Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 2.175

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 39/133 (Engineering Chemical)

Online ISSN: 1521-4125

Associated Title(s): Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ChemBioEng Reviews, Energy Technology

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  1. 1 - 27
  1. Research Articles

    1. Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Closures for 3D Bubble Column Flows

      Rao M. A. Masood, Vojislav Jovicic and Antonio Delgado

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400182

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      Developing and improving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for modeling of bubble column flows is of increasing interest. Numerical investigations of gas-liquid flow hydrodynamics in 3D square bubble columns were performed by means of a commercial CFD tool. The effect of the drag coefficient was determined and results were also compared to drag force models.

    2. Extraction of Spent Bleaching Earth in the Production of Renewable Diesel

      Vilppu Kuuluvainen, Päivi Mäki-Arvela, Kari Eränen, Anton Holappa, Jarl Hemming, Heidi Österholm, Blanka Toukoniitty and Dmitry Yu. Murzin

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500052

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      In the production of renewable diesel the feedstock is subjected to bleaching to remove undesired or harmful by-products. Oil extraction from acidic and nonacidic spent bleaching earths was investigated. The quality of the extracted oil was found to be similar to that of the bleached oil, especially considering the glyceride composition. The yields of oil were independent of the feedstock.

    3. Mathematical Modeling of a Simulated Moving-Bed Adsorption Process: Parex Technology as a Case Study

      Mahdi Rezazadeh, Mohammad Seifi Esfahani, Amir Rahimi and Mohammad Reza Ehsani

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400430

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      A simple but efficient mathematical model is proposed for performance evaluation of a simulated moving-bed adsorption unit. The proposed model is capable for analyzing the adsorption unit with acceptable accuracy and a lower central processing unit time. It can contribute to optimization of operating conditions, trouble shooting, and enhancement of productivity.

    4. Extension of the Rapid Design Algorithm for Twisted-Tube Evaporative Fluid Coolers

      Mohammad R. Jafari Nasr and Shima Jafarifar

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400399

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      The application of twisted instead of plain tubes is a promising approach to increase the thermal efficiency of evaporative fluid coolers. Thermal and hydraulic analyses were performed by conventional methods and compared with an innovative rapid design algorithm. The latter minimizes the required heat transfer area, indicating a significant reduction of capital costs of such coolers.

    5. Kinetics of Sulfite Oxidation in the Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification of the Oxidation-Absorption Process

      Xianming Huang, Jie Ding, Yong Jia, Shule Zhang and Qin Zhong

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300590

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      A model was established to describe the oxidation behavior of sulfite in mixed sulfite and nitrite solutions. The overall transfer rate of oxygen from the gas phase to the liquid phase is equal to the overall oxidation rate of sulfite and nitrite. The oxidation of nitrite will consume part of the oxygen. The established model is in good agreement with the experimental results.

    6. Statistical Optimization for Production of Light Olefins in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor

      Hassan Sharifi Pajaie and Majid Taghizadeh

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400681

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      The catalytic methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction is an alternative to the thermal cracking process for production of olefins. Mesoporous nanocrystalline silicoaluminophosphate was prepared hydrothermally by ultrasonic and microwave-assisted aging processes. The main parameters influencing the catalyst performance in a fluidized-bed reactor were optimized by the Box-Behnken method.

    7. Effect of Catalyst, Temperature, and Hydrogen Pressure on Slurry Hydrocracking Reactions of Naphthalene

      Solmaz Akmaz and Pegah Amiri Caglayan

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400300

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      Slurry-phase hydrocracking applications affecting heteroatoms, olefinic and aromatic structures in heavy oil recently have gained importance. Slurry hydrocracking reactions of naphthalene as an aromatic model compound were performed in the presence of solid heterogeneous catalyst compositions. Disposable and low-cost Fe-containing catalyst compositions with sulfur provided satisfying results.

    8. Generation of Crystalline Microcontainers of Salicylic Acid

      Julia Seidel and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400716

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      The formation of liquid inclusions in crystals could offer the option to generate microcontainer systems by means of controlled crystallization. Crystals containing large inclusions are necessary in order to fill them with another substance. Optimization of the inclusion sizes of salicylic acid crystals by means of antisolvent crystallization is investigated.

    9. Distillation Control Structure Selection for Energy-Efficient Operations

      Funmilayo Osuolale and Jie Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400707

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      As distillation is widely used as separation process in chemical and petrochemical industries, a method for energy-efficient control structure selection using a relative exergy array is presented. The preferred control structure should have both appropriate operability and good energy efficiency. The proposed method is demonstrated on two binary distillation columns.

