Particle & Particle Systems Characterization

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 74
  1. Full Papers

    1. Microfluidic Fabrication of Multi-Drug-Loaded Polymeric Microparticles for Topical Glaucoma Therapy

      Reno A. L. Leon, Ambika Somasundar, Abu Zayed M. Badruddoza and Saif A. Khan

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400229

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      The fabrication and characterization of multi-drug loaded PLGA microparticles are demonstrated for topical glaucoma therapy. Two hydrophobic drugs are loaded into monodisperse poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles using capillary microfluidics and solvent eva­poration. The morphology, size distribution, in vitro release kinetics are studied and in vitro mucoadhesion is also assessed for the co-formulated microparticles.

    2. Structure-Making Effects of Metal Nanoparticles in Amyloid Peptide Fibrillation

      Anika Gladytz, Maximilian Wagner, Tilmann Häupl, Christian Elsner and Bernd Abel

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400222

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      Although they are a useful material, there is concern that metal nanoparticles (NPs) may accelerate amyloid protein aggregration, leading to amyloid-related diseases. The effect of silver and gold NPs is explored on two amyloid protein sequences: one human and one from yeast. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show strong evidence for a “structure-making” effect of the NPs.

    3. Cytoskeleton and Chromosome Damage Leading to Abnormal Mitosis Were Involved in Multinucleated Cells Induced by Silicon Nanoparticles

      Yang Li, Li Jing, Yongbo Yu, Yang Yu, Junchao Duan, Man Yang, Weijia Geng, Lizhen Jiang, Qiuling Li and Zhiwei Sun

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400180

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      Silicon nanoparticles could induce oxidative damage of the cytoskeleton and DNA, leading to abnormal mitosis and cytokinesis as well as G2/M cell cycle arrest. This ultimately results in the formation of multinucleated cells in the L-02 cell line. However, cell fusion as another way of multinucleation is not observed in this study.

  2. Communications

    1. Nanocrystal Self-Assembly into Hollow Dome-Shaped Microstructures by Slow Solvent Evaporation on Superhydrophobic Substrates

      Angelo Accardo, Francesco Di Stasio, Manfred Burghammer, Christian Riekel and Roman Krahne

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400205

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      The deposition of water solution containing colloidal nanorods on superhydrophobic substrates leads to the formation of a suspended drop. After evaporation, a robust 3D nanocrystal assembly remains and can be handled independently from the substrate, for example for the use as color converters. Optical fluorescence imaging reveals a hollow dome-shape of the microstructure, and X-ray diffraction confirms the material as CdSe/CdS nanorods with low contamination.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Modulation of Relaxivity, Suspension Stability, and Biodistribution of Dendronized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Function of the Organic Shell Design

      Aurélie Walter, Audrey Parat, Antonio Garofalo, Sophie Laurent, Luce Vander Elst, Robert N. Muller, Tao Wu, Emilie Heuillard, Eric Robinet, Florent Meyer, Delphine Felder-Flesch and Sylvie Begin-Colin

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400217

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      Whatever the dendron architecture, dendronized nanoparticles form very stable suspensions in water and physiological media over a long period of time. The lower relaxivity values observed with PAMAM dendrons are attributed to their lower number of PEG chains per molecule and to their more hydrophobic character, and those with bisphosphonated dendrons to a perturbated water diffusion close to the magnetic core.

    2. Multiple Emulsion Templating of Hybrid Ag/SiO2 Capsules for Antibacterial Applications

      Filipa L. Sousa, Adelaide Almeida, Ana V. Girão, Sara Fateixa and Tito Trindade

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400168

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      Multiple emulsions are used as soft templates to produce microcapsules of Ag nanoparticles encapsulated in amorphous SiO2. The microcapsules act as effective antibacterial agents against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterium. Due to the morphological features of the microcapsules, silver cationic release in water is observed for prolonged contact times, which makes these particulates of potential interest for long-term antibacterial applications.

  4. Reviews

    1. Recent Advances in Graphene Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Bioimaging from Cells through Tissues to Animals

      Dan Wang, Jian-Feng Chen and Liming Dai

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400219

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      Applications of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as fluorescent probes open up new opportunities for advanced bio­imaging in cells, tissues, and animals. The current developments of GQDs-based fluorescence bioimaging from cells tissues to animals are summarized. The challenges and opportunities in this exciting field are presented.

  5. Communications

    1. Pomegranate-Structured Electrosprayed Microspheres for Long-Term Controlled Drug Release

      Xin Zhao, Changmin Hu, Guoqing Pan and Wenguo Cui

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400199

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      Pomegranate-structured composite microspheres composed of core mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped by a poly(l-lactide) shell are prepared via one-step electrospraying, which releases encapsulated model anti-inflammatory drugs for up to 70 d and inhibits proliferation against macrophages over the long release period.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Destabilization of Thiolated Gold Clusters for the Growth of Single-Crystalline Gold Nanoparticles and Their Self-Assembly for SERS Detection

      Guijian Guan, Michelle Low, Shuhua Liu, Yongqing Cai, Shuangyuan Zhang, Dongsheng Geng, Cui Liu, Zhongping Zhang, Yuan Cheng, Madurai Srinivasan Bharathi, Yong-Wei Zhang and Ming-Yong Han

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400190

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      The controlled destabilization of thiolated gold clusters is achieved simply via oxidation of protecting thiolates into disulfides for the growth of single-crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in basic solution. The preparation of AuNPs is tuned for self-assembling themselves into microspheres, inducing strong plasmonic coupling between adjacent AuNPs for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection.

