Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 44

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Communications

    1. Triboelectric-Potential-Regulated Charge Transport Through p–n Junctions for Area-Scalable Conversion of Mechanical Energy

      Xian Song Meng, Zhong Lin Wang and Guang Zhu

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504141

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      Regulation of charge transport direction is realized through the coupling of triboelectrification, electrostatic induction, and semiconducting properties for area-scalable conversion of mechanical energy. The output current from each unit triboelectric generator can always constructively add up due to the unidirectional flow of electrons. This work proposes a practical and general route to area-scalable applications of the triboelectric generator and other energy-harvesting techniques.

    2. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability

      Can Hui Yang, Baohong Chen, Jinxiong Zhou, Yong Mei Chen and Zhigang Suo

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504031

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      A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

    3. Bioinspired Synthesis of CaCO3 Superstructures through a Novel Hydrogel Composite Membranes Mineralization Platform: A Comprehensive View

      Gianluca Di Profio, Shabnam Majidi Salehi, Rocco Caliandro, Pietro Guccione, Giovanni Nico, Efrem Curcio and Enrica Fontananova

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504608

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      Hydrogel composite membranes (HCMs) are used as novel mineralization platforms for the bioinspired synthesis of CaCO3 superstructures. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the experimental results reveals quantitative relationships between crystallization conditions and crystal texture and a strong selectivity toward complex morphologies when monomers bearing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups are used together in the hydrogel layer synthesis in HCMs.

    4. Microfluidic Bioprinting of Heterogeneous 3D Tissue Constructs Using Low-Viscosity Bioink

      Cristina Colosi, Su Ryon Shin, Vijayan Manoharan, Solange Massa, Marco Costantini, Andrea Barbetta, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Mariella Dentini and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503310

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      A novel bioink and a dispensing technique for 3D tissue engineering applications are presented. The technique incorporates a coaxial extrusion needle using a low-viscosity cell-laden bioink to produce highly defined 3D biostructures. The extrusion system is then coupled to a microfluidic device to control the bioink arrangement deposition demonstrating the versatility of the bioprinting technique. Our low-viscosity cell-responsive bioink promotes cell migration and alignment within each fiber organizing the encapsulated cells.

  2. Progress Reports

    1. Combinatorial Approach to Nanoarchitectonics for Nonviral Delivery of Nucleic Acids

      Mijanur Rahaman Molla and Pavel A. Levkin

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502888

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      Multifunctional nanosystems are promising candidates for delivering therapeutic agents. Parallel high-throughput synthesis of bioactive molecules offers several advantages over conventional methods to generate these nanocarriers and to investigate structure–function relationship. The progress in identifying superior nanocarriers for gene delivery applications utilizing a combinatorial approach is discussed.

  3. Communications

    1. Control of the Metal–Insulator Transition at Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces through Visible Light

      Jheng-Cyuan Lin, Vu Thanh Tra, Dung-Sheng Tsai, Tai-Te Lin, Po-Cheng Huang, Wei-Lun Hsu, Hui Jun Wu, Rong Huang, Nguyen Van Chien, Ryuji Yoshida, Jiunn-Yuan Lin, Yuichi Ikuhara, Ya-Ping Chiu, Shangjr Gwo, Din Ping Tsai, Jr-Hau He and Ying-Hao Chu

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503499

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      The coupling of the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles is utilized to deliver a visible-light stimulus to control conduction at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. A giant photoresponse and the controllable metal–insulator transition are characterized at this heterointerface. This study paves a new route to optical control of the functionality at the heterointerfaces.

    2. Vaccine Engineering with Dual-Functional Mineral Shell: A Promising Strategy to Overcome Preexisting Immunity

      Xiaoyu Wang, Caijun Sun, Pingchao Li, Tongjin Wu, Hangyu Zhou, Dong Yang, Yichu Liu, Xiuchang Ma, Zhiyong Song, Qinggong Nian, Liqiang Feng, Chengfeng Qin, Ling Chen and Ruikang Tang

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503740

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      Dual-functional biomineral-vaccine core–shell nanohybrids are obtained using recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) as templates, which efficiently mask the neutralizing epitope of vaccines and preserve their original immunogenicity. The versatile vaccine hybrid can evade the preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity, leading to boosted multifunctional antigen-specific cytokine-secreting T cell responses and presenting promising applications of vaccine-material hybrid for the rational design of vaccines.

    3. Localized and Continuous Tuning of Monolayer MoS2 Photoluminescence Using a Single Shape-Controlled Ag Nanoantenna

      Wei Gao, Yih Hong Lee, Ruibin Jiang, Jianfang Wang, Tianxi Liu and Xing Yi Ling

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503905

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      Localized photoluminescence manipulation of 1L-MoS2 is achieved by using single shape-controlled Ag nanoantenna. By varying the antenna morphology, the photoluminescence of 1L-MoS2 is continuously tunable from enhanced (>2-fold) to weakened (>2-fold) states. A heterogeneous optical platform is realized by depositing various antennas on the same 1L-MoS2, with an unprecedented range of photoluminescence output being observed simultaneously.

  4. Research News

    1. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine: Current State-of-the-Art, Emerging Directions and Future Trends

      Akhilesh K. Gaharwar, Ayyoob Arpanaei, Thomas L. Andresen and Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503918

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      Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine and drug screening applications due to their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials and evaluate drug efficacy in a high throughput manner. Here, recent progress in 3D microarray technology is highlighted and some of the key applications of 3D microarray platforms in stem cell research, tissue engineering and drug screening studies are discussed.

  5. Reviews

    1. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications

      Aftab M. Hussain and Muhammad M. Hussain

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504236

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      Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology can enable advanced multifunctional, flexible and stretchable electronics to expand the horizon of electronic applications. Here, bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) as a substrate for developing such electronics with high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, and performance per cost advantage is reviewed.

  6. Communications

    1. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics

      Tran Quang Trung, Subramaniyan Ramasundaram, Byeong-Ung Hwang and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504441

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      A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, shows great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity.

    2. A Superhydrophobic Surface Templated by Protein Self-Assembly and Emerging Application toward Protein Crystallization

      Aiting Gao, Qian Wu, Dehui Wang, Yuan Ha, Zhijun Chen and Peng Yang

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504769

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      A proteinaceous superhydrophobic material for facile protein crystallization is reported. The lysozyme phase transition is rationally manipulated to form a reliable superhydrophobic coating on virtually arbitrary material surfaces with good thermostability and mechanical robustness. Such a surface exhibits a fascinating capability to drive protein crystallization, and the protein crystal array can be facilitated in a large area at an ultralow protein concentration.

  7. Reviews

    1. Electronic Structure and Properties of Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Interfaces

      Robert A. Street

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503162

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      The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure has enabled the creation of organic solar cells. The electronic structure of the BHJ is characterized by the phase morphology, molecular structure, and disorder. Exciton dissociation, carrier transport, and recombination each reflect the electronic structure of the BHJ interface. A broad physical understanding is emerging but important details remain unresolved.

  8. Progress Reports

    1. Nanostructured Photodetectors: From Ultraviolet to Terahertz

      Hongyu Chen, Hui Liu, Zhiming Zhang, Kai Hu and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503534

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      Nanostructured materials with different dimensions, such as nanolayers, nanowires, and quantum dots, exhibit excellent photoelectronic properties for photodetectors ranging from the ultraviolet to terahertz frequencies. Besides excellent performances of high sensitivity and fast response for practical applications, they also exhibit many appealing features like high density of integration and multifunction, in conjunction with traditional photodetectors.

