Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 2.175

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 39/133 (Engineering Chemical)

Online ISSN: 1521-4125

Associated Title(s): Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ChemBioEng Reviews, Energy Technology

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  1. Research Articles

    1. High-Speed Camera-Based Analysis of the Lithium Ceramic Pebble Fabrication Process

      Patrick Waibel, Jörg Matthes, Oliver Leys, Matthias Kolb, Hubert B. Keller and Regina Knitter

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300769

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      Regarding the melt-based fabrication of lithium ceramic pebbles, a high-speed camera-based method enabling the analysis of the melt jet and the droplets directly in their formation phase is presented. The image-based extraction of individual droplet properties such as dynamic changes or agglomerations provided deeper insights into the melt-based fabrication process.

  2. Reviews

    1. Coal Oxidation under Mild Conditions: Current Status and Applications

      Jianglong Yu, Yu Jiang, Arash Tahmasebi, Yanna Han, Xianchun Li, John Lucas and Terry Wall

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300651

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      In recent years, coal oxidation under mild conditions in terms of relatively low temperatures and normal pressure has drawn increasing attention. A critical review on different methods of coal oxidation may advance the understanding of the oxidation mechanisms and identify existing issues of applying such techniques in both comprehending the coal molecular structure and production of organic chemicals.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Effects of Contamination and Power-Law Fluid Viscosity on Heat Transfer Phenomena of Spherical Bubbles

      Venkata Swamy Nalajala and Nanda Kishore

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400004

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      When a contaminated continuous liquid obeys the power-law of non-Newtonian behavior, to date analogous information is not available. Heat transfer phenomena of partially contaminated spherical bubbles are numerically investigated applying the stagnant spherical cap model over wide ranges of pertinent conditions by solving the governing conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy via a segregated approach.

    2. Integration of Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction into Downstream Processing

      Jan Eggersgluess, Tim Wellsandt and Jochen Strube

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400114

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      Successful integration into downstream processing requires a reliable prediction of the process performance in an early development stage. Aqueous-two-phase extraction (ATPE) modeling studies and comparison with experimental data for a mini-plant extraction column are provided. Economic evaluation between ATPE and Protein A chromatography indicates cost-saving factors of up to five-fold for ATPE.

    3. CFD Modeling of a Carbonation Reactor with a K-Based Dry Sorbent for CO2 Capture

      Guangbin Yu, Bing Dai, Juhui Chen, Di Liu, Xiaoyang Yu, Junpeng Shao and Lei Zhao

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400145

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      CO2 removal from flue gas with regenerable dry solid sorbents is a promising possibility to capture CO2. Such process in a carbonation reactor is investigated with a K-based dry sorbent by CFD simulation. A multiscale drag coefficient model is integrated into the two-fluid model to describe the cluster effects. Reactor height and operating pressure have a great impact on CO2 removal.

    4. Enriched-Air Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel in a Fluidized Bed: Effect of Gasifying Conditions and Bed Materials

      Miaomiao Niu, Yaji Huang, Baosheng Jin, Yu Sun and Xinye Wang

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400167

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      Fluidized-bed gasification of refuse-derived fuel offers a promising way for energy recovery and waste treatment. In the two investigated bed materials, increases in temperature and oxygen percentage led to better gasification performance. Gasification in a bed of calcined dolomite was more stable and showed better results compared to high-alumina bauxit.

    5. Numerical Investigation of Three-Dimensional Bubble Column Flows: A Detached Eddy Simulation Approach

      Rao M. A. Masood and Antonio Delgado

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400173

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      Bubble columns are used in chemical, biochemical, metallurgical, and petrochemical industries. To investigate the bubbly flows, a detached eddy simulation (DES) model employing the Euler-Euler simulations of gas liquid flow in a square cross-sectioned bubble column was investigated. In comparison to the k-ϵ model, it resolved the flow with much more detail and captured more dynamic bubble plum.

    6. Energy Minimization in Cryogenic Packed Beds during Purification of Natural Gas with High CO2 Content

      Abulhassan Ali, Khuram Maqsood, Nor Syahera, Azmi B. M. Shariff and Saibal Ganguly

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400215

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      The cryogenic separation technology has been known for several decades. However, this technology was not extensively studied due to the common perception of high expected cooling duty. To bridge the gap in existing literature on cryogenic packed beds, systematic experiments on the effect of engineering parameters during purification of natural gas with high CO2 contents were performed.

