Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 10

Editor-in-Chief: Ziad El Rassi

Impact Factor: 3.028

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 14/74 (Chemistry Analytical); 24/79 (BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH METHODS)

Online ISSN: 1522-2683

Associated Title(s): Journal of Separation Science

Author Guidelines

Last update: October, 2014


Instructions and Forms
Language Assistance
Style of References
Conflict of Interest Statement
Online Submission of Manuscripts
Copyright Policy
NIH Mandate
Reprint Permissions

Instructions and Forms

To ensure fast publication we kindly ask you to follow our Instructions to Authors when preparing your manuscript. Please return the "Color and Page Charge Agreement form" as soon as your manuscript has been accepted:

Instructions to Authors (html)
Instructions to Authors (pdf)
Color and Page Charge Agreement (pdf)

Language Assistance

Should authors who are not native English speakers have problems writing their papers, assistance is available with style, grammar and vocabulary. Improvement of the English can maximize the accuracy of the submission and help to communicate clearly and concisely the contents to the readers, editors and reviewers of Electrophoresis.

Please note: Wiley provides a new professional language and manuscript editing service.

English Language Editing
Translation Service
Manuscript Formatting
Figure Preparation

For detailed information and instructions please go to:

Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at www.wiley.co.jp/journals/editcontribute.html.

Style of References

Authors should provide complete references in as accessible a way as possible, applying software that they are most comfortable using.
Further details and reference examples can be found in the Instructions to Authors.

Conflict of Interest Statement

All authors must declare financial/commercial conflicts of interest. Even if there are none, this should be stated in a separate paragraph following on from the acknowledgements section. This is a mandatory requirement for all articles.

Online Submission of Manuscripts

ELECTROPHORESIS offers a web-based manuscript submission and peerreview system. Using this system is obligatory; conventional submission of manuscripts is not accepted.

Online Submission to ELECTROPHORESIS

If you have any questions concerning the online submission, do not hesitate to contact Editorial Support at


Page Charge
Papers up to 8 printed pages are free of charge. For each additional page beyond the first eight the corresponding author will be charged 196 EUR +VAT. To calculate the number of printed pages your manuscript will have, count the number of text pages, tables and figures and divide the total by three. This will give you a rough estimate.
No page charge will be levied for review articles.

Color Charge
While all color figures will appear online free of charge, authors will be charged for additional costs incurred for the reproduction of color in print.
The prices (excl. VAT) are listed below.

 1 color figure  

  500.00 Euro

 2 color figures 

  832.00 Euro 

 3 color figures 

  1248.00 Euro

 4 color figures 

  1664.00 Euro

For 5 and more color figures please contact our Production Department for an individual offer at: bhill@wiley.com

Copyright Policy

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-terms--conditions_301.html

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-terms--conditions_301.html and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement

NIH mandate

Wiley-Blackwell will support our authors by posting the accepted version of articles by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance by the journal. The accepted version is the version that incorporates all amendments made during peer review, but prior to the publisher's copy-editing and typesetting. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. The NIH mandate applies to all articles based on research that has been wholly or partially funded by the NIH and that are accepted for publication on or after April 7, 2008.

The NIH has also announced a Request For Information (RFI) process, and we encourage our journal editors and society partners to participate in this. During this process, Wiley-Blackwell will also consult directly with authors, editors and society partners to determine how we as their publisher may best support them going forward.

Wiley-Blackwell also offers a OnlineOpen service. Upon payment of the OnlineOpen fee, we will deposit the published version of the article into PubMed Central, with public availability in PubMed Central and on the journal's website immediately upon publication.


ELECTROPHORESIS offers an OnlineOpen service for all authors. OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see OnlineOpen Terms.

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: OnlineOpen Order Form

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Reprint Permissions

Please note that if you are submitting material which has already been published elsewhere, you must also send to the Editorial Office permission in writing that this material may be reprinted in ELECTROPHORESIS.
You can use the Permission Guidelines for Authors (pdf) which includes forms for this purpose.

If you want to request permission to use material published by Wiley simply click on the Request Permissions link associated with the material and follow the instructions provided.

For additional tools visit Author Resources - an enhanced suite of online tools for Wiley Online Library journal authors, featuring Article Tracking, E-mail Publication Alerts and Customized Research Tools.

The PDF Data require the Adobe Acrobat Reader

Instructions to Authors

revised October 2014

Authors are requested to follow these instructions carefully. Manuscripts not prepared accordingly will not be accepted. These represent the minimal requirements in order to ensure that a manuscript can be evaluated critically by any reader.