    2. Tuning the Bandgap and Cytotoxicity of ZnO by Tailoring the Nanostructures

      Jianhui Zhang, Guanjun Dong, Aaron Thurber, Yayi Hou, Dmitri A. Tenne, Charles B. Hanna, Min Gu, Zhongda Pan, Kaiyu Wang, Youwei Du and Alex Punnoose

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400188

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      A polyvinylpyrrolidone soft-template has been developed to realize a rapid room-temperature synthesis of ZnO nanostructures for tuning the bandgap and cytotoxicity of ZnO. The ZnO bandgap can be remarkably reduced by introducing surface-nonstoichiometry; and the ­ZnO-induced cytotoxicity can be tuned by the size, shape, surface charge/composition, and bandgap of ZnO nanostructures tailored by the reagent ratio, at different degrees.

    3. Laser-Induced Self-Assembled Nanostructures on Electron-Transparent Substrates

      Ritesh Sachan, Abhinav Malasi, Sagar Yadavali, Blake Griffey, John Dunlap, Gerd Duscher and Ramki Kalyanaraman

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400183

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      A technique is proposed to synthesize self-assembled nanoparticles on electron- transparent carbon substrate by combining nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting of thin metal films with a film float-off technique. The method is successfully used to synthesize single metallic (Ag, Au, and Co) and bimetallic (AgCo and AuCo) nanoparticles on ultrathin carbon substrate with large-area coverage.

    4. Investigation of Interfacial Charge Separation at PbS QDs/(001) TiO2 Nanosheets Heterojunction Solar Cell

      Elham Ghadiri, Bin Liu, Jacques-E. Moser, Michael Grätzel and Lioz Etgar

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400210

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      The interfacial charge separation at TiO2 (001) nanosheets/PbS QDs interface is five times faster than that on standard TiO2 (101) nanoparticles. This observation is consistent with the enhanced power conversion efficiency in (001) TiO2/PbS QDs heterojunction solar cell.

    5. Fabrication of NIR-Excitable SERS-Active Composite Particles Composed of Densely Packed Au Nanoparticles on Polymer Microparticles

      Masaaki Kanahara, Hiroki Satoh, Takeshi Higuchi, Atsushi Takahara, Hiroshi Jinnai, Koji Harano, Satoshi Okada, Eiichi Nakamura, Yasutaka Matsuo and Hiroshi Yabu

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400191

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      A novel way of fabricating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active nanocomoposite particles is presented, which can be excited by near infrared (NIR) lights.

  7. Communications

    1. Ultra-High Quantum Yield of Graphene Quantum Dots: Aromatic-Nitrogen Doping and Photoluminescence Mechanism

      Jing Sun, Siwei Yang, Zhongyang Wang, Hao Shen, Tao Xu, Litao Sun, Hao Li, Wenwen Chen, Xingyu Jiang, Guqiao Ding, Zhenhui Kang, Xiaoming Xie and Mianheng Jiang

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400189

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      1–3 nm nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots with quantum yield of 0.74 are synthesized via cutting graphene oxide and in situ doping. The size is determined by the remaining graphitic domains of precursor. The doping mechanism is illustrated, and the dominant photoluminescence factor is experimentally confirmed to be the n–π* transition between the lattice-doped nitrogen and the conjugate structure of graphene.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Addressing Key Technical Aspects of Quantum Dot Probe Preparation for Bioassays

      Pavel Zrazhevskiy, Shivang R. Dave and Xiaohu Gao

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400184

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      Bright and stable biofunctional quantum dots are prepared by polymer encapsulation of nanoparticle cores with a preserved hydrophobic passivation layer. Further bioconjugation with a universal protein G adaptor facilitates self-assembly with antibodies for easy preparation of targeted fluorescent probes for biomedical applications.

    2. Nanoparticles Functionalized with Collagenase Exhibit Improved Tumor Accumulation in a Murine Xenograft Model

      Surya Murty, Taylor Gilliland, Peter Qiao, Tate Tabtieng, Elizabeth Higbee, Ajlan Al Zaki, Ellen Puré and Andrew Tsourkas

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400169

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      Functionalization of gold nanoparticles with collagenase leads to a significant improvement in tumor accumulation. Collagenase does not exhibit any signs of cytotoxicity in cell culture and histology does not indicate any signs of toxicity in the liver or spleen. Therefore, functionalization of nanoparticles with collagenase may be an effective and safe approach to improve tumor accumulation.

    3. Nanospherical Surface-Supported Seeded Growth of Au Nanowires: Investigation on a New Growth Mechanism and High-Performance Hydrogen Peroxide Sensors

      Ying Li, Lianhai Zu, Guanglei Liu, Yao Qin, Donglu Shi and Jinhu Yang

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400200

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      A novel strategy involving Au seed-mediated growth on high-curvature SiO2 nanospheres has been developed for the fast and large-scale preparation of long Au nanowires, which is associated with a new nanowire growth mechanism. The novel nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor based on Au NWs exhibits excellent performance such as high sensitivity and stability, good selectivity, wide linear range, and low detection limit.

    4. Three-Dimensional Multilayer Assemblies of MoS2/Reduced Graphene Oxide for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

      Geng Liu, Yiyu Feng, Yu Li, Mengmeng Qin, Haoran An, Wenping Hu and Wei Feng

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400207

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      Three-dimensional (3D) multilayer MoS2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) assemblies are prepared. Electrochemical tests of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) show MoS2/RGO-3 anode exhibit a high rate performance up to ≈750 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 3A g−1 with high capacities and good cycling performance. MoS2/RGO is an excellent nanoarchitecture for high-performance LIBs.