    7. Energy-Efficient Size Reduction Technology for Wet Fibrous Biomass Treatment in Industrial Biofuel Technologies

      Lukas Kratky and Tomas Jirout

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400243

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      The energy requirement of a size reduction technology is primarily dependent on the energy demand of the disintegration unit. Three industrial size reduction technologies were designed to comminute wet fibrous biomass. The least energy-demanding technology is composed of a new, fully developed retting mill with supplementary equipment.

    8. Biosorption of Trivalent Chromium from Wastewater: An Approach towards Green Chemistry

      James Kanagaraj, Thamizharasan Senthilvelan, Ramesh C. Panda, Rathinam Aravindhan and Asit B. Mandal

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200716

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      Chromium in wastewater from various industries causes environmental toxicity and pollution. An effective biosorption method using a bacterial culture of Bacillus pumilus was developed for the removal of chromium from wastewater. A mathematical model representing the biosorption kinetics was formulated, supporting the Langmuir isotherm for the adsorption of chromium.

    9. Effect of Particle Shape on Inline Particle Size Measurement Techniques

      Maryam Mostafavi, Sandra Petersen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400212

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      Powerful sensor technologies to analyze suspension density and mean particle size in crystallization processes inline and in real time are ultrasound, 3D optical reflectance measurement, and focused-beam reflectance measurement techniques. Measurement principles, advantages and disadvantages as well as and the different sensitivities of these techniques with respect to the shape of particles are evaluated and discussed.

  4. Communications

    1. Prediction of Phase Split in Horizontal T-Junctions: Revisited

      Dhurjati P. Chakrabarti

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300848

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      Two-phase flow through a T-junction can cause a major problem of operation and control in oil and gas production due to misdistribution of the phases. Based on previously studied models, the prediction of liquid–liquid two-phase flow at a horizontal dividing T-junction is re-investigated. Attempts are made to predict the split for liquid–liquid systems by including energy minimization.

  5. Research Articles

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      Design Strategies for Integrated β-Galactosidase Purification Processes

      Ailton C. Lemes, Juliana Ribeiro Machado, Marcela Lazzare Brites, Marco Di Luccio and Susana Juliano Kalil

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300433

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      As an alternative to the usual primary purification steps, a strategy for β-galactosidase was established from purification methods amenable to scale-up, allowing the application of the enzyme in enzymatic hydrolysis processes. The proposed process design involving aqueous two-phase system, diafiltration, ion exchange, and diafiltration/ultrafiltration led to a high purification factor and recovery of the enzyme.

    2. Mass Transfer Reaction Kinetics of β-Isophorone Oxidation by Air in an Agitator Bubbling Reactor

      Hong Yin, Caiping Sheng, Zhirong Chen, Shenfeng Yuan, Haoran Li and Jun Mei

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300726

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      Since to date the mass transfer reaction process of β-isophorone (β-IP) oxidation by air has been only rarely reported, the kinetics of this reaction in a lab-scale agitator bubbling reactor is analyzed. A correlation equation of gas phase volumetric mass transfer coefficients is defined, providing a valuable theoretical basis for industrial design of a β-IP oxidation reactor.

    3. Fabrication of Palladium Membranes Supported on a Silicalite-1 Zeolite-Modified Alumina Tube for Hydrogen Separation

      Yu Guo, Hongmei Wu, Lidai Zhou, Zhenbin Zhang, Haiou Liu and Xiongfu Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300830

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      Membrane techniques for H2 separation are increasingly demanded in chemical and petrochemical industries. Thin and dense palladium membranes were prepared on macroporous α-alumina tubes by electroless plating using silicalite-1 zeolite as the intermediate and diffusion barrier layer. The excellent hydrogen permeability and stability allow the composite membrane to act as membrane reactor for H2 separation.

    4. Automatic Low-Cost Method to Determine the Solubility of Liquid-Liquid Mixtures by Continuous-Flow Cloud Point Titration

      Andrew P. Williamson and Johannes Kiefer

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400091

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      A new analytical technique for measuring the solubility of liquid-liquid systems using a continuous-flow cloud point titration approach based on an LED and a webcam represents a fast and accurate method that can be realized as a fully automatic instrument with low-cost components. The setup provides results virtually identical to literature data with established techniques and is suitable for academic, industrial, and educational purposes.