1 Aims and scope
2 General terms of publication
3 Online submission of manuscripts
4 Types of contributions
5 Organization of manuscripts
6 Proofs and reprints
7 Standard abbreviations

1 Aims and scope

ELECTROPHORESIS is an international journal that publishes original manuscripts on all aspects of electrophoresis, and liquid phase separations (e.g., HPLC, micro- and nano-LC, UHPLC, micro- and nano-fluidics, liquid-phase micro-extractions, etc.). Topics include new or improved analytical and preparative methods, development of theory, and innovative applications of electrophoretic and liquid phase separations methods in the study of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates natural products, pharmaceuticals, environmental species and other compounds of importance to the life sciences. Papers in the areas of microfluidics and proteomics, which are not limited to electrophoresis-based methods will also be accepted for publication. Papers describing the application of standard electrophoretic methods will not be considered.

Papers that will be accepted for publications in nanoanalysis must be focused on one or more of the following: (i) nanoscale electrokinetics and phenomena related to electric double layer and/or confinement in nano-sized geometry, (ii) single cell and subcellular analysis, (iii) nanosensors and ultrasensitive detection aspects (e.g., involving quantum dots, "nanoelectrodes" or nanospray MS), (iv) nanoscale/nanopore DNA sequencing (next generation sequencing), (v) micro- and nanoscale sample preparation, (vi) nanoparticles and cells analyses by dielectrophoresis, (vii) separation-based analysis using nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires.

Contributions will be allocated to one of seven subject categories: (i) general, (ii) nucleic acids, (iii) capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography (CE and CEC), (iv) microfluidics and miniaturization, (v) proteomics and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), (vi) nanoanalysis and (vii) liquid phase separations. On submission authors are requested to indicate the preferred subject category.

ELECTROPHORESIS will continue to serve as an indispensable vehicle for the dissemination of efficacious advances by covering all operative approaches from gels through capillaries to chips.

2 General terms of publication

The author vouches that the work has not been published else where, either completely, in part, or in any other form and that the manuscript has not been submitted to another journal. The submitting author (listed under "Correspondence") accepts the responsibility of including as coauthors all appropriate persons and that all persons listed have contributed in some way to the design, implementation and /or analysis, interpretation and reporting of the study. The submitting author certifies that all coauthors have seen a draft copy of the manuscript and agree with its publication.

All scientific contributions are assessed initially by the Editor-in-Chief and, if necessary, another editor. Those manuscripts failing to reach the required priority rating, failing to comply with the Instructions to Authors or not fitting within the scope of the Journal are not considered further and are returned to authors without detailed comments. It should be noted that rebuttals that challenge rejections based on priority and/or scope alone will rarely be successful, since such a decision is necessarily a matter of opinion.

The scientific contributions will then be peer-reviewed on the criteria of originality and quality. Authors may suggest up to five potential referees (please provide their E-mail addresses) as well as individuals whom they wish to be excluded from the review process. On acceptance, papers may be subjected to editorial changes. A revised paper will retain its original date of receipt only if it is resubmitted to the Editors within two months after revision was requested. Responsibility for the factual accuracy of a paper rests entirely with the author.

All instances of publishing misconduct, including, but not limited to, plagiarism, data fabrication, image/data manipulation to falsify/ enhance results, etc. will result in rejection/retraction of the manuscript.

This journal endorses the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) guidelines and will pursue cases of suspected research and publication misconduct. In such cases, the journal will follow the processes set out by COPE. For more information about COPE please visit http://www.publication ethics.org.uk. The journal also participates in the new CrossRef service CrossCheck (http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html), a plagiarism screening tool that allows the comparison of authored work against the content in the internet database of published work to highlight matching or similar text sections. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Upon acceptance of the manuscript the author is required to fill in the "Color and Page Charge Agreement" form (please see the journal homepage for current charges), sign and submit it to:

Editorial Office
Wiley-VCH Verlag
Boschstrasse 12
D-69469 Weinheim
E-mail: elpho@wiley.com
Fax: 0049-6201-606-525

This mandatory form can be found directly on the journals For Authors page. The "Color and Page Charge Agreement" must also be completed to cover any page charges which might accrue and, if applicable, to indicate which figures should be printed in color.

All color figures will appear online free of charge.

Please note that if you are submitting material which has already been published elsewhere, you must also send to the Editorial Office permission in writing that this material may be reprinted in ELECTROPHORESIS. Authors are expected to carry any costs arising from permissions.

