Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 25

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

VIEW

  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 114
  1. Communications

    1. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Monolayer Rhenium Disulfide (ReS2)

      Kunttal Keyshar, Yongji Gong, Gonglan Ye, Gustavo Brunetto, Wu Zhou, Daniel P. Cole, Ken Hackenberg, Yongmin He, Leonardo Machado, Mohamad Kabbani, Amelia H. C. Hart, Bo Li, Douglas S. Galvao, Antony George, Robert Vajtai, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501795

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      Here the direct synthesis of monolayer and multilayer ReS2 by chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 450 °C is reported. Detailed characterization of this material is performed using various spectroscopy and microscopy methods. Furthermore initial field effect transistor characteristics are evaluated which highlight the potential in being used as an n-type semiconductor.

    2. Rapid and Nondestructive Identification of Polytypism and Stacking Sequences in Few-Layer Molybdenum Diselenide by Raman Spectroscopy

      Xin Lu, M. Iqbal Bakti Utama, Junhao Lin, Xin Luo, Yanyuan Zhao, Jun Zhang, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Wu Zhou, Su Ying Quek and Qihua Xiong

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501086

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      Various combinations of interlayer shear modes emerge in few-layer molybdenum diselenide grown by chemical vapor deposition depending on the stacking configuration of the sample. Raman measurements may also reveal polytypism and stacking fault, as supported by first principles calculations and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is an important tool in probing stacking-dependent properties in few-layer 2D materials.

    3. Macroscopic 3D Porous Graphitic Carbon Nitride Monolith for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Qinghua Liang, Zhi Li, Xiaoliang Yu, Zheng-Hong Huang, Feiyu Kang and Quan-Hong Yang

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502057

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      A macroscopic 3D porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) monolith is prepared by the one-step thermal polymerization of urea inside the framework of a commercial melamine sponge and exhibits improved photocatalytic water splitting performance for hydrogen evolution compared to g-CN powder due to 3D porous interconnected network, larger specific surface area, better visible light capture, and superior charge separation efficiency.

    4. 7.7% Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells

      Ye-Jin Hwang, Brett A. E. Courtright, Amy S. Ferreira, Sarah H. Tolbert and Samson A. Jenekhe

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501604

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      By controlling polymer/polymer blend self-organization rate, all-polymer solar cells composed of high-mobility, crystalline, naphthalene diimide-selenophene copolymer acceptor and benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene copolymer donor are achieved with a record 7.7% power conversion efficiency and ­record short-circuit current density (18.8 mA cm−2).

    5. Large-Scale Nanophotonic Solar Selective Absorbers for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

      Pengfei Li, Baoan Liu, Yizhou Ni, Kaiyang Kevin Liew, Jeff Sze, Shuo Chen and Sheng Shen

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501686

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      An omnidirectional nanophotonic solar selective absorber is fabricated on a large scale using a template stripping method. The nanopyramid nickel structure achieves an average absorptance of 95% at a wavelength range below 1.3 μm and a low emittance less than 10% at wavelength >2.5 μm.

    6. Wide-Bandgap Benzodithiophene–Benzothiadiazole Copolymers for Highly Efficient Multijunction Polymer Solar Cells

      Chunhui Duan, Alice Furlan, Jacobus J. van Franeker, Robin E. M. Willems, Martijn M. Wienk and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501626

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      Novel wide-bandgap semiconducting polymers are designed and synthesized for multijunction polymer solar cell (PSC) applications. In single-junction PSCs, BDT-FBT-2T exhibits efficiencies exceeding 6.5% for active layer thicknesses between 90 and 250 nm, with the highest efficiency of 7.7% at 100 and 250 nm. This enables tandem PSCs to be created with an efficiency of 8.9%.

    7. Identifying and Eliminating Emissive Sub-bandgap States in Thin Films of PbS Nanocrystals

      Gyu Weon Hwang, Donghun Kim, Jose M. Cordero, Mark W. B. Wilson, Chia-Hao M. Chuang, Jeffrey C. Grossman and Moungi G. Bawendi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501156

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      Chemical oxidation of under-charged Pb atoms reduces the density of trap states by a factor of 40 in films of colloidal PbS quantum dots for devices. These emissive sub-bandgap states are a byproduct of several standard ligand-exchange procedures. X-ray photoelectron spectro­scopy measurements and density function theory simulations demonstrate that they are associated with under-charged Pb.

    8. Interfacing Solution-Grown C60 and (3-Pyrrolinium)(CdCl3) Single Crystals for High-Mobility Transistor-Based Memory Devices

      Jiake Wu, Congcheng Fan, Guobiao Xue, Tao Ye, Shuang Liu, Ruoqian Lin, Hongzheng Chen, Huolin L. Xin, Ren-Gen Xiong and Hanying Li

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501577

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      Aligned ferroelectric single crystals of (3-pyrrolinium)(CdCl3) can be prepared, from solution, on top of aligned semiconducting C60 single crystals, using an orthogonal solvent. Memory devices based on these ferroelectric/semiconductor bilayered heterojunctions exhibit much larger hysteresis compared with that of only C60 single crystals. More importantly, the introduction of the ferroelectric layer induces the memory window without dramatically reducing the charge mobility.

    9. Conjugation-Induced Rigidity in Twisting Molecules: Filling the Gap Between Aggregation-Caused Quenching and Aggregation-Induced Emission

      Gan Chen, Wenbo Li, Tianru Zhou, Qian Peng, Di Zhai, Hongxiang Li, Wang Zhang Yuan, Yongming Zhang and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501981

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      Conjugation-induced rigidity in twisting molecules provides a new facile but effective avenue towards solution and solid dual-state efficient luminogens. While conjugation rigidifies the molecular conformations in solution, twisting structure prevents or alleviates detrimental close molecular packing in the solid states, thus synergistically yielding high efficiencies in both solution and solid states.

    10. Mechanically Tough Large-Area Hierarchical Porous Graphene Films for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Applications

      Zhiyuan Xiong, Cailian Liao, Weihua Han and Xiaogong Wang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501983

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      Mechanically tough large-area hierarchical porous graphene films are fabricated by blade-casting of graphene oxide hydrogel and postcasting reduction. The as-prepared graphene films, which consist of well-exfoliated graphene nanosheets, possess interpenetrating 3D hierarchical porous structures, high strength and modulus, large specific area, and high electrical conductivity. Flexible film supercapacitors fabricated with the graphene electrodes show superior areal capacitance, good rate performance, and excellent mechanical stability.

    11. An Ultrahigh-Resolution Digital Image Sensor with Pixel Size of 50 nm by Vertical Nanorod Arrays

      Chengming Jiang and Jinhui Song

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502079

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      The pixel size limit of existing digital image sensors is successfully overcome by using vertically aligned semiconducting nanorods as the 3D photosensing pixels. On this basis, an unprecedentedly high-resolution digital image sensor with a pixel size of 50 nm and a resolution of 90 nm is fabricated. The ultrahigh-resolution digital image sensor can heavily impact the field of visual information.

  2. Reviews

    1. The Fluid Joint: The Soft Spot of Micro- and Nanosystems

      Massimo Mastrangeli

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501260

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      The physical properties of fluid bridges and joints and their main applications in micro- and nanosystems engineering are reviewed. Assembly, manipulation, actuation, and particle dispensing are surveyed, all benefitting from the specific features of such ubiquitous and deceptively simple objects. The present fundamental and technological issues, as well as future research perspectives are outlined.

