Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 2.442

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 33/135 (Engineering Chemical)

Online ISSN: 1521-4125

Associated Title(s): Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ChemBioEng Reviews, Energy Technology

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  1. Research Articles

    1. Cyclization of Pseudoionone Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid in a Microreactor

      Feng Zhou, Boyu Zhang, Chaoqun Yao, Kai Zhu, Mei Yang and Guangwen Chen

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500670

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      A microreactor system was developed for the preparation of ionones by cyclization of pseudoionone through sulfuric acid. Effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution were investigated in detail. Sulfuric acid concentration turned out to be crucial for conversion and selectivities of the reaction. The formation of two types of important by-products was analyzed.

    2. Feedstock Characterization and Suitability Assessment for Dry Anaerobic Batch Digestion

      Harald Wedwitschka, Earl Jenson and Jan Liebetrau

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500413

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      Dry anaerobic batch digestion is most suitable for treating stackable dry waste materials. Material characterization was conducted on feedstocks, structure materials, and digestates. An oedometer test method allowed for substrate suitability assessment for dry batch digestion. A combination of different carrier materials could improve overall material permeability under compression.

    3. Effect of Shear Stress on Deoiling of Oil-Contaminated Catalysts in a Hydrocyclone

      Yin-xiang Xu, Yi Liu, Yan-hong Zhang, Xue-jing Yang and Hua-lin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500378

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      Recovery and reuse of spent catalysts has become essential, particularly removal of hydrocarbon pollutants from oil-contaminated catalysts. A minihydrocyclone is applied to remove oil from oil-contaminated Al2O3 catalysts by high-shear washing with high efficiency. The velocity field and shear stress field of the hydrocyclone are numerically simulated.

    4. Kinetic Study of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Combustion over a Commercial Pt/Alumina Catalyst

      Ionut Banu, Georgeta Bercaru, Grigore Bozga and Tiberiu D. Danciu

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500313

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      The adequacy of a kinetic model for methyl isobutyl ketone combustion in air over a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood theory is proven by statistical criteria and thermodynamic consistency. Parameter estimation based on a heterogeneous reactor model is recommended for catalytic combustion processes involving volatile organic compounds.

    5. Statistical Interpretation of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Experiments on the Laboratory Scale

      Josephine Hofmann, Gregor Peltri, Heike Sträuber, Liane Müller, Britt Schumacher, Ulf Müller and Jan Liebetrau

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500473

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      When evaluating small effects on biogas production, the usual methods such as single digesters or the mere comparison of mean values often reach their limits. Since small effects appear after substrate disintegration, proper statistical interpretation of the biogas production and appropriate experimental design focusing on replication are demonstrated by four exemplary disintegration experiments.

    6. Carbon Dioxide and n-Hexane Absorption Using a Gas-Liquid-Liquid Reactor

      Diego Gómez-Díaz, David López-Rivas, José M. Navaza and Annabelle Couvert

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500459

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      Several gas-liquid-liquid systems were used in order to increase the effectiveness of gas absorption treatment for acid gas and volatile organic compound streams. Simultaneous absorption of CO2 and n-hexane from a polluted gas stream was achieved by using an emulsion in a gas-liquid-liquid reactor. Both liquid phases were regenerated by increasing the temperature to remove each gas component.

    7. Improved Mixing in a Magnetite Iron Ore Tank via Swirl Flow: Lab-Scale and Full-Scale Studies

      Jie Wu, Steven Wang, Bon Nguyen, Daniel Marjavaara and Ola Eriksson

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500442

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      A 4-bladed axial flow impeller located close to the bottom can provide a similar performance including off-bottom sedimentation and mixing at about half of the power consumption when baffles are removed. This is due to higher energy efficiency by the swirl flow effect. Particle dispersion and mixing quality could be substantially improved by removing baffles in a magnetite iron ore slurry tank.

    8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of the Impact of Structure on the Degassing Efficiency of a Cyclone

      Chao-yang Wang, Qiang Yang, Xiao Xu and Hua-lin Wang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500384

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      A computational fluid dynamics method involving the algebraic slip mixture model and Reynolds stress model is firstly adopted to simulate the performance of degassing cyclones. The impact of the number of inlets and column diameter ratio is evaluated. Multiport designs proved to be more suitable for liquid-gas separation, particularly for separation of small bubbles.

    9. Laminar Flow and Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Channel with Walls Corrugated in the Orthogonal Directions

      Yongqing Wang, Dan Wang, Zunlong Jin and Minshan Liu

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500087

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      The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in a new chaotic duct were studied numerically; the accuracy of the numerical results was verified. The mechanism of heat transfer enhancement in the duct was studied: Chaotic advection increases fluid mixing and heat exchange. The structure can be used as heat transfer enhancement duct or flow channel in compact heat exchangers or static mixers.