  9. Essays

    1. Stretchable Figures of Merit in Deformable Electronics

      Darren J. Lipomi

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504196

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      Stretchable electronic systems accommodate strain in various ways—from the intrinsic mechanical properties, through composite structures, by the formation of cracks, or with other mechanisms—. This has produced some imprecision in the literature on what is meant by the term ‘stretchable.’

  10. Communications

    1. Large Enhancement of Carrier Transport in Solution-Processed Field-Effect Transistors by Fluorinated Dielectric Engineering

      Dongyoon Khim, Yong Xu, Kang-Jun Baeg, Minji Kang, Won-Tae Park, Seung-Hoon Lee, In-Bok Kim, Juhwan Kim, Dong-Yu Kim, Chuan Liu and Yong-Young Noh

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501967

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      The universal role of high-k fluorinated dielectrics in assisting the carrier transport in transistors for a broad range of printable semiconductor is explored. These results present general rules for how to design dielectric materials and achieve devices with a high carrier concentration, low disorder, reliable operation, and robust properties.

    2. Realization of Room-Temperature Phonon-Limited Carrier Transport in Monolayer MoS2 by Dielectric and Carrier Screening

      Zhihao Yu, Zhun-Yong Ong, Yiming Pan, Yang Cui, Run Xin, Yi Shi, Baigeng Wang, Yun Wu, Tangsheng Chen, Yong-Wei Zhang, Gang Zhang and Xinran Wang

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503033

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      By combining a high-κ dielectric substrate and a high density of charge carriers, Coulomb impurities in MoS2 can be effectively screened, leading to an unprecedented room-temperature mobility of ≈150 cm2 V−1 s−1 and room-temperature phonon-limited transport in a monolayer MoS2 transistor for the first time.

    3. Degradable Magnetic Composites for Minimally Invasive Interventions: Device Fabrication, Targeted Drug Delivery, and Cytotoxicity Tests

      Christian Peters, Marcus Hoop, Salvador Pané, Bradley J. Nelson and Christofer Hierold

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503112

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      Superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a functional, degradable polymer matrix based on poly(ethylene glycol) are combined to enable fully degradable magnetic microdevices for minimally invasive biomedical applications. A bioinspired helical microrobot platform mimicking Escherichia coli bacteria is fabricated and actuated using weak rotating magnetic fields. Locomotion based on corkscrew propulsion, targeted drug delivery, and low-degradation-product cytotoxicity are demonstrated.

    4. Impact of Film Stoichiometry on the Ionization Energy and Electronic Structure of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites

      Jennifer Emara, Tobias Schnier, Neda Pourdavoud, Thomas Riedl, Klaus Meerholz and Selina Olthof

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503406

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      The electronic structure of a large sample set of CH3NH3PbI3-based perovskites is studied. Combined investigations by UV/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that interstitials present in the film lead to changes in the occupied density of states close to the valence band, which in turn influences the performance of solar cells. Changes in elemental composition tune the ionization energy of the perovskite film by almost 1 eV without introducing significant amounts of gap states.

    5. Liquid-Metal Microdroplets Formed Dynamically with Electrical Control of Size and Rate

      Shi-Yang Tang, Ishan D. Joshipura, Yiliang Lin, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Arnan Mitchell, Khashayar Khoshmanesh and Michael D. Dickey

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503875

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      Liquid metal co-injected with electrolyte through a microfluidic flow-focusing orifice forms droplets with diameters and production frequencies controlled in real time by voltage. Applying voltage to the liquid metal controls the interfacial tension via a combination of electrochemistry and electrocapillarity. This simple and effective method can instantaneously tune the size of the microdroplets, which has applications in composites, catalysts, and microsystems.

    6. Functional “Janus” Annulus in Confined Channels

      Pengcheng Gao, Lintong Hu, Nannan Liu, Zekun Yang, Xiaoding Lou, Tianyou Zhai, Huiqiao Li and Fan Xia

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502344

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      Scattered Au 3D nanoparticles form distinct functional regions with an uncovered internal surface in confined channels, named the “Janus” annulus. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy responses to the variations in DNA self-assembly and hybridization in the channels decorated by the “Janus” annulus are presented. Single nucleotide mutations are further detected in a linear DNA chain, including terminal base polymorphisms.

    7. Giant Rashba-Type Spin Splitting in Ferroelectric GeTe(111)

      Marcus Liebmann, Christian Rinaldi, Domenico Di Sante, Jens Kellner, Christian Pauly, Rui Ning Wang, Jos Emiel Boschker, Alessandro Giussani, Stefano Bertoli, Matteo Cantoni, Lorenzo Baldrati, Marco Asa, Ivana Vobornik, Giancarlo Panaccione, Dmitry Marchenko, Jaime Sánchez-Barriga, Oliver Rader, Raffaella Calarco, Silvia Picozzi, Riccardo Bertacco and Markus Morgenstern

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503459

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      Photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with piezoforce microscopy reveals that the helicity of Rashba bands is coupled to the nonvolatile ferroelectric polarization of GeTe(111). A novel surface Rashba band is found and fingerprints of a bulk Rashba band are identified by comparison with density functional theory calculations.

    8. Tunable Excitonic Processes at Organic Heterojunctions

      Shou-Jie He, Deng-Ke Wang, Nan Jiang, John S. Tse and Zheng-Hong Lu

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504287

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      Nonradiative Auger recombination and radiative exciplex emissions at organic–organic heterojunctions are found to be mediated by the nature of the majority charge carrier. The Auger recombination is dominant when the heterojunction is electron rich, the exciplex emission is dominant when the heterojunction is hole rich, and both Auger recombination and exciplex emission are present when the heterojunction is charge balanced.

    9. Afterglow Organic Light-Emitting Diode

      Ryota Kabe, Naoto Notsuka, Kou Yoshida and Chihaya Adachi

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504321

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      An afterglow organic light-emitting diode (OLED) that displays electroluminescence with long transient decay after it is turned off is demonstrated. This OLED exhibits blue and green dual emission originating from fluorescence and phosphorescence, respectively. A phosphorescence lifetime of 4.3 s is achieved.

  11. Progress Reports

    1. Cellulose-Rich Nanofiber-Based Functional Nanoarchitectures

      Shun Li and Jianguo Huang

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501878

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      The fabrication of nanoarchitectures by the self-assembly of functional molecules or nanoscale building blocks on the nanofibers of bulk cellulose-rich substances provides a facile shortcut to combine the naturally produced structural features of the substances with the specific chemical functionalities of the guest species. This produces various nanomaterials as catalysts, energy materials and sensing matrices.

  12. Communications

    1. Degradation Mechanisms of Solution-Processed Planar Perovskite Solar Cells: Thermally Stimulated Current Measurement for Analysis of Carrier Traps

      Chuanjiang Qin, Toshinori Matsushima, Takashi Fujihara, William J. Potscavage Jr. and Chihaya Adachi

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502610

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      Degradation mechanisms of CH3NH3PbI3-based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are investigated using a thermally stimulated current technique. Hole traps lying above the valence band edge of CH3NH3PbI3 are detected in PSCs degraded by continuous simulated solar illumination. One source of the hole traps is the photodegradation of CH3NH3PbI3 in the presence of water.