  9. Progress Reports

    1. Future Perspectives Towards the Use of Nanomaterials for Smart Food Packaging and Quality Control

      Xingyu Jiang, Daniel Valdeperez, Moritz Nazarenus, Zhuo Wang, Francesco Stellacci, Wolfgang J. Parak and Pablo del Pino

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400192

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      Although nowadays, upon inspecting a product in the supermarket, customers look on the expiration date, in the future this might be a small and easily understood sensor integrated into the packaging foil. This would indicate the onset of decomposition or contamination by means of, for instance, a color code.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Ageing of Alkylthiol-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles

      Johann Lacava, Anika Weber and Tobias Kraus

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400165

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      Dispersions of unpolar gold nanoparticles change their agglomeration behavior with time. While fresh dispersion agglomerates rapidly in moderately polar solvent mixtures, aged dispersions fractionate. The influence of different storage and handling conditions on the aging process is studied and ligand desorption is suggested as a possible mechanism.

    2. A Nanoplasmonic-Fluorescent Ruler for Detection of Site-Specific Protein Binding to Composite DNA of Multiple Sites

      Steven Lukman, Laura Sutarlie, Ning Li and Xiaodi Su

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400144

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      Gold or silver nanoparticles-supported fluorescent intercalator displacement ­assays are constructed for site-specific detection of protein binding to composite DNA of multiple sites. Gold or ­silver ­nanoparticles-conjugated double-stranded DNA is saturated with DNA intercalator dyes. The distance-determined fluorescent quenching and enhancement by the nanoparticles give each intercalated dye its own contribution to the overall fluorescent intensity.

  11. Reviews

    1. Polymerizable Ligands as Stabilizers for Nanoparticles

      Sushilkumar A. Jadhav, Valentina Brunella and Dominique Scalarone

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400074

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      In situ and post-synthesis surface modification of nanoparticles with polymerizable ligands is explained with examples of gold, silver, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles. The importance of polymerizable ligands and polymers formed from them on the surface of the nanoparticles is discussed.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Unexpected Fluorescence of Polyols and PEGylated Nanoparticles Derived from Carbon Dot Formation

      Hailong Dong, Marcus Roming and Claus Feldmann

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400173

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      Carbon dots (C-dots) are the reason of the frequently observed blue to white fluorescence of polyol-made or PEGylated nanoparticles. The C-dots stem from heating and thermal degradation of the polyol as shown for GLY, DEG, and PEG400.

  13. Progress Reports

    1. Advances in Anticancer Protein Delivery using Micro-/Nanoparticles

      Wujin Sun, Yue Lu and Zhen Gu

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400140

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      Recent advances in the development of micro-/nanoparticles are surveyed for delivering anticancer proteins to target cellular locus. Numerous types of proteins with anticancer activities and their relevant formulations, including inorganic materials, lipids, polymers, biomacromole­cules and cells are summarized. Challenges and opportunities in this area are also discussed.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Self-Organization of Anisotropic and Binary Colloids in Thermo-Switchable 1D Microconfinement

      Julius W. J. de Folter, Ping Liu, Lingxiang Jiang, Anke Kuijk, Henriëtte E. Bakker, Arnout Imhof, Alfons van Blaaderen, Jianbin Huang, Willem K. Kegel, Albert P. Philipse and Andrei V. Petukhov

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400132

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      The hierarchical self-assembly of shape-anisotropic colloids and their binary mixtures with isotropic colloids in 1D microconfinement yields a rich variety of novel supracolloidal architectures. The thermo-switchable co-assembly of molecular microtubes and colloidal superstructures is generic for colloids with different geometries, materials, and sizes and may open new routes for controlled release, encapsulation, and data storage applications.

    2. Peptide-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy of Brain Cancer

      Joseph D. Meyers, Yu Cheng, Ann-Marie Broome, Richard S. Agnes, Mark D. Schluchter, Seunghee Margevicius, Xinning Wang, Malcolm E. Kenney, Clemens Burda and James P. Basilion

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400119

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      Gold nanoparticles, as delivery vehicles for hydrophobic photodynamic therapy drugs, allow for specialized targeting and delivery to cancer cells for improved therapeutic efficacy. The EGF receptor-targeted gold nanoparticles bind to receptors long enough on cancer cell surfaces to deliver their therapeutic payload into cancer cells without requiring internalization of the entire delivery vehicle.

    3. Engineering the Internal Structure of Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles by Thermal Control

      Hyon Min Song, Jeffrey I. Zink and Niveen M. Khashab

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400118

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      A new method employing thermal control is used for engineering the internal shape of mesoporous silica NPs. The variety of shape-engineered particles stemming from a single precursor using simple calcination temperature control contributes new materials for expanded delivery applications.

  15. Communications

    1. Red-Emissive Chemiluminescent Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics for In Vivo Hydrogen Peroxide Imaging

      Junlong Geng, Kai Li, Wei Qin, Ben Zhong Tang and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400156

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      Sensitive and selective H2O2 detection: Chemiluminescent nanoparticles are fabricated utilizing fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (TPETPAFN) and a H2O2-responsive molecule (CPPO). The obtained nanoparticles not only exhibit good response to H2O2 in vitro but also show high chemiluminescence in vivo using LPS-induced inflammation model.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Nanoparticle Polydispersity Can Strongly Affect In Vitro Dose

      Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Alke Petri-Fink and Sandor Balog

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400079

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      The cellular interaction of nanoparticles is routinely assessed using in vitro systems. Establishing dose–response relationships requires that the dose of nanoparticles delivered to the cell is accurate and precise. However, most nanoparticle systems are heterogeneous and polydispersity can strongly affect particle transport and delivered dose.