  3. Research News

    1. Observing Atoms at Work by Controlling Beam–Sample Interactions

      Christian Kisielowski

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500082

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      Low-dose-rate in-line electron holography utilizes less than 100 e Å−2 s−1 to capture noise-dominated electron microscopy images that are reconstructed to produce structure images of genuine nanomaterials and surfaces. Radiation-sensitive mate­rials such as composites or catalysts can now be imaged at truly atomic resolution while minimizing electron-beam-induced structure alterations.

  4. Communications

    1. Localized Neuron Stimulation with Organic Electrochemical Transistors on Delaminating Depth Probes

      Adam Williamson, Marc Ferro, Pierre Leleux, Esma Ismailova, Attila Kaszas, Thomas Doublet, Pascale Quilichini, Jonathan Rivnay, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Christophe Bernard and George G. Malliaras

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500218

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      Organic electrochemical transistors are integrated on depth probes to achieve localized electrical stimulation of neurons. The probes feature a mechanical delamination process which leaves only a 4 μm thick film with embedded transistors inside the brain. This considerably reduces probe invasiveness and correspondingly improves future brain-machine interfaces.

    2. Magnetic-Induced Luminescence from Flexible Composite Laminates by Coupling Magnetic Field to Piezophotonic Effect

      Man-Chung Wong, Li Chen, Ming-Kiu Tsang, Yang Zhang and Jianhua Hao

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502015

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      Magnetic-induced luminescence (MIL) is realized via a strain mediated coupling strategy. MIL composite laminates composed of magnetic actuator and phosphor phases are developed. The MIL performance is tested under low magnetic fields at room temperature. Our results provide a novel type of promising luminescent and magnetic materials for developing some new concept devices.

    3. 3D-Printed Artificial Microfish

      Wei Zhu, Jinxing Li, Yew J. Leong, Isaac Rozen, Xin Qu, Renfeng Dong, Zhiguang Wu, Wei Gao, Peter H. Chung, Joseph Wang and Shaochen Chen

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501372

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      Hydrogel microfish featuring biomimetic structures, locomotive capabilities, and functionalized nanoparticles are engineered using a rapid 3D printing platform: microscale continuous ­optical printing (μCOP). The 3D-printed ­microfish exhibit chemically powered and magnetically guided propulsion, as well as highly efficient detoxification capabilities that highlight the technical versatility of this platform for engineering advanced functional microswimmers for diverse biomedical applications.

    4. Spatially Confined Hybridization of Nanometer-Sized NiFe Hydroxides into Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Frameworks Leading to Superior Oxygen Evolution Reactivity

      Cheng Tang, Han-Sen Wang, Hao-Fan Wang, Qiang Zhang, Gui-Li Tian, Jing-Qi Nie and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501901

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      Nanometer-sized hydroxide active centers are uniformly and strongly hybridized into a graphene framework by means of defect-anchored nucleation and spatially confined growth, resulting in a superior electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. This family of strongly coupled complexes and the topology-assisted fabrication strategy is expected to open up new avenues of research. It sheds light on a novel branch of advanced nano-architectured materials.

    5. Black Arsenic–Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties

      Bilu Liu, Marianne Köpf, Ahmad N. Abbas, Xiaomu Wang, Qiushi Guo, Yichen Jia, Fengnian Xia, Richard Weihrich, Frederik Bachhuber, Florian Pielnhofer, Han Wang, Rohan Dhall, Stephen B. Cronin, Mingyuan Ge, Xin Fang, Tom Nilges and Chongwu Zhou

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501758

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      New layered anisotropic infrared semiconductors, black arsenic–phosphorus (b-AsP), with highly tunable chemical compositions and electronic and optical properties are introduced. Transport and infrared absorption studies demonstrate the semiconducting nature of b-AsP with tunable band gaps, ranging from 0.3 to 0.15 eV. These band gaps fall into long-wavelength infrared regime and cannot be readily reached by other layered materials.

    6. Facile Preparation of Ultrasmall Void Metallic Nanogap from Self-Assembled Gold–Silica Core–Shell Nanoparticles Monolayer via Kinetic Control

      Yuna Shin, Jihwan Song, Dongchoul Kim and Taewook Kang

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501163

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      A facile preparation of ultrasmall 1–2 nm void metallic nanogaps on various solid substrates is proposed by utilizing the self-assembly of uniform gold–silica core–shell nanoparticle monolayer at interfaces and chemical etching. The ultrasmall void metallic nanogap shows key advantages such as a strong near-field enhancement and free diffusion of analytes to the gap, which are useful in molecular sensing and monitoring.

    7. Multifunctional Supramolecular Hybrid Materials Constructed from Hierarchical Self-Ordering of In Situ Generated Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Nanoparticles

      Abhijeet K. Chaudhari, Intaek Han and Jin-Chong Tan

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501448

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      A synergistic approach is described to engineer supramolecular hybrid materials based on metal-organic frameworks, encompassing HKUST-1 nanoparticles formed in situ, coexisting with an electrically conducting gel fiber network. Following findings were made: (a) multistimuli-responsive structural transformation via reversible sol–gel switching, and (b) radical conversion of a soft hybrid gel into a mechanically malleable, viscoelastic matter.

    8. Polymer–Polymer Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Significantly Boosts the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Vinay Gupta, Vishal Bharti, Mahesh Kumar, Suresh Chand and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501275

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      Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer–polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells.

    9. Cardiomyocyte-Driven Actuation in Biohybrid Microcylinders

      Jaewon Yoon, Tom W. Eyster, Asish C. Misra and Joerg Lahann

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501284

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      Biohybrid microcylinders are fabricated using electrohydrodynamic cojetting followed by a surface chemistry approach to maximize cell-adhesive characteristics. As proper cell alignment and mechanical stiffness are important components of bioactuator design, spatial cell selectivity and stress/strain properties of microcylinders are characterized to demonstrate their capability of response to rat cardio­myocyte contraction. These microcylinders can find applications in a host of micromechanical systems.

    10. Flexible Lamination Encapsulation

      Min-Ho Park, Jin-You Kim, Tae-Hee Han, Tae-Sik Kim, Hobeom Kim and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501856

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      A novel flexible encapsulation method (Flex Lami-capsulation) is reported, which can be applied in the roll-to-roll process for mass production of organic electronic devices. Flex Lami-capsulation is very simple, fast, getter-free, and as effective as glass encapsulation. Use of this method is feasible in large-area flexible displays and does not have the drawbacks of conventional encapsulation methods.

    11. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Free-Standing Platinum Nanosheets and Their Electrocatalytic Properties

      Manjeet Chhetri, Moumita Rana, B. Loukya, Pramod K. Patil, Ranjan Datta and Ujjal K. Gautam

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501056

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      Robust, 26 nm thick free-standing platinum nanosheets, an extremely rare morphology for metal nanostructures is obtained by employing fluid induced shearing force of the order of 1.8 N and differential shear-stress of 0.5 kPa across the diameter of a Te template nanorod undergoing galvanic displacement by Pt4+. Corrugation leads to their large surface area and much improved electrocatalytic properties when compared with conventional Pt catalysts.

    12. 3D Hybrid Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Highly Efficient Optical Absorbers and Sensors

      Sung-Gyu Park, ChaeWon Mun, MinKyoung Lee, Tae Yoon Jeon, Han-Soo Shim, Young-Joo Lee, Jung-Dae Kwon, Chang Su Kim and Dong-Ho Kim

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501587

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      3D hybrid plasmonic nanomaterials are composed of 3D-stacked Ag nanowires and nanoparticles separated by a nanoscale-thick alumina interlayer. The 3D hybrid plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong plasmonic coupling between the ultrahigh populations of plasmonic nanomaterials, overcoming the physical limitation of inefficient plasmonic coupling of the Ag nanowire stacks.