    2. A Sustainable Route from Biomass Byproduct Okara to High Content Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Sheets for Efficient Sodium Ion Batteries

      Tingzhou Yang, Tao Qian, Mengfan Wang, Xiaowei Shen, Na Xu, Zhouzhou Sun and Chenglin Yan

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503221

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      A sustainable route from biomass byproduct okara as a natural nitrogen fertilizer to high content N-doped carbon sheets is demonstrated. The as-prepared unique structure exhibits high specific capacity (292 mAh g−1) and extremely long cycle life (exceeding 2000 cycles). A full battery is devised for the practical use of materials with a flexible/wearable LED screen.

    3. Structure-Tuned Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals

      Yasser Hassan, Yin Song, Ryan D. Pensack, Ahmed I. Abdelrahman, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitchell A. Winnik and Gregory D. Scholes

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503461

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      Colloidally stable suspensions of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are prepared from high quality lead halide nanocrystal seeds. Perovskite nanocrystals with different layered crystal structures are reported. These systems are well suited for investigations of the intrinsic photophysics and spectroscopy of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites.

    4. Hybridization-Induced Carrier Localization at the C60/ZnO Interface

      Leah L. Kelly, David A. Racke, Hyungchul Kim, Paul Ndione, Ajaya K. Sigdel, Joseph J. Berry, Samuel Graham, Dennis Nordlund and Oliver L. A. Monti

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503694

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      Electronic coupling and ground-state charge transfer at the C60/ZnO hybrid interface is shown to localize carriers in the C60 phase. This effect, revealed by resonant X-ray photoemission, arises from interfacial hybridization between C60 and ZnO. Such localization at carrier-selective electrodes and interlayers may lead to severely reduced carrier harvesting efficiencies and increased recombination rates in organic electronic devices.

    5. Giant Strains in Non-Textured (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-Based Lead-Free Ceramics

      Xiaoming Liu and Xiaoli Tan

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503768

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      Giant electric field–induced strain of 0.70%, corresponding to a d33* value of 1400 pm V−1, is observed in a lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-based polycrystalline ceramic. This is comparable to the properties of single crystals. An in situ transmission electron microscopy study indicates that the excellent performance is originated from the phase transitions under applied electric fields.

    6. A Low Reabsorbing Luminescent Solar Concentrator Employing π-Conjugated Polymers

      Gregory D. Gutierrez, Igor Coropceanu, Moungi G. Bawendi and Timothy M. Swager

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504358

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      A highly efficient thin-film luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) utilizing two π-conjugated polymers as antennae for small amounts of the valued perylene bisimide Lumogen F Red 305 is presented. The LSC exhibits high photoluminescence quantum yield, low reabsorption, and relatively low refractive indices for waveguide matching. A Monte Carlo simulation predicts the LSC to possess exceptionally high optical efficiencies on large scales.

    7. Amyloid Templated Gold Aerogels

      Gustav Nyström, María P. Fernández-Ronco, Sreenath Bolisetty, Marco Mazzotti and Raffaele Mezzenga

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503465

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      Amyloid fibril-based ultralow-density aerogels are designed by functionalization with gold nanoparticles and microcrystals, leading to hybrids of unprecedented lightness and functionality. By changing the colloidal gold shape, size, and concentration, the gold composition can be tuned to reach contents ≥20 kt equivalent, yet at densities ≈103 lighter than any equivalent gold alloys, and combining unique features such as porosity, catalytic properties, pressure sensing, and autofluorescence.

    8. Multiphosphine-Oxide Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven True-Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency beyond 20%

      Jing Zhang, Dongxue Ding, Ying Wei, Fuquan Han, Hui Xu and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502772

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      Highly efficient low-voltage-driven ­true-blue thermally activated ­delayed fluorescence diodes are realized through employing a tri-phosphine oxide host (2,2′,4-tris(di(phenyl) ­phosphoryl)-diphenylether (DPETPO)) with a record external quantum efficiency of 23.0% and the lowest onset voltage of 2.8 V to date.

    9. CoNi@SiO2@TiO2 and CoNi@Air@TiO2 Microspheres with Strong Wideband Microwave Absorption

      Qinghe Liu, Qi Cao, Han Bi, Chongyun Liang, Kaiping Yuan, Wen She, Yongji Yang and Renchao Che

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503149

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      The synthesis of CoNi@SiO2@TiO2 core–shell and CoNi@Air@TiO2 yolk–shell microspheres are reported for the first time. Owing to the magnetic–dielectric synergistic effect, the obtained CoNi@SiO2@TiO2 microspheres exhibit outstanding microwave absorption performance with a maximum reflection loss of −58.2 dB and wide bandwidth of 8.1 GHz (8.0–16.1 GHz, < −10 dB).

    10. Perovskite Solar Cells Employing Dopant-Free Organic Hole Transport Materials with Tunable Energy Levels

      Yongsheng Liu, Ziruo Hong, Qi Chen, Huajun Chen, Wei-Hsuan Chang, Yang (Michael) Yang, Tze-Bin Song and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504293

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      Conjugated small molecule hole transport materials (HTMs) with tunable energy levels have been designed and synthesized for efficient perovskite solar cells. A champion device with efficiency of 16.2% has been demonstrated using our dopant-free DERDTS–TBDT HTM, while the DORDTS–DFBT HTM-based device shows an inferior performance of 6.2% due to its low hole mobility and unmatched HOMO level with valence band of perovskite film.

    11. A Bifunctional Interlayer Material for Modifying Both the Anode and Cathode in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

      Bowei Xu, Zhong Zheng, Kang Zhao and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502989

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      A novel polymer solar cell architecture using the conjugated polymer PFS as both the anode and cathode interlayers is constructed, and a high power conversion efficiency of 9.48% is achieved using the corresponding photovoltaic device.

    12. Simple, Inexpensive, and Rapid Approach to Fabricate Cross-Shaped Memristors Using an Inorganic-Nanowire-Digital-Alignment Technique and a One-Step Reduction Process

      Wentao Xu, Yeongjun Lee, Sung-Yong Min, Cheolmin Park and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503153

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      A rapid, scalable, and designable approach to produce a cross-shaped memristor array is demonstrated using an inorganic-nanowire-digital-alignment technique and a one-step reduction process. The two dimensional arrays of perpendicularly aligned, individually conductive Cu-nanowires with a nanometer-scale CuxO layer sandwiched at each cross point are produced.

    13. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery

      Xin Fang, Wei Weng, Jing Ren and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504241

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      A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

    14. Doping-Induced Carrier Density Modulation in Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

      Byoung Hoon Lee, Guillermo C. Bazan and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504307

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      Controlled device parameters of high-mobility polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated by modest doping and charge compensation. Through fleeting chemical vapor treatments of aligned poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT) thin films as the charge transport layer in the FET channel, the FET properties are tailored by controlling doping concentration of the PCDTPT adjacent to metal electrodes.

    15. Trilayer Tunnel Selectors for Memristor Memory Cells

      Byung Joon Choi, Jiaming Zhang, Kate Norris, Gary Gibson, Kyung Min Kim, Warren Jackson, Min-Xian Max Zhang, Zhiyong Li, J. Joshua Yang and R. Stanley Williams

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503604

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      An integrated memory cell with a mem­ristor and a tri-layer crested barrier selector, showing repeatable nonlinear current-voltage switching loops is presented. The fully atomic-layer-deposited TaN1+x/Ta2O5/TaN1+x crested barrier selector yields a large nonlinearity (>104), high endurance (>108), low variability and low temperature dependence.

