Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 48

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 164
  1. Communications

    1. Flexible and Stretchable Micromagnet Arrays for Tunable Biointerfacing

      Peter Tseng, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Janay Kong, Anja Kunze, Coleman Murray and Dino Di Carlo

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404849

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      A process to surface pattern polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with ferromagnetic structures of varying sizes (micrometer to millimeter) and thicknesses (>70 μm) is developed. Their flexibility and magnetic reach are utilized to confer dynamic, additive properties to a variety of substrates, such as coverslips and Eppendorf tubes. It is found that these substrates can generate additional modes of magnetic droplet manipulation, and can tunably steer magnetic-cell organization.

    2. Organic Non-Volatile Resistive Photo-Switches for Flexible Image Detector Arrays

      Sebastian Nau, Christoph Wolf, Stefan Sax and Emil J. W. List-Kratochvil

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403295

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      A unique implementation of an organic image detector using resistive photo-switchable pixels is presented. A resistive photo-switch comprises the vertical integration of an organic photodiode and an organic resistive switching memory element. The photodiodes act as a photosensitive element while the resistive switching elements simultaneously store the detected light information.

    3. Metamaterials Enable Chiral-Selective Enhancement of Two-Photon Luminescence from Quantum Emitters

      Sean P. Rodrigues, Yonghao Cui, Shoufeng Lan, Lei Kang and Wenshan Cai

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405072

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      The amplification of chirally modified, nonlinear signals from quantum emitters is demonstrated by manipulating the geometric chirality of resonant plasmonic nanostructures. The chiral center of the metamaterial is opened and emitters occupy this light-confining and chirally sensitive region. Nonlinear emission signals are enhanced by 40× that of the emitters not embedded in the metamaterial and display a 3× contrast for the opposite circular polarization.

    4. All-Solid-State Cable-Type Flexible Zinc–Air Battery

      Joohyuk Park, Minjoon Park, Gyutae Nam, Jang-soo Lee and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404639

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      A cable-type flexible Zn–air battery with a spiral zinc anode, gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), and air cathode coated on a nonprecious metal catalyst is designed in order to extend its application area toward wearable electronic devices.

    5. Stimuli-Responsive Electrodes Detect Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury

      Kiana Aran, Jacobo Parades, Mohammad Rafi, Jennifer F. Yau, Abhinav P. Acharya, Mikhail Zibinsky, Dorian Liepmann and Niren Murthy

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404562

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      A digital point-of-care biosensor for measuring reactive oxygen species is presented based on novel reactive oxygen species responsive polymer-based electrodes. The biosensor is able to detect a drug-induced liver injury by monitoring the oxidative stress in the blood.

    6. Micro/Macroporous System: MFI-Type Zeolite Crystals with Embedded Macropores

      Albert G. Machoke, Ana M. Beltrán, Alexandra Inayat, Benjamin Winter, Tobias Weissenberger, Nadine Kruse, Robert Güttel, Erdmann Spiecker and Wilhelm Schwieger

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404493

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      Zeolite crystals with an embedded and interconnected macropore system are prepared by using mesoporous silica particles as a silica source and as a sacrificial macroporogen. These novel hierarchical zeolite crystals are expected to reduce diffusion limitations in all zeolite-catalyzed reactions, especially in the transformation of larger molecules like in the catalytic cracking of polymers and the conversion of biomass.

    7. Simultaneous In-Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Co@Cu Core-Shell Nanoparticle Arrays

      Joseph T. McKeown, Yueying Wu, Jason D. Fowlkes, Philip D. Rack and Geoffrey H. Campbell

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404374

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      Core-shell particle ensembles are fabricated by pulsed-laser-induced dewetting of initially continuous, ultrathin alloy films through a combination of morphological and chemical instability. The synthesis of these arrays is monitored in situ with high spatial and temporal resolutions, which, when combined with ex situ composition analysis, provides insight to the morphological and chemical evolution pathways leading to core-shell particle formation.

    8. Layer-by-Layer Growth of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx for Highly Efficient Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

      Yonghua Chen, Tao Chen and Liming Dai

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404147

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      A layer-by-layer approach is developed to prepare uniform and compact CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite films for perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency up to 15.12% and an improved stability. Moreover, a record high efficiency of 12.25% is achieved for these flexible perovskite solar cells. This study represents an important step forward in developing high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells.

    9. Hierarchical Porous Plasmonic Metamaterials for Reproducible Ultrasensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

      Xinyi Zhang, Yuanhui Zheng, Xin Liu, Wei Lu, Jiyan Dai, Dang Yuan Lei and Douglas R. MacFarlane

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404107

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      Hierarchical porous plasmonic metamaterials consisting of periodic nanoholes with tunable diameter and uniformly distributed mesopores over the bulk are developed as a new class of 3D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. This multiscale architecture not only facilitates efficient cascaded electromagnetic enhancement but also provides an enormous number of Raman-active binding sites, exhibiting excellent reproducibility and ultrasensitive detection of aromatic molecules down to 10−13 M.

    10. A Fast and Activatable Cross-Linking Strategy for Hydrogel Formation

      Anika M. Jonker, Annika Borrmann, Ernst R. H. van Eck, Floris L. van Delft, Dennis W. P. M. Löwik and Jan C. M. van Hest

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404448

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      Strain-promoted oxidation-controlled cyclo­octyne-1,2-quinone cycloaddition (SPOCQ) is a fast and activatable cross-linking strategy for hydrogel formation. Gelation is induced by oxidation, which is performed both chemically using sodium periodate and enzymatically using mushroom tyrosinase. Due to the fast reaction kinetics, SPOCQ-formed hydrogels can be functionalized in one-pot with an azido-containing moiety using SPAAC cross-linking.

    11. Infrared Detection Based on Localized Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings

      Fangyu Zhang, Qingchen Shen, Xindong Shi, Shipu Li, Wanlin Wang, Zhen Luo, Gufeng He, Peng Zhang, Peng Tao, Chengyi Song, Wang Zhang, Di Zhang, Tao Deng and Wen Shang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404534

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      Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. The findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms.

    12. A Miniaturized Flexible Antenna Printed on a High Dielectric Constant Nanopaper Composite

      Tetsuji Inui, Hirotaka Koga, Masaya Nogi, Natsuki Komoda and Katsuaki Suganuma

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404555

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      A high-dielectric-constant and flexible cellulose nanopaper composite is prepared by mixing a small amount of silver nanowires with cellulose nanofibers. The nanopaper antenna is downsized by about a half when using the nanopaper substrate. The nanopaper antenna has potential in wearable wireless communication devices.

    13. Growth of Polypyrrole Ultrathin Films on MoS2 Monolayers as High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

      Hongjie Tang, Jiangyan Wang, Huajie Yin, Huijun Zhao, Dan Wang and Zhiyong Tang

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404622

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      A scalable solution-based approach has been developed to controllably grow PPy ultrathin films on 2D MoS2 monolayers. When these sandwiched nanocomposites are utilized as supercapacitor electrodes, a record high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and improved cycling stability are achieved, offering a feasible solution to create next generation of energy storage device with superior power density and energy density.

    14. Importance of Domain Purity and Molecular Packing in Efficient Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells

      Subhrangsu Mukherjee, Christopher M. Proctor, John R. Tumbleston, Guillermo C. Bazan, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Harald Ade

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404388

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      Connections are delineated between solar cell performance, charge carrier mobilities, and morphology in a high performance molecular solar cell. The observations show that maximizing relative phase purity and structural order while simultaneously limiting the domain size may be essential for achieving optimal solar cell performances in solution processed small molecule solar cells.