    2. Titanium Dioxide/Germanium Core–Shell Nanorod Arrays Grown on Carbon Textiles as Flexible Electrodes for High Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Shan Fang, Laifa Shen, Ping Nie, Guiyin Xu, Liang Yang, Hao Zheng and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400153

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      Hydrothermal method combined with RF magnetron sputtering is used to prepare the 3D hierarchical TiO2@Ge core–shell nanorod arrays grown on carbon textiles. The in situ formed LixTiO2 as a backbone to deposit Ge film increases the active mass loading as well as provides hierarchical pathways for the effective ion transport. The hierarchical nanostructures show superior rate capabilities and stable cycling performance with high Coulombic efficiency in rechargeable batteries.

    3. Nanoparticle Chemistry and Functionalization Differentially Regulates Dendritic Cell–Nanoparticle Interactions and Triggers Dendritic Cell Maturation

      Jonathan T. Goodman, Julia E. Vela Ramirez, Paola M. Boggiatto, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Nicola L. B. Pohl, Michael J. Wannemuehler and Balaji Narasimhan

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400148

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      The adsorption of serum proteins such as immunoglobulin G and complement onto nanoparticles, nanoparticle chemistry, and functionalization of nanoparticles with linker and carbohydrates lead to enhanced interactions with dendritic cells. These enhanced interactions influence dendritic cell maturation as evidenced by changes in cell surface marker expression as well as cytokine secretion.

    4. Gold Nanoparticle–Dynamic Light Scattering Tandem for the Rapid and Quantitative Detection of the let7 MicroRNA Family

      Nianjia Seow, Yen Nee Tan and Lin-Yue Lanry Yung

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400158

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      An AuNP scattering technique is presented that, through the use of uniquely designed probes and the dynamic light scattering (DLS) platform, results in an AuNP nanoassembly system for detection of let7 miRNA. The subtle nanoassembly process is shown as distinct size changes on the DLS, and allows the simple, sensitive, and selective detection of closely related miRNA targets rapidly.

  17. Communications

    1. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67 Rhombic Dodecahedral Microcrystals with Porous {110} Facets As a New Electrocatalyst for Sensing Glutathione

      Junhong Zhao, Chengzhen Wei and Huan Pang

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400177

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      The ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedral microcrystals with porous {110} facets are presented as a new kind of effective electrocatalysts in sensing glutathione. The sensor shows a high sensitivity, low detection limitation (0.125 μM), and good linear dependence (0.125–400 μM with R = 0.9990).

  18. Full Papers

    1. Encapsulation of SnO2/Sn Nanoparticles into Mesoporous Carbon Nanowires and its Excellent Lithium Storage Properties

      Qinghua Tian, Zhengxi Zhang, Li Yang and Shin-ichi Hirano

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400160

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      The peculiar nanostructure of encapsulation of SnO2/Sn nanoparticles into mesoporous carbon nanowires (SnOx@C) is successfully fabricated by a facile strategy. This nanostructure provides the composite with sufficient physical buffer ability. When tested as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the SnOx@C composite exhibits an excellent performance, which should benefit from its peculiar nanostructure.

    2. Multifunctional TiO2-Based Particles: The Effect of Fluorination Degree and Liquid Surface Tension on Wetting Behavior

      Yuekun Lai, Huanfu Zhou, Zheng Zhang, Yuxin Tang, Jeffrey Weng Chye Ho, Jianying Huang, Qiuling Tay, Keqin Zhang, Zhong Chen and Bernard P. Binks

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400149

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      The static and dynamic wetting behavior of TiO2 particles coated to different fluorination extents with liquids of contrasting surface tension ranging from oil to water is described. The occurrence and stability of liquid marbles, foams or dispersions, and the wetting behavior and arrangement of particles at the air–liquid interface are strongly dependent on the fluorination degree and liquid surface tension.

    3. Synergistic Action of Alginate Chemical Reduction and Laser Irradiation for the Formation of Au Nanoparticles with Controlled Dimensions

      George C. Anyfantis, Marco Scotto, Alice Scarpellini, Francesca Pignatelli, Setareh M. Toussi, Roberta Ruffilli, Luigi Martiradonna and Athanassia Athanassiou

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400172

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      Freestanding natural polymeric films with homogeneous dispersion of Au NPs are obtained via in situ reduction of the gold precursor by sodium alginate biopolymer matrix, during water evaporation without the use of additional reducing agents. The size of the prepared Au NPs can be tuned by changing the concentration of the precursor and/or the procedure of the films’ preparation.

  19. Communications

    1. Size-Selective Separation and Purification of “Water-Soluble” Organically Capped Brightly Photoluminescent Silicon Nanocrystals

      Kenneth K. Chen, Melanie L. Mastronardi, Christian Kübel and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400185

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      Polydispersity and water solubility of as-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) present two significant challenges in the elucidation of size-dependent physical, chemical and biological properties. Polydispersions of water-soluble, colloidally stable, brightly photoluminescent ncSi are purified and size-separated into monodisperse fractions using size-selective precipitation and density gradient ultracentrifugation methods. Size-dependent trends in the photoluminescence and absolute photoluminescence quantum yield of ncSi are investigated.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Quantification of the Particle Size and Stability of Graphene Oxide in a Variety of Solvents

      Jaime Taha-Tijerina, Deepika Venkataramani, Clint P. Aichele, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, James E. Smay, Akshay Mathkar, Patricia Chang and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400099

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      Meta-stable and stable suspensions of graphene oxide in solution with a variety of solvents and their ability to act as precursors of graphene-based materials are shown. Particle size distributions from SEM, TEM, and acoustic spectroscopy techniques are shown to be in agreement, providing robust insight about these systems and its practical applications in electrodes, sensors, and energy storage.