    16. Scalable Clean Exfoliation of High-Quality Few-Layer Black Phosphorus for a Flexible Lithium Ion Battery

      Long Chen, Guangmin Zhou, Zhibo Liu, Xiaomeng Ma, Jing Chen, Zhiyong Zhang, Xiuliang Ma, Feng Li, Hui-Ming Cheng and Wencai Ren

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503678

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      Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets that are clean and of high quality, are efficiently produced by exfoliating bulk BP crystals, which are prepared by a scalable gas-phase catalytic transformation method in water. They are stable enough in water for further processing and applications. As an example, these BP nanosheets are combined with graphene to give high-performance flexible lithium ion batteries.

    17. Bipolar Patterning of Polymer Membranes by Pyroelectrification

      Romina Rega, Oriella Gennari, Laura Mecozzi, Simonetta Grilli, Vito Pagliarulo and Pietro Ferraro

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503711

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      Polymer freestanding membranes with permanent bipolar patterns are fabricated by “pyroelectrification”. The thermal stimulation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals simultaneously generates the pyroelectric effect, the glass transition of the polymer, and therefore the periodic electric poling of the polymer. The reliability of these membranes is demonstrated for applications under both dry and wet conditions, including cell patterning.

    18. Fixed Aspect Ratio Rod-to-Rod Conversion and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Semiconducting I–V–VI Nanorods

      Amit K. Guria, Gyanaranjan Prusty, Supriya Chacrabarty and Narayan Pradhan

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504377

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      Fixed aspect ratio rod-to-rod conversion of binary V–VI Sb2Se3 to ternary I–V–VI Cu3SbSe3 semiconducting nanostructures is reported. Capturing the intermediate products, the insight mechanisms of the ion diffusion process for the structural transformation is established. The final ternary structure shows localized surface plasmon resonance induced absorption in near-infrared regions.

    19. Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance

      Xinzheng Lan, Oleksandr Voznyy, Amirreza Kiani, F. Pelayo García de Arquer, Abdullah Saud Abbas, Gi-Hwan Kim, Mengxia Liu, Zhenyu Yang, Grant Walters, Jixian Xu, Mingjian Yuan, Zhijun Ning, Fengjia Fan, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Illan Kramer, David Zhitomirsky, Philip Lee, Alexander Perelgut, Sjoerd Hoogland and Edward H. Sargent

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503657

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      A solution-based passivation scheme is developed featuring the use of molecular iodine and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The improved passivation translates into a longer carrier diffusion length in the solid film. This allows thicker solar-cell devices to be built while preserving efficient charge collection, leading to a certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9%, which is a new record in CQD solar cells.

    20. Mechanism for Conducting Filament Growth in Self-Assembled Polymer Thin Films for Redox-Based Atomic Switches

      Karthik Krishnan, Tohru Tsuruoka, Cedric Mannequin and Masakazu Aono

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504202

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      The switching mechanisms of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based atomic switches are systematically investigated. By using self-assembled PEO and Ag–PEO thin films, stack-structured devices exhibit stable bipolar switching behavior over 103 cycles. Direct observation of filament growth behavior in planar-structured devices reveals the effects of the polymer thin-film morphology, and the presence of electrochemically active electrodes, on the switching characteristics.

    21. Auxetic Perforated Mechanical Metamaterials with Randomly Oriented Cuts

      Joseph N. Grima, Luke Mizzi, Keith M. Azzopardi and Ruben Gatt

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503653

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      Perforated systems with quasi-disordered arrays of slits are found to exhibit auxetic characteristics almost as much as their traditional ordered “rotating-squares” counterparts. This provides a highly robust methodology for constructing auxetics that may be used for various practical applications such as skin grafting, where a high degree of precision may not always be achievable.

    22. Lithographic Design of Overhanging Microdisk Arrays Toward Omniphobic Surfaces

      Ju Hyeon Kim, Tae Soup Shim and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503643

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      Omniphobic surfaces are created by designing an array of overhanging microdisks on a polymer film through two steps of photolithography. Two distinct edges and the large height of the microdisks relative to their separation ensure the formation of an air mat under the microdisks, providing an omniphobic property. Moreover, the freestanding omniphobic films are transparent and flexible, potentially serving as liquid-repellent surfaces in various applications.

    23. Multifunctional Silica Nanoparticles for Covalent Immobilization of Highly Sensitive Proteins

      Xu-Dong Wang, Kersten S. Rabe, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Christof M. Niemeyer

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503935

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      A convenient reverse micellar one-pot reaction yields multifunctional silica nanoparticles, which can be tailored to effectively suppress non-specific adsorption and, at the same time, enable efficient specific covalent immobilization of proteins. Using two highly sensitive proteins, it is demonstrated that the new particles provide a suitable microenvironment to maintain the protein's activity.

    24. Fluorescent Organic Planar pn Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes with Simplified Structure, Extremely Low Driving Voltage, and High Efficiency

      Dongcheng Chen, Gaozhan Xie, Xinyi Cai, Ming Liu, Yong Cao and Shi-Jian Su

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504290

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      Fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes capable of radiative utilization of both singlet and triplet excitons are achieved via a simple double-layer planar pn hetero­junction configuration without conventional emission layer, leading to high external quantum efficiency above 10% and extremely low driving voltages close to the theoretical minima.

    25. Phonon-Assisted Anti-Stokes Lasing in ZnTe Nanoribbons

      Qing Zhang, Xinfeng Liu, M. Iqbal Bakti Utama, Guichuan Xing, Tze Chien Sum and Qihua Xiong

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502154

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      Phonon-assisted anti-Stokes emission and its stimulated emission in polar semiconductor ZnTe are demonstrated via the annihilation of phonons as a result of strong exciton–phonon coupling. The findings are not only important for developing high-power radiation-balanced lasers, but are also promising for manufacturing ultraefficient solid-state laser coolers.

    26. Ambipolar Organic Tri-Gate Transistor for Low-Power Complementary Electronics

      Fabrizio Torricelli, Matteo Ghittorelli, Edsger C. P. Smits, Christian W. S. Roelofs, René A. J. Janssen, Gerwin H. Gelinck, Zsolt M. Kovács-Vajna and Eugenio Cantatore

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503414

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      Ambipolar transistors typically suffer from large off-current inherently due to the ambipolar conduction. Using a tri-gate transistor we show that it is possible to electrostatically switch ambipolar polymer transistors from ambipolar to unipolar mode. In unipolar mode symmetric characteristics with an on/off current ratio of larger than 10 5 are obtained. This enables easy integration into low-power complementary logic and volatile electronic memories.

    27. Synaptic Metaplasticity Realized in Oxide Memristive Devices

      Zheng-Hua Tan, Rui Yang, Kazuya Terabe, Xue-Bing Yin, Xiao-Dong Zhang and Xin Guo

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503575

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      Metaplasticity, a higher order of synaptic plasticity as well as a key issue in neuroscience, is realized with artificial synapses based on a WO3 thin film, and the activity-dependent metaplastic responses of the artificial synapses, such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity, are systematically investigated. This work has significant implications in the neuromorphic computation.

