Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Cover image for Vol. 71 Issue 5

Edited By: Matt A. Bernstein

Online ISSN: 1522-2594

Associated Title(s): Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Virtual Issue: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water and Fat

Magnetic resonance techniques for water and fat imaging, from frequency-selective suppression and excitation, to chemical-shift imaging, to spectroscopy, have evolved substantially over the past decades. Progress in methodological developments and clinical applications continues to accelerate, motivated partly by the rising prevalence of obesity and comorbidities worldwide. In the following Virtual Issue, i.e., retrospectively-generated table of contents (TOC) listing, we highlight papers that have been published in MRM within the past two years on water and fat imaging, as well as two historical articles in MRM that brought attention to this topic some 20 years ago. This Virtual Issue coincides with an ISMRM Workshop on “Fat-Water Separation: Insights, Applications & Progress in MRI,” to be held in Long Beach, California from February 19 to 22, 2012. (

Research in diseases that involve abnormal fat accumulation in organs, muscles, and various body depots has increased significantly in recent years. In addition to traditional qualitative fat-water decomposition (separation), attention has also focused on accurate quantitative fat methodologies, especially with chemical-shift techniques that emphasize a variety of confounding factors. Reliable fat suppression tools continue to be a critical component in routine clinical in many MRI pulse sequences, and the development of algorithms that can robustly suppress fat (or water) continues, particularly to overcome the challenges at higher magnetic field strengths. Lastly, new capabilities and clinical applications of water and fat imaging have also emerged. The papers listed below are representative works reported in MRM over the last two years.

Updated January 2014

Investigating the quantitative fidelity of prospectively undersampled chemical shift imaging in muscular dystrophy with compressed sensing and parallel imaging reconstruction
Kieren G. Hollingsworth, David M. Higgins, et al.
Dec 2013

Four dimensional spectral-spatial fat saturation pulse design
Feng Zhao, Jon-Fredrik Nielsen, Douglas C. Noll
Dec 2013

Liver fat quantification using a multi-step adaptive fitting approach with multi-echo GRE imaging
Xiaodong Zhong, Marcel D. Nickel, et al.
Dec 2013

Relaxation effects in MRI-based quantification of fat content and fatty acid composition
Pernilla Peterson, Jonas Svensson, Sven Måsson
Dec 2013

Whole-heart chemical shift encoded water-fat MRI
Valentina Taviani, Diego Hernando, et al.
Nov 2013

Fat signal suppression for coronary MRA at 3T using a water-selective adiabatic T2-preparation technique
Andrew J. Coristine, Ruud B. van Heeswijk, Matthias Stuber
Oct 2013

On the confounding effect of temperature on chemical shift-encoded fat quantification
Diego Hernando, Samir D. Sharma, Harald Kramer, Scott B. Reeder
Oct 2013

Chemical shift-based MRI to measure fat fractions in dystrophic skeletal muscle
William T. Triplett, Celine Baligand, et al.
Sept 2013

Max-IDEAL: A max-flow based approach for IDEAL water/fat separation
Abraam S. Soliman, Jing Yuan, et al.
Sept 2013

Magnetic susceptibility as a B0 field strength independent MRI biomarker of liver iron overload
Diego Hernando, Rachel J. Cook, Carol Diamond, Scott B. Reeder
June 2013

In vivo 3D spatial/1D spectral imaging by spatiotemporal encoding: a new single-shot experimental and processing approach
Rita Schmidt, Lucio Frydman
Aug 2013

Velocity encoding with the slice select refocusing gradient for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors
Matthew J. Middione, Richard B. Thompson, Daniel B. Ennis
July 2013

Hierarchical IDEAL: Fast, robust, and multiresolution separation of multiple chemical species from multiple echo times
Jeffrey Tsao, Yun Jiang
July 2013

Homogeneous fat suppression for bilateral breast imaging using independent shims
Misung Han, Charles H. Cunningham, et al.
July 2013

Toward real-time temperature monitoring in fat and aqueous tissue during magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound using a three-dimensional proton resonance frequency T1 method
Mahamadou Diakite, Henrik Odéen, et al.
July 2013

Water-fat separation imaging of the heart with standard magnetic resonance bSSFP CINE imaging
James W. Goldfarb, Sheeba Arnold-Anteraper
July 2013

Robust abdominal imaging with incomplete breath-holds
Nadine Gdaniec, Holger Eggers, et al.
July 2013

Bone marrow fat quantification in the presence of trabecular bone: Initial comparison between water-fat imaging and single-voxel MRS
Dimitrios Karampinos, Gerd Melkus, et al.
May 2013