    13. Smarter Actuator Design with Complementary and Synergetic Functions

      Alexandre Khaldi, Cedric Plesse, Frederic Vidal and Stoyan K. Smoukov

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500209

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      A general synthetic strategy for multifunctional actuators is presented, by confining desired functions in separate domains of interpenetrating polymer networks materials. Specifically, complementary ionic actuator and shape-memory functions are demonstrated by simultaneous, orthogonal reaction pathways. Synergistic effects also allow dynamic programming and two-way linear shape-memory actuation.

    14. Enhancing Light Emission of ZnO-Nanofilm/Si-Micropillar Heterostructure Arrays by Piezo-Phototronic Effect

      Xiaoyi Li, Mengxiao Chen, Ruomeng Yu, Taiping Zhang, Dongsheng Song, Renrong Liang, Qinglin Zhang, Shaobo Cheng, Lin Dong, Anlian Pan, Zhong Lin Wang, Jing Zhu and Caofeng Pan

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501121

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      n-ZnO nanofilm/p-Si micropillar heterostructure light-emitting diode (LED) arrays for white light emissions are achieved and the light emission intensity of LED array is enhanced by 120% under −0.05% compressive strains. These results indicate a promising approach to fabricate Si-based light-emitting components with high performances enhanced by piezo-phototronic effect, with potential applications in touchpad technology, personalized signatures, smart skin, and silicon-based photonic integrated circuits.

    15. High-Resolution Printing of 3D Structures Using an Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet with Multiple Functional Inks

      Byeong Wan An, Kukjoo Kim, Heejoo Lee, So-Yun Kim, Yulhui Shim, Dae-Young Lee, Jun Yeob Song and Jang-Ung Park

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502092

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      Electrohydrodynamic-inkjet-printed high-resolution complex 3D structures with multiple functional inks are demonstrated. Printed 3D structures can have a variety of fine patterns, such as vertical or helix-shaped pillars and straight or rounded walls, with high aspect ratios (greater than ≈50) and narrow diameters (≈0.7 μm). Furthermore, the formation of freestanding, bridge-like Ag wire structures on plastic substrates suggests substantial potentials as high-precision, flexible 3D interconnects.

    16. An Active Metamaterial Platform for Chiral Responsive Optoelectronics

      Lei Kang, Shoufeng Lan, Yonghao Cui, Sean P. Rodrigues, Yongmin Liu, Douglas H. Werner and Wenshan Cai

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501930

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      Chiral-selective nonlinear optics and optoelectronic signal generation are demonstrated in an electrically active photonic metamaterial. The metamaterial reveals significant chiroptical responses in both the harmonic generation and photon drag effect, correlated to the resonance behavior in the linear regime. The multifunctional chiral metamaterial with dual electrical and optical functionality enables transduction of chiroptical responses to electrical signals for integrated photonics.

  5. Reviews

    1. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research

      Peter Ercius, Osama Alaidi, Matthew J. Rames and Gang Ren

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501015

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      Electron tomography produces quantitative 3D reconstructions for biological and physical sciences from sets of 2D projections acquired at different tilting angles in a transmission electron microscope. State-of-the-art techniques capable of producing 3D representations such as Pt–Pd core–shell nanoparticles and IgG1 antibody molecules are reviewed.

    2. Synthesis and Modification of Carbon Nanomaterials utilizing Microwave Heating

      Almut M. Schwenke, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500472

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      Microwave radiation can be used in many different ways to prepare and modify carbon nanomaterials. Achievements in the field of carbon nanotubes and fibers, graphene materials, carbon nanoparticles and capsules, and porous carbon materials are summarized. Additionally, the principles of microwave-heating are introduced and important issues, i.e., safety and reproducibility, are discussed.

  6. Communications

    1. A Facile PDMS-Assisted Crystallization for the Crystal-Engineering of C60 Single-Crystal Organic Field-Effect Transistors

      Kuan-Yi Wu, Tzu-Yi Wu, Shu-Ting Chang, Chain-Shu Hsu and Chien-Lung Wang

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501140

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      Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-assisted crystallization (PAC) is a facile method to produce oriented C60 crystal arrays. Changing the drying mechanism from evaporation to solvent absorption (by PDMS) widens the solvent selection and facilitates the engineering of both the macroscopic shape and the microscopic lattice structure of the crystal arrays. The method also shows the potential to be applied to other organic semiconductors and large-area production.

    2. Directed Self-Assembly of Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) Triblock Copolymer with Sub-15 nm Spacing Line Patterns Using a Nanoimprinted Photoresist Template

      Zhiwei Sun, Zhenbin Chen, Wenxu Zhang, Jaewon Choi, Caili Huang, Gajin Jeong, E. Bryan Coughlin, Yautzong Hsu, XiaoMin Yang, Kim Y. Lee, David S. Kuo, Shuaigang Xiao and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501585

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      Low molecular weight P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP triblock copolymer (P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP = poly(2-vinlypyridine)-b-polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)] is doped with copper chloride and microphase separated into lamellar line patterns with ultrahigh area density. Salt-doped P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP triblock copolymer is self-assembled on the top of the nanoimprinted photoresist template, and metallic nanowires with long-range ordering are prepared with platinum salt infiltration and plasma etching.

    3. Multistable Architected Materials for Trapping Elastic Strain Energy

      Sicong Shan, Sung H. Kang, Jordan R. Raney, Pai Wang, Lichen Fang, Francisco Candido, Jennifer A. Lewis and Katia Bertoldi

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501708

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      3D printing and numerical analysis are combined to design a new class of architected materials that contain bistable beam elements and exhibit controlled trapping of elastic energy. The proposed energy-absorbing structures are reusable. Moreover, the mechanism of energy absorption stems solely from the structural geometry of the printed beam elements, and is therefore both materials- and loading-rate independent.

    4. Direct Power Generation from a Graphene Oxide Film under Moisture

      Fei Zhao, Huhu Cheng, Zhipan Zhang, Lan Jiang and Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501867

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      An efficient moisture–electric energy transformation is discovered by means of establishing an oxygen functional group gradient in a graphene oxide film. The moisture variation serves as an energy source to generate electric power with an energy conversion efficiency of up to ≈62%. Based on this finding, a prototype power generator and a self-powered respiratory monitor are demonstrated under the stimuli of the human breath.

    5. A Mechanofluorochromic Push–Pull Small Molecule with Aggregation-Controlled Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties

      Yue Jiang, Denis Gindre, Magali Allain, Ping Liu, Clément Cabanetos and Jean Roncali

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501697

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      A small push-pull molecule involving a diphenylamine substituted by an oligo-oxyethylene chain is described. The compound exhibits aggregation-induced emission with solvent-dependent emission wavelength. Spun-cast deep-red amorphous films rapidly self-reorganize into colorless crystalline films which exhibit mechanofluorochromism and aggregation-induced second harmonic generation.

    6. Inkjet Printing of Regenerated Silk Fibroin: From Printable Forms to Printable Functions

      Hu Tao, Benedetto Marelli, Miaomiao Yang, Bo An, Serdar Onses, John A. Rogers, David L. Kaplan and Fiorenzo G. Omenetto

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501425

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      A formulation of regenerated silk fibroin solution that can be easily functionalized and inkjet printed on numerous surfaces is developed. As an example, the inks can be printed on laboratory gloves that change color when exposed to bacteria.