    28. Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets

      Yichuan Ling, Zhao Yuan, Yu Tian, Xi Wang, Jamie C. Wang, Yan Xin, Kenneth Hanson, Biwu Ma and Hanwei Gao

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503954

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      Bright light-emitting diodes based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets are demonstrated. The nanoplatelets created using a facile one-pot synthesis exhibit narrow-band emissions at 529 nm and quantum yield up to 85%. Using these nanoparticles as emitters, efficient electroluminescence is achieved with a brightness of 10 590 cd m−2. These ligand-capped nanoplatelets appear to be quite stable in moisture, allowing out-of-glovebox device fabrication.

    29. Emergence of Negative Capacitance in Multidomain Ferroelectric–Paraelectric Nanocapacitors at Finite Bias

      Shusuke Kasamatsu, Satoshi Watanabe, Cheol Seong Hwang and Seungwu Han

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502916

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      The emergence of negative capacitance in the ultrathin ferroelectric/paraelectric bilayer capacitor under electrical bias is examined using first-principles simulation. An antiferroelectric-like behavior is predicted, and negative capacitance is shown to emerge when the monodomain state becomes stable after bias application. The polydomain–monodomain transition is also shown to be a source of capacitance enhancement.

    30. A Self-Quenching-Resistant Carbon-Dot Powder with Tunable Solid-State Fluorescence and Construction of Dual-Fluorescence Morphologies for White Light-Emission

      Yonghao Chen, Mingtao Zheng, Yong Xiao, Hanwu Dong, Haoran Zhang, Jianle Zhuang, Hang Hu, Bingfu Lei and Yingliang Liu

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503380

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      Self-quenching in the aggregation state is overcome, and tunable solid-state photoluminescence of carbon-dot powder is achieved. Furthermore, based on the controllable optical property in organic solvents, a novel concept, i.e., constructing dual-fluorescence morphologies from single luminescent species, is presented to realize white light-emission.

    31. Progress of Flexible Electronics in Neural Interfacing – A Self-Adaptive Non-Invasive Neural Ribbon Electrode for Small Nerves Recording

      Zhuolin Xiang, Shih-Cheng Yen, Swathi Sheshadri, Jiahui Wang, Sanghoon Lee, Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Nitish V. Thakor and Chengkuo Lee

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503423

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      A novel flexible neural ribbon electrode with a self-adaptive feature is successfully implemented for various small nerves recording. As a neural interface, the selective recording capability is characterized by having reliable signal acquisitions from the sciatic nerve and its branches such as the peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the sural nerve.

    32. Pathological-Condition-Driven Construction of Supramolecular Nanoassemblies for Bacterial Infection Detection

      Li-Li Li, Huai-Lei Ma, Guo-Bin Qi, Di Zhang, Faquan Yu, Zhiyuan Hu and Hao Wang

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503437

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      A pyropheophorbide-α-based building block (Ppa-PLGVRG-Van) can be used to construct self-aggregated superstructures in vivo for highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of bacterial infection by noninvasive photoacoustic tomography. This in vivo supramolecular chemistry approach opens a new avenue for efficient, rapid, and early-stage disease diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

    33. Hydrogel Pore-Size Modulation for Enhanced Single-Cell Western Blotting

      Todd A. Duncombe, Chi-Chih Kang, Santanu Maity, Toby M. Ward, Mark D. Pegram, Niren Murthy and Amy E. Herr

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503939

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      Pore-gradient microgel arrays enable thousands of parallel high resolution single-cell protein electrophoresis separations for targets accross a wide molecular mass (25–289 kDa), yet within 1 mm separation distances. Dual cross-linked hydrogels facilitate gel pore expansion after electrophoresis for efficient and uniform immunoprobing. The photo-patterned, light-activated, and acid-expandable hydrogel underpins single-cell protein analysis, here for oncoprotein-related signaling in human breast biopsy.

    34. Site Selective Doping of Ultrathin Metal Dichalcogenides by Laser-Assisted Reaction

      Eunpa Kim, Changhyun Ko, Kyunghoon Kim, Yabin Chen, Joonki Suh, Sang-Gil Ryu, Kedi Wu, Xiuqing Meng, Aslihan Suslu, Sefaattin Tongay, Junqiao Wu and Costas P. Grigoropoulos

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503945

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      Laser-assisted phosphorus doping is demonstrated on ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) including n-type MoS2 and p-type WSe2. Temporal and spatial control of the doping is achieved by varying the laser irradiation power and time, demonstrating wide tunability and high site selectivity with high stability. The laser-assisted doping method may enable a new avenue for functionalizing TMDCs for customized nanodevice applications.

    35. A Near-Infrared Laser-Activated “Nanobomb” for Breaking the Barriers to MicroRNA Delivery

      Hai Wang, Pranay Agarwal, Shuting Zhao, Jianhua Yu, Xiongbin Lu and Xiaoming He

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504263

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      A near-infrared laser-activated “nanobomb” is synthesized using lipid and multiple polymers to break the extra­cellular and intracellular barriers to cytosolic delivery of microRNAs. The nanobomb could be used to effectively destroy tumors and cancer stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo with minimal side effect.

    36. Phosphorescent Nanocluster Light-Emitting Diodes

      Padmanaban S. Kuttipillai, Yimu Zhao, Christopher J. Traverse, Richard J. Staples, Benjamin G. Levine and Richard R. Lunt

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504548

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      Devices utilizing an entirely new class of earth abundant, inexpensive phosphorescent emitters based on metal halide nanoclusters are reported. Light-emitting diodes with tunable performance are demonstrated by varying cation substitution to these nanoclusters. Theoretical calculations provide insight about the nature of the phosphorescent emitting states, which involves a strong pseudo-Jahn–Teller distortion.

    37. Lithium-Niobate–Silica Hybrid Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators

      Fang Bo, Jie Wang, Jiao Cui, Sahin Kaya Ozdemir, Yongfa Kong, Guoquan Zhang, Jingjun Xu and Lan Yang

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504722

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      Lithium-niobate–silica hybrid resonators with quality factors higher than 105 are fabricated by depositing a layer of polycrystalline lithium niobate on the flat top surfaces of inverted-wedge silica microdisk resonators. All-optical modulation with improved performance over silica-only resonators and electro-optic modulation not achievable in silica-only resonators are realized in the hybrid resonators.

    38. Biodegradable-Polymer-Blend-Based Surgical Sealant with Body-Temperature-Mediated Adhesion

      Adam M. Behrens, Nora G. Lee, Brendan J. Casey, Priya Srinivasan, Michael J. Sikorski, John L. Daristotle, Anthony D. Sandler and Peter Kofinas

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503691

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      The development of practical and efficient surgical sealants has the propensity to improve operational outcomes. A biodegradable polymer blend is fabricated as a nonwoven fiber mat in situ. After direct deposition onto the tissue of interest, the material transitions from a fiber mat to a film. This transition promotes polymer–substrate interfacial interaction leading to improved adhesion and surgical sealant performance.