Our Early View online publication is updated weekly and enables papers to be available online and citable before going into print.

ELECTROPHORESIS has introduced a "Fast Track" section for quick and timely publication of research papers on the "cutting edge". The articles published in this section will be in print within 2 to 4 months from the date of submission, allowing important contributions to the field to reach the readers quickly for high visibility. Authors are encouraged to submit their important research accomplishments as a Fast Track contribution, indicating in their cover letter that they wish their work to be considered for this section. The allocation of papers to this section will depend mainly on the results of the peer review process and the opinion of the Editor handling the paper in question.

3 Online submission of manuscripts

Submission to ELECTROPHORESIS is via a web-based manuscript submission and peer review system.

3.1 General remarks

ELECTROPHORESIS publishes articles in English. Manuscripts must be grammatically and linguistically correct, and authors less familiar with English usage are advised to seek the help of English-speaking colleagues. Either American or English spelling is acceptable. Links for English language assistance are available from the journals For Authors page.

To submit your manuscript online, please proceed as follows:
  • Prepare your manuscript and illustrations in the appropriate format, according to the instructions given below (see Sections 4 to 8). Please also make sure that your paper conforms with the scientific and style instructions of ELECTROPHORESIS as given herein.
  • If you have not already done so, create an account for yourself in the system at the submission site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/elpho/ by clicking on the "Create Account" button.
  • Let the system guide you through the submission process. Online help is available at all times during the process. You are also able to exit/re-enter at any stage before finally "submitting" your work. All submissions are kept strictly confidential. To monitor the progress of your manuscript throughout the review process, just login periodically and check your Author Center.

If you have any questions concerning the online submission program, do not hesitate to contact Editorial Support at elpho@wiley.com.

3.2 Manuscripts requirements

Please follow the instructions in Section 5 when preparing the electronic version of the manuscript and ensure that data are given in the correct order and style for the journal.
  • Main text (incl. front material) as well as figure legends and tables (in this order) should be given in one file, preferably saved in .doc(x) or .rtf format. Data should be typed unjustified, without hyphenation except for compound words.
  • Do not use the space bar to make indents; where these are required (e.g. tables) use the TAB key. If working in Word for Windows, please create special characters through Insert/Symbol.
  • All figures should be in TIFF, EPS, PPT or the original format. See Section 5.9 for details.
All submissions will be converted to PDF format during the upload process. The system automatically generates one PDF file which contains all parts of the manuscript apart from any supporting information.

3.3 Revised manuscripts

In revised manuscripts the areas containing the major required changes should be marked and the script color changed. The file(s) with the changes visible on screen should be submitted online. Upon acceptance of the manuscript the final uploaded version will be taken as the basis for copy editing and the subsequent production process.

4 Types of contributions

Three types of manuscripts are considered for publication:

(i) Standard research articles describing complete investigations. These contributions should not exceed 5000 words (including references as well as table and figure legends) and contain no more than 5 display elements (figures and tables). Manuscripts must not have been published previously, except in the form of a preliminary communication. There are no page charges for standard research articles. However, page charges will be levied for those research articles exceeding 5000 words and/or 8 printed pages. Please see the journals For Authors page for current charges. Also note that the length of an article depends greatly on the type of figures and tables provided.

(ii) Short Communications describing results that are brief, timely and/ or of such importance that rapid release is warranted. These manuscripts should bear the words Short Communication immediately above the title on the first page. They should not be subdivided into titled sections but should be written in a continuous style. These manuscripts should not exceed 2500 words (including references as well as table and figure legends) and contain no more than 3 display elements (figures and tables).

(iii) Review articles will normally be invited by the Editors. Authors wishing to submit a Review article should send a brief outline to the Editor-in-Chief Professor Ziad El Rassi (ziad.el_rassi@okstate.edu) before the manuscript is drafted. Page charges do not apply to Review articles. However, these manuscripts should not exceed 8500 words (including references and figure legends) and contain no more than 7 to 8 display elements (figures and tables).

5 Organization of manuscripts

Manuscripts must be typewritten with double spacing (including references, tables, legends, etc.).

5.1 Title page

The first page of the manuscript should contain only the following:

(i) Title of the paper containing only the keywords pertaining to the subject matter.
(ii) Full names (including first name) of the authors and the name of the institute. If the publication originates from several institutes the affiliations of all authors should be clearly stated by using superscript numbers after the name and before the institute.
(iii) Name (and title) and full postal address of the author to whom all correspondence (including galley proofs) is to be sent. E-mail and fax number must be included to speed up communication.
(iv) A list of abbreviations used in the paper excluding standard abbreviations (see Section 8 for a list of the "Standard Abbreviations").
(v) Keywords (max. 5, in alphabetical order)
(vi) Total number of words including figure and table legends.