    15. Tunable Rigidity of (Polymeric Core)–(Lipid Shell) Nanoparticles for Regulated Cellular Uptake

      Jiashu Sun, Lu Zhang, Jiuling Wang, Qiang Feng, Dingbin Liu, Qifang Yin, Dongyan Xu, Yujie Wei, Baoquan Ding, Xinghua Shi and Xingyu Jiang

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404788

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      Core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) with lipid shells and varying water content and rigidity but with the same chemical composition, size, and surface properties are assembled using a microfluidic platform. Rigidity can dramatically alter the cellular uptake efficiency, with more rigid NPs more easily passing through cell membranes. The mechanism accounting for this rigidity-dependent cellular uptake is revealed through atomistic-level simulations.

    16. Highly Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with a Photovoltaic Response in the Visible Light Range

      Zhong Zheng, Shaoqing Zhang, Maojie Zhang, Kang Zhao, Long Ye, Yu Chen, Bei Yang and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404525

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      Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion ­efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm.

    17. Wearable Magnetic Field Sensors for Flexible Electronics

      Michael Melzer, Jens Ingolf Mönch, Denys Makarov, Yevhen Zabila, Gilbert Santiago Cañón Bermúdez, Daniil Karnaushenko, Stefan Baunack, Falk Bahr, Chenglin Yan, Martin Kaltenbrunner and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405027

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      Highly flexible bismuth Hall sensors on polymeric foils are fabricated, and key optimization steps that are required to boost their sensitivity to the bulk value are identified. The sensor can be bent around the wrist or positioned on the finger to realize an interactive pointing device for wearable electronics. Furthermore, this technology is of great interest for the rapidly developing market of ­eMobility, for optimization of eMotors and magnetic bearings.

    18. Orderly Packed Anodes for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries with Super-Long Cycle Life: Rational Design of MnCO3/Large-Area Graphene Composites

      Yiren Zhong, Mei Yang, Xianlong Zhou, Yuting Luo, Jinping Wei and Zhen Zhou

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404611

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      MnCO3 particles uniformly distributed on large-area graphene form 2D composites whose large-area character enables them to self-assemble face-to-face into orderly packed electrodes. Such regular structures form continuous and efficient transport networks, leading to outstanding lithium storage with high capacity, ultralong cycle life, and excellent rate capability — all characteristics that are required for high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    19. Seamless Stitching of Graphene Domains on Polished Copper (111) Foil

      Van Luan Nguyen, Bong Gyu Shin, Dinh Loc Duong, Sung Tae Kim, David Perello, Young Jin Lim, Qing Hong Yuan, Feng Ding, Hu Young Jeong, Hyeon Suk Shin, Seung Mi Lee, Sang Hoon Chae, Quoc An Vu, Seung Hee Lee and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404541

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      Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) is proved clearly not only at atomic scale by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron micoscopy (TEM), but also at the macroscale by optical microscopy after UV-treatment. Using this concept of seamless stitching, we are able to synthesis 6 cm × 3 cm monocrystalline graphene without grain boundaries on polished copper (111) foil, which is only limited by the chamber size.

    20. A Novel, Layered Phase in Ti-Rich SrTiO3 Epitaxial Thin Films

      Sungki Lee, Anoop R. Damodaran, Prashun Gorai, Nuri Oh, Jarrett A. Moyer, Ji-Hwan Kwon, Naheed Ferdous, Amish Shah, Zuhuang Chen, Eric Breckenfeld, R. V. K. Mangalam, Paul V. Braun, Peter Schiffer, Moonsub Shim, Jian-Min Zuo, Elif Ertekin and Lane W. Martin

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403602

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      Sr2Ti7O14, a new phase, is synthesized by leveraging the innate chemical and thermo­dynamic instabilities in the SrTiO3–TiO2 system and non-equilibrium growth techniques. The chemical composition, epitaxial relationships, and orientation play roles in the formation of this novel layered phase that, in turn, possesses unusual charge ordering, anti-ferromagnetic ordering, and low, glass-like thermal conductivity.

  2. Reviews

    1. Self-Assembly of Functional Molecules into 1D Crystalline Nanostructures

      Yanbing Guo, Liang Xu, Huibiao Liu, Yongjun Li, Chi-Ming Che and Yuliang Li

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403846

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      The recent progress in self-assembled 1D crystalline nanostructures of functional molecules is discussed, with both small molecule-based crystalline nanostructures and functional polymer self-assembled 1D nanostructures. The molecular building blocks, the self-assembled structures, and the applications in optical, electrical, and photoelectrical devices are overviewed and a brief outlook on crucial issues that need to be addressed in future research endeavors is given.

  3. Communications

    1. Spatially Gradated Hydrogel Platform as a 3D Engineered Tumor Microenvironment

      Sara Pedron, Eftalda Becka and Brendan A. Harley

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404896

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      There is an acute need for biomaterial tools that recreate the heterogeneous brain tumor microenvironment. A microfluidic mixing tool to encapsulate glioblastoma multiforme cells within miniaturized gelatin hydrogels containing overlapping patterns of tumor-inspired matrix signals is reported. This approach permits in situ analysis of glioma cell at the molecular and genomic level as well as the potential for clinical insight.

    2. Tuning the Crystal Polymorphs of Alkyl Thienoacene via Solution Self-Assembly Toward Air-Stable and High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors

      Ping He, Zeyi Tu, Guangyao Zhao, Yonggang Zhen, Hua Geng, Yuanping Yi, Zongrui Wang, Hantang Zhang, Chunhui Xu, Jie Liu, Xiuqiang Lu, Xiaolong Fu, Qiang Zhao, Xiaotao Zhang, Deyang Ji, Lang Jiang, Huanli Dong and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404806

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      The first example for thienoacene derivatives with selective growth of different crystal polymorphs is simply achieved by solution-phase self-assembly. Compared with platelet-shaped α-phase crystals, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on microribbon-shaped β-phase crystals show a hole mobility up to 18.9 cm2 V−1 s−1, which is one of the highest values for p-type organic semiconductors measured under ambient conditions.

    3. Electric Field Control of the Magnetocaloric Effect

      Yuan-Yuan Gong, Dun-Hui Wang, Qing-Qi Cao, En-Ke Liu, Jian Liu and You-Wei Du

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404725

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      We demonstrate that, through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, the magnetocaloric effect of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy can be controlled by an electric field. Large hysteresis and limited operating temperature region are effectively overcome by applying electric field on a laminate consisting piezoelectric and alloy. Accordingly, a model for active magnetic refrigerator with high efficiency is proposed in principle.

    4. Integrated Nanotubes, Etch Tracks, and Nanoribbons in Crystallographic Alignment to a Graphene Lattice

      D. Patrick Hunley, Mathias J. Boland and Douglas R. Strachan

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404060

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      Carbon nanotubes, few-layer graphene, and etch tracks exposing insulating SiO2 regions are integrated into nanoscale systems with precise crystallographic orientations. These integrated systems consist of nanotubes grown across nanogap etch tracks and nanoribbons formed within the few-layer graphene films. This work is relevant to the integration of semiconducting, conducting, and insulating nanomaterials together into precise intricate systems.

    5. Exfoliation at the Liquid/Air Interface to Assemble Reduced Graphene Oxide Ultrathin Films for a Flexible Noncontact Sensing Device

      Xuewen Wang, Zuoping Xiong, Zheng Liu and Ting Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404069

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      Reduced graphene oxide ultrathin films are fabricated by a reproducible exfoliation method at the liquid/air interface, and they show high transparency, tunable sheet resistance, uniform electric conductivity, and structural homogeneity over a large area. A flexible relative humidity sensing matrix is demonstrated and it is shown to be excellent for close proximity sensing without touching it. This method opens up a novel avenue for future human–machine interaction applications.