    2. Mechanistic Study on the Reduction of SWCNT-induced Cytotoxicity by Albumin Coating

      Yang Liu, Lei Ren, Dong Yan and Wenwan Zhong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400145

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      In this work, the cause of cytotoxicity reduction of BSA-coated SWCNTs is studied from the scope of protein adsorption. Our results support that adsorption of BSA reduces cellular uptake of SWCNTs as well as adsorption of cellular proteins on SWCNTs, both contributing to the much lower cytotoxicity observed for the BSA-coated SWCNTs.

    3. A New Crystal Phase Molybdate Yb2Mo4O15: The Synthesis and Upconversion Properties

      Hai-Qiao Wang, Mirza Mačković, Andres Osvet, Ivan Litzov, Elena Epelbaum, Alfons Stiegelschmitt, Miroslaw Batentschuk, Erdmann Spiecker and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400137

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      New upconversion nanocrystal Yb 2 Mo 4 O 15 :Re is synthesized and studied. The morphology and optical properties of Yb2Mo4O15:Er nanocrystals are investigated in detail. Upconversion quantum yield ≈1.3% is determined under excitation of ≈500 mW cm–2 IR (975 nm). This new upconversion nanocrystalline molybdate possesses the potential to fulfill requirements in biological and energy conversion applications.

  21. Progress Reports

    1. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MR Imaging Applications

      Jingchao Li, Xiangyang Shi and Mingwu Shen

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400087

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      This article reports the recent advances in hydrothermally synthesized iron oxide ­nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. The hydrothermally synthesized Fe3O4 NPs can be easily surface functionalized with good water dispersibility, colloid stability, improved biocompatibility, and targeting specificity, which is desirable for biomedical MR or dual-mode MR/computed tomography (CT) imaging applications.

  22. Communications

    1. Au–Pd Alloy Octapods with High Electrocatalytic Activity for the Oxidation of Formic Acid

      Liang-Bing Wang, You-Cheng Wang, Hong-Yan Guo, Jian-Liu Huang, Yun-Long Zhao, Qi-Yu Liu, Xiaojun Wu and Jie Zeng

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400130

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      Au–Pd alloy octapods with the exposure of {722} facets are prepared via a seed-mediated process at room temperature. The size of the octapods can be controlled in the range of 25–120 nm by manipulating the addition of the amount of seeds. In catalyzing the electro-oxidation of formic acid, the as-synthesized octapods show substantially higher activity than commercial Pd/C.

  23. Reviews

    1. Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Morphology Control, Carbon Hybridization, and Cation Doping

      Xin Huang, Xianhong Rui, Huey Hoon Hng and Qingyu Yan

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400125

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      Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries while its practical application is hindered by its low diffusion coefficient of Li+ and moderate electrical conductivity. In response to these challenges, effective approaches are proposed, including fabrication of nanostructured V2O5, carbon hybridization, and cation doping.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Uptake and Intracellular Fate of Peptide Surface-Functionalized Silica Hybrid Magnetic Nanoparticles In Vitro

      Reinaldo G. Digigow, Dimitri Vanhecke, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Martin J.D. Clift and Alke Petri-Fink

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400152

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      The impact of surface peptide and ligand sequences on cellular uptake and intracellular fate of multifunctional silica hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (SHMNPs) in vitro is shown by using an array of complementary analytical and imaging techniques.

    2. Nanoscale Kirkendall Effect and Oxidation Kinetics in Copper Nanocrystals Characterized by Real-Time, In Situ Optical Spectroscopy

      Katherine P. Rice, Andrew S. Paterson and Mark P. Stoykovich

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400155

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      The low-temperature oxidation of solid Cu nanocrystals of approximately 10 nm diameter in thin films induces the formation of hollow Cu2O nanoparticles. UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy can monitor the complete oxidation process in real time and is used to measure diffusion coefficients in these nanoscale systems.

  25. Reviews

    1. Silver-Based Nanoparticles for Surface Plasmon Resonance in Organic Optoelectronics

      Su-Hun Jeong, Hyosung Choi, Jin Young Kim and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400117

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      Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is a useful strategy for light trapping and emitting in polymer solar cells (PSCs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Among various metal NPs, Ag NPs have exhibited the most effective light trapping potential due to their strong light scattering and surface plasmon strength. In this review, an efficient light-trapping and light-emitting approach is focused using the SPR effect of Ag NPs to fabricate high-performance plasmonic OLEDs and PSCs.

  26. Full Papers

    1. Self-Assembled Binary Mixtures of Partially Etched Nanowires

      Benjamin D. Smith, David J. Kirby, Sarah J. Boehm and Christine D. Keating

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400139

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      Study of self-assembled anisotropic particle mixtures has been limited, thus, little is known about the interparticle forces that drive self-assembly. In this work, partially etched nanowires with different particle compositions (core segment material, length, position, and number) are studied to give insight into self-assembly.