  7. Research News

    1. Resist Materials for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Toward Low-Cost Single-Digit-Nanometer Patterning

      Paul D. Ashby, Deirdre L. Olynick, D. Frank Ogletree and Patrick P. Naulleau

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501171

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      Extreme ultraviolet lithography is the future technology for high-resolution high-throughput fabrication of computation devices. Resist technology needs to advance significantly to reach single-digit-nanometer pattern size. Recent progress in materials design and characterization are briefly summarized with an emphasis on future design requirements.

  8. Communications

    1. Ultraporous Electron-Depleted ZnO Nanoparticle Networks for Highly Sensitive Portable Visible-Blind UV Photodetectors

      Noushin Nasiri, Renheng Bo, Fan Wang, Lan Fu and Antonio Tricoli

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501517

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      A hierarchical nano- and microstructured morphology for visible-blind UV photo­detectors is developed, which provides record-high milliampere photocurrents, nanoampere dark currents, and excellent selectivity to ultralow UV light intensities. This is a significant step toward the integration of highly performing UV photodetectors in wearable devices.

    2. 2D Hybrid Nanostructured Dirac Materials for Broadband Transparent Electrodes

      Yunfan Guo, Li Lin, Shuli Zhao, Bing Deng, Hongliang Chen, Bangjun Ma, Jinxiong Wu, Jianbo Yin, Zhongfan Liu and Hailin Peng

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501912

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      Broadband transparent electrodes based on 2D hybrid nanostructured Dirac materials between Bi2Se3 and graphene are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Bi2Se3 nanoplates are preferentially grown along graphene grain boundaries as “smart” conductive patches to bridge graphene boundary. These hybrid films increase by one- to threefold in conductivity while remaining highly transparent over broadband wavelength. They also display outstanding chemical stability and mechanical flexibility.

    3. Multifunctional Porous Graphene for High-Efficiency Steam Generation by Heat Localization

      Yoshikazu Ito, Yoichi Tanabe, Jiuhui Han, Takeshi Fujita, Katsumi Tanigaki and Mingwei Chen

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501832

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      Multifunctional nanoporous graphene is realized as a heat generator to convert solar illumination into high-energy steam. The novel 3D nanoporous graphene demonstrates a highly energy-effective steam generation with the energy conversation of 80%.

    4. Host Engineering for High Quantum Efficiency Blue and White Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Wook Song, Inho Lee and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501019

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      High quantum efficiency in blue and white fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes is achieved by developing a novel device architecture with fluorescent emitters doped in a thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter as a host material.

    5. Polar Switching in a Lyotropic Columnar Nematic Liquid Crystal Made of Bowl-Shaped Molecules

      Julia Guilleme, Emma Cavero, Teresa Sierra, Josu Ortega, César L. Folcia, Jesus Etxebarria, Tomás Torres and David González-Rodríguez

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500238

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      A polar response in a lyotropic columnar nematic material is reported. The material accommodates bowl-shaped molecules with strong axial dipole moments in column segments without head-to-tail invariance. Optical second-harmonic-generation methods confirm that the nematic columns align unidirectionally under an applied electric field and the material develops remnant macroscopic polarization observable for hours. The switching takes place by a flip of the columns.

    6. Nanoscale Atomic Displacements Ordering for Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties in Lead-Free ABO3 Ferroelectrics

      Abhijit Pramanick, Mads R. V. Jørgensen, Souleymane O. Diallo, Andrew D. Christianson, Jaime A. Fernandez-Baca, Christina Hoffmann, Xiaoping Wang, Si Lan and Xun-Li Wang

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501274

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      In situ synchrotron X-ray diffuse scattering and inelastic neutron scattering measurements from a prototype ABO3 ferroelectric single-crystal are used to elucidate how electric fields along a nonpolar direction can enhance its piezoelectric properties. The central mechanism is found to be a nanoscale ordering of B atom displacements, which induces increased lattice instability and therefore a greater susceptibility to electric-field-induced mechanical deformation.

    7. Multifunctional 3D Patternable Drug-Embedded Nanocarrier-Based Interfaces to Enhance Signal Recording and Reduce Neuron Degeneration in Neural Implantation

      Wei-Chen Huang, Hsin-Yi Lai, Li-Wei Kuo, Chia-Hsin Liao, Po-Hsieh Chang, Ta-Chung Liu, San-Yuan Chen and You-Yin Chen

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500136

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      To improve the long-term performance of a neural implant, a nanocarrier-based neural interface is developed by implementing nanomanufacturing technology and multifunctional nanomaterials to provide structural and mechanical properties that mimic brain tissue, sustain the nonfouling property, and prolong the anti-inflammatory ability.

    8. Nanobranched ZnO Structure: p-Type Doping Induces Piezoelectric Voltage Generation and Ferroelectric–Photovoltaic Effect

      Marco Laurenti, Giancarlo Canavese, Adriano Sacco, Marco Fontana, Katarzyna Bejtka, Micaela Castellino, Candido Fabrizio Pirri and Valentina Cauda

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501594

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      p-Type Sb-doped ZnO nanobranched films are synthesized by an innovative approach: sputtered nanobranched Zn films are impregnated in an Sb-based solution and thermally treated to simultaneously oxidize Zn and insert the Sb dopant in the wurtzite structure. Sb doping of ZnO results in the rise of piezoelectric voltage generation and, for the first time, ferro­electric properties and a ferroelectric-driven photovoltaic effect.

    9. Artificially Engineered Protein Hydrogels Adapted from the Nucleoporin Nsp1 for Selective Biomolecular Transport

      Minkyu Kim, Wesley G. Chen, Jeon Woong Kang, Matthew J. Glassman, Katharina Ribbeck and Bradley D. Olsen

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500752

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      Nucleoporin-like polypeptide (NLP) hydrogels are developed by mimicking nucleoporins, proteins that form gel filters regulating transport into the nucleus. Using protein polymers of a minimal consensus repeat, the NLPs selectively enhance transport of cargo–carrier complexes similar to the natural nuclear pore system. The engineered protein gels additionally have tunable mechanical and transport properties and can be biosynthesized at high yield, making them promising materials for advanced separation technologies.

    10. Direct Top-Down Fabrication of Large-Area Graphene Arrays by an In Situ Etching Method

      Dechao Geng, Huaping Wang, Yu Wan, Zhiping Xu, Birong Luo, Jie Xu and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501524

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      Large-area aligned hexagonal graphene arrays are directly fabricated by an in situ etching method. With precise control over the size, shape, and orientation, the technique allows hydrogen to be employed as an effective etchant on chemical vapor deposited graphene and leads to ordered graphene nanostructures. This direct top-down approach can enable atomically precise construction of integrated devices from single graphene sheets with a wide range of technological applications.

    11. Salt-Tolerant Superoleophobicity on Alginate Gel Surfaces Inspired by Seaweed (Saccharina japonica)

      Yue Cai, Qihang Lu, Xinglin Guo, Shutao Wang, Jinliang Qiao and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404479

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      Seaweed (Saccharina japonica) is found to have excellent superoleophobicity in salt solutions, which results from its high content of polysaccharides. Inspired by this, coatings with salt-tolerant underwater superoleophobicity and ultralow oil adhesion are successfully fabricated using calcium alginate. During immersion in artificial seawater for 30 days, the coatings effectively repel various types of oil, including crude oil and viscous silicon oil, demonstrating their great potential as a marine oil-repellent coating.