    10. Drying of Iron Chloride Solutions: Laser Heating of Levitated Single Particles

      Martin Schiemann, Sebastian Baer, Cemal Esen and Andreas Ostendorf

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400594

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      To get deeper insight into the particle formation process from aqueous iron chloride solutions, experiments were performed with single droplets in an acoustic levitator. A CO2 laser served as heat source for drying. Varying FeCl2 concentrations and laser power allowed for generating particles with different shapes. Time scales and particle size evolution were compared to literature data.

    11. Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Organophilic Pervaporation in Laboratory and Pilot Scale

      Patrick Schiffmann and Jens-Uwe Repke

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400485

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      Only few modeling tools for the pervaporation process are available. A three-step modeling approach for simulation of industrial-scale pervaporation modules is described. The models are based on the design of a newly developed membrane module. Performance data of a hydrophobic membrane are identified in laboratory-scale experiments. Simulations of an industrial-scale membrane module are compared to experiments in pilot scale.

    12. Techno-Economic Comparison of a 7-MWth Biomass Chemical Looping Gasification Unit with Conventional Systems

      Milad Aghabararnejad, Gregory S. Patience and Jamal Chaouki

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400503

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      Chemical looping is an alternative method to supply conventional gasification (CG) systems with the required oxygen. As biomass gasification scenarios to produce high-concentrated syngas, CG units working with air or pure oxygen are compared techno-economically to chemical looping gasification. The latter approach is found to be a reasonable substitute for GC with oxygen.

    13. Crystallization of Terutroban Sodium Salt Hydrate from the Deliquescent State

      Nicolas Couvrat, Yohann Cartigny, Julie Linol, Lucile Vaysse-Ludot, Pascal Langlois and Gérard Coquerel

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400692

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      Besides studies on the crystallization processes of active pharmaceutical ingredients, stability studies at varying temperature and relative humidity are required. With Terutroban sodium salt as an example, the appearance of a hydrate (initially undesired) during storage is rationalized and its improvements in terms of stability are demonstrated.

    14. Combination of Reaction and Separation in Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Ethylformate

      Gerson Martin, Carla Pereira, Frank Pettersson, Henrik Saxén, Dmitry Y. Murzin, Alírio Rodrigues and Tapio Salmi

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400649

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      An integrated concept for the production of optically active chemicals by heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis and chromatographic separation was developed. Feasibility to conduct continuous heterogeneous catalytic enantioselective hydrogenation of ethylbenzoyl formate in the same solvent as considered optimal for chromatographic separation of the products is demonstrated.

    15. Polycation-Grafted Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membrane with Biofouling Resistance

      Xiang Shen, Yiping Zhao and Li Chen

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400582

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      Biofouling is a major obstacle for ensuring long-term effectiveness of a membrane process. A strategy is proposed to construct an antibacterial poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane surface by covalent immobilization of cations. The polycation membrane surface exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity. Irreversible fouling was converted into reversible fouling.

    16. Effect of pH on Aerobic Granulation and Treatment Performance in Sequencing Batch Reactors

      Samira Rezasoltani, Jalal Shayegan and Sajjad Jalali

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400400

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      Adjusting the pH of granular bioreactors has a great impact on aerobic granulation. Lowering the pH in the early stage of operation followed by a gradual increase helps in rapid formation and high strength of granules. The results are valuable for the development of full-scale aerobic granular bioreactors for wastewater treatment with rapid reactor start-up and good system stability.

    17. Generation and Deposition of Organic Nanoparticles in a Liquid Ring Pump

      Claudia Brunn, Sokratis Sinanis, Susanne Mall-Gleissle and Karlheinz Schaber

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400353

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      If a gas-vapor mixture is compressed in a liquid ring vacuum pump, the gas phase may become supersaturated with respect to the vapor and aerosol formation may occur. This principle was used for the production of nanosuspensions of insoluble organic substances with particle sizes of 50–300 nm. The foam formed in the gas-liquid separator showed stable structures due to incorporated solid nanoparticles.

    18. Multi-Objective Optimization of Pseudo-Dynamic Operation of Naphtha Pyrolysis by a Surrogate Model

      Yangkun Jin, Jinlong Li, Wenli Du and Feng Qian

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400162

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      The ethylene cracking furnace is a key unit in the petrochemical industry, but to date its pseudo-dynamic optimization combined with mathematic programming multi-objectives has not yet been reported. A simple and fast pseudo-dynamic surrogate model is proposed to replace the complex and high-load computational free radical mechanism-based simulator.