    10. Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Porous Cavity with Sinusoidal Thermal Boundary Condition

      Feng Wu, Gang Wang and Wenjing Zhou

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400143

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      Compared with the simulation results under the uniform thermal boundary condition, the Nusselt number of the fluid phase in a porous cavity can be enhanced by the sinusoidal thermal boundary condition, especially when the periodicity parameter N equals 3. When N becomes larger, the value of Nuf becomes fluctuant and approaches the value of Nuf under the uniform thermal boundary condition.

    11. Filter Media Pore Space Analysis Based on Geometrical Characteristics

      Gloria Bälz, Claus Feuchter, Rainer Handel and Birgit Renz

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500348

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      Nanofibers applied to the surface of a microstructure can improve the efficiency of filter media. The influence of such nanofibers on filtration efficiency is evaluated by geometrical pore space characteristics. This approach is accomplished by using a distance transform and a 3D pore space graph generated by the Ma-Sonka-Algorithm with the P-simple-points extension.

    12. Automatic Fiber Thickness Measurement in Scanning Electron Microscopy Images Validated Using Synthetic Data

      Prakash Easwaran, Martin J. Lehmann, Oliver Wirjadi, Torben Prill, Stephan Didas and Claudia Redenbach

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500342

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      An innovative validation technique using synthetic data is introduced to evaluate existing automatic fiber thickness measurements more precisely. For this purpose, a 3D fiber system model for densely packed non-overlapping fiber systems with fiber bundles is proposed, aiming at photorealistic simulation of scanning electron microscopy images of certain fibrous filter media's microstructures.

  2. Communications

    1. Effects of Geometrical Parameters on the Pressure Drop for a Modified Cyclone Separator

      Fuat Tan, Irfan Karagoz and Atakan Avci

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500182

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      The design of a cyclone separator with minimum pressure drop and high efficiency is still a challenge for improving the separation process. Based on the idea of reducing the surface friction by leaving a separation space between the cylindrical part and the vortex stopper, a modified cyclone with an adjustable vortex stopper is proposed.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids Derived from Waste Cooking Oil with Octanol: Process Optimization and Kinetic Modeling

      Avisha Chowdhury, Debasish Sarkar and Debarati Mitra

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400745

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      Response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the hydrolysis and esterification steps in the synthesis of a lubricant-grade ester using waste cooking oil as the primary feedstock. A pseudo-homogeneous second-order kinetic model is proposed and validated with respect to the conversion data for the esterification reaction obtained under the determined optimum operating conditions.

    2. Filtration Process Optimization: Rheological Behavior of a Filter Cake at Different Moisture Contents

      Damien Bourcier, Yan Siong Kong, Jean-Pierre Feraud, Denis Ode, Didier Colson and François Puel

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500426

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      The transfer of a wet, highly viscous or sticky cake from filters to a dryer or furnace could significantly reduce the productivity of a whole process. Three distinct regions of rheological behavior were identified depending on the moisture content. A method is proposed to predict the transferability of a wet cake from a filter to a dryer or furnace that can be applied to any solid-liquid system.

    3. A High-Gradient Magnetic Separator for Highly Viscous Process Liquors in Industrial Biotechnology

      Hans-Christian Roth, Andreas Prams, Michael Lutz, Jonathan Ritscher, Moritz Raab and Sonja Berensmeier

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500398

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      The positive effect of ultrasound technology on particle recovery in a specially designed prototype of a high-gradient magnetic separator is demonstrated. Separation efficiency of nanoscale magnetic particles was characterized for highly viscous sucrose model solutions. The particle backwashing process could be improved by the application of non-stick coated static magnetic filters.

    4. Effects of Sintered-Metal Cone Length on Gas-Cyclone Classification Performance

      Tomonori Fukasawa, Satoshi Sunada, Daiki Shibata, Hideto Yoshida and Kunihiro Fukui

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500386

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      The cyclone's performance is determined by the efficiency in collecting particles and the inlet-outlet pressure drop. Three types of porous sintered-metal cones were prepared with different lengths and their classification performances were evaluated on the basis of partial separation efficiency, 50 % cut size, amount of particles deposited on the cone, and pressure loss.

    5. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Filtration Processes Using Precoat Materials

      Sascha Schiller, Christoph Hellmich and Hans-Joachim Schmid

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500385

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      The reuse of precoat materials shows a very high potential for industrial processes to reduce the costs of acquisition, bunkering, and waste disposal. To describe the efficiency of filtration processes using precoat materials, the precoat efficiency PE is introduced that can be employed to evaluate different process settings and to optimize such industrial processes.

    6. Influence of Wetting on Washing and Filtration Properties

      Markus Burisch and Urs A. Peuker

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500382

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      Although not described in the literature sufficiently, cake washing processes are influenced by wetting properties. By coating the solid model system with silanes, different surface energies on the surfaces can be achieved. Results of displacement washing with two immiscible, chemically different liquids in combination with contact angle measurements are presented.