    39. A Bio-Acoustic Levitational (BAL) Assembly Method for Engineering of Multilayered, 3D Brain-Like Constructs, Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neuro-Progenitors

      Charlène Bouyer, Pu Chen, Sinan Güven, Tuğrul Tolga Demirtaş, Thomas J. F. Nieland, Frédéric Padilla and Utkan Demirci

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503916

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      A bio-acoustic levitational assembly method for engineering of multilayered, 3D brain-like constructs is presented. Acoustic radiation forces are used to levitate human embryonic stem cell derived neuro-progenitors in 3D multilayered fibrin tissue constructs. The neuro-progenitor cells are subsequently differentiated in neural cells, resulting in a 3D neuronal construct with inter and intralayer neurite elongations.

    40. Bioinspired Hydroxyapatite/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite with a Nacre-Mimetic Architecture by a Bidirectional Freezing Method

      Hao Bai, Flynn Walsh, Bernd Gludovatz, Benjamin Delattre, Caili Huang, Yuan Chen, Antoni P. Tomsia and Robert O. Ritchie

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504313

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      Using a bidirectional freezing technique, combined with uniaxial pressing and in situ polymerization, “nacre-mimetic” hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are developed by processing large-scale aligned lamellar ceramic scaffolds. Structural and mechanical characterization shows “brick-and-mortar” structures, akin to nacre, with interesting combinations of strength, stiffness, and work of fracture, which provide a pathway to making strong and tough lightweight materials.

    41. NIR-Laser-Switched In Vivo Smart Nanocapsules for Synergic Photothermal and Chemotherapy of Tumors

      Zhouqi Meng, Fang Wei, Ronghua Wang, Mengge Xia, Zhigang Chen, Huiping Wang and Meifang Zhu

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502669

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      In vivo MEO2MA@MEO2MA-co-OEGMA-CuS-DOX (G-CuS-DOX) nanocapsules increase the temperature of tumors from room temperature to 57 °C due to the photothermal effect under irradiation with a 915-nm laser. When the temperature exceeds 42 °C, photothermal therapy of G-CuS-DOX is switched on. Simultaneously, higher temperatures (>LCST, 42 °C) induce volume shrinkage of G-CuS-DOX in vivo, leading to the controllable release of the anticancer drug DOX. If the NIR laser is switched off, both therapy effects are interrupted immediately.

  13. Reviews

    1. Recent Progress in Cobalt-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Splitting

      Jiahai Wang, Wei Cui, Qian Liu, Zhicai Xing, Abdullah M. Asiri and Xuping Sun

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502696

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      Electrochemical water splitting is a well-established technology with which to produce high-purity hydrogen. Recent progress in cobalt-based heterogeneous electrocatalysts for water splitting is reviewed. Strategies to obtain optimized or enhanced performance are introduced through specific examples. The current existing challenges and future working directions for enhancing the performance of Co-implicated electrocatalysts are discussed.

    2. Multiferroic Heterostructures Integrating Ferroelectric and Magnetic Materials

      Jia-Mian Hu, Long-Qing Chen and Ce-Wen Nan

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502824

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      Multiferroic heterostructures integrating ferroelectric and magnetic materials exhibit strong magnetoelectric coupling due to the complex interplay between spin, orbit, charge, and lattice order parameters across the hetero-interface, which makes them technologically very attractive for the near future. Fundamental principles and potential device applications of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructures are reviewed using examples from recent reports.

  14. Communications

    1. Evaporation- and Solution-Process-Feasible Highly Efficient Thianthrene-9,9′,10,10′-Tetraoxide-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters with Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off

      Gaozhan Xie, Xianglong Li, Dongjun Chen, Zhiheng Wang, Xinyi Cai, Dongcheng Chen, Yunchuan Li, Kunkun Liu, Yong Cao and Shi-Jian Su

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503225

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      Two novel evaporation- and solution-process-feasible thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters, green-light-emission ACRDSO2 and yellow-light-emission PXZDSO2, based on a brand-new electron-acceptor moiety thianthrene-9,9′,10,10′-tetraoxide, are developed for organic light-emitting diodes. The solution-processed devices, without any hole-transport layer, exhibit competitive performance and reduced efficiency roll-off compared with corresponding vacuum-deposited devices.

    2. Highly Elastic and Conductive Human-Based Protein Hybrid Hydrogels

      Nasim Annabi, Su Ryon Shin, Ali Tamayol, Mario Miscuglio, Mohsen Afshar Bakooshli, Alexander Assmann, Pooria Mostafalu, Jeong-Yun Sun, Suzanne Mithieux, Louis Cheung, Xiaowu (Shirley) Tang, Anthony S. Weiss and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503255

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      A highly elastic hybrid hydrogel of methacryloyl-substituted recombinant human tropoelastin (MeTro) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles are developed. The synergistic effect of these two materials significantly enhances both ultimate strain (250%), reversible rotation (9700°), and the fracture energy (38.8 ± 0.8 J m−2) in the hybrid network. Furthermore, improved electrical signal propagation and subsequent contraction of the muscles connected by hybrid hydrogels are observed in ex vivo tests.

    3. Comparison of the Impact of Zinc Vacancies on Charge Separation and Charge Transfer at ZnO/Sexithienyl and ZnO/Fullerene Interfaces

      Hong Li and Jean-Luc Bredas

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503262

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      The impact of surface zinc vacancies on charge transfer and charge separation at donor/ZnO and acceptor/ZnO interfaces is identified via density functional theory calculations. The results show their effect to be related to the stronger internal electric field present near these vacancies. Thus, such surface defects can have a significant negative impact on the performance of hybrid solar cells using ZnO as electron acceptors.

    4. Bioinspired Nanosucker Array for Enhancing Bioelectricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

      Wei Wang, Shijie You, Xiaobo Gong, Dianpeng Qi, Bevita K. Chandran, Lanpo Bi, Fuyi Cui and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503609

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      A bioinspired active anode with a sucking effect is demonstrated for microbial fuel cells by constructing polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubular arrays on carbon textiles. The oxygen in the inner space of the nanosucker can be depleted by micro­organisms with the capability of facul­tative respiration, forming a vacuum, which then activates the electrode to draw the microorganism by suction and thus improve the bioelectricity generation.

    5. A Bioinspired Multifunctional Heterogeneous Membrane with Ultrahigh Ionic Rectification and Highly Efficient Selective Ionic Gating

      Zhen Zhang, Xiang-Yu Kong, Kai Xiao, Ganhua Xie, Qian Liu, Ye Tian, Huacheng Zhang, Jie Ma, Liping Wen and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503668

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      A bioinspired multifunctional heterogeneous membrane composed of a block copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) membrane and a porous anodic alumina membrane is fabricated. The ionic rectification is so strong that the maximum ratio is ≈489, and the chemical actuation of the anion or cation gate from the “OFF” to the “ON” state promotes a 98.5% increase in the channel conductance.

    6. Regional Shape Control of Strategically Assembled Multishape Memory Vitrimers

      Zhiqiang Pei, Yang Yang, Qiaomei Chen, Yen Wei and Yan Ji

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503789

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      Hot-pressing shape memory vitrimers lead to multishape memory, multifunctionality, easy reconfiguration, and the possibility of mass production of arbitrary smart structures.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Independent Control of Topography for 3D Patterning of the ECM Microenvironment

      Jiyun Kim, Jack Rory Staunton and Kandice Tanner

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503950

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      Biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) topographies driven by the magnetic-field-directed self-assembly of ECM protein-coated magnetic beads are fabricated. This novel bottom-up method allows us to program isotropic, anisotropic, and diverse hybrid ECM patterns without changing other physicochemical properties of the scaffold material. It is demonstrated that this 3D anisotropic matrix is able to guide the dendritic protrusion of cells.