    19. Effect of Gravity on the Hydrodynamics in an Unbaffled Stirred Vessel

      Feng L. Yang and Shen J. Zhou

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400223

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      Gravity plays an important role in vortex formation in unbaffled stirred vessels. Its effect on the hydrodynamics in such vessels was evaluated by computational fluid dynamics technique. Laminar and turbulent flow regimes and liquids with high and low viscosity were simulated. Numerical predictions were compared with experimental results from literature.

    20. CO2 Adsorption Kinetics of K2CO3/Activated Carbon for Low-Concentration CO2 Removal from Confined Spaces

      Yafei Guo, Chuanwen Zhao and Changhai Li

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400383

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      Long-duration human task performance in confined spaces has made removal of low-concentration CO2 a critical technology. K2CO3 supported on activated carbon is confirmed a promising means for this purpose. CO2 adsorption kinetic characteristics of the sorbent are investigated and the physically adsorbed CO2 is quantified by an empirical prediction equation.

  2. Communications

    1. Fast Measurements of the Gas-Liquid Diffusion Coefficient in the Gaussian Wake of a Spherical Bubble

      Nicolas Dietrich, Jessica Francois, Mélanie Jimenez, Arnaud Cockx, Pascal Guiraud and Gilles Hébrard

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400471

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      Since literature data on mass diffusion coefficients are actually not sufficient, a fast method is proposed to obtain oxygen diffusion coefficients from measuring the fluorescence quenching behind a bubble. Planar laser-induced fluorescence with inhibition presents a non-intrusive alternative method to accurately evaluate the gas-liquid diffusivity in a very short time.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Effects of Electrospinning Parameters on Gelatin/Poly(ϵ-Caprolactone) Nanofiber Diameter

      Seza Özge Gönen, Melek Erol Taygun and Sadriye Küçükbayrak

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400323

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      In order to use the electrospinning process as a tool for producing materials with targeted fiber diameter for different applications, a simple method was developed for predicting the diameter of electrospun fibers. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model which offers an efficient method for fabricating nanofibers with a controllable and predictable fiber diameter.

    2. Strategy for a Scale-up Correlation in a Dissolved Air Flotation Chamber

      Robson de Souza Vasconcelos, Rosangela Cristine da S. Henauth, Alex Elton de Moura, Valdemir Alexandre dos Santos and Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400665

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      A simple strategy is described to reduce future risks in scale-up investments by using similarity correlations based on the most important gravitational and inertial forces in a dissolved air flotation (DAF) chamber in a lab-scale model. This scale-up strategy allows for designing a pilot DAF based on the laboratory model, requiring relatively inexpensive material.

    3. Response Surface Optimization of Biodiesel Production via Catalytic Transesterification of Fatty Acids

      Maliheh Mir and Seyyed M. Ghoreishi

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300328

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      A system composed of a supercritical CO2 extractor and a stirred-batch reactor was developed for biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds oil by alkali catalytic transesterification and acidic catalytic esterification reactions. Different response surface methodology models were proposed to predict yields of fatty acid methyl esters and biodiesel as a function of operating variables.

    4. Feasibility of the Constrained Free Energy Method for Modeling NO Formation in Combustion

      Petteri Kangas, Pertti Koukkari, Anders Brink and Mikko Hupa

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400633

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      An alternative thermochemical approach for modeling NOX emissions is proposed. NO emissions in combustion are modeled with the constrained free energy (CFE) method which allows calculations of local restricted thermodynamic equilibrium by implementing reaction kinetic rates as constraints. Thermal and fuel NO emissions were successfully estimated with the CFE approach.

    5. Nafion-H-Catalyzed High-Temperature/High-Pressure Synthesis of a Triarylmethane in Continuous-Flow Mode

      Stephan Hayden, Toma Glasnov and C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400581

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      Friedel-Craft reactions are important types of C–C bond-forming reactions. Here, the synthesis of triarylmethanes from aromatic aldehydes and benzene using the super acid Nafion-H as the catalyst is evaluated under both batch and continuous-flow conditions. Using high-temperature/high-pressure conditions, excellent reaction yields are obtained within a few minutes reaction time.

    6. Ultrasonic Hot Embossed Polymer Microreactors for Optical Measurement of Chemical Reactions

      Alexander Tollkötter, Johannes Sackmann, Tobias Baldhoff, Werner Karl Schomburg and Norbert Kockmann

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400522

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      Ultrasonic hot embossing of chemically resistant polymers as a simple and cost-effective fabrication method of microstructures and an optical analysis tool for tracing the progress of chemical reactions are introduced and evaluated. The simplicity of the fabrication method itself and good similarities of produced polymer micromixers with conventional ones made of other materials are pointed out.

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