    6. Synergistic Concurrent Enhancement of Charge Generation, Dissociation, and Transport in Organic Solar Cells with Plasmonic Metal–Carbon Nanotube Hybrids

      Ju Min Lee, Joonwon Lim, Nayeon Lee, Hyung Il Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Taewoo Jeon, Soo Ah Nam, Jehan Kim, Jonghwa Shin and Sang Ouk Kim

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404248

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      Plasmonic nanostructures are synthesized by decorating B- or N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Au nanoparticles. While the plasmonic nanoparticles promote exciton generation and dissociation, the B- and N-doped CNTs enable charge-selective transport enhancement in the organic active layer. Such concurrent enhancements of all the principal energy-harvesting steps improve device efficiency up to 9.98% for organic single-junction solar cells.

    7. An Organic Surface Modifier to Produce a High Work Function Transparent Electrode for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells

      Hyosung Choi, Hak-Beom Kim, Seo-Jin Ko, Jin Young Kim and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404172

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      Modification of ITO electrode with small-molecule organic surface modifier, 4-chloro­benzoic acid (CBA), via a simple spin-coating method produces a high-work-function electrode with high transparency and a hydrophobic surface. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, CBA modification achieves efficiency enhancement up to 8.5% which is attributed to enhanced light absorption within the active layer and smooth hole transport from the active layer to the anode.

    8. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Crown Jewel-Structured (IrPd)/Au Trimetallic Nanoclusters

      Haijun Zhang, Lilin Lu, Keisuke Kawashima, Mitsutaka Okumura, Masatake Haruta and Naoki Toshima

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404870

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      Crown jewel-structured (IrPd)/Au trimetallic nanoclusters are prepared by galvanic replacement reaction using Ir/Pd nanoclusters with a structure of Ir rich in core and Pd rich in shell as mother clusters. The catalytic activity of the top Au atoms for aerobic glucose oxidation of the trimetallic nanoclusters is the highest ever reported among all the supported and colloidal catalysts.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole-5,6-Dicarboxylic Imide – A Versatile Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free Processing of Organic Solar Cells with Efficiencies Exceeding 8%

      Christian B. Nielsen, Raja Shahid Ashraf, Neil D. Treat, Bob C. Schroeder, Jenny E. Donaghey, Andrew J. P. White, Natalie Stingelin and Iain McCulloch

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404858

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      A new photoactive polymer comprising benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b′:5,6-d′]trithiophene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide is reported. The synthetic design allows for alkyl chains to be introduced on both electron-rich and electron-deficient components, which in turn allows for rapid optimization of the alkyl chain substitution pattern. Consequently, the optimized polymer shows a maximum efficiency of 8.3% in organic photovoltaic devices processed in commercially viable fashion without solvent additives, annealing, or device engineering.

    10. Direct Observation of Dirac Cone in Multilayer Silicene Intercalation Compound CaSi2

      Eiichi Noguchi, Katsuaki Sugawara, Ritsuko Yaokawa, Taro Hitosugi, Hideyuki Nakano and Takashi Takahashi

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403077

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      Calcium-intercalated multilayer silicene CaSi2 exhibits a massless Dirac-cone π-electron band dispersion like graphene, while the Dirac point is about 2 eV away from the Fermi level due to the charge transfer from Ca atoms to silicene layers. This indicates that the graphene-like electronic structure with a massless Dirac cone is stably formed in the metal-intercalated multilayer silicene.

    11. Potential-Induced Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed by In Operando Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy

      Michael Bagge-Hansen, Brandon C. Wood, Tadashi Ogitsu, Trevor M. Willey, Ich C. Tran, Arne Wittstock, Monika M. Biener, Matthew D. Merrill, Marcus A. Worsley, Minoru Otani, Cheng-Hao Chuang, David Prendergast, Jinghua Guo, Theodore F. Baumann, Tony van Buuren, Jürgen Biener and Jonathan R. I. Lee

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403680

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      The dynamic physiochemical response of a functioning graphene-based aerogel supercapacitor is monitored in operando with soft X-ray spectroscopy and interpreted through ab initio atomistic simulations. Unanticipated changes in the electronic structure of the electrode as a function of applied voltage bias indicate structural modifications across multiple length scales via independent pseudocapacitive and electric double layer charge storage channels.

    12. Self-Beating Artificial Cells: Design of Cross-Linked Polymersomes Showing Self-Oscillating Motion

      Ryota Tamate, Takeshi Ueki and Ryo Yoshida

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404757

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      Biomimetic cross-linked polymersomes that exhibit self-beating motion without any on–off switching are developed. The polymersomes are made from a well-defined synthetic thermoresponsive diblock copolymer, and the thermoresponsive segment includes ruthenium catalysts for the oscillatory chemical reaction and vinylidene groups to cross-link the polymersomes. Autonomous volume and shape oscillations of the cross-linked polymersomes are realized following redox changes of the catalysts.

    13. Furin-Mediated Sequential Delivery of Anticancer Cytokine and Small-Molecule Drug Shuttled by Graphene

      Tianyue Jiang, Wujin Sun, Qiuwen Zhu, Nancy A. Burns, Saad A. Khan, Ran Mo and Zhen Gu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404498

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      A cellular protease (furin)-mediated graphene-based nanosystem is developed for co-delivery of a membrane-associated cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TRAIL) and an intracellular-acting small-molecule drug (Doxorubicin, DOX). TRAIL and DOX can be sequentially released toward the plasma membrane and nucleus, respectively.

    14. Hydrodynamic Assembly of Conductive Nanomesh of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Biological Glue

      Ki-Young Lee, Hye-Hyeon Byeon, Chaun Jang, Jee-Hyun Choi, In-Suk Choi, Younginha Jung, Woong Kim, Joonyeon Chang and Hyunjung Yi

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404483

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      A hydrodynamic phenomenon is used to assemble a large-scale conductive nanomesh of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with exceptional control of the nanostructure. This is accomplished by a biological material with nanoscale features and a strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The biological material also presents a unique glue effect for the assembly. Unprecedented material characteristics are observed for the nanomesh.

    15. Tailoring Graphene to Achieve Negative Poisson's Ratio Properties

      Joseph N. Grima, Szymon Winczewski, Luke Mizzi, Michael C. Grech, Reuben Cauchi, Ruben Gatt, Daphne Attard, Krzysztof W. Wojciechowski and Jarosław Rybicki

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404106

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      Graphene can be made auxetic through the introduction of vacancy defects. This results in the thinnest negative Poisson's ratio material at ambient conditions known so far, an effect achieved via a nanoscale de-wrinkling mechanism that mimics the behavior at the macroscale exhibited by a crumpled sheet of paper when stretched.

    16. Colloidal Superstructures Programmed into Magnetic Janus Particles

      Jing Yan, Sung Chul Bae and Steve Granick

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403857

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      By engineering thin magnetic films onto homogeneous colloidal particles, various crystalline lattices are induced from simple magnetic Janus spheres. In situ formation of dicolloids amplifies the diversity of achievable dynamic structures. The competition between shape anisotropy and dipole orientation generates mesoscopic isomerism. This opens design space for anisotropic building blocks for smart colloidal materials.