5.2 Abstract

The second and (if necessary) third page of the manuscript should contain the abstract only. This must be self-explanatory and intelligible without reference to the text. It should not exceed 200 words. Nonstandard abbreviations must be written in full when first used.

Video summaries: A video summary can be a quick way to make the message of your research accessible to a much larger audience. Wiley and its partner Research Square offer a service of professionally produced video summaries, available to authors of articles accepted in this journal. You can learn more about it, and purchase one for your article, at https://www.researchsquare.com/wiley . If you have any questions, please direct them to videoabstracts@wiley.com .

5.3 Sections in research articles

Manuscripts should be divided into the following sections:

"1 Introduction": containing a description of the problem under investigation and a brief survey of the existing literature on the subject.
"2 Materials and methods": providing an outline of the experimental design of the study. The main methodological steps should be described and, where possible, references to previously published methods provided. Special materials and equipment, the manufacturer's name and location should also be indicated. The section should be understandable as a standalone text. Any further experimental details can be placed in Supporting Information.
"3 Results"
"4 Discussion"
"5 References"
Sections 3 and 4 may be combined and should then be followed by a short section entitled "Concluding remarks". Subdivisions of sections should be indicated by numbered subheadings.

5.4 References

References should be numbered sequentially in the order in which they are cited in the text. The numbers should be set in brackets, thus [2,18]. References are to be collected in numerical order at the end of the manuscript under the heading "References". In the case of papers with multiple authors, all their names should be listed. Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the practice of PubMed. The abbreviated title and the volume number should be in italics.

[1] Lidsky, M. D., Sharp, J. T., Rudel, M. L., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1967, 121, 491-502.

Other serial publications such as "Advances in Protein Chemistry" should be cited in the same manner as journals.

[2] Elves, M. W., The Lymphocytes, Lloyd-Luke Ltd., London 1972.

Chapter in a book:
[3] Müller, E., Greaves, M. F, in: Mäkelä, O., Cross, A., Kosunen, T. U. (Eds.), Cell Interactions and Receptor Antibodies in Immune Responses, Academic Press, New York 1971, pp. 101-125.

Authors should provide complete references in as accessible a way as possible, applying software that they are most comfortable using.

Allusions to "unpublished observations", papers "to be published" or "submitted for publication" and the like should be part of the text, in parentheses. Material "in press" should be entered under references along with the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available. Posters and abstracts in meetings books must not be cited unless they are generally accessible. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic references rests entirely with the author.

Please note that website addresses must not be included as a reference, but should be inserted in parentheses in the text directly after the data to which they refer.

5.5 Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements as well as information regarding funding sources should be provided on a separate page and will appear at the end of the text (before the "References").

5.6 Conflict of interest statement

All authors must declare financial/commercial conflicts of interest. Even if there are none, this should be stated in a separate paragraph following on from the acknowledgements section. This is a mandatory requirement for all articles.

5.7 Tables

Tables with suitable captions at the top and numbered with Arabic numerals should be collected at the end of the text on separate sheets (one page per table). Column headings should be kept as brief as possible and indicate units in parentheses. Footnotes to tables should be indicated with a), b), c) etc. and typed on the same page as the table. Explanations to the tables should appear at the bottom of the tables, not in the table titles themselves.

5.8 Supporting information

Supporting Information is encouraged. Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Extensive tables (more than 5 typewritten pages) should be published online as supporting information. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

Supporting information will be made freely available on the web (similar to the table of contents and the article abstracts). Authors are permitted to place this material on their homepages when they are setting up a link to the full-text version of the article in Wiley Online Library.

All supporting information will undergo the peer-review process. Thus, this material has to be submitted electronically along with the main body of the article, however as separate files. It is in the hands of the Editor-in-Chief to decide which part of the manuscript will be published as supporting information.