    8. Self-Healing, Fully Functional, and Multiparametric Flexible Sensing Platform

      Tan-Phat Huynh and Hossam Haick

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504104

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      A non-biological and flexible self-healing platform has tailored sensitivity toward one or a combination of pressure, strain, gas analytes, and temperature. For demonstration, a complete self-healing device is described in the form of a bendable and stretchable chemiresistor, where every part is self-healing.

    9. Versatile Soft Grippers with Intrinsic Electroadhesion Based on Multifunctional Polymer Actuators

      Jun Shintake, Samuel Rosset, Bryan Schubert, Dario Floreano and Herbert Shea

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504264

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      A highly versatile soft gripper that can handle an unprecedented range of object types is developed based on a new design of dielectric elastomer actuators employing an interdigitated electrode geometry simultaneously maximizing both electroadhesion and electrostatic actuation, while incorporating self-sensing. The multifunctionality of the actuator leads to a highly integrated, lightweight, fast, soft gripper with simplified structure and control.

    10. Robust Superhydrophobic Foam: A Graphdiyne-Based Hierarchical Architecture for Oil/Water Separation

      Xin Gao, Jingyuan Zhou, Ran Du, Ziqian Xie, Shibin Deng, Rong Liu, Zhongfan Liu and Jin Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504407

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      Robust superhydrophobic foam is fabricated by combining an ordered graphdiyne-based hierarchical structure with a low-surface-energy coating. This foam shows not only superhydrophobicity both in air (≈160.1°) and in oil (≈171.0°), but also high resistance toward abrasion cycles. Owing to its 3D porous structures and numerous superhydrophobic surfaces, it can easily separate oil from water with high efficiency and good recyclability.

    11. Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared

      Gleb M. Akselrod, Jiani Huang, Thang B. Hoang, Patrick T. Bowen, Logan Su, David R. Smith and Maiken H. Mikkelsen

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503281

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      An absorptive metasurface based on film-coupled colloidal silver nanocubes is demonstrated. The metasurfaces are fabricated using simple dip-coating methods and can be deposited over large areas and on arbitrarily shaped objects. The surfaces show nearly complete absorption, good off-angle performance, and the resonance can be tuned from the visible to the near-infrared.

    12. Stereolithography of SiOC Ceramic Microcomponents

      Erika Zanchetta, Marco Cattaldo, Giorgia Franchin, Martin Schwentenwein, Johannes Homa, Giovanna Brusatin and Paolo Colombo

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503470

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      The first example of the fabrication of complex 3D polymer-derived-ceramic structures is presented with micrometer scale features by a 3D additive manufacturing (AM) technology, starting with a photosensitive preceramic precursor. Dense and crack-free silicon oxycarbide-based microparts with features down to 200 μm are obtained after pyrolysis at 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere.

    13. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile

      Nannan Zhang, Jun Chen, Yi Huang, Wanwan Guo, Jin Yang, Jun Du, Xing Fan and Changyuan Tao

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504137

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      A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to the plant absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, the human can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering the small electronics.

    14. On the Extraction of Charge Carrier Mobility in High-Mobility Organic Transistors

      Takafumi Uemura, Cedric Rolin, Tung-Huei Ke, Pavlo Fesenko, Jan Genoe, Paul Heremans and Jun Takeya

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503133

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      Transistor parameter extraction by the conventional transconductance method can lead to a mobility overestimate. Organic transistors undergoing major contact resistance experience a significant drop in mobility upon mild annealing. Before annealing, strong field-dependent contact resistance yields nonlinear transfer curves with locally high transconductances, resulting in a mobility overestimate. After annealing, a contact resistance below 200 Ω cm is achieved, which is stable over a wide V G range.

    15. Extreme Sensitivity of Room-Temperature Photoelectric Effect for Terahertz Detection

      Zhiming Huang, Wei Zhou, Jinchao Tong, Jingguo Huang, Cheng Ouyang, Yue Qu, Jing Wu, Yanqing Gao and Junhao Chu

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503350

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      Extreme sensitivity of room-temperature photoelectric effect for terahertz (THz) detection is demonstrated by generating extra carriers in an electromagnetic induced well located at the semiconductor using a wrapped metal–semiconductor–metal configuration. The excellent performance achieved with THz detectors shows great potential to open avenues for THz detection.

    16. Complementing Graphenes: 1D Interplanar Charge Transport in Polymeric Graphitic Carbon Nitrides

      Christoph Merschjann, Stefanie Tschierlei, Tobias Tyborski, Kamalakannan Kailasam, Steven Orthmann, Dirk Hollmann, Thomas Schedel-Niedrig, Arne Thomas and Stefan Lochbrunner

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503448

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      Charge transport in polymeric graphitic carbon nitrides is shown to proceed via diffusive hopping of electron and hole polarons with reasonably high mobilities >10−5 cm2 V−1 s−1. The power-law behavior of the ultrafast luminescence decay exhibits that the predominant transport direction is perpendicular to the graphitic polymer sheets, thus complementing 2D materials like graphene.

    17. Bipolar Carrier Transfer Channels in Epitaxial Graphene/SiC Core–Shell Heterojunction for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Wei Lu, Da Wang, Liwei Guo, Yuping Jia, Manping Ye, Jiao Huang, Zhilin Li, Yuan Peng, Wenxia Yuan and Xiaolong Chen

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503606

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      Bipolar carrier transfer channels exist in the in situ epitaxial-graphene-wrapped 6H-SiC core–shell heterojunction due to the self-doping of graphene. Due to the special interface structure and high graphene quality, this material exhibits significant photocatalytic enhancement. Its hydrogen evolution efficiency is greater than that of the Pt/SiC composite. This micrometer-sized metal-free photocatalyst exhibits an activity comparable to that of metal-based nanophotocatalysts.

    18. Ultrathin SnSe2 Flakes Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition for High-Performance Photodetectors

      Xing Zhou, Lin Gan, Wenming Tian, Qi Zhang, Shengye Jin, Huiqiao Li, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg and Tianyou Zhai

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503873

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      High-quality ultrathin single-crystalline SnSe2 flakes are synthesized under atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the first time. A high-performance photodetector based on the individual SnSe2 flake demonstrates a high photoresponsivity of 1.1 × 103 A W−1, a high EQE of 2.61 × 105%, and superb detectivity of 1.01 × 1010 Jones, combined with fast rise and decay times of 14.5 and 8.1 ms, respectively.

    19. Epitaxial Growth of Intermetallic MnPt Films on Oxides and Large Exchange Bias

      Zhiqi Liu, Michael D. Biegalski, Shang-Lin Hsu, Shunli Shang, Cassie Marker, Jian Liu, Li Li, Lisha Fan, Tricia L. Meyer, Anthony T. Wong, John A. Nichols, Deyang Chen, Long You, Zuhuang Chen, Kai Wang, Kevin Wang, Thomas Z. Ward, Zheng Gai, Ho Nyung Lee, Athena S. Sefat, Valeria Lauter, Zi-Kui Liu and Hans M. Christen

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502606

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      High-quality epitaxial growth of inter­metallic MnPt films on oxides is achieved, with potential for multiferroic heterostructure applications. Antisite-stabilized spin-flipping induces ferromagnetism in MnPt films, although it is robustly antiferromagnetic in bulk. Moreover, highly ordered antiferromagnetic MnPt films exhibit superiorly large exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic layer.