    17. An Imagable and Photothermal “Abraxane-Like” Nanodrug for Combination Cancer Therapy to Treat Subcutaneous and Metastatic Breast Tumors

      Qian Chen, Chao Liang, Chao Wang and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404308

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      A new “Abraxane-like” nanotheranostic formulation self-assembled from three clinically approved agents, human serum albumin, paclitaxel, and indocyanine green, is developed. Utilizing such a newly formulated nanodrug, combined photothermal and chemotherapy is conducted under the guidance of imaging, not only effectively eliminating subcutaneous tumors, but also significantly inhibiting the development of metastatic tumors in this proof-of-concept study.

    18. Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices Comprising Stacked Light-Emitting Units by Solution-Based Processes

      Yong-Jin Pu, Takayuki Chiba, Kazushige Ideta, Shogo Takahashi, Naoya Aizawa, Tatsuya Hikichi and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403973

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      Multi-organic light-emitting devices comprising two light-emitting units stacked in series through a charge-generation layer are fabricated by solution processes. A zinc oxide nanoparticles/polyethylene­imine bilayer is used as the electron-injection layer and phosphomolybdic acid is used as the charge-generation layer. Appropriate choice of solvents during spin-coating of each layer ensures the nine-layered structure fabricated by solution processes.

    19. A New Application Area for Fullerenes: Voltage Stabilizers for Power Cable Insulation

      Markus Jarvid, Anette Johansson, Renee Kroon, Jonas M. Bjuggren, Harald Wutzel, Villgot Englund, Stanislaw Gubanski, Mats R. Andersson and Christian Müller

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404306

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      Fullerenes are shown to be efficient voltage-stabilizers for polyethylene, i.e., additives that increase the dielectric strength of the insulation material. Such compounds are highly sought-after because their use in power cable insulation may considerably enhance the transmission efficiency of tomorrow's power grids. On a molal basis, fullerenes are the most efficient voltage stabilizers reported to date.

    20. Piezo-phototronic Boolean Logic and Computation Using Photon and Strain Dual-Gated Nanowire Transistors

      Ruomeng Yu, Wenzhuo Wu, Caofeng Pan, Zhaona Wang, Yong Ding and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404589

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      Using polarization charges created at the metal–cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli.

    21. Single-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Nanosheet-Based Nanosensors for Rapid, Sensitive, and Multiplexed Detection of DNA

      Ying Zhang, Bing Zheng, Changfeng Zhu, Xiao Zhang, Chaoliang Tan, Hai Li, Bo Chen, Jian Yang, Junze Chen, Ying Huang, Lianhui Wang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404568

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      Single-layer transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, including MoS2, TiS2, and TaS2, are used as novel sensing platforms for sensitive and selective detection of DNA, based on their high fluorescence-quenching ability and different affinities toward single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Importantly, for the first time, a single-layer TaS2 nanosheet-based multiplexed DNA sensor is also developed.

    22. Unlocking the Full Potential of Conducting Polymers for High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Devices

      Yi-Hsiang Huang, Wei-Lung Tsai, Wei-Kai Lee, Min Jiao, Chun-Yang Lu, Chun-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Chen and Chung-Chih Wu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404546

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      By carefully tuning the thicknesses of low-optical index PEDOT:PSS and high-index ITO layers in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), very high optical coupling efficiencies can be obtained through the generation of appropriate microcavity effects. These experiments result in an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 33.7% for green phosphorescent OLEDs and even higher EQEs of 54.3% can be obtained by adopting an external out-coupling lens.

    23. Transparent Organic Upconversion Devices for Near-Infrared Sensing

      Shun-Wei Liu, Chih-Chien Lee, Chih-Hsien Yuan, Wei-Cheng Su, Shao-Yu Lin, Wen-Chang Chang, Bo-Yao Huang, Chun-Feng Lin, Ya-Ze Lee, Tsung-Hao Su and Kuan-Ting Chen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404355

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      Transparent organic upconversion devices are shown in a night-vision demonstration of a real object under near-infrared (NIR) illumination in the dark. An extraordinarily high current gain – reflecting the on–off switching effect – greater than 15 000 at a driving voltage of 3 V is demonstrated, indicating the high sensitivity to NIR light and potential of using the proposed upconverter in practical applications. A maximum luminance exceeding 1500 cd m−2 at 7 V is achieved. Unlike previous studies, where 2D aperture projection is reported, the current study shows 3D images of real objects under NIR illumination in the dark.

    24. Fast Printing and In Situ Morphology Observation of Organic Photovoltaics Using Slot-Die Coating

      Feng Liu, Sunzida Ferdous, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer, Matthew Church, Xiaodong Ding, Cheng Wang and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404040

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      The mini-slot-die coater offers a simple, convenient, materials-efficient route to print bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that show efficiencies similar to spin-coating. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and GI small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) methods are used in real time to characterize the active-layer formation during printing. A polymer-aggregation–phase-separation–crystallization mechanism for the evolution of the morphology describes the observations.

    25. Synergistic Doping of Fullerene Electron Transport Layer and Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids Enhances Solar Cell Performance

      Mingjian Yuan, Oleksandr Voznyy, David Zhitomirsky, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos and Edward H. Sargent

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404411

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      The spatial location of the predominant source of performance-limiting recombination in today's best colloidal quantum dot (CQD) cells is identified, pinpointing the TiO2:CQD junction; then, a highly n-doped PCBM layer is introduced at the CQD:TiO2 heterointerface. An n-doped PCBM layer is essential to maintain the depletion region and allow for efficient current extraction, thereby producing a record 8.9% in overall power conversion efficiency.

  4. Reviews

    1. Exploring the Potential of Nucleic Acid Bases in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

      Eliot F. Gomez, Vishak Venkatraman, James G. Grote and Andrew J. Steckl

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403532

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      Nucleic acid bases show promise as biomaterials for OLEDs due to a diverse range of properties. Guanine and adenine thin films are very good hole-transporting materials while cytosine, thymine, and uracil are efficient electron-transporting materials. The confluence of their diverse electronic properties, simple thin-film fabrication, and renewable origins lays the groundwork for further development of bioelectronic devices.

  5. Communications

    1. Microcontact-Printing-Assisted Access of Graphitic Carbon Nitride Films with Favorable Textures toward Photoelectrochemical Application

      Jian Liu, Hongqiang Wang, Zu Peng Chen, Helmuth Moehwald, Sebastian Fiechter, Roel van de Krol, Liping Wen, Lei Jiang and Markus Antonietti

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404543

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      The “ink” (cyanamide) infiltrated AAO stamp is found capable of printing carbon nitride films featuring regular microstructures of the stamp onto the substrates via in situ “chemical vapor deposition”. A photocurrent density of 30.2 μA cm–2 ­­at 1.23 VRHE has been achieved for a film on a conductive substrate, which is so far the highest value for pure carbon nitride based photoelectrochemical devices.

    2. Protecting Metal-Organic Framework Crystals from Hydrolytic Degradation by Spray-Dry Encapsulating Them into Polystyrene Microspheres

      Arnau Carné-Sánchez, Kyriakos C. Stylianou, Carlos Carbonell, Majid Naderi, Inhar Imaz and Daniel Maspoch

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403827

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      Many metal-organic frameworks are water labile, including the iconic Hong-Kong University of Science and Technology-1 (HKUST-1). We report here the spray-dry encapsulation of HKUST-1 crystals into polystyrene microspheres to yield composites that are resistant to water yet retaining most of the excellent gas sorption capacity of HKUST-1. We demonstrate that these composites exhibit superior water adsorption/desorption cycling, maintaining the level of water uptake even after three cycles.

