Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Communications

    1. Molecular Crystal Engineering: Tuning Organic Semiconductor from p-type to n-type by Adjusting Their Substitutional Symmetry

      Hui Jiang, Peng Hu, Jun Ye, Yongxin Li, Henan Li, Xiaotao Zhang, Rongjin Li, Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu and Christian Kloc

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605053

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      Focusing on the bottleneck of molecularly engineered organic semiconductors, a breakthrough is made to tune the electronic properties of organic semiconductors from p-type to n-type by using fluorinated metal phthalocyanines as examples. The experimentally observed p-type to n-type transition characteristics of single-crystal field-effect devices result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic properties of materials with different fluoridation substitution.

    2. Hole Mobility and Electron Injection Properties of D-A Conjugated Copolymers with Fluorinated Phenylene Acceptor Units

      Ming Wang, Michael J. Ford, Alexander T. Lill, Hung Phan, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603830

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      A novel wide-gap conjugated polymer PhF2,5 (Eg = 1.9 eV) is designed to contain alternating cyclopentadithiophene and difluorophenylene unit with the goal of favoring unipolar organic field effect transistor characteristics. The higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy of PhF2,5 increases the barrier to electron injection, leading to unipolar transport and higher on/off ratios, without sacrificing desirable high hole mobilities.

    3. Porous 3D Few-Layer Graphene-like Carbon for Ultrahigh-Power Supercapacitors with Well-Defined Structure–Performance Relationship

      Jin Zhao, Yufei Jiang, Hao Fan, Meng Liu, Ou Zhuo, Xizhang Wang, Qiang Wu, Lijun Yang, Yanwen Ma and Zheng Hu

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604569

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      3D few-layer graphene-like carbon with hierarchical open porous architecture is obtained by a new in situ Cu template method, leading to top-level supercapacitive performance, especially state-of-the-art power density. An effective new approach is demonstrated, which can extend the understanding of structure–performance relationships for many electrochemical energy storage systems and form a significant complement to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    4. A Facile Reduction Method for Roll-to-Roll Production of High Performance Graphene-Based Transparent Conductive Films

      Jing Ning, Long Hao, Meihua Jin, Xiongying Qiu, Yudi Shen, Jiaxu Liang, Xinghao Zhang, Bin Wang, Xianglong Li and Linjie Zhi

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605028

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      A facile roll-to-roll method is developed for fabricating reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based flexible transparent conductive films. A Sn2+/ethanol reduction system and a rationally designed fast coating–drying–washing technique are proven to be highly efficient for low-cost continuous production of large-area rGO films and patterned rGO films, extremely beneficial toward the manufacture of flexible photoelectronic devices.

    5. Room-Temperature Quantum Transport Signatures in Graphene/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures

      Giriraj Jnawali, Mengchen Huang, Jen-Feng Hsu, Hyungwoo Lee, Jung-Woo Lee, Patrick Irvin, Chang-Beom Eom, Brian D'Urso and Jeremy Levy

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603488

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      High mobility graphene field-effect devices, fabricated on the complex-oxide heterostructure LaAlO3/SrTiO3, exhibit quantum interference signatures up to room temperature. The oxide material is believed to play a critical role in suppressing short-range and phonon contributions to scattering. The ability to maintain pseudospin coherence at room temperature holds promise for the realization of new classical and quantum information technologies.

    6. A Sulfur-Rich Copolymer@CNT Hybrid Cathode with Dual-Confinement of Polysulfides for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Guangjian Hu, Zhenhua Sun, Chao Shi, Ruopian Fang, Jing Chen, Pengxiang Hou, Chang Liu, Hui-Ming Cheng and Feng Li

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603835

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      A sulfur-rich copolymer@carbon nanotubes hybrid cathode is introduced for lithium–sulfur batteries produced by combining the physical and chemical confinement of polysulfides. The binder free and metal current collector free cathode of dual confinement enables an efficient pathway for the fabrication of high performance sulfur copolymer carbon matrix electrodes for lithium–sulfur batteries.