    2. Reversibly Crystalline Nanoparticles from Cellulose Alkyl Esters via Nanoprecipitation

      Kai Zhang, Andreas Geissler and Thomas Heinze

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400164

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      Nanoparticles (NPs) from sustainable cellulose-based biopolymers are fabricated via nanoprecipitation and their properties are systematically investigated. Compared to cellulose lauroyl and caproyl esters, cellulose stearoyl esters with high contents of stearoyl groups result in NPs with two reversible states depending on the temperature: solid nanospheres with partially crystalline structure and nanodroplets with totally amorphous structure.

    3. Mesoporous Hybrid Materials by Simultaneous Pseudomorphic Transformation and Functionalization of Silica Microspheres

      Michael J. Reber and Dominik Brühwiler

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400150

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      Porous silica microspheres are transformed into amino-functionalized mesoporous silica microspheres with defined pore size and large surface area. The particle size distribution and spherical morphology of the parent material are retained during the transformation. The combination of pseudomorphic transformation and co-condensation principles allows fine-tuning of the pore size, functionalization degree, and meso-macroporosity.

    4. Control of Surface Ligand Density on PEGylated Gold Nanoparticles for Optimized Cancer Cell Uptake

      Hongying Liu, Tennyson L. Doane, Yu Cheng, Feng Lu, Shriya Srinivasan, Jun-Jie Zhu and Clemens Burda

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400067

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      Many biologically relevant surface properties of PEGylated Au NPs are highly dependent on PEG ligand surface density and PEG molecular weight. Given various molecular weights, the optimal synthesis ratios (rstab) are determined for maximum dispersion (critical stability) and mobility. Optimal parameters for PEGylation are reported for most efficient cell uptake and viability.

    5. Nonclassical Crystallization and Size Control of Ultra-Small MoO2 Nanoparticles in Water

      Julie Besnardiere, Christine Surcin, Valérie Buissette, Thierry Le Mercier, Mathieu Morcrette, David Portehault and Sophie Cassaignon

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400157

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      Tunable-sized crystalline MoO2 nanoparticles (2–100 nm) are synthesized in water. Particles of 9 nm are prepared with the highest reported surface area (86 m2 g−1). Evidences of oriented attachment growth are provided and two synthesis levers to tune the particle diameter are highlighted. The impact of nanosizing on the properties is illustrated by the electrochemical behavior in Li batteries.

    6. Enzymatic Deposition of Silver Particles for Detecting Protease Activity

      Xiaokang Ding and Kun-Lin Yang

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400107

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      Enzymatic deposition of silver particles is employed to report protease activity. In the absence of a model protease trypsin, a layer of silver particles can be deposited on the surface. However, in the presence of trypsin, the enzymatic reaction is stopped and no silver particles can be observed.

    7. Theranostic Graphene Oxide for Prostate Cancer Detection and Treatment

      Suhash Reddy Chavva, Avijit Pramanik, Bhanu Priya Viraka Nellore, Sudarson Sekhar Sinha, Brian Yust, Rajashekhar Kanchanapally, Zhen Fan, Rebecca A Crouch, Anant Kumar Singh, Bethany Neyland, Kimberly Robinson, Xuemei Dai, Dhiraj Sardar, Yuefeng Lu and Paresh Chandra Ray

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400143

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      Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody and A9-aptamer-attached theranostic graphene oxide (GO) are successfully developed for the separation and capturing of circulating tumor cell (CTC) from infected blood. The report shows thattheranostic GO is capable of external near-IR 785 nm light-driven combined synergistic photothermal and photo­dynamic treatment of prostate cancer.

    8. Glutathione-Mediated Degradation of Surface-Capped MnO2 for Drug Release from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles to Cancer Cells

      Xue Yang, Dinggeng He, Xiaoxiao He, Kemin Wang, Zhen Zou, Xuecai Li, Hui Shi, Jierong Luo and Xiaoxiao Yang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400092

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      A novel drug delivery system consisting of manganese dioxide (MnO2)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN@MnO2) is designed for intracellular GSH-responsive drug delivery. By a redox reaction, the MnO2 can dissociate into Mn2+ in the presence of a GSH molecule (especially in cancer cells which have a high expression of GSH), and the blocked pores are uncapped, resulting in the release of the entrapped drugs.

  27. Reviews

    1. Fluorescent Metallic Nanoclusters: Electron Dynamics, Structure, and Applications

      Pyng Yu, Xiaoming Wen, Yon-Rui Toh, Xiaoqian Ma and Jau Tang

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400040

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      Noble metal nanoclusters have emerged as fascinating fluorescent nanomaterials due to their extraordinary optical, electronic, and magnetic properties, and are therefore very promising for applications in biosensing, bioimaging, catalysis, photonics, and molecular electronics. Here, the recent research advances are reviewed in the aspects of fundamental understanding, optical properties, and applications.

  28. Full Papers

    1. A Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-Based Controlled Dual-Drug Delivery System for Improved Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity

      Yunfeng Jiao, Shun Shen, Yangfei Sun, Xingguo Jiang and Wuli Yang

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400115

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      A controlled dual-drug delivery system with tumor targeting is developed based on functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs). DOX is loaded in the hollow core, and DACHPt is stored in the shell through the the coordination interaction. The release of dual drugs is induced by Cl. This co-delivery system shows synergistic efficacy on cell growth inhibition.