    3. Liquid-Impermeable Inverse Opals with Invariant Photonic Bandgap

      Hyelim Kang, Joon-Seok Lee, Won Seok Chang and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404706

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      Omniphobic inverse opals are created by structurally and chemically modifying the surface of inverse opals through reactive ion etching. During the etching, avoid arrays of the inverse opal surface evolves to a triangular post array with re-entrant geometry. The elaborate structure can efficiently pin the air–liquid interface and retain air cavities against water and oil, thereby providing liquid-impermeable inverse opals with invariant photonic bandgap.

    4. Ultrahigh Energy Density of Polymer Nanocomposites Containing BaTiO3@TiO2 Nanofibers by Atomic-Scale Interface Engineering

      Xin Zhang, Yang Shen, Qinghua Zhang, Lin Gu, Yuhan Hu, Jiawen Du, Yuanhua Lin and Ce-Wen Nan

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404101

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      Atomic-scale interface engineering in BaTiO3@TO2 nanofibers (TiO2 nano­fibers embedded with BaTiO3 nano­particles) leads to concurrent enhancement of electric displacement and breakdown strength in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based nanocomposites. An ultrahigh energy density of ≈20 J cm–3 is achieved with only 3 vol% nanofibers, which is by far the highest discharged energy density of PVDF-based nanocomposites.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Chemically Specific Multiscale Modeling of Clay–Polymer Nanocomposites Reveals Intercalation Dynamics, Tactoid Self-Assembly and Emergent Materials Properties

      James L. Suter, Derek Groen and Peter V. Coveney

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403361

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      The unusual materials properties of clay–polymer nanocomposites are investigated through a chemically specific multiscale modeling scheme. This commences at the quantum-mechanical level and systematically transfers information through an atomistic representation to a coarse-grained description that describes the dynamics of polymer intercalation into the clay galleries and the ensuing evolution of the microstructure, whose materials properties can thereby be predicted.

  7. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Wearable Organic Optoelectronic Sensors for Medicine

      Ashu K. Bansal, Shuoben Hou, Olena Kulyk, Eric M. Bowman and Ifor D. W. Samuel

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403560

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      Organic optoelectronic devices that can be used to make compact, wearable sensors for medicine and sports are shown and two examples are given: a tissue-oxygenation sensor and a muscle-contraction sensor. It is demonstrated how the muscle-contraction sensor on a volunteer's arm can successfully control the robot arm.

    2. Focused Energy Field Method for the Localized Synthesis and Direct Integration of 1D Nanomaterials on Microelectronic Devices

      Daejong Yang, Donghwan Kim, Seung Hwan Ko, Albert P. Pisano, Zhiyong Li and Inkyu Park

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404192

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      In the focused energy field method, localized heating, and convective mass transfer in liquid precursor realizes selective synthesis and direct integration of 1D nanomaterials as well as their surface functionalization, all in low-temperature, liquid environment. This allows facile fabrication of 1D nanomaterial-based nanoelectronic devices.

  8. Reviews

    1. The Lithium/Air Battery: Still an Emerging System or a Practical Reality?

      Lorenzo Grande, Elie Paillard, Jusef Hassoun, Jin-Bum Park, Yung-Jung Lee, Yang-Kook Sun, Stefano Passerini and Bruno Scrosati

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403064

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      The recent, large-scale deployment of electric vehicles fuels research into high energy density electrochemical storage. However, the question remains as to whether Li/air cells, often termed as the “holy grail of batteries”, can meet the requirements of the automotive industry. This review addresses the matter from an academic and a technological standpoint.

  9. Communications

    1. Bifunctionalized Mesoporous Silica-Supported Gold Nanoparticles: Intrinsic Oxidase and Peroxidase Catalytic Activities for Antibacterial Applications

      Yu Tao, Enguo Ju, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201405105

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      Bifunctionalized mesoporous silica-supported gold nanoparticles as oxidase and peroxidase mimics for antibacterial applications are demonstrated. For the first time, the mesoporous silica-supported gold nanoparticles have been applied as the oxidase and peroxidase mimics. Taking the advantages of their prominent enzyme activities, the MSN-AuNPs showed excellent antibacterial properties against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, MSN-AuNPs also exhibited outstanding performance in biofilm elimination.

    2. Significant Enhancement of Infrared Photodetector Sensitivity Using a Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/C60 Phototransistor

      Steve Park, Soo Jin Kim, Ji Hyun Nam, Gregory Pitner, Tae Hoon Lee, Alexander L. Ayzner, Huiliang Wang, Scott W. Fong, Michael Vosgueritchian, Young Jun Park, Mark L. Brongersma and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404544

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      A highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube/C60-based infrared photo­transistor is fabricated with a responsivity of 97.5 A W−1 and detectivity of 1.17 × 109 Jones at 1 kHz under a source/drain bias of –0.5 V. The much improved performance is enabled by this unique device architecture that enables a high photoconductive gain of ≈104 with a response time of several milliseconds.

    3. Synergistic Effect of Polymer and Small Molecules for High-Performance Ternary Organic Solar Cells

      Yajie Zhang, Dan Deng, Kun Lu, Jianqi Zhang, Benzheng Xia, Yifan Zhao, Jin Fang and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404902

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      A ternary blend system with two donors and one acceptor provides an effective route to improve the performance of organic solar cells. A synergistic effect of polymer and small molecules is observed in ternary solar cells, and the PCE of the ternary system (8.40%) is higher than that of binary systems based on small molecules (7.48%) or polymers (6.85%).

  10. Reviews

    1. Inkjet Technology for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

      David Stüwe, Dario Mager, Daniel Biro and Jan G. Korvink

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403631

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      This article reviews investigations of inkjet-printing in the field of silicon photovoltaics. The focus is on different inkjet processes for the individual fabrication steps of a solar cell. It also provides a technological overview and suggestions on future work. The wide field of applications highlights the ability of inkjet technology to find its way into other areas of functional printing and printed electronics.

  11. Communications

    1. Highly Crystalline Films of PCPDTBT with Branched Side Chains by Solvent Vapor Crystallization: Influence on Opto-Electronic Properties

      Florian S. U. Fischer, Daniel Trefz, Justus Back, Navaphun Kayunkid, Benjamin Tornow, Steve Albrecht, Kevin G. Yager, Gurpreet Singh, Alamgir Karim, Dieter Neher, Martin Brinkmann and Sabine Ludwigs

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403475

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      PCPDTBT, a marginally crystallizable polymer, is crystallized into a new crystal structure using solvent vapor annealing. Highly ordered areas with three different polymer chain orientations are identified using TEM/ED, GIWAXS, and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Optical and structural properties differ significantly from films prepared by standard device preparation protocols. Bilayer solar cells, however, show similar performance.

    2. A Stencil Printed, High Energy Density Silver Oxide Battery Using a Novel Photopolymerizable Poly(acrylic acid) Separator

      Kyle Braam and Vivek Subramanian

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404149

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      A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm−2 at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm−2 (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness.

    3. Design of an Efficient Charge-Trapping Layer with a Built-In Tunnel Barrier for Reliable Organic-Transistor Memory

      Young-Su Park and Jang-Sik Lee

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404625

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      A fully feasible and versatile way to fabricate highly reliable organic-transistor memory devices is made possible by a novel design of the charge-trappling layer. Gold@silica (core–shell)-structured nanoparticles are synthesized and used as the charge-trapping layer. Superior electrical reliability is obtained because the silica shell acts as a built-in tunnel potential barrier.