    7. Strain and Magnetic Field Induced Spin-Structure Transitions in Multiferroic BiFeO3

      A. Agbelele, D. Sando, C. Toulouse, C. Paillard, R. D. Johnson, R. Rüffer, A. F. Popkov, C. Carrétéro, P. Rovillain, J.-M. Le Breton, B. Dkhil, M. Cazayous, Y. Gallais, M.-A. Méasson, A. Sacuto, P. Manuel, A. K. Zvezdin, A. Barthélémy, J. Juraszek and M. Bibes

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602327

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      The magnetic field-dependent spin ordering of strained BiFeO3 films is determined using nuclear resonant scattering and Raman spectroscopy. The critical field required to destroy the cycloidal modulation of the Fe spins is found to be significantly lower than in the bulk, with appealing implications for field-controlled spintronic and magnonic devices.

  2. Research News

    1. Molecular Engineering of Conjugated Polymers for Solar Cells: An Updated Report

      Shengqiang Xiao, Qianqian Zhang and Wei You

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601391

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      Recent progress (2012-2016) in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is reviewed. The intrinsic complexity of such solar cells urges the community to apply an integrated and comprehensive approach – including synthesis, morphology, and device physics – to elucidate the fundamental underlying principles that govern the device performance, in particular, in the context of disclosing structure–property correlations.

  3. Reviews

    1. Soft Actuators for Small-Scale Robotics

      Lindsey Hines, Kirstin Petersen, Guo Zhan Lum and Metin Sitti

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603483

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      Ongoing soft-actuator development is reviewed in detail, highlighting approaches suitable for nanometer- to centimeter-scale robotic applications. These types of systems are often untethered and their actuation and sensing are often highly integrated. Soft, active materials are particularly well suited for these applications, with a wide range of stimulants, large deformations, high motion complexities, and varied multifunctionality.

  4. Progress Reports

    1. CVD Polymers for Devices and Device Fabrication

      Minghui Wang, Xiaoxue Wang, Priya Moni, Andong Liu, Do Han Kim, Won Jun Jo, Hossein Sojoudi and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604606

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      Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization synthesizes conformal and pinhole-free organic thin films directly on substrates. Compared with solution-based techniques, the solvent-free nature of the CVD process avoids the undesirable monomer–solvent or polymer–solvent and solvent–substrate interactions. Thus, CVD is particularly suitable for synthesizing insoluble conductive polymers and robust crosslinked networks for organic devices.

    2. Critical Insight into the Relentless Progression Toward Graphene and Graphene-Containing Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

      Rinaldo Raccichini, Alberto Varzi, Di Wei and Stefano Passerini

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603421

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      The use of graphene and graphene-containing materials for lithium-ion battery anodes is reviewed. Through a specific focus on the evaluation of the most important parameters for lithium-ion battery applications, graphene and graphene-containing materials are critically assessed.

  5. Communications

    1. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase with High Li-Ion Conductivity, Mechanical Strength, and Flexibility for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes

      Yayuan Liu, Dingchang Lin, Pak Yan Yuen, Kai Liu, Jin Xie, Reinhold H. Dauskardt and Yi Cui

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605531

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      An artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is demonstrated for the efficient and safe operation of a lithium metal anode. Composed of lithium-ion-conducting inorganic nanoparticles within a flexible polymer binder matrix, the rationally designed artificial SEI not only mechanically suppresses lithium dendrite formation but also promotes homogeneous lithium-ion flux, significantly enhancing the efficiency and cycle life of lithium metal anode.

    2. Ternary NiCo2Px Nanowires as pH-Universal Electrocatalysts for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

      Rui Zhang, Xiangxue Wang, Shujun Yu, Tao Wen, Xiangwei Zhu, Fangxu Yang, Xiangnan Sun, Xiangke Wang and Wenping Hu

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605502

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      A bimetallic-structured ternary phosphide (NiCo2Px) as a novel pH-universal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction is presented. It exhibits both high activity and long-term stability in all the tested alkaline, neutral, and acidic media. The excellent catalytic performance endows it with a bright future in the large-scale electrochemical water splitting industry.