  29. Reviews

    1. Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles as Fluorescent Probes for Biological Imaging and Sensing

      Yang-Hsiang Chan and Pei-Jing Wu

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400123

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      Semiconducting polymer dots have emerged as a fascinating class of nanomaterials with ultrabright fluorescence, excellent photostability, and good biocompatibility, which promises their widespread use in biological imaging and sensing.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Boron- and Phosphorus-Hyperdoped Silicon Nanocrystals

      Shu Zhou, Xiaodong Pi, Zhenyi Ni, Qingbin Luan, Yingying Jiang, Chuanhong Jin, Tomohiro Nozaki and Deren Yang

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400103

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      Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are hyperdoped with B and P at concentrations that are higher than their solubility limits. Although B and P are found to be closely associated with Si, it is identified that B prefers entering the NC core, while P prefers residing at the NC surface. There are both electrically active B and P in hyperdoped Si NCs.

  31. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Facile Fabrication of Spherical Nanoparticle-Tipped AFM Probes for Plasmonic Applications

      Alan Sanders, Liwu Zhang, Richard W. Bowman, Lars O. Herrmann and Jeremy J. Baumberg

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400104

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      A simple method for fabricating Au nano­particles onto the apex of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips is demonstrated. Apex-selected pulsed electrodeposition, controlled with voltage and pulse time, yields repeatable fabrication of spherical Au nanoparticle tips. Simultaneous fabrication of many tips is demonstrated, enabling high throughput. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and dark-field spectroscopy are used to show improved plasmonic behavior compared with conventional Au AFM tips.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Polyurea Dendrimer-Perylene Self-Imprinted Nanoshells for Trace Explosive Detection

      Ana M. Bragança, Marco Araújo and Vasco D. B. Bonifácio

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400120

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      Highly selective and sensitive discrimination of nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous media is achieved using polyurea dendrimers decorated with perylenes. A 3D-triggered, urea-assisted perylene, self molecular imprinting is postulated to be the key for such efficiency. First-generation polyurea dendrimers are 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene- (TNT-) and picric-acid-selective and fourth generation dendrimers only recognize picric acid, even in the presence of contaminants.

    2. Towards Excellent Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries with High Capacity and Super Long Lifespan: Confining Ultrasmall Sn Particles into N-Rich Graphene-Based Nanosheets

      Yiren Zhong, Mei Yang, Xianlong Zhou, Jinping Wei and Zhen Zhou

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400105

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      Novel 2D Sn-based composites are fabricated through a large-scale method. Robust confinement of ultrasmall Sn nanoparticles into graphene-based N-rich carbon nanosheets (Sn@GCNS) endows the hybrids high capacity and outstanding long-term cycle life as anodes for Li-ion batteries. The composites represent significant structural and componential engineering towards advanced anode materials.

    3. Nanoparticle Distribution in Three-Layer Polymer–Nanoparticle Composite Films: Comparison of Experiment and Theory

      Juliane K. G. Bunk, Astrid Drechsler, Peter Friedel, Sebastian Rauch, Petra Uhlmann, Manfred Stamm and Reinhold Rennekamp

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400050

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      Polymer solutions are spin-coated on a dense layer of hydrophobic nanoparticles. Atomic force and electron microscopy techniques reveal particle redistribution at the polymer interfaces. This is discussed based on theoretically calculated solubility and interaction parameters. The particle distribution is mainly governed by the solvent properties; the polymer has only minor influence.

  33. Communications

    1. H2O2-Assisted Hydrothermal Process: A Green, Versatile Route to Synthesize Size-Controllable Nitrogen-Doped Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles from Natural Macromolecules

      Zehui Zhang, Shengjie Xu and Peiyi Wu

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400136

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      A green, low cost, and simple way to prepare water-soluble, highly nitrogen-doped fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNs) on a large scale with tunable size and photoluminescent properties is proposed here via the H2O2-assisted hydrothermal treatment of cocoon of Bombyx mori. The prepared FCNs show good cell permeability, low cytotoxicity in living cells, and excellent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  34. Full Papers

    1. Flow Synthesis of Plasmonic Gold Nanoshells via a Microreactor

      Satoshi Watanabe, Tatsumasa Hiratsuka, Yusuke Asahi, Asumi Tanaka, Kazuhiro Mae and Minoru T. Miyahara

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400126

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      Microfluidic systems are promising for a flow synthetic process of functional nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates that the excellent mixing performance of a non-segmented single-phase microreactor realizes a continuous flow synthesis of plasmonic gold nanoshells through a preferential reaction on the core particle surface. The established process is simple, robust, and scalable, which would boost their industrial applications in various fields.

  35. Communications

    1. Virus-SiO2 and Virus-SiO2-Au Hybrid Particles with Tunable Morphology

      Patrick van Rijn, Laura S. van Bezouwen, Rainer Fischer, Egbert J. Boekema, Alexander Böker and Ulrich Commandeur

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400068

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      Potato virus X is used as a multifunctional template to form various inorganic hybrid structures with different nano- and mesoscopic architectures. A genetically added peptide induces biomineralization leading to controlled formation of SiO2 providing virus structures decorated with SiO2 nanoparticles as well as mesoscopic superstructures. The formation of isolated nanoparticles allows for additional targeting via immunogold labeling.