    4. Sweet Substrate: A Polysaccharide Nanocomposite for Conformal Electronic Decals

      Michael A. Daniele, Adrian J. Knight, Steven A. Roberts, Kathryn Radom and Jeffrey S. Erickson

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404445

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      A conformal electronic decal based on a polysaccharide circuit board (PCB) is fabricated and characterized. The PCBs are laminates composed of bioderived sugars – nanocellulose and pullulan. The PCB and decal transfer are a bioactive material system for supporting electronic devices capable of conforming to bio­logical surfaces.

    5. Electron Diffraction of an In Situ Strained Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube

      Joseph J. Brown, Matthias Muoth, Christofer Hierold and Victor M. Bright

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404391

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      The strain-induced change in a carbon-nanotube diffraction pattern is found after applying strain, using a microelectromechanical tensile stage, to the outer shell of a double-walled carbon nanotube, while the inner shell provides an unstrained reference pattern. The nanotube is found to have chirality (63,21)@(65,32) with 16–20° tilt and strain up to 1% in the outer shell.

    6. A Multitheragnostic Nanobubble System to Induce Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption with Magnetically Guided Focused Ultrasound

      Hsin-Yang Huang, Hao-Li Liu, Po-Hung Hsu, Chih-Sheng Chiang, Chih-Hung Tsai, Huei-Shang Chi, San-Yuan Chen and You-Yin Chen

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403889

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      A novel magnetically guidable nanobubble is designed for disrupting the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by combining magnetic guidance with focused ultrasound in vivo. The magnetic-nanobubble platform also demonstrates the potential to serve as a unique theranostic tool via performing focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced BBB disruption and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound dual-modality contrast-agent imaging to improve the drug delivery of therapeutic substances or gene therapy into the central nervous system.

    7. Switching-On Quantum Size Effects in Silicon Nanocrystals

      Wei Sun, Chenxi Qian, Liwei Wang, Muan Wei, Melanie L. Mastronardi, Gilberto Casillas, Josef Breu and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403552

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      The size-dependence of the absolute luminescence quantum yield of size-separated silicon nanocrystals reveals a “volcano” behavior, which switches on around 5 nm, peaks at near 3.7–3.9 nm, and decreases thereafter. These three regions respectively define: i) the transition from bulk to strongly quantum confined emissive silicon, ii) increasing confinement enhancing radiative recombination, and iii) increasing contributions favoring non-radiative recombination.

  12. Research News

    1. Shedding Light on Living Cells

      Maria Rosa Antognazza, Nicola Martino, Diego Ghezzi, Paul Feyen, Elisabetta Colombo, Duco Endeman, Fabio Benfenati and Guglielmo Lanzani

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403513

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      Optical stimulation of cells and tissues is becoming a key technology in biology and medicine due to the high spatial and temporal resolutions achievable. Recent advancements in materials science are providing new ways to transduce light excitation into biochemical stimuli, expanding the available tools for the understanding of complex interactions in biological systems.

  13. Communications

    1. Flexible Organic Electrochemical Transistors for Highly Selective Enzyme Biosensors and Used for Saliva Testing

      Caizhi Liao, Chunhin Mak, Meng Zhang, Helen L. W. Chan and Feng Yan

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404378

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      Flexible organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are successfully used as high-performance enzyme biosensors, such as uric acid (UA) and cholesterol sensors. The sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors can be simultaneously enhanced by co-modifying the gate electrodes with positively/negatively charged bilayer polymer films and enzymes. These OECT-based UA sensors are successfully utilized for non-invasive UA detection in human saliva.

    2. Simplified Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with an Ideal Self-Organized Recombination Layer

      Hongkyu Kang, Seyoung Kee, Kilho Yu, Jinho Lee, Geunjin Kim, Junghwan Kim, Jae-Ryoung Kim, Jaemin Kong and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404765

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      A new tandem architecture for printable photovoltaics using a versatile organic nanocomposite containing photoactive and interfacial materials is demonstrated. The nanocomposite forms an ideal self-organized recombination layer via a spontaneous vertical phase separation, which yields a simplified tandem structure fabricated with only four component layers and a high tandem efficiency of 10.8%.

    3. Biologically Inspired, Sophisticated Motions from Helically Assembled, Conducting Fibers

      Peining Chen, Yifan Xu, Sisi He, Xuemei Sun, Wenhan Guo, Zhitao Zhang, Longbin Qiu, Jianfeng Li, Daoyong Chen and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402867

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      A hierarchically helical organization of carbon nanotubes into macroscopic fibers enables sophistication while controlling three-dimensional electromechanical actuations, e.g., an artificial swing and tail. The actuation generates a stress of more than 260 times that of a typical natural skeletal muscle and an accelerated velocity of more than 10 times that of a cheetah at low electric currents with high reversibility, good stability, and availability to various media.

    4. High-Performance and Environmentally Stable Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on a Solution-Processed Copper-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole-Transporting Layer

      Jong H. Kim, Po-Wei Liang, Spencer T. Williams, Namchul Cho, Chu-Chen Chueh, Micah S. Glaz, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404189

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      An effective approach to significantly increase the electrical conductivity of a NiOx hole-transporting layer (HTL) to achieve high-efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. Perovskite solar cells based on using Cu-doped NiOx HTL show a remarkably improved power conversion efficiency up to 15.40% due to the improved electrical conductivity and enhanced perovskite film quality. General applicability of Cu-doped NiOx to larger bandgap perovskites is also demonstrated in this study.

    5. Transparent Conductive Electrodes from Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Inks for Ultrathin Organic Photodetectors

      Zhaoyang Liu, Khaled Parvez, Rongjin Li, Renhao Dong, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403826

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      A novel solution fabrication of large-area, highly conductive graphene films by spray-coating of a hybrid ink of exfoliated graphene (EG)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (PH1000) is demonstrated. The fabricated graphene films exhibit excellent mechanical properties, thus enabling their application as bottom electrodes in ultrathin organic photodetector devices with performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art Si-based inorganic photodetectors.

    6. Water-Triggered Luminescent “Nano-bombs” Based on Supra-(Carbon Nanodots)

      Qing Lou, Songnan Qu, Pengtao Jing, Wenyu Ji, Di Li, Junsheng Cao, Hong Zhang, Lei Liu, Jialong Zhao and Dezhen Shen

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403635

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      Novel luminescent “nano-bombs” based on a self-assembled system of carbon-nanodots, termed supra-CDs, are developed. The luminescence of these luminescent “nano-bombs” depends strongly on water contact; they show weak emission in toluene and decompose in contact with water, resulting in strong photoluminescence. Paper coated with these “nano-bombs” is successfully applied for water-jet printing of luminescence patterns and the mapping of human sweat-pore patterns.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A Thermoresponsive and Magnetic Colloid for 3D Cell Expansion and Reconfiguration

      Aram Saeed, Nora Francini, Lisa White, James Dixon, Toby Gould, Hassan Rashidi, Racha Cheikh Al Ghanami, Veronika Hruschka, Heinz Redl, Brian R. Saunders, Cameron Alexander and Kevin M. Shakesheff

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403626

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      A dual thermoresponsive and magnetic colloidal gel matrix is described for enhanced stem-cell culture. The combined properties of the material allow enzyme-free passaging and expansion of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as isolation of cells postculture by the simple process of lowering the temperature and applying an external magnetic field. The colloidal gel can be reconfigured with thermal and magnetic stimuli to allow patterning of cells in discrete zones and to control movement of cells within the porous matrix during culture.