    12. Pure Hydrocarbon Hosts for ≈100% Exciton Harvesting in Both Phosphorescent and Fluorescent Light-Emitting Devices

      Lin-Song Cui, Yue-Min Xie, Ya-Kun Wang, Cheng Zhong, Ya-Li Deng, Xiang-Yang Liu, Zuo-Quan Jiang and Liang-Sheng Liao

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501376

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      Two novel pure hydrocarbon compounds, SF33 and SF34, are designed with high triplet energies and stabilities. The efficiency of an SF34/FIrpic-based device is as high as 22.0%. Moreover, SF33 and SF34 are also used as hosts for thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes and achieve external quantum efficiencies in excess of 20.8% and 22.3%, respectively. The pure hydrocarbon host shows much longer device lifetime than the traditional host 4,4′-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl.

    13. Highly Sensitive and Multimodal All-Carbon Skin Sensors Capable of Simultaneously Detecting Tactile and Biological Stimuli

      So Young Kim, Sangsik Park, Han Wool Park, Do Hyung Park, Youngjin Jeong and Do Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501408

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      A highly sensitive, wearable, and multimodal skin sensor that uses hierarchically engineered elastic carbon nanotube microyarns is described. Piezocapacitive all-carbon skin sensors simultaneously detect heterogeneous external subtle stimuli, including mechanical deformations, touch, temperature or humidity gradient, and even biological variables with different dipole moments, which enable in situ human monitoring as well as recognition of robot-human-environmental interface.

    14. Rewriting the Superconductivity in Iron-Based Superconductors by Lithium-Ion Insertion and Extraction

      Dong Chen, Xusheng Wang, Jitao Chen, Zhian Ren, Mianqi Xue and Genfu Chen

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501656

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      The rewritability of superconductivity is realized in iron-based superconductors via lithium-ion insertion and extraction. The superconductivity of FeSe is gradually suppressed with the insertion of lithium ions, and shows a resurgence after the lithium-ion extraction. This discovery provides a novel way to exploit new applications of superconductivity and a model in searching for the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity.

  9. Progress Reports

    1. Performance Enhancement of Electronic and Energy Devices via Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

      Hyeon Gyun Yoo, Myunghwan Byun, Chang Kyu Jeong and Keon Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501592

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      Block copolymer self-assembly technology enhances performance, efficiency, and reliability levels in electronic and energy devices through the application of nano­scale patterns or templates. A review of non-volatile memories, electrical sensors, and energy devices is presented, with examples of practical applications using self-assembled block copolymers.

  10. Communications

    1. 3D WS2 Nanolayers@Heteroatom-Doped Graphene Films as Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst Electrodes

      Jingjing Duan, Sheng Chen, Benjamin A. Chambers, Gunther G. Andersson and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501692

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      A 3D catalyst electrode is fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly of 2D WS2 nano­layers and P, N, O-doped graphene sheets into a heterostructured film. The film exhibits remarkable hydrogen evolution performance, benefiting from the utmost exposed active centers on 2D nanolayers, highly expanded surface, continuous conductive network, as well as strong synergistic effects between the components.

    2. Intelligent MnO2 Nanosheets Anchored with Upconversion Nanoprobes for Concurrent pH-/H2O2-Responsive UCL Imaging and Oxygen-Elevated Synergetic Therapy

      Wenpei Fan, Wenbo Bu, Bo Shen, Qianjun He, Zhaowen Cui, Yanyan Liu, Xiangpeng Zheng, Kuaile Zhao and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405141

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      Intelligent 2D theranostic nanomaterials are successfully designed based on the pH-/H2O2-responsive MnO2 nanosheets anchored with upconversion nanoprobes. They react with acidic H2O2 to generate sufficient oxygen for enhancing the synergetic radio/photodynamic therapy efficacy upon NIR light/X-ray irradiation and recover/enhance the upconversion luminescence for monitoring the therapeutic process.

    3. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown SnSe in the Rock-Salt Structure: An Artificial Topological Crystalline Insulator Material

      Zhenyu Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Yunyi Zang, Qinghua Zhang, Jin-An Shi, Tian Jiang, Yan Gong, Can-Li Song, Shuai-Hua Ji, Li-Li Wang, Lin Gu, Ke He, Wenhui Duan, Xucun Ma, Xi Chen and Qi-Kun Xue

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501676

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      A new topological crystalline insulator material, SnSe in the rock-salt structure, is obtained using molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamically unstable rock-salt SnSe phase is stabilized in epitaxial films up to 20 nm by Bi2Se3 substrate. Dirac surface states are observed at both inline image and inline image points using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy; this confirms the topological crystalline insulator phase of the films.

    4. Kinetic Nature of Grain Boundary Formation in As-Grown MoS2 Monolayers

      Jingxin Cheng, Tao Jiang, Qingqing Ji, Yu Zhang, Zhiming Li, Yuwei Shan, Yanfeng Zhang, Xingao Gong, Weitao Liu and Shiwei Wu

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501354

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      Grain boundaries in as-grown polycrystalline MoS2 monolayers are revealed by second harmonic generation microscopy. Through the anisotropic polarization pattern and phase interference at the grain boundary, grain edge termination and boundary types are identified. Statistical analysis on hundreds of grains shows that grain boundary formation is driven by kinetics and can be nicely described by the edge attachment growth model.

    5. Oligomeric Donor Material for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells: Breaking Down a Polymer

      Liu Yuan, Yifan Zhao, Jianqi Zhang, Yajie Zhang, Lingyun Zhu, Kun Lu, Wei Yan and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501491

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      A comparison study of photovoltaic properties of an oligomer and a polymer based on the same backbone structure is conducted to show that high-efficiency small molecules can be developed from breaking down polymers. The oligomer attains high-efficiency as a result of the high-degree molecular ordering and the excellent intrinsic phase separation with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM).

    6. Levitational Image Cytometry with Temporal Resolution

      Savas Tasoglu, Joseph A. Khoory, Huseyin C. Tekin, Clemence Thomas, Antoine E. Karnoub, Ionita C. Ghiran and Utkan Demirci

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405660

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      A simple, yet powerful magnetic levitation-based device is reported for real-time, label-free separation, as well as high-resolution monitoring of cell populations based on their unique magnetic and density signatures. This method allows a wide variety of cellular processes to be studied, accompanied by transient or permanent changes in cells' fundamental characteristics as a biological material.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High Quality Monolayer Graphene Synthesized by Resistive Heating Cold Wall Chemical Vapor Deposition

      Thomas H. Bointon, Matthew D. Barnes, Saverio Russo and Monica F. Craciun

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501600

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      The growth of graphene using resistive-heating cold-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is demonstrated. This technique is 100 times faster and 99% lower cost than standard CVD. A study of Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron micro­scopy, and electrical magneto-transport measurements shows that cold-wall CVD graphene is of comparable quality to natural graphene. Finally, the first transparent flexible graphene capacitive touch-sensor is demonstrated.

    8. Core–Shell Upconversion Nanoparticle@Metal–Organic Framework Nanoprobes for Luminescent/Magnetic Dual-Mode Targeted Imaging

      Yantao Li, Jinglong Tang, Liangcan He, Yong Liu, Yaling Liu, Chunying Chen and Zhiyong Tang

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501779

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      Core–shell upconversion nanoparticle@metal–organic framework (UCNP@MOF) nanostructures are constructed by coating hexagonal NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticle (NP) cores with amino-functionalized iron carboxylate MOF shells. These nanostructures combine the near-infrared optical property of UCNP cores and the T2-magnetic response (MR) imaging property of MOF shells. After surface modification, the core–shell nanostructures are demonstrated as high-resolution nanoprobes for targeted luminescence/MR imaging both in vitro and in vivo.