    2. Synthesis of Highly Stable Graphene-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles for Catalytic Syngas Conversion

      Chao Wang, Peng Zhai, Zhichao Zhang, Yi Zhou, Jing Ju, Zujin Shi, Ding Ma, Ray P. S. Han and Fuqiang Huang

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400039

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      Highly stable graphene-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (Fe@G) are synthesized by a simple arc-discharge method. Consisting of metallic iron core and graphene shell, the Fe@G is quite stable in air and can resist acid etching. As a catalyst for F-T reaction, it exhibits superior catalytic performance to bare iron NPs.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Facile Fabrication of Bicomponent CoO/CoFe2O4-N-Doped Graphene Hybrids with Ultrahigh Lithium Storage Capacity

      Changtai Zhao, Chang Yu, Shaohong Liu, Juan Yang, Xiaoming Fan and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400114

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      Bicomponent CoO/CoFe2O4-N-doped graphene hybrids are fabricated; they exhibit ultrahigh specific capacity (1172 mA h g−1 at 500 mA g−1 and 970 mA h g−1 at 1000 mA g−1) and excellent cycle stability as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. This is due to the synergetic effects of N-doped graphene and CoO/CoFe2O4 nanoplatelets.

  37. Communications

    1. Development of Two-Channel Phosphorescent Core–Shell Nanoprobe for Ratiometric and Time-Resolved Luminescence Imaging of Intracellular Oxygen Levels

      Huibin Sun, Jie Zhang, Kenneth Yin Zhang, Shujuan Liu, Hua Liang, Wen Lv, Weili Qiao, Xiangmei Liu, Tianshe Yang, Qiang Zhao and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400106

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      An effective strategy is developed to realize ratiometric oxygen nanoprobe with two-channel phosphorescence signals based on core–shell silica nanoparticle. This nanoprobe exhibits good water dispersibility and biocompatibility. Bioimaging experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can be used for monitoring the change in intracellular O2 concentration and performing quantitative O2 measurement through ratiometric and time-resolved luminescence bioimaging.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Water-Soluble Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Quantum Dots with Upconversion Fluorescence

      Hao Huang, Cuicui Du, Hongyan Shi, Xun Feng, Jin Li, Yanlei Tan and Wenbo Song

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400101

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      Water-soluble monolayer MoS2 quantum dots (MQDs) with a lateral size of ≈2.1 nm are successfully synthesized using a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The MQDs have a large direct transition energy beyond that of the nanosheets and exhibit pronounced optical properties. Unusual upconversion photoluminescence is also observed and a mechanism for this is proposed. The application of MQDs as a fluorescent reagent for detecting antibiotics is demonstrated.

    2. Extremophilic Polysaccharide for Biosynthesis and Passivation of Gold Nanoparticles and Photothermal Ablation of Cancer Cells

      Sreejith Raveendran, Neha Chauhan, Vivekanandan Palaninathan, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa and D. Sakthi Kumar

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400081

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      Biocompatible extremophilic bacterial polysaccharide-based mauran-gold nano­composite structures are synthesized for photothermal ablation cancer therapy. Application of Mauran as a versatile biocompatible material for synthesis and passivation of gold nanoparticles in the presence and absence of a reducing agent is described. Mauran-gold nanocomposites synthesized are superior to conventionally synthesized gold nanoparticles in photothermal ablation cancer therapy.

    3. Determination of Thermal History by Photoluminescence of Core-Shelled Quantum Dots Going Through Heating Events

      Yucheng Lan, Hui Wang, Nitin Skula, Xiaoyuan Chen, Yalin Lu, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400100

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      Thermal histories are permanently recorded by CdSe/ZnS core-shelled quantum dots (QDs) at microscale using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and reconstructed later using a theoretical model. Theoretical equations are established between the PL shift and heating temperature/duration of thermal events. Here, it is demonstrated how to reconstruct the temperature and duration of a fast heating event simultaneously from PL spectra of the QDs.

    4. Ab Initio Simulation of Charge Transfer at the Semiconductor Quantum Dot/TiO2 Interface in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Xukai Xin, Bo Li, Jaehan Jung, Young Jun Yoon, Rana Biswas and Zhiqun Lin

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400111

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      A rigorous ab initio density functional approach is utilized to simulate the electronic properties of CdSe and PbSe QDs with different sizes on the TiO2 substrate. Electron bridging states between QDs and TiO2 are observed, corroborating the fast adiabatic charge transfer from QD to TiO2. Increasing conduction band offsets together with decreasing QD size facilitates the charge transfer from QDs to TiO2.

    5. Docetaxel-Loaded Nanoparticles of Dendritic Amphiphilic Block Copolymer H40-PLA-b-TPGS for Cancer Treatment

      Xiaowei Zeng, Wei Tao, Zhongyuan Wang, Xudong Zhang, Huijun Zhu, Yanping Wu, Yongfeng Gao, Kewei Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Laiqiang Huang, Lin Mei and Si-Shen Feng

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400048

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      A new dendritic block copolymer, H40-poly(d,l-lactide)-block-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (H40-PLA-b-TPGS), is synthesized for nanoparticles (NPs) formulation of docetaxel (DTX) for cancer therapy, which is found to have higher drug-loading content and encapsulation efficiency, faster drug release, higher cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity in vitro as well as tumor suppressing effects in vivo than the linear poly(lactic acid) (PLA) NP formulation and Taxotere.

  39. Communications

    1. Disaggregation and Anionic Activation of Nanodiamonds Mediated by Sodium Hydride—A New Route to Functional Aliphatic Polyester-Based Nanodiamond Materials

      Yang Sun, Peter Olsén, Thilo Waag, Anke Krueger, Doris Steinmüller-Nethl, Ann-Christine Albertsson and Anna Finne-Wistrand

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400098

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      Polylactide-modified nanodiamond particles (n-DP-g-PLA) are prepared by sodium-hydride-activated nanodiamond-initated anionic ring-opening polymerization. Activated nanodiamond particles repel each other, preventing agglomeration during the polymerization. This universal modification provides a platform for the functionalization of all types of nanoparticles containing hydroxyl groups.

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