    3. Antibiotic Spider Silk: Site-Specific Functionalization of Recombinant Spider Silk Using “Click” Chemistry

      David Harvey, Philip Bardelang, Sara L. Goodacre, Alan Cockayne and Neil R. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604245

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      In a new, versatile approach to fun­ction­alizing recombinant spider silk, L-azidohomoalanine is introduced residue-specifically in the minispidroin protein 4RepCT through expression in an E. coli methionine auxotroph. Both fluorophores and the antibiotic levofloxacin are attached to this bio-orthogonal amino acid using copper-catalyzed click chemistry, either before or after the silk fibers are self-assembled.

    4. Epitaxial Growth and Air-Stability of Monolayer Antimonene on PdTe2

      Xu Wu, Yan Shao, Hang Liu, Zili Feng, Ye-Liang Wang, Jia-Tao Sun, Chen Liu, Jia-Ou Wang, Zhong-Liu Liu, Shi-Yu Zhu, Yu-Qi Wang, Shi-Xuan Du, You-Guo Shi, Kurash Ibrahim and Hong-Jun Gao

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605407

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      Monolayer antimonene is fabricated on PdTe2 by an epitaxial method. Monolayer antimonene is theoretically predicted to have a large bandgap for nanoelectronic devices. Air-exposure experiments indicate amazing chemical stability, which is great for device fabrication. A method to fabricate high-quality monolayer antimonene with several great properties for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications is provided.

    5. Paramagnetic Properties of Metal-Free Boron-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Application for Safe Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Hui Wang, Richard Revia, Kui Wang, Rajeev J. Kant, Qingxin Mu, Zheng Gai, Kunlun Hong and Miqin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605416

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      A boron-doped graphene quantum dot (B-GQD) as a metal-free multimodal contrast agent (CA) for safe magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging is reported. In vivo T1-weighted magnetic resonance images show that B-GQDs induce significant contrast enhancement on heart, liver, spleen, and kidney, and sustain for more than 1 h, about 10 times longer than Gd-based CAs currently used in clinic.

  6. Reviews

    1. Nanoarchitectured Design of Porous Materials and Nanocomposites from Metal-Organic Frameworks

      Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Jing Tang, Rahul R. Salunkhe, Xuchuan Jiang, Aibing Yu, Kevin C.-W. Wu and Yusuke Yamauchi

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604898

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      Metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived nanostructures have attracted significant attention for a wide range of applications due to their tunable composition, structure and pore size. The recent developments, challenges and future directions in the fabrication of MOF-derived nanomaterials such as porous carbons, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal carbides, metal phosphides and their composites are comprehensively reviewed.

  7. Communications

    1. Light-Enhancing Plasmonic-Nanopore Biosensor for Superior Single-Molecule Detection

      Ossama N. Assad, Tal Gilboa, Joshua Spitzberg, Matyas Juhasz, Elmar Weinhold and Amit Meller

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605442

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      A stacked plasmonic nanowell–nanopore biosensor strongly suppresses the background fluorescence from the bulk and yields net more than tenfold enhancement of the fluorescence intensity. The device offers extremely high signal-to-background (S/B) ratio for single-molecule detection at ultralow excitation laser intensities, while maintaining extremely high temporal bandwidth for single-DNA sensing.

    2. Highly Reversible and Durable Na Storage in Niobium Pentoxide through Optimizing Structure, Composition, and Nanoarchitecture

      Jiangfeng Ni, Wencong Wang, Chao Wu, Haichen Liang, Joachim Maier, Yan Yu and Liang Li

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605607

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      Amorphous, hydrogenated, and self-ordered nanoporous Nb2O5 films serve as an excellent binder-free electrode for sodium batteries, affording a high and sustainable capacity delivery and robust high-rate capability. This collaborative material engineering of structural order (amorphization), composition (hydrogenation), and architecture (ordered nanopore) opens up new possibilities to develop an energy storage solution that is more accessible, sustainable, and producible.

    3. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials

      Yichao Tang, Gaojian Lin, Shu Yang, Yun Kyu Yi, Randall D. Kamien and Jie Yin

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604262

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      Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy saving building, is discussed.