    9. Red-Emissive Carbon Dots for Fluorescent, Photoacoustic, and Thermal Theranostics in Living Mice

      Jiechao Ge, Qingyan Jia, Weimin Liu, Liang Guo, Qingyun Liu, Minhuan Lan, Hongyan Zhang, Xiangmin Meng and Pengfei Wang

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500323

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      Novel red-emissive carbon-dots (C-dots) with broad absorption in the region from 400 to 750 nm are prepared from polythiophene phenylpropionic acid. Upon near infrared laser irradiation, the red-emissive C-dots show strong photoacoustic response and high photothermal conversion efficiency (η, ≈ 38.5%). These unique properties enable the C-dots to act as multifunctional fluorescent, photoacoustic, and thermal theranostics for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

    10. Toward 3D Printing of Pure Metals by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer

      Claas Willem Visser, Ralph Pohl, Chao Sun, Gert-Willem Römer, Bert Huis in ‘t Veld and Detlef Lohse

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501058

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      3D printing of common metals is highly challenging because metals are generally solid at room conditions. Copper and gold pillars are manufactured with a resolution below 5 μm and a height up to 2 mm, using laser-induced forward transfer to create and eject liquid metal droplets. The solidified drop's shape is crucial for 3D printing and is discussed as a function of the laser energy.

    11. Step-Index Optical Fiber Made of Biocompatible Hydrogels

      Myunghwan Choi, Matjaž Humar, Seonghoon Kim and Seok-Hyun Yun

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501603

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      A biocompatible step-index optical fiber made of poly(ethylene glycol) and alginate hydrogels is demonstrated. The fabricated fiber exhibits excellent light-guiding efficiency in biological tissues. Moreover, the core of hydrogel fibers can be easily doped with functional molecules and nanoparticles for localized light emission, sensing, and therapy.

    12. Fabrication of Chemical Graphene Nanoribbons via Edge-Selective Covalent Modification

      Lei Liao, Qin Xie, Xuefeng Guo and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501788

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      Chemical graphene nanoribbons (CGNRs), a new type of quantum-confinement graphene nanostructure with tunable electrical conduction channels and bandgaps, is fabricated by chemically narrowing the conduction channels of graphene based on the edge-selective covalent reaction. Such CGNRs behave as semiconductors with tunable on/off ratios ranging from a few hundreds to ≈104.

    13. Alternating Stacked Graphene-Conducting Polymer Compact Films with Ultrahigh Areal and Volumetric Capacitances for High-Energy Micro-Supercapacitors

      Zhong-Shuai Wu, Khaled Parvez, Shuang Li, Sheng Yang, Zhaoyang Liu, Shaohua Liu, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501643

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      Graphene-based compact nanohybrid films made by alternate deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene and mesoporous graphene-conducting polymer nanosheets are constructed for high-energy micro-supercapacitors. They are shown to have a landmark areal capacitance of 368 mF cm−2 and volumetric capacitance of 736 F cm−3.

    14. Stimuli-Responsive Surfaces for Tunable and Reversible Control of Wettability

      Xu Huang, Yajuan Sun and Siowling Soh

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501578

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      Surfaces with controllable wettability can be fabricated by embedding superhydrophobic particles into stimuli-responsive hydrogels. When the hydrogel changes its size due to the specific stimulus, the wettability of the surface can be reversibly tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic. This general method is used to fabricate “smart" membranes for controlling the permeability of chemicals under the influence of multiple stimuli simultaneously.

  11. Research News

    1. Nanofluidic Transport through Isolated Carbon Nanotube Channels: Advances, Controversies, and Challenges

      Shirui Guo, Eric R. Meshot, Tevye Kuykendall, Stefano Cabrini and Francesco Fornasiero

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500372

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      Fluidic measurements through the interior of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) promise to enable a quantum-leap advancement of the nano­fluidics field. Experiments with single-carbon nanotube (CNT) fluidic platforms reveal an unusual, yet exciting transport behavior for water, ions, and single mole­cules confined in a CNT. These unique transport properties offer opportunities for enhanced functionality in future nanofluidic devices for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery.

  12. Communications

    1. Efficient CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Employing Nanostructured p-Type NiO Electrode Formed by a Pulsed Laser Deposition

      Jong Hoon Park, Jangwon Seo, Sangman Park, Seong Sik Shin, Young Chan Kim, Nam Joong Jeon, Hee-Won Shin, Tae Kyu Ahn, Jun Hong Noh, Sung Cheol Yoon, Cheol Seong Hwang and Sang Il Seok

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500523

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      Highly transparent and nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) films through pulsed laser deposition are introduced for efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The (111)-oriented nanostructured NiO film plays a key role in extracting holes and preventing electron leakage as hole transporting material. The champion device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 17.3% with a very high fill factor of 0.813.

    2. Formation of Uniform Fe3O4 Hollow Spheres Organized by Ultrathin Nanosheets and Their Excellent Lithium Storage Properties

      Fei-Xiang Ma, Han Hu, Hao Bin Wu, Cheng-Yan Xu, Zhichuan Xu, Liang Zhen and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501130

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      Hierarchical Fe3O4 hollow spheres constructed by nanosheets are obtained from solvothermally synthesized Fe–glycerate hollow spheres. With the unique structural features, these hierarchical Fe3O4 hollow spheres exhibit excellent electrochemical lithium storage performance.

    3. Facile Self-Assembly of Quantum Plasmonic Circuit Components

      Toan Trong Tran, Jinghua Fang, Hao Zhang, Patrik Rath, Kerem Bray, Russell G. Sandstrom, Olga Shimoni, Milos Toth and Igor Aharonovich

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501142

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      A facile and cost-effective self-assembly route to engineering of vital quantum plasmonic circuit components is reported. By modifying the surface energy of silver nanowires, the position and density of attached nanodiamonds can be maneuvered leading to silver nanowire/nanodiamond(s) hybrid nanostructures. These structures exhibit strong plasmonic coupling effects and thus hold promise to serve as quantum plasmonic components.

    4. Drying-Mediated Self-Assembled Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Wires and Their Heterostructures

      Seoung-Ki Lee, Jae-Bok Lee, Jyoti Singh, Kuldeep Rana and Jong-Hyun Ahn

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501475

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      A novel and facile method for the creation of self-aligned MoS2 and WS2 wire arrays and their stacked heterostructures with controlled sizes and properties is presented. The thicknesses and periodicities of the aligned wires can be precisely controlled by adjusting certain parameters. These transition metal dichalcogenide wires are used as 1D semiconducting materials in the construction of flexible and transparent electronic devices. In addition, WS2/MoS2 heterostructures display clear optical and structural modulation.

    5. A Challenge Beyond Bottom Cells: Top-Illuminated Flexible Organic Solar Cells with Nanostructured Dielectric/Metal/Polymer (DMP) Films

      Juyoung Ham, Wan Jae Dong, Jae Yong Park, Chul Jong Yoo, Illhwan Lee and Jong-Lam Lee

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501187

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      Top-illuminated flexible organic solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency (≈6.75%) are fabricated using a dielectric/metal/polymer (DMP) electrode. Employing a polymer layer (n = 1.49) makes it possible to show the high transmittance, which is insensitive to film thickness, and the excellent haze induced by well-ordered nanopatterns on the DMP electrode, leading to a 28% of enhancement in efficiency compared to bottom cells.