5.9 Figures and legends

Please prepare your figures according to the following guidelines:

  • Each figure should be given in a separate file and should have the following resolution at their final published size:




    800-1200 DPI


    400-800 DPI

    Color (only CMYK)

    300-400 DPI

    Use the zoom function to check the resolution of the figures: if an image viewed at 400 percent on screen is blurry (pixellated) then the image will not reproduce well in print. An image viewed at 100 percent on screen may look fine but will not necessarily reproduce well as the screen resolution is much lower (72-96 dpi) than that of a printing press.
  • Crop, or scale, figures to the size intended for publication; no enlargement or reduction should be necessary. Otherwise figures should be submitted in a format which can be reduced to a width of 50-80 mm or 120-170 mm, with symbols and labels to a height of 2.0 mm (after reduction) and a minimum line weight of 0.3 pt for black lines.
  • Photographic images often produce large files. Most software has an option to use LZW compression and this will produce smaller files, especially when the image contains large areas of single color or repeating textures and patterns.
  • In electropherograms presented horizontally, the anode should be on the left while in vertical presentations the anode should be at the bottom. Two-dimensional presentations, e.g. with isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE in the two dimensions, are thus presented consistently with the standard coordinate system.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance.
  • Each figure is to be accompanied by a legend which should be selfexplanatory. The legends should not appear under the figures but be included after the references.

By supplying high-quality electronic artwork, delays in production can be reduced as follow-up requests for improvement are no longer necessary.
While all color figures will appear online free of charge, authors will be charged for additional costs incurred for the reproduction of color in print (see Section 2).

5.10 Image manipulation

Manipulation of images is unacceptable. All figures must accurately reflect the original data. Information should not be enhanced, eliminated, added, obscured or moved. In cases where manipulation is unavoidable, this should be clearly detailed in the Figure legend. All instruments, software and processes used to obtain the images must be fully detailed in the manuscript either in the Figure legends or the Materials and Methods. Acceptable image manipulation includes uniformly adjusting the contrast of an entire image, and any control images, ensuring that all original data, including the background, remains visible and that no new features are introduced. Cropping of gels, or re-positioning of lanes/fields, is permitted providing that all alterations are clearly indicated by the use of dividing lines in the image itself, vital data are not removed and an explanation of the alterations is included in the Figure legend. Unacceptable manipulation includes, but is not limited to, the enhancement of one feature/band over others, removal of background noise/bands etc. Authors must be able to produce all data in their raw format upon editorial request.

5.11 Structural formulae

Structural formulae should be drawn in the manuscript in the position where they belong. They must be numbered in consecutive order with the other figures.

5.12 Equations

Mathematical and chemical equations are to be written in the manuscript at the place in which they belong and should be marked by Arabic numerals in parentheses in the right margin in the order of their appearance.

5.13 Biographic material

Corresponding authors of Review articles are invited to submit a portrait photograph of themselves and a short biographical text (no more than 80 words) which will appear at the very end of the article.

5.14 Abbreviations

Abbreviations are hindrances to a reader working in a field other than that of the author, and to abstractors. Therefore, their use should be restricted to a minimum. Abbreviations should be introduced only when repeatedly used. Abbreviations used only in a table or a figure may be defined in the legend. If nonstandard abbreviations are used in the abstract they should be defined in the abstract, in the list of abbreviations of the manuscript, as well as when first used in the body of the paper.
Section 8 at the end of these instructions contains a list of abbreviations which may be used without definition within the text of articles published in ELECTROPHORESIS.

5.15 Ethics

A statement regarding appropriate Ethical Committee approval must be included and that the informed consent of all participating subjects was obtained. If the manuscript describes experiments using animals, the approval of the national or local authorities (giving the approval or the accreditation number of the laboratory and of the investigator) should be stated. If no such rules or permission are stipulated in the particular country, this must also be mentioned in the paper. For reports of studies involving animals, please follow the ARRIVE guidelines which are hosted on the NC3Rs website at http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/ARRIVEpdf.

6 Proofs and reprints

Before publication authors will receive page proofs via E-mail in PDF low resolution file format, together with instructions and a reprint order form, also as PDF files. The proofs should be carefully corrected following the instructions. In particular, authors should answer any editing queries. Please return proof corrections as instructed.

The reprint order form should be filled out (even if reprints are not required), and returned via Email or fax to the Editorial Office (see Section 2).

Authors will be charged for extensive alterations of their article. Reprints can be ordered at prices shown on the reprint order form. Upon publication the submitting author (listed under "Correspondence") will receive a complimentary pdf of his/her article..

7 Standard abbreviations

The full list of standard abbreviations used in ELECTROPHORESIS can be downloaded here:

Standard Abbreviations Electrophoresis (pdf)

All abbreviations listed here may be used without definition in the articles. Please refer to Section 5.14 for the correct usage of abbreviations.