    5. Improvement of a Gas Intake Device and a Gas Mixing Study in a Large-Scale Vessel

      Chunhua Bai, Baolong Fan and Bin Li

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400109

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      Gas mixing in large-scale reactors is an important field in chemical engineering. A gas intake device matching the size of a large-scale reaction vessel was designed. The inside/outside pressure difference of the vessel was identified as an important factor influencing the mixing effect. The optimum size of the gas intake device was determined by numerical simulations and experimental results.

    6. Microwave Setup Design for Continuous Fine-Chemicals Synthesis

      Narendra G. Patil, Faysal Benaskar, Evgeny V. Rebrov, Jan Meuldijk, Lumbertus A. Hulshof†, Volker Hessel and Jaap C. Schouten

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400118

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      As an effort towards designing a microwave-heated continuous fine-chemicals production plant, the suitability of two state-of-the-art, mono- and multimode microwave equipment types was elucidated. Based on the feasibility study, a conceptual design of a microwave setup consisting of four cavities with all the required flexibility and applicability was realized and evaluated for its heating performance.

    7. Design and Simulation of a Green Chromate Compound Production Process

      Jing Song, Jing-Kui Qu, Jing-Cong Liu, Fei Ma and Tao Qi

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400123

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      A green chromate compounds production process was simulated to gain an overall understanding of the process. The phase equilibrium data of a key system were calculated and based on the obtained phase diagrams, the green process was then designed. The calculated mass and energy balances provide valuable information for the implementation and industrialization of the process.

    8. Comparative Study on Thermodynamic Analysis of CO2 Utilization Reactions

      Anang Swapnesh, Vimal C. Srivastava and Indra D. Mall

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400157

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      Comparative thermodynamic analysis of dimethyl ether synthesis and methane synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation reactions as well as dry reforming of methane was performed by Gibbs' free energy minimization. Influences of temperature, pressure, and feed compositions on conversion, yield, and selectivity were evaluated. Based on the results, the optimal process for CO2 utilization could be predicted.

    9. Foaming Process from Polystyrene/p-Cymene Solutions Using CO2

      Cristina Gutiérrez, Juan F. Rodríguez, Ignacio Gracia, Antonio de Lucas and Maria T. García

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300780

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      The foaming of polystyrene to achieve microcellular structure was performed at room temperature using an environmentally friendly technology. Low temperatures are required due to the presence of p-cymene, a terpene oil which increases the mobility of the polymeric chains. The foam structure can be tailored by altering pressure and temperature.

  6. Communications

    1. Corrosive Degeneration of Autoclaves for the Ammonothermal Synthesis: Experimental Approach and First Results

      Benjamin Hertweck, Thomas G. Steigerwald, Nicolas S. A. Alt and Eberhard Schluecker

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300719

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      Alloy 718, a material of high corrosion resistance, degenerates in supercritical ammonia with acidic mineralizers. EDX spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy and micro indentation is a suitable tool for analyzing the corrosion behavior and allows a detailed investigation of the corrosion phenomena for Alloy 718 under ammonothermal conditions.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Processing of Lovage into High-Value Components Using Supercritical CO2 and Pressurized Liquid Extraction

      Aurelija Kemzūraitė, Petras R. Venskutonis and Diana Navikienė

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300735

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      High-pressure techniques, namely supercritical CO2 and pressurized liquid extraction, demonstrate the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of processing of different anatomical parts of lovage into high-value fractions based on their solubility in nonpolar (CO2) and protonic (methanol/water) solvents under supercritical and subcritical conditions.

  8. Communications

    1. Sterilization of Medical Products from Collagen by Means of Supercritical CO2

      Volker Herdegen, Alexander Felix, Roland Haseneder, Jens-Uwe Repke, Kathrin Leppchen-Fröhlich, Ina Prade and Michael Meyer

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300679

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      Due to its favorable properties, collagen is increasingly used in medical devices. Nowadays, the necessary sterilization of this sensitive material may be conducted only by ethylenoxide and γ irradiation. To overcome the drawbacks connected to those methods, a new sterilization procedure using supercritical CO2 and the addition of small amounts of sterilization aid is successfully tested.

  9. Research Articles

    1. Simulating Supercritical Water Jets with a Variable Turbulent Prandtl Number

      Martin J. Schuler, Tobias Rothenfluh, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Dragana Brkic, Thierry Meier and Philipp Rudolf von Rohr

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300661

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      Due to the strongly varying fluid properties of water around the pseudo-critical point, difficulties in simulating the thermal field of submerged supercritical water jets were detected. A locally varying turbulent Prandtl number was implemented to significantly improve numerical predictions with respect to axial temperature measurements

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