    6. Tailoring Building Blocks and Their Boundary Interaction for the Creation of New, Potentially Superhard, Carbon Materials

      Mingguang Yao, Wen Cui, Mingrun Du, Junping Xiao, Xigui Yang, Shijie Liu, Ran Liu, Fei Wang, Tian Cui, Bertil Sundqvist and Bingbing Liu

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500188

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      A strategy for preparing hybrid carbon structures with amorphous carbon clusters as hard building blocks by compressing a series of predesigned two-component fullerides is presented. In such constructed structures the building blocks and their boundaries can be tuned by changing the starting components, providing a way for the creation of new hard/superhard materials with desirable properties.

    7. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures

      Sungmin Hong, Dalton Sycks, Hon Fai Chan, Shaoting Lin, Gabriel P. Lopez, Farshid Guilak, Kam W. Leong and Xuanhe Zhao

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501099

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      A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to form a hydrogel tougher than natural cartilage. Encapsulated cells maintain high viability over a 7 d culture period and are highly deformed together with the hydrogel. By adding biocompatible nanoclay, the tough hydrogel is 3D printed in various shapes without requiring support material.

    8. Highly Ordered 1D Fullerene Crystals for Concurrent Control of Macroscopic Cellular Orientation and Differentiation toward Large-Scale Tissue Engineering

      Kosuke Minami, Yuki Kasuya, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Qingmin Ji, Waka Nakanishi, Jonathan P. Hill, Hideki Sakai and Katsuhiko Ariga

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501690

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      A highly aligned 1D fullerene whisker (FW) scaffold in a centimeter area is fabricated by an interfacial alignment. The resulting aligned FW scaffold enables concurrent control over cellular orientation and differentiation to muscle cells. This aligned FW scaffold is made by a facile method, and hence the substrate is a promising alternative to other cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    9. Discovery of a Novel Polymer for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Expansion and Multilineage Differentiation

      Adam D. Celiz, James G. W. Smith, Asha K. Patel, Andrew L. Hook, Divya Rajamohan, Vinoj T. George, Luke Flatt, Minal J. Patel, Vidana C. Epa, Taranjit Singh, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson, Nicholas D. Allen, David C. Hay, David A. Winkler, David A. Barrett, Martyn C. Davies, Lorraine E. Young, Chris Denning and Morgan R. Alexander

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501351

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      A scalable and cost-effective synthetic polymer substrate that supports robust expansion and subsequent multilineage differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) with defined commercial media is presented. This substrate can be applied to common cultureware and used off-the-shelf after long-term storage. Expansion and differentiation of hPSCs are performed entirely on the polymeric surface, enabling the clinical potential of hPSC-derived cells to be realized.

    10. Light-Fueled Microscopic Walkers

      Hao Zeng, Piotr Wasylczyk, Camilla Parmeggiani, Daniele Martella, Matteo Burresi and Diederik Sybolt Wiersma

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501446

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      Artificial muscles have been investigated for a few decades, however, all attempts to build a micrometer-sized terrestrial robot have failed due to the huge natural adhesion. The first microscopic artificial walker equipped with liquid crystalline elastomer muscle is reported. The walker is fabricated by direct laser writing, smaller than any known living terrestrial creatures, and is capable of several autonomous locomotion on different surfaces.

  13. Research News

    1. Imaging and Tailoring the Chirality of Domain Walls in Magnetic Films

      Gong Chen and Andreas K. Schmid

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500160

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      Magnetic chirality is important because it enables highly efficient current-driven manipulation of magnetization. Recent progress in tailoring domain-wall chirality in magnetic multilayers is summarized and the use of magnetization-vector imaging by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy is highlighted.

    2. Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources

      Tevye R. Kuykendall, Adam M. Schwartzberg and Shaul Aloni

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500522

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      The drive for ever more efficient light sources is at the base of fast growing industry, producing gallium nitride light-emitting diodes at cost and efficiencies that outperform most commercial solutions. GaN nanowires and heterostructures provide a new device architecture, promising to revolutionize white and color-tunable light emitters to be used in future lightening and display technologies.

    3. Understanding Small-Molecule Interactions in Metal–Organic Frameworks: Coupling Experiment with Theory

      Jason S. Lee, Bess Vlaisavljevich, David K. Britt, Craig M. Brown, Maciej Haranczyk, Jeffrey B. Neaton, Berend Smit, Jeffrey R. Long and Wendy L. Queen

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500966

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      A combined experimental and theoretical approach proves essential for the elucidation of small-molecule interactions in a model metal–organic framework (MOF) system, M2(dobdc). The study of extensive families like this one can provide a platform to test the efficacy and accuracy of developing computational methodologies in slightly varying chemical environments, a task that is necessary for their evolution into viable, robust tools for screening large numbers of materials.

  14. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Orange and Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low Roll-Off of Efficiency using a Novel Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Material as Host

      Hui Wang, Lingqiang Meng, Xingxing Shen, Xiaofang Wei, Xiuli Zheng, Xiaopeng Lv, Yuanping Yi, Ying Wang and Pengfei Wang

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501373

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      MTXSFCz with thermally activated delayed fluorescence is synthesized. Orange and red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with low efficiency roll-off exhibit external quantum efficiency (EQE) up to 11.8% and 15.6%. The efficient upconversion from triplet to singlet of host reduces the triplet density and thus affording a low efficiency roll-off of PHOLEDs.

  15. Research News

    1. Complex Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition

      Adam M. Schwartzberg and Deirdre Olynick

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500699

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      Complex materials combine structure and/or composition leading to performances surpassing the sum of their individual components. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is uniquely suited to create complex materials, able to control composition and structural parameters at the atomic level. The use of ALD for creating complex insulators, semiconductors, and conductors, is discussed, along with its use in novel structural applications.

  16. Communications

    1. The Effect of Processing Additives on Energetic Disorder in Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics: A Case Study on PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM

      Feng Gao, Scott Himmelberger, Mattias Andersson, David Hanifi, Yuxin Xia, Shaoqing Zhang, Jianpu Wang, Jianhui Hou, Alberto Salleo and Olle Inganäs

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405913

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      Energetic disorder, an important parameter affecting the performance of organic photovoltaics, is significantly decreased upon the addition of processing additives in a highly efficient benzodithiophene-based copolymer blend (PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM). Wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements suggest that the origin of this reduced energetic disorder is due to increased aggregation and a larger average fullerene domain size together with purer phases.

    2. Low-Dimensional Structure Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Sensitive (λ < 200 nm) Photodetector with Fast-Response Speed Based on High-Quality AlN Micro/Nanowire

      Wei Zheng, Feng Huang, Ruisheng Zheng and Honglei Wu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500268

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      A low-dimensional structure vacuum-ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector based on high-quality aluminum nitride (AlN) micro/nanowire is reported. This work, for the first time, demonstrates that semiconductor nanostructure can be applied in vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photon detection and opens a way for developing diminutive, power-saving, and low-cost VUV materials and sensors which can be potentially applied in geospace sciences and solar-terrestrial physics.

    3. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode

      Abdellah Malti, Erik O. Gabrielsson, Xavier Crispin and Magnus Berggren

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500891

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      Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution processable materials.

