organic solids can be achieved through manipulating the polymorphic form.

    6. Pillar[5]arene-Based Supramolecular Organic Frameworks for Highly Selective CO2-Capture at Ambient Conditions

      Li-Li Tan, Haiwei Li, Yanchun Tao, Sean Xiao-An Zhang, Bo Wang and Ying-Wei Yang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401672

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      Low-density, solid-state, porous supramolecular organic frameworks are constructed using pillarenes. The frameworks have a honeycomb-like structure, permanent porosity, high thermal stability, and selective and reversible sorption properties toward CO2. The exceptionally selective CO2-sorption properties (375/1, 339/1) of one framework over N2 and CH4 indicate potential applications in CO2-capture for post-combustion power plants and natural gas sweetening.

    7. An Efficient DNA-Fueled Molecular Machine for the Discrimination of Single-Base Changes

      Tingjie Song, Shiyan Xiao, Dongbao Yao, Fujian Huang, Maobin Hu and Haojun Liang

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402314

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      A new strategy for single-base polymorphism (SNP) detection based on the assembly of DNA-AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) driven by a DNA-fueled molecular machine, is established and optimized. It is highly efficient, works at room temperature, and is easy to handle. A single-base change on an oligonucleotide strand is unambiguously discriminated for either SNPs or insertions and deletions (indels). The strategy is demonstrated to detect a mutation in the breast cancer gene BRCA1 in homogeneous solution at room temperature.

    8. Directional Drop Transport Achieved on High-Temperature Anisotropic Wetting Surfaces

      Chengcheng Liu, Jie Ju, Jie Ma, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401985

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      The surfaces of ambient-temperature superhydrophilic tilting silicon nanowires (TSNWs) exhibit an anisotropic wetting performance at high temperature and a deposited drop moves directionally on this surface. A vapor film forming beneath the drop after spreading reduces the surface friction and the heat transfer efficiency between the drop and the surface, so the drop moves with a constant speed and little mass loss.

    9. Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide Superlattices

      Woo Seok Choi, Hiromichi Ohta and Ho Nyung Lee

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401676

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      Precise tuning of the 2D carrier density by using fractional δ-doping of d electrons improves the thermoelectric properties of oxide heterostructures. The promising result can be attributed to the anisotropic band structure in the 2D system, indicating that δ-doped oxide superlattices are good candidates for advanced thermoelectrics.

    10. Near-Infrared-Emitting Two-Dimensional Codes Based on Lattice-Strained Core/(Doped) Shell Quantum Dots with Long Fluorescence Lifetime

      Chi Chen, Pengfei Zhang, Guanhui Gao, Duyang Gao, Yong Yang, Hong Liu, Yuhui Wang, Ping Gong and Lintao Cai

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402369

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      Lattice-strained CdTe/CdS:Cu quantum dots (QDs) with a widely tunable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence emission spectrum (700–910 nm) and long lifetime (up to 1 μs) are synthesized. Based on multi-emission and multi-lifetime of the well-defined QDs, the NIR-emitting two-dimensional (2D) codes are achieved by embedding as-prepared QDs into agarose beads. This provides a new strategy for fluorescent 2D codes.

    11. Azadipyrromethene-Based Zn(II) Complexes as Nonplanar Conjugated Electron Acceptors for Organic Photovoltaics

      Zhenghao Mao, Wasana Senevirathna, Jia-Yu Liao, Jun Gu, Sameer Vajjala Kesava, Changhe Guo, Enrique D. Gomez and Geneviève Sauvé

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400647

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      The effectiveness of new a electron acceptor for organic solar cells is demonstrated. The acceptor is a homoleptic zinc(II) complex of 2,6-diphenylethynyl-1,3,7,9-tetraphenylazadipyrromethene. The high power-conversion efficiency obtained is attributed to the acceptor's 3D structure, which prevents crystallization and promotes a favourable nanoscale morphology, its high Voc, and its ability to contribute to light harvesting at 600–800 nm.

    12. Direct Observation of Doping Sites in Temperature-Controlled, p-Doped P3HT Thin Films by Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy

      Duc T. Duong, Hung Phan, David Hanifi, Pil Sung Jo, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402015

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      The distribution of dopant sites in doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films are characterized using optical absorption, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM). It is shown that dopant sites can be directly observed using c-AFM and that the solution temperature dramatically impacts phase separation and conductivity in spin-cast films.

    13. Simple Fabrication of an Organic Laser by Microcontact Molding of a Distributed Feedback Grating

      Sergej Hermann, R. Clayton Shallcross and Klaus Meerholz

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401616

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      Lasing from an organic polymer is demonstrated in a device utilizing a distributed feedback grating, manufactured by microcontact molding of CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) directly on top of the emitter layer. Besides the simpler fabrication in comparison to a reference device based on photolithographically-prepared DFB grating in a bottom dielectric layer, a much higher DFB strength for NC-gratings is observed, resulting in reduced lasing threshold and a fourfold differential lasing efficiency.

    14. Real-Time Manipulation with Magnetically Tunable Structures

      Yangying Zhu, Dion S. Antao, Rong Xiao and Evelyn N. Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401515

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      Magnetically tunable micropillar arrays with uniform, continuous and extreme tilt angles for real-time manipulation are reported. We experimentally show uniform tilt angles ranging from 0° to 57°, and develop a model to accurately capture the behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flexible uniform responsive microstructures (μFUR) can dynamically manipulate liquid spreading directionality, control fluid drag, and tune optical transmittance over a large range.