Enhanced refocusing of fat signals using optimized multipulse echo sequences
Ashley M. Stokes, Yesu Feng, et al.
April 2013

R2*-corrected water-fat imaging using compressed sensing and parallel imaging
Curtis N. Wiens, Colin M. McCurdy, et al.
March 2013

Reducing localized signal fluctuation in fMRI using spectral-spatial fat saturation
Dan Xu, R. Scott Hinks, Kevin F. King
March 2013

High-resolution 3D radial bSSFP with IDEAL
Catherine J. Moran, Ethan K. Brodsky, et al.
March 2013

Simultaneous spatial and spectral selectivity by spatiotemporal encoding
Jean-Nicolas Dumez, Rita Schmidt, Lucio Frydman
March 2013

Multipeak fat-corrected complex R2* relaxometry: Thoery, optimization, and clinical validation
Diego Hernando, J. Harald Kramer and Scott B. Reeder
Jan 2013

Fat quantification using multiecho sequences with bipolar gradients: Investigation of accuracy and noise performance
Pernilla Peterson and Sven Månsson
Feb 2013

Water/fat-resolved whole-heart Dixon coronary MRA: an initial comparison
Peter Börnert, Peter Koken, Kay Nehrke, Holger Eggers and Peter Ostendorf
Feb 2013

Simultaneous quantification of fat content and fatty acid composition using MR imaging
Pernilla Peterson and Sven Månsson
Mar 2013

Hybrid proton resonance frequency / T1 technique for simultaneous temperature monitoring in adipose and aqueous tissue
Nick Todd, Mahamadou Diakite, Allison Payne and Dennis L. Parker
Jan 2013

Fat confounds the observed apparent diffusion coefficient in patients with hepatic steatosis
Jan Hansmann, Diego Hernando and Scott B. Reeder
Feb 2013

Chemical shift encoded water-fat separation using parallel imaging and compressed sensing
Samir D. Sharma, Houchun H. Hu and Krishna S. Nayak
Feb 2013

Chemical shift-induced phase errors in phase-contrast MRI
Matthew J. Middione and Daniel B. Ennis
Feb 2013

Model-based mapping of fat unsaturation and chain length by chemical shift imaging – phantom validation and in vivo feasibility
Johan Berglund, Håkan Ahlström and Joel Kullberg
Dec 2012

Heterogenous distribution of myocardial steatosis – an ex vivo evaluation
hia-Ying Liu, Yuan Chang Liu, et al.
July 2012

Chemical shift-based water/fat separation in the presence of susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Huanzhou Yu, et al.
Jan 2012

Detecting brown adipose tissue activity with BOLD MRI in mice
Arjun Khanna and Rosa T. Branca
Jan 2012

Three-dimensional water/fat separation and T estimation based on whole-image optimization—Application in breathhold liver imaging at 1.5 T
Johan Berglund and Joel Kullberg
Dec 2011

R2* mapping in the presence of macroscopic B0 field variations
Diego Hernando, Karl K. Vigen, Ann Shimakawa and Scott B. Reeder
Dec 2011

Simultaneous fat suppression and band reduction with large-angle multiple acquisition balanced steady-state free precession
Brady Quist, Brian A. Hargreaves, et al.
Oct 2011

Robust multipoint water-fat separation using fat likelihood analysis
Huanzhou Yu, Scott B. Reeder, et al.
Aug 2011

Addressing phase errors in fat-water imaging using a mixed magnitude/complex fitting method
D. Hernando, C. D. G. Hines, H. Yu and S.B. Reeder
Jun 2011

Accelerated water-fat imaging using restricted subspace field map estimation and compressed sensing
Samir D. Sharma, Houchun H. Hu and Krishna S. Nayak
Jun 2011

Fast fat suppression RF pulse train with insensitivity to B1 inhomogeneity for body imaging
Takayuki Abe
Jun 2011

Time-efficient slab-selective water excitation for 3D MRI
Gregory R. Lee, Jean A. Tkach and Mark A. Griswold
Jun 2011

On the performance of T2* correction methods for quantification of hepatic fat content
Scott B. Reeder, Emily K. Bice, et al.
Jun 2011

In vivo determination of human breast fat composition by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T
Dimitrov IE, Douglas D, et al.
Jun 2011

Historical Papers

Three-point Dixon technique for true water/fat decomposition with B0 inhomogeneity correction
G. H. Glover and E. Schneider
April 1991

Chemical-shift imaging with large magnetic field inhomogeneity
Y. S. Kim, C. W. Mun and Z. H. Cho
May 1987

Quantitative proton chemical-shift imaging
Richard B. Buxton, G. L. Wismer, T. J. Brady, Bruce R. Rosen
Nov 2005