  15. Progress Reports

    1. A Route for Phase Control in Metal Nanoparticles: A Potential Strategy to Create Advanced Materials

      Kohei Kusada and Hiroshi Kitagawa

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502881

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      Recently developed novel nanomaterials with unobtainable crystal structures in the bulk state attract attention with properties different from those of conventional nanomaterials. Recent developments of these materials, including synthesis and properties, are introduced, and their potential as a new strategy of nanomaterial development is discussed.

  16. Communications

    1. Injectable Self-Healing Glucose-Responsive Hydrogels with pH-Regulated Mechanical Properties

      Volkan Yesilyurt, Matthew J. Webber, Eric A. Appel, Colin Godwin, Robert Langer and Daniel G. Anderson

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502902

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      Dynamically restructuring pH-responsive hydrogels are synthesized, employing dynamic covalent chemistry between phenylboronic acid and cis-diol modified poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers. These gels display shear-thinning behavior, followed by a rapid structural recovery (self-healing). Size-dependent in vitro controlled and glucose-responsive release of proteins from the hydrogel network, as well as the biocompatibility of the gels, are evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Reviews

    1. Recent Progress in Obtaining Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Transistor Applications

      Ahmad E. Islam, John A. Rogers and Muhammad A. Alam

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502918

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      Advances in realizing high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes via in situ and ex situ approaches are reviewed. The utility of these techniques are compared with an emphasis on materials growth approaches and operational properties of transistors to assess the quality and purity of the resulting collections of nanotubes.

  18. Communications

    1. Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias and Magnetization Reversal Controlled by Electric-Field-Induced Competing Anisotropies

      Aitian Chen, Yonggang Zhao, Peisen Li, Xu Zhang, Renci Peng, Haoliang Huang, Lvkuan Zou, Xiaoli Zheng, Sen Zhang, Peixian Miao, Yalin Lu, Jianwang Cai and Ce-Wen Nan

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503176

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      The combination of exchange-biased systems and ferroelectric materials offers a simple and effective way to investigate the angular dependence of exchange bias using one sample with electric-field-induced competing anisotropies. A reversible electric-field-controlled magnetization reversal at zero magnetic field is also realized through optimizing the anisotropy configuration, holding promising applications for ultralow power magnetoelectric devices.

    2. Robust Manipulation of Magnetism in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As by Organic Molecules

      Xiaolei Wang, Hailong Wang, Dong Pan, Timothy Keiper, Lixia Li, Xuezhe Yu, Jun Lu, Eric Lochner, Stephan von Molnár, Peng Xiong and Jianhua Zhao

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503547

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      Surface adsorption of organic molecules provides a new method for the robust manipulation of ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As. Electron acceptor and donor molecules yield significant enhancement and suppression, respectively, of ferromagnetism with modulation of the Curie temperature spanning 36 K. Dip-pen nanolithography is employed to directly pattern monolayers on (Ga,Mn)As, which is presented as a novel pathway toward producing magnetic nanostructures.

    3. Selenide-Based Electrocatalysts and Scaffolds for Water Oxidation Applications

      Chuan Xia, Qiu Jiang, Chao Zhao, Mohamed N. Hedhili and Husam N. Alshareef

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503906

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      Selenide-based electrocatalysts and scaffolds on carbon cloth are successfully fabricated and demonstrated for enhanced water oxidation applications. A max­imum current density of 97.5 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of a mere 300 mV and a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec−1 are achieved, suggesting the potential of these materials to serve as advanced oxygen evolution reaction catalysts.

    4. Generalizable Synthesis of Metal-Sulfides/Carbon Hybrids with Multiscale, Hierarchically Ordered Structures as Advanced Electrodes for Lithium Storage

      Chao Wu, Joachim Maier and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503969

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      Transition-metal sulfides/carbon hybrids with a multiscale, multidimensional, and hierarchically ordered architecture have been designed and synthesized by a general and facile method. As a result of this novel and unique architecture design, the obtained hybrid electrodes show attractive reversibility and cycle stability as well as excellent rate capability.

    5. A Nonfullerene Small Molecule Acceptor with 3D Interlocking Geometry Enabling Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Jaewon Lee, Ranbir Singh, Dong Hun Sin, Heung Gyu Kim, Kyu Chan Song and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504010

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      A new 3D nonfullerene small molecule acceptor is reported. The 3D interlocking geometry of the small molecule acceptor enables uniform molecular conformation and strong intermolecular connectivity, facilitating favorable nanoscale phase separation and electron charge transfer. By employing both a novel polymer donor and a nonfullerene small molecule acceptor in the solution-processed organic solar cells, a high-power conversion efficiency of close to 6% is demonstrated.

    6. General Formation of M–MoS3 (M = Co, Ni) Hollow Structures with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Evolution

      Le Yu, Bao Yu Xia, Xin Wang and Xiong Wen Lou

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504024

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      Complex molybdenum-based ternary or multinary sulfides hollow structures are developed via a fast precipitation process, together with a subsequent annealing treatment. Benefiting from the merits of high-curvature surfaces with excellent intrinsic catalytic activity, the obtained unique hollow structures exhibit enhanced performance as electrocatalysts for hydrogen production in acidic media.

    7. A Metal-Free Supercapacitor Electrode Material with a Record High Volumetric Capacitance over 800 F cm−3

      Yue Xu, Ying Tao, Xiaoyu Zheng, Hongyun Ma, Jiayan Luo, Feiyu Kang and Quan-Hong Yang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504151

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      A metal-free supercapacitor electrode material is prepared by the hybridization of graphene and polyaniline in a very compact way without sacrificing their gravimetric capacitance. It exhibits a record high volumetric capacitance over 800 F cm−3.

    8. Supramolecular Construction of Multifluorescent Gels: Interfacial Assembly of Discrete Fluorescent Gels through Multiple Hydrogen Bonding

      Xiaofan Ji, Bingbing Shi, Hu Wang, Danyu Xia, Kecheng Jie, Zi Liang Wu and Feihe Huang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504355

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      Multifluorescent supramolecular gels with complex structures are constructed from discrete fluorescent gels, which serve as the building blocks, through hydrogen bonding interactions at interfaces. The multifluorescent gel can realize rapid healing within only ≈100 s.

    9. Wearable Self-Charging Power Textile Based on Flexible Yarn Supercapacitors and Fabric Nanogenerators

      Xiong Pu, Linxuan Li, Mengmeng Liu, Chunyan Jiang, Chunhua Du, Zhenfu Zhao, Weiguo Hu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504403

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      A novel and scalable self-charging power textile is realized by combining yarn supercapacitors and fabric triboelectric nanogenerators as energy-harvesting devices.

    10. Flexible Organic Tribotronic Transistor Memory for a Visible and Wearable Touch Monitoring System

      Jing Li, Chi Zhang, Lian Duan, Li Min Zhang, Li Duo Wang, Gui Fang Dong and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504424

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      A new type of flexible organic tribotronic transistor memory is proposed, which can be written and erased by externally applied touch actions as an active memory. By further coupling with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a visible and wearable touch monitoring system is achieved, in which touch triggering can be memorized and shown as the emission from the OLED.