    15. Electronic Readout Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Organic Field-Effect Transistors as a Preeclampsia Prognostic

      Mallory L. Hammock, Oren Knopfmacher, Tse Nga Ng, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401829

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      Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) sensors can meet the need for portable and real-time diagnostics. We demonstrate an electronic readout enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using OFETs for the detection of a panel of three biomarkers in complex media to create a pre-eclampsia prognostic. We also demonstrate biodetection utilizing a fully inkjet printed and flexible OFET to underscore our ability to produce disposable devices.

    16. Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells

      Christopher M. Proctor, John A. Love and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401725

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      Analysis of measured charge carrier mobilities and fill factors in solution processable small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells reveals that in order to achieve high FF, hole and electron mobilities must be >10−4 cm2/Vs. Neat film mobility measurements are also found to be a useful predictor of the maximum blend film mobility and FF obtained in blend film solar cells.

    17. Carbon-Encapsulated Pyrite as Stable and Earth-Abundant High Energy Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Jun Liu, Yuren Wen, Yi Wang, Peter A. van Aken, Joachim Maier and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401496

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      Cathode materials consisting of porous pyrite nanooctahedra encapsulated by uniform carbon nanocages exhibit very high energy density, superior rate capability (a reversible capability of 439, 340 and 256 mA h g−1 at 1C, 2.5C and 5C, respectively) and stable cycling performance (ca. 10% capacity loss after 50 cycles at 0.5C with a capacity retention of 495 mA h g−1).

    18. Top-Down Patterning and Self-Assembly for Regular Arrays of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

      Justin Wu, Alexander Antaris, Ming Gong and Hongjie Dai

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401108

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      Highly pure semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), sorted by density gradient ultracentrifugation, undergo self-assembly using depletion attraction forces into rafts along lithographically defined patterns of narrow pitch (100 or 200 nm). The arrays demonstrate high pattern fidelity and channel filling, along with large-scale homogeneity. Field-effect transistors made from these arrays exhibit high performance at on/off ratios > 1000.

    19. Surface Binding of Polypyrrole on Porous Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Li-Ion Battery Anodes with High Structure Stability

      Fei-Hu Du, Bo Li, Wei Fu, Yi-Jun Xiong, Kai-Xue Wang and Jie-Sheng Chen

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401937

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      Uniform porous silicon hollow nano­spheres are prepared without any sacrificial templates through a magnesio­thermic reduction of mesoporous silica hollow nanospheres and surface modified by the following in situ chemical polymerization of polypyrrole. The porous hollow structure and polypyrrole coating contribute significantly to the excellent structure stability and high electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite.

    20. Nonlinear Imaging and Spectroscopy of Chiral Metamaterials

      Sean P. Rodrigues, Shoufeng Lan, Lei Kang, Yonghao Cui and Wenshan Cai

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402293

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      A chiral metamaterial produces both distinguishable linear and nonlinear reson­ant features when probed with left and right circularly polarized light. The material demonstrates a linear transmission contrast of 0.5 between left and right circular polarizations and a 20× contrast between second-harmonic responses from the two incident polarizations. Nonlinear and linear response images probed with circularly polarized light show strongly defined contrast.

    21. Giant Room-Temperature Elastocaloric Effect in Ferroelectric Ultrathin Films

      Yang Liu, Ingrid C. Infante, Xiaojie Lou, Laurent Bellaiche, James F. Scott and Brahim Dkhil

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401935

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      Environmentally friendly ultrathin BaTiO3 capacitors can exhibit a giant stress-induced elastocaloric effect without hysteresis loss or Joule heating. By combining this novel elastocaloric effect with the intrinsic electrocaloric effect, an ideal refrigeration cycle with high performance (temperature change over 10 K with a wide working-temperature window of 60 K) at room temperature is proposed for future cooling applications.

    22. Carbon Nanotube Network Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors with 108 On/Off Ratio

      Vladimir Derenskyi, Widianta Gomulya, Jorge Mario Salazar Rios, Martin Fritsch, Nils Fröhlich, Stefan Jung, Sybille Allard, Satria Zulkarnaen Bisri, Pavlo Gordiichuk, Andreas Herrmann, Ullrich Scherf and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401395

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      Polymer wrapping is a highly effective method of selecting semiconducting carbon nanotubes and dispersing them in solution. Semi-aligned semiconducting carbon nanotube networks are obtained by blade coating, an effective and scalable process. The field-effect transistor (FET) performance can be tuned by the choice of wrapping polymer, and the polymer concentration modifies the FET transport characteristics, leading to a record on/off ratio of 108.

    23. Energy-Efficient Hydrogen Separation by AB-Type Ladder-Polymer Molecular Sieves

      Bader S. Ghanem, Raja Swaidan, Xiaohua Ma, Eric Litwiller and Ingo Pinnau

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401328

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      Increases in hydrogen selectivity of more than 100% compared to the most selective ladder polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) reported to date are achieved with self-polymerized A-B-type ladder monomers comprising rigid and three-dimensional 9,10-dialkyl-substituted triptycene moieties. The selectivities match those of materials commercially employed in hydrogen separations, but the gas permeabilities are 150-fold higher. Thisnew polymer molecular sieve is also the most selective PIM for air separations.

    24. A Universal Method for Preparation of Noble Metal Nanoparticle-Decorated Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Nanobelts

      Xun Hong, Juqing Liu, Bing Zheng, Xiao Huang, Xiao Zhang, Chaoliang Tan, Junze Chen, Zhanxi Fan and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402063

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      MoS2, TaS2, TiS2, WSe2 and TaSe2 nanobelts decorated with a PtAg alloy or Pt NPs have been successfully synthesized by etching the 2D nanosheets under a mild reaction condition followed by the subsequent nanosheet-to-nanobelt transformation mediated by the PVP template. The PtAg-MoS2 hybrid nanobelt coated with PVP is used as the active material in a memory device, which exhibits the hysteresis behavior with the function of dynamic random access memory.


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