    7. Designing Advanced Filtration Media through Metal Additive Manufacturing

      Neil Burns, Mark Burns, Darren Travis, Louise Geekie and Allan E. W. Rennie

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500353

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      Filters were designed to have an integrated support and filter portion from a series of repeating nodes and produced by additive manufacturing in SS316L. Two nodes of different sizes were combined to produce a single latticework. These filter designs with lower pressure drop can reduce the end user's pumping energy requirements and so reduce costs and the inherent carbon footprint.

    8. Monitoring Volatile Fatty Acids and Carbonate Alkalinity in Anaerobic Digestion: Titration Methodologies

      Hao Sun, Shubiao Wu and Renjie Dong

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500293

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      Basic theories and development of titration methods for determination of volatile fatty acids and alkalinity, their key factors, and evolution during the past years are systematically evaluated and compared. This review may assist in the selection of the most suitable titration method and in the design of new methods for stability monitoring in anaerobic digestion processes.

    9. Reasons for Filter Bag Failure and Method Development to Improve its Life Span

      Asis Patnaik and Rajesh D. Anandjiwala

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500282

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      Filter bag failure is one of the major issues in chemical industries, power generation, and steel industries. Acid-induced chemical degradation is one of the main causes for early failure of filter bags. Nanoclay- and binder-coated filter bags and filter fabrics developed from the spunlacing process proved to be resistant to acidic damage without any failure behavior.

    10. Systematical Laboratory Tests with a Bucket Centrifuge and a Pressure Nutsche – Comparison of the Cake Permeability

      Elodie Verdurand, Roland Ebert and Ioannis Nicolaou

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500369

    11. Simulation and Measurement of the Adhesion Moment of a Particle-Wall Contact on the Atomic Scale

      Alexander Haarmann and Eberhard Schmidt

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500364

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      The durability of a particle-wall contact against external stress was examined especially regarding the evasive movement of rolling. In order to validate the calculated results, an experimental setup was created to measure the adhesion moment. A comparison of the measured and calculated data is made.

    12. Design of Vacuum-Cleaned Dust Filters with Modular Filter Units

      Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner and Wilhelm Höflinger

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500351

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      Separation of fibrous dust is a real challenge for a filtration system. For vacuum-cleaned dust filters with suck-off nozzle, typically applied for fibrous dusts, a calculation model was developed to determine the optimum filter area based on filtration-specific parameters. The unique movement pattern of the nozzle was taken into account which may require a modular design approach.

    13. Hetero Agglomeration Processes in a High-Gradient Magnetic Filter Design

      Eva Förster, Armin Schmidt, Frank Rhein, Harald Anlauf and Hermann Nirschl

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500343

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      High gradient magnetic separation is a reliable method to separate para- and ferromagnetic particles from gear oils. Using the developed evaluation procedure, the successful separation of diamagnetic particles from a hydraulic oil suspension is proven and quantitatively determined. The proposed filter design also allows the separation of nonmagnetizable particles.

    14. Dynamic Modeling of Filter-Aid Filtration Including Surface- and Depth-Filtration Effects

      Michael Kuhn and Heiko Briesen

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500347

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      Filter-aid filtration is an important solid-liquid separation technique for suspensions which are hard to filter. For this process, an innovative mechanistic model along with appropriate mathematical und numerical solution methods is introduced. As the first approach capable of handling fully transient process conditions, it captures effects which were by now known only from experimental studies.

    15. Influence of Wall Effects on Filter Upscaling during Solid-Liquid Filter Tests

      Johannes Gursch, Rafael Giner and Gernot Krammer

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500312

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      Wall effects are more evident in laboratory tests compared with full-scale units. Filter up- as well as downscaling can be associated with large errors if such effects are neglected during lab-scale tests. An innovative experimental scheme elucidates wall effects by intentionally blocking filter test area and thereby changing wall lengths and filtration areas.

    16. Filter Press Performance for Fast-Filtering Compressible Suspensions

      Anthony D. Stickland, Elizabeth H. Irvin, Samuel J. Skinner, Peter J. Scales, Andrew Hawkey and Francesco Kaswalder

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500354

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      Optimization of the solids throughput of compressible but highly permeable suspensions in fixed-chamber filter presses is illustrated using the filtration properties of a milled minerals processing slurry. The analytical solutions are derived for when the filtration time is short compared to the total cycle time and when the filtration resistance is dominated by the membrane resistance.

    17. Influence of Filter Operating Parameters on Fine Dust Emissions from Pulse-Cleaned Filter Bags

      Oliver Kurtz, Joerg Meyer and Gerhard Kasper

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500340

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      The emission and operating behavior of standard polyester filter bags was compared to study the effects on dust emission for different tank pressures and pulse cleaning sequences at varying filter ages. The dust emission per cycle decreased roughly fourfold with decreasing tank pressure. In the long run, stable operation is crucial to maintain low emissions.

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