    8. Gram-Positive Antimicrobial Activity of Amino Acid-Based Hydrogels

      I. Irwansyah, Yong-Qiang Li, Wenxiong Shi, Dianpeng Qi, Wan Ru Leow, Mark B. Y. Tang, Shuzhou Li and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403339

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      Antimicrobial hydrogels are prepared based on the co-assembly of commercial Fmoc-phenylalanine and Fmoc-leucine, which act as the hydrogelator and antimicrobial building block, respectively. This co-assembled antimicrobial hydrogel is demonstrated to exhibit selective bactericidal activity for gram-positive bacteria while being biocompatible with normal mammalian cells, showing great potential as an antimicrobial coating for clinical anti-infective applications.

    9. Soluble Organic Semiconductor Precursor with Specific Phase Separation for High-Performance Printed Organic Transistors

      Yu Kimura, Takashi Nagase, Takashi Kobayashi, Azusa Hamaguchi, Yoshinori Ikeda, Takashi Shiro, Kazuo Takimiya and Hiroyoshi Naito

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404052

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      A soluble precursor of dinaphtho[2,3-b:2,3-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) is developed for high-performance printed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The DNTT precursor enables excellent thin-film formation and can induce specific phase separations when blended with inert polymers. The DNTT OTFTs processed from the precursor/polymer blend exhibit field-effect mobilities of up to 1.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 and excellent durability against air exposure and thermal stress.

    10. A Tetraphenylethylene Core-Based 3D Structure Small Molecular Acceptor Enabling Efficient Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells

      Yuhang Liu, Cheng Mu, Kui Jiang, Jingbo Zhao, Yunke Li, Lu Zhang, Zhengke Li, Joshua Yuk Lin Lai, Huawei Hu, Tingxuan Ma, Rongrong Hu, Demei Yu, Xuhui Huang, Ben Zhong Tang and He Yan

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404152

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      A tetraphenylethylene core-based small molecular acceptor with a unique 3D molecular structure is developed. Bulk-hetero­jucntion blend films with a small feature size (≈20 nm) are obtained, which lead to non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) with 5.5% power conversion efficiency. The work provides a new molecular design approach to efficient non-fullerene OSCs based on 3D-structured small-molecule acceptors.

    11. Organic Solar Cells Using a High-Molecular-Weight Benzodithiophene–Benzothiadiazole Copolymer with an Efficiency of 9.4%

      Jegadesan Subbiah, Balaji Purushothaman, Ming Chen, Tianshi Qin, Mei Gao, Doojin Vak, Fiona H. Scholes, Xiwen Chen, Scott E. Watkins, Gerard J. Wilson, Andrew B. Holmes, Wallace W. H. Wong and David J. Jones

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403080

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      A high molecular weight donor–acceptor conjugated polymer is synthesized using Suzuki polycondensation method. Using this polymer, a single junction bulk heterojunction solar cell is fabricated giving a power conversion efficiency of 9.4% using a fullerene-modified ZnO interlayer at the cathode contact.

  14. Reviews

    1. Tailoring Functional Interlayers in Organic Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors

      Maria Magliulo, Kyriaki Manoli, Eleonora Macchia, Gerardo Palazzo and Luisa Torsi

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403477

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      Biomaterials are successfully integrated in OTFT devices as biorecognition elements to develop ultrasensitive label-free electronic biosensors or as gating materials to obtain highly performing devices.

  15. Communications

    1. Active Micro-Actuators for Optical Modulation Based on a Planar Sliding Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Chi Zhang, Wei Tang, Yaokun Pang, Changbao Han and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404291

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      Based on a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) the first active micro-actuator for optical modulation driven by mechanical energy without external power or mechanical joint is presented. This demonstrates the enormous potential of TENGs for independent and sustainable self-powered micro/nano electromechanical systems, and opens up new ­applications of TENGs in triboelectric-voltage-controlled devices.

    2. Superelastic Supercapacitors with High Performances during Stretching

      Zhitao Zhang, Jue Deng, Xueyi Li, Zhibin Yang, Sisi He, Xuli Chen, Guozhen Guan, Jing Ren and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404573

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      A fiber-shaped supercapacitor that can be stretched over 400% is developed by using two aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets as electrodes. A high specific capacitance of approximately 79.4 F g−1 is well maintained after stretching at a strain of 300% for 5000 cycles or 100.8 F g−1 after bending for 5000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g−1. In particular, the high specific capacitance is maintained by 95.8% at a stretching speed as high as 30 mm s−1.

    3. Large-Pore Ultrasmall Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles: Micelle/Precursor Co-templating Assembly and Nuclear-Targeted Gene Delivery

      Meiying Wu, Qingshuo Meng, Yu Chen, Yanyan Du, Lingxia Zhang, Yaping Li, Linlin Zhang and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404256

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      A novel micelle/precursor co-templating assembly strategy is successfully developed to synthesize large-pore ultrasmall mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Furthermore, elaborately designed MONs with a cell-penetrating peptide (TAT) (MONs–PTAT) are constructed for highly efficient intranuclear gene delivery. They exhibit a high loading capacity, improved protection for the loaded gene, and enhanced transfection efficiencies of EGFP plasmid (pEGFP).

    4. Multicolored Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes

      Young-Hoon Kim, Himchan Cho, Jin Hyuck Heo, Tae-Sik Kim, NoSoung Myoung, Chang-Lyoul Lee, Sang Hyuk Im and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403751

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      Bright organic/inorganic hybrid perov­skite light-emitting diodes (PrLEDs) are realized by using CH3NH3PbBr3 as an emitting layer and self-organized buffer hole-injection layer (Buf-HIL). The PrLEDs show high luminance, current efficiency, and EQE of 417 cd m−2, 0.577 cd A−1, and 0.125%, respectively. Buf-HIL can facilitate hole injection into CH3NH3PbBr3 as well as block exciton quenching.

    5. Poly(dimethyltin glutarate) as a Prospective Material for High Dielectric Applications

      Aaron F. Baldwin, Rui Ma, Arun Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Tran Doan Huan, Chenchen Wang, Mattewos Tefferi, Jolanta E. Marszalek, Mukerrem Cakmak, Yang Cao, Rampi Ramprasad and Gregory A. Sotzing

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404162

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      Poly(dimethyltin glutarate) is presented as the first organometallic polymer, a high dielectric constant, and low dielectric loss material. Theoretical results correspond well in terms of the dielectric constant. More importantly, the dielectric constant can be tuned depending on the solvent a film of the polymer is cast from. The breakdown strength is increased through blending with a second organometallic polymer.

    6. Wavelength-Selective Dual p- and n-Type Carrier Transport of an Organic/Graphene/Inorganic Heterostructure

      Po-Hsun Ho, Shao-Sian Li, Yi-Ting Liou, Cheng-Yen Wen, Yi-Hsuan Chung and Chun-Wei Chen

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403694

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      A novel organic/graphene/inorganic ­heterostructure, consisting of a graphene layer encapsulated by n- and p-type photoactive materials with complementary absorptions, enables the control of dual n- and p-typed transport behaviors of a graphene transistor under selective UV or visible light illumination. A graphene-based p-n junction created by spatially patterned wavelength-selective illumination using the organic/graphene/inorganic heterostructure is also demonstrated.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic Algorithm-Guided Discovery of Additive Combinations That Direct Quantum Dot Assembly

      Lukmaan A. Bawazer, Johannes Ihli, Timothy P. Comyn, Kevin Critchley, Christopher J. Empson and Fiona C. Meldrum

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403185

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      The use of combinations of organic additives to control crystallization, as occurs in biomineralization, is rarely investigated due to the vast potential reaction space. It is demonstrated here that combinatorial approaches led by genetic algorithm heuristics can enable identification of active additive combinations, and four key organic molecules are rapidly identified, which generate highly fluorescent CdS quantum dot superstructures.