    4. Mechanically Robust and Self-Healable Superlattice Nanocomposites by Self-Assembly of Single-Component “Sticky” Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles

      Gregory A. Williams, Ryohei Ishige, Olivia R. Cromwell, Jaeyoon Chung, Atsushi Takahara and Zhibin Guan

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500927

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      A simple, scalable synthesis of mechanically robust andself-healable superlattice nanocomposites is achieved through self-assembly of single-component “sticky” polymer-grafted nanoparticles. The multi­valent hydrogen-bonding interactions between nanoparticles provide strong cohesive energy, binding the nanoparticles into strong and tough materials. Furthermore, the dynamic hydrogen-bonding interactions afford the formation of highly dynamic, self-healing, and mechanochromic nanocomposite materials in the bulk.

    5. Simultaneous Nano- and Microscale Control of Nanofibrous Microspheres Self-Assembled from Star-Shaped Polymers

      Zhanpeng Zhang, Ryan L. Marson, Zhishen Ge, Sharon C. Glotzer and Peter X. Ma

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501329

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      Star-shaped polymers with varying arm numbers and arm lengths are synthesized, and self-assembled into microspheres, which are either smooth or fibrous on the nanoscale, and either nonhollow, hollow, or spongy on the microscale. The molecular architecture and functional groups determine the structure on both length scales. This exciting mechanistic discovery guides us to simultaneously control both nano- and microfeatures of the microspheres.

    6. From Soft Self-Healing Gels to Stiff Films in Suckerin-Based Materials Through Modulation of Crosslink Density and β-Sheet Content

      Dawei Ding, Paul A. Guerette, Jing Fu, Lihong Zhang, Scott A. Irvine and Ali Miserez

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500280

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      Suckerins are block copolymer-like structural proteins constituting the building blocks of the strong squid sucker-ring teeth. Here, recombinant suckerin-19 is processed into biomaterials spanning a wide range of elasticity, from very soft hydrogels to stiff films with elastic modulus in the gigapascal range. The elasticity is controlled by the interplay between β-sheet content and induced di-tyrosine crosslinking.

    7. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue–UV Photodetectors

      Eitan Oksenberg, Ronit Popovitz-Biro, Katya Rechav and Ernesto Joselevich

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500736

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      Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano­wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue–UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices.

    8. Fabrication of Nanoscale Circuits on Inkjet-Printing Patterned Substrates

      Shuoran Chen, Meng Su, Cong Zhang, Meng Gao, Bin Bao, Qiang Yang, Bin Su and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500225

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      Nanoscale circuits are fabricated by assembling different conducting materials (e.g., metal nanoparticles, metal nano­wires, graphene, carbon nanotubes, and conducting polymers) on inkjet-printing patterned substrates. This nonlitho­graphy strategy opens a new avenue for integrating conducting building blocks into nanoscale devices in a cost-efficient manner.

    9. The First Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Luminescent Multiferroic: (Pyrrolidinium)MnBr3

      Yi Zhang, Wei-Qiang Liao, Da-Wei Fu, Heng-Yun Ye, Cai-Ming Liu, Zhong-Ning Chen and Ren-Gen Xiong

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501026

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      A hybrid organic–inorganic compound, (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3, distinguished from rare earth (RE)-doped inorganic peroveskites, is discovered as a new member of the ferroelectrics family, having excellent luminescent properties and relatively large spontaneous polarization of 6 μC cm−2, as well as a weak ferromagnetism at about 2.4 K. With a quantum yield of >28% and emission lifetime >0.1 ms, such multiferroic photoluminescence is a suitable candidate for future applications in luminescence materials, photovoltaics, and magneto-optoelectronic devices.

    10. Carrier-Density Control of the SrTiO3 (001) Surface 2D Electron Gas studied by ARPES

      Siobhan McKeown Walker, Flavio Yair Bruno, Zhiming Wang, Alberto de la Torre, Sara Riccó, Anna Tamai, Timur K. Kim, Moritz Hoesch, Ming Shi, Mohammad Saeed Bahramy, Phil D. C. King and Felix Baumberger

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501556

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      The origin of the 2D electron gas (2DEG)stabilized at the bare surface of SrTiO3 (001) is investigated. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission and core-level spectroscopy, it is shown conclusively that this 2DEG arises from light-induced oxygen vacancies. The dominant mechanism driving vacancy formation is identified, allowing unprecedented control over the 2DEG carrier density.

    11. Smart Albumin-Biomineralized Nanocomposites for Multimodal Imaging and Photothermal Tumor Ablation

      Yong Wang, Tao Yang, Hengte Ke, Aijun Zhu, Yangyun Wang, Junxin Wang, Junkang Shen, Gang Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao and Huabing Chen

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500229

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      Smart cyanine-grafted gadolinium oxide nanocrystals (Cy-GdNCs) obtained by albumin-based biomineralization are shown to be theranostic nanocomposites, with promising properties for trimodal near-infrared fluorescence/photoacoustics/magnetic resonance imaging-guided photothermal tumor ablation.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Polymer/Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials of Precise Dimensions by Size-Exclusive Fishing of Metal Nanoparticles

      Ziyin Fan, Melissa Köhn Serrano, Andreas Schaper, Seema Agarwal and Andreas Greiner

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501306

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      Polymer cages prepared by etching of gold nanoparticles from polymer templates by the “grafting around” method are designed for selective separation of metal nanoparticles. The separation process is demonstrated as a fast biphasic ligand exchange reaction. The high separation efficiency and size selectivity of the polymer cage is verified by comparison with the linear block copolymer.

    13. New Insights into Improving Rate Performance of Lithium-Rich Cathode Material

      Yongqing Wang, Zhenzhong Yang, Yumin Qian, Lin Gu and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500956

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      A Sn doping strategy is demonstrated to improve lithium diffusion kinetics by expanding spacing of (003) planes without destroying the layered structure. Large (003) spacing will significantly decrease the energy barrier associated with lithium diffusion. Besides better rate capability, Sn-doped material exhibits unexpected much improved capacity above 3.0 V (vs Li+/Li), which is highly desired in future applications.

  17. Reviews

    1. The Hydric Effect in Inorganic Nanomaterials for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

      Xu Sun, Yuqiao Guo, Changzheng Wu and Yi Xie

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500546

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      The hydric effect demonstrates great potential to bring about fine modulation of the intrinsic physical behavior, as well as to create novel hydric inorganic nanomaterials. Recently developed methods are summarized regarding the synthesis of hydric nanomaterials, their electronic-structure modulation, and their application for nanoelectronics and energy applications.

  18. Research News

    1. Atomic Defects in Two Dimensional Materials

      Haider I. Rasool, Colin Ophus and Alex Zettl

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500231

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      Atomic defects in two dimensional materials can have pronounced effects on their mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties. Recent characterization of bonding structures of these defects by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is summarized. The increasing complexity, from graphene to transition metal dichalcogenides, is highlighted.

  19. Reviews

    1. Graphite Oxide to Graphene. Biomaterials to Bionics

      Brianna C. Thompson, Eoin Murray and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500411

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      The versatility of graphene has led to utilization in many fields, including use as a material for tissue engineering and even in bionic applications, where electrical signals have been recorded from or sent to cells and tissues. This review discusses properties of graphene, its use in biocomposites, and the relevance of these advances to the field of medical bionics.

  20. Research News

    1. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions across Cellular Membranes

      Caroline M. Ajo-Franklin and Aleksandr Noy

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500344

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      Living systems generate energy and transduce signals by transporting electrons and ions across cellular membranes. To control these biological processes, researchers have created nanostructures that increase the transmembrane flux of electrons and ions. Recent advances in the creation of these de novo and biologically-derived nanostructures are summarized and remaining challenges to the widespread use of these materials in biotechnological applications are highlighted.

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