    8. Multigrain Platinum Nanowires Consisting of Oriented Nanoparticles Anchored on Sulfur-Doped Graphene as a Highly Active and Durable Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst

      Md Ariful Hoque, Fathy M. Hassan, Drew Higgins, Ja-Yeon Choi, Mark Pritzker, Shanna Knights, Siyu Ye and Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404426

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      Direct growth of multigrain platinum nanowires on sulfur-doped graphene (PtNW/SG) is reported. The growth mechanism, including Pt nanoparticle nucleation on SG, followed by nanoparticle attachment with orientation along the <111> direction is highlighted. PtNW/SG demonstrates improved Pt mass and specific activity compared to commercial catalysts towards oxygen reduction, in addition to dramatically improved stability through accelerated durability testing.

    9. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal–Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generators

      Yasuhiro Ikezoe, Justin Fang, Tomasz L. Wasik, Takashi Uemura, Yongtai Zheng, Susumu Kitagawa and Hiroshi Matsui

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404273

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      Peptide–metal–organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF.

    10. Tailored Pore Sizes in Integral Asymmetric Membranes Formed by Blends of Block Copolymers

      Maryam Radjabian and Volker Abetz

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404309

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      A simple way to generate isoporous membranes with tailored pore sizes is shown. Block copolymers of different compositions are blended in solution and membranes are obtained by solution casting followed by nonsolvent-induced phase separation. This enables the preparation of integral asymmetric membranes with a defined pore size for given sets of block copolymers just by choosing the right blend composition.

    11. Generation of Novel Hybrid Aptamer–Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric Nanoparticles

      Alessandro Poma, Heli Brahmbhatt, Hannah M. Pendergraff, Jonathan K. Watts and Nicholas W. Turner

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404235

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      A strategy to exploit aptamers as recognition elements of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (AptaMIP NPs) is presented, via modification of the chemical structure of the DNA. It is demonstrated that the introduction of this modified “aptamer monomer” results in an increase of the affinity of the produced MIP NPs, without altering their physical properties such as size, shape, or dispersibility.

    12. Self-Powered Water Splitting Using Flowing Kinetic Energy

      Wei Tang, Yu Han, Chang Bao Han, Cai Zhen Gao, Xia Cao and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404071

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      By utilizing the water-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator, a fully self-powered water splitting process is demonstrated using the electricity converted from a water flow without additional energy costs. Considering the extremely low costs, the demonstrated approach is universally applicable and practically usable for future water electrolysis, which may initiate a research direction in the field of triboelectrolysis and possibly impacts energy science in general.

    13. Fabrication of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3–δ Catalysts with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance by Removing an Inherent Heterogeneous Surface Film Layer

      Jae-Il Jung, Hu Young Jeong, Min Gyu Kim, Gyutae Nam, Joohyuk Park and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403897

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      A heat-treatment approach for Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3–δ (BSCF5582) is introduced as a way of enhancing electrocatalytic performance of perovskite catalysts. The perovskite made by heat-treatment in oxygen atmosphere has lost around 30 nm of spinel layer on the surface relative to the untreated version, and demonstrates enhanced oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activities.

    14. From UV to Near-Infrared, WS2 Nanosheet: A Novel Photocatalyst for Full Solar Light Spectrum Photodegradation

      Yuanhua Sang, Zhenhuan Zhao, Mingwen Zhao, Pin Hao, Yanhua Leng and Hong Liu

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403264

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      Narrow bandgap semiconductors WS2 nanosheets are active photocatalysts either under the visible or under NIR irradiation. The photocatalyst functions are confirmed via photogeneration of an electron-hole pair, with a low rate of recombination.

    15. Bioelectronic Light-Gated Transistors with Biologically Tunable Performance

      Ramya H. Tunuguntla, Mangesh A. Bangar, Kyunghoon Kim, Pieter Stroeve, Costas Grigoropoulos, Caroline M. Ajo-Franklin and Aleksandr Noy

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403988

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      Light-activated bioelectronic silicon nanowire transistor devices are made by fusing proteoliposomes containing a bacteriorhodopsin proton pump onto the nanowire surface. Under green-light illumination bR pumps protons toward the nanowire, and the pH gradient developed by the pump changes the transistor output. Furthermore, co-assembly of small biomolecules that alter the bilayer permeability to other ions can upregulate and downregulate the response of field-effect transistor devices.

    16. Tandem Solar Cells Made from Amorphous Silicon and Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Sub-Cells

      Sung Heum Park, Insoo Shin, Kwang Ho Kim, Robert Street, Anshuman Roy and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403849

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      A tandem solar cell based on a combination of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polymer solar cell (PSC) is demonstrated. As these tandem devices can be readily fabricated by low-cost methods, they require only a minor increase in the total manufacturing cost. Therefore, a combination of a-Si and PSC provides a compelling solution to reduce the cost of electricity produced by photovoltaics.

    17. Large-Scale Assembly of Single Nanowires through Capillary-Assisted Dielectrophoresis

      Maéva Collet, Sven Salomon, Naiara Yohanna Klein, Florent Seichepine, Christophe Vieu, Liviu Nicu and Guilhem Larrieu

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403039

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      An innovative technique is proposed for the precise and scalable placement of 1D nanostructures in an affordable manner. This approach combines dielectrophoresis phenomenon and capillary assembly to successfully align thousands of single nanowires at specific locations at the wafer. The nanowires are selectively trapped by taking advantage of the material-­specific frequence dependence.

    18. Single-Junction Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 10% Power Conversion Efficiency

      Jing-De Chen, Chaohua Cui, Yan-Qing Li, Lei Zhou, Qing-Dong Ou, Chi Li, Yongfang Li and Jian-Xin Tang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404535

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      A single-junction polymer solar cell with an efficiency of 10.1% is demonstrated by using deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for broadband light harvesting with optimum charge extraction. The performance enhancement is ascribed to the self-enhanced absorption due to collective effects, including the pattern-induced anti-reflection, light scattering as well as surface plasmonic resonance, together with a minimized recombination probability.

    19. Magnetochromatic Thin-Film Microplates

      Le He, Michael Janner, Qipeng Lu, Mingsheng Wang, Hua Ma and Yadong Yin

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403836

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      A new type of magnetochromatic material is developed based on thin-film interference of microplates self-assembled from super-paramagnetic nanocrystals. Dynamic optical tuning can be achieved through orientational manipulation of free-standing super-paramagnetic thin-film microplates using external magnetic fields.

    20. Carbon Nanotube Network Embroidered Graphene Films for Monolithic All-Carbon Electronics

      Enzheng Shi, Hongbian Li, Long Yang, Junfeng Hou, Yuanchang Li, Li Li, Anyuan Cao and Ying Fang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403722

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      A unique cage growth of graphene is developed by using CNT spider webs as porous templates, resulting in CNT/graphene hybrids with high conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, monolithic all-carbon transistors with graphene as active elements and CNT/graphene hybrids as contacts and interconnects are directly formed by chemical synthesis, and flexible all-carbon bioelectronics are subsequently demonstrated for in vivo mapping of cardiac signals.

    21. Extremely Stable Platinum Nanoparticles Encapsulated in a Zirconia Nanocage by Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Niancai Cheng, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Jian Liu, Adam Riese, Xia Li, Ruying Li, Siyu Ye, Shanna Knights and Xueliang Sun

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404314

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      Encapsulation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in a zirconia nanocage by area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) can significantly enhance both the Pt stability and activity. Such encapsulated Pt NPs show 10 times more stability than commercial Pt/C catalysts and an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity 6.4 times greater than that of Pt/C.

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