Advanced Engineering Materials

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  1. Full Papers

    1. Stress and Induced Electric Polarization Modeling in Polar, Semi-polar, and Non-Polar AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures for Piezotronics Application

      Bartłomiej K. Paszkiewicz

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600712

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      This paper presents model that allows analysis of polarization states present inside AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with a special attention to its applications in piezotronics field. The model enables to predict a polarization and stress state inside a heterostructure with any Al content and of any crystallographic orientation. It is presented, that it is possible to control polarization state of heterostructure.

  2. Reviews

    1. Intermetallic β-Solidifying γ-TiAl Based Alloys − From Fundamental Research to Application

      Svea Mayer, Petra Erdely, Franz Dieter Fischer, David Holec, Michael Kastenhuber, Thomas Klein and Helmut Clemens

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600735

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      Intermetallic titanium aluminides have gone their way from intensive fundamental research on a laboratory scale to an innovative class of light-weight high-temperature materials which have found their application in aerospace and automotive industries. The present review bridges the gap from development of the so-called TNM alloy, through structural characterization, engineering properties, manufacturing and processing technologies to all aspects of application.

    2. Advanced Structural Materials by Bioinspiration

      Flavia Libonati and Markus J. Buehler

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600787

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      Nature uses several strategies to turn weakness into strength. By combining few universal building blocks confined to a specific size and arranged into different substructures interacting through carefully designed interfaces, Nature is able to produce a large variety of multiscale hierarchical materials, which are efficient, multifunctional and sustainable.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Laser Powder Bed Fusion – Materials Issues and Optimized Processing Parameters for Tool steels, AlSiMg- and CuCrZr-Alloys

      Bruno Buchmayr, Gerhard Panzl, Alexander Walzl and Christopher Wallis

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600667

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      The Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process is suitable to process ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The work describes the usability of two new steel grades for L-PBF process, the influence of post-weld heat treatments on the AlSi10Mg alloy, including microstructure, as well as mechanical properties and the investigations on CuCrZr parts, discussing mechanical, and thermal properties after heat treatment.

    2. Fabricating Three-Dimensional Periodic Micro Patterns on Photo-Resists Using Laser Interference Lithography

      Florian Rößler, Valentin Lang, Denise Günther and Andrés Fabián Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600855

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      Mushroom geometries as in the springtails have demonstrated to show outstanding surface functionalities such as non-wetting and prevention of bacterial settlement. This study focus on the development of a laser-based fabrication method to produce three-dimensional periodic patterns with undercuts irradiating a multilayered system of SU-8 and LOR using interference patterns.

    3. Microstructure, Texture, and Mechanical Properties of Alternate α/β Mg–Li Composite Sheets Prepared by Accumulative Roll Bonding

      Feng Zhong, Tianzi Wang, Ruizhi Wu, Legan Hou, Jinghuai Zhang, Xinlin Li, Milin Zhang, Anping Dong and Baode Sun

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600817

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      Mg–5Li–1Al sheet and Mg–12Li–1Al sheet are used to prepare α/β Mg–Li composite sheets with accumulative roll bonding. The microstructure of the specimens is investigated. The texture and mechanical properties are improved. In the interface areas between sheets, a cross shear zone exists.

    4. The Effect of Pressure Stress on the Evolution of B2(ω) Phase in High Nb Containing TiAl Alloy

      Bei Cao, Jieren Yang, Xuyang Wang and Rui Hu

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600844

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      The B2 phase is unstable at 850 °C and transfers to ω phase in high Nb–TiAl alloy, which can be promoted by press pressure. The ω fraction further increases to 65.2% under 500 MPa after 1 h. Also, pressure can suppress the transition of ω [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] B2 at 900 °C. The ω phase remains in B2 area as 34.1 vol% content under 300 MPa after 1 h.

    5. High-Quality Epitaxial MgB2 Josephson Junctions Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

      Lin Li, Hui Zhang, Yi-Hang Yang and Guo-Xing Miao

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600792

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      Epitaxial MgB2 films are grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and optimized with the assistance of in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Hetero-epitaxial (0001)-MgB2/(111)-MgO/(0001)-MgB2 stacks are deposited and fabricated into micro Josephson junctions, which reveal clear Fraunhofer patterns and Fiske steps, indicating superb materials quality.

    6. Metamaterial Based Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor

      Hasanul Karim, Diego Delfin, Luis A. Chavez, Luis Delfin, Ricardo Martinez, Jose Avila, Carlos Rodriguez, Raymond C. Rumpf, Norman Love and Yirong Lin

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600741

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      A metamaterial-based passive wireless temperature sensor is presented. Boron Nitride and Barium Titanate were the ceramic materials used for the matrix, with embedded Copper rings acting as closed ring resonators. The feasibility of wireless temperature sensing is demonstrated up to 200 °C. An average sensitivity of 0.462 MHz °C was achieved.

  4. Communications

    1. Precipitation and Hardness of Carbonitrides in a CrMnFeCoNi High Entropy Alloy

      Mathilde Laurent-Brocq, Xavier Sauvage, Alfiya Akhatova, Loïc Perrière, Eric Leroy and Yannick Champion

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600715

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      Carbonitrides precipitates can be formed within a CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA). The matrix and the precipitates are independently characterized by EPMA, APT, TEM and nanoindentation. The matrix is a fcc multi-component non-equimolar solid-solution, which is stable and as hard as its equimolar counterpart. The precipitates are stable chromium carbonitrides which are semi-coherent with the matrix and harder than the matrix.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Strength and Ductility Balance on an Extruded Mg–Zn–Ca–La Alloy

      Yuzhou Du, Mingyi Zheng, Xiaoguang Qiao, Hongjun Chen and Bailing Jiang

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600842

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      The as-extruded Mg–6Zn–0.7Ca–0.2La (wt%) alloy exhibits fine-homogeneously DRXed microstructure and precipitates. Such microstructural characteristic gives rise to a balanced strength and ductility with the yield strength of 261 MPa and elongation-to-fracture of 20.7%.

    2. Orthogonal Wettability of Hierarchically Textured Metal Meshes as a Means of Separating Water/Oil Emulsions

      Thomas E. O'Loughlin, Sean Martens, Suchang Roy Ren, Patrick McKay and Sarbajit Banerjee

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600808

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      Hierarchically textured surfaces comprising steel meshes coated with ZnO nanotetrapods effectively separate the oil and water components of emulsions based on differential wettability at ambient temperature and pressure in a facile flow process. A scalable method allowing for greater than 99% separation efficiency has been realized for mechanical resilient substrates, paving the way to largescale industrial applications.

    3. Facile Fabrication, Structures, and Properties of Laser-Marked Polyacrylamide/Bi2O3 Hydrogels

      Zheng Cao, Yanchao Hu, Qiang Yu, Ying Lu, Dun Wu, An Zhou, Wenzhong Ma, Yanping Xia, Chunlin Liu and Katja Loos

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600826

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      Laser marking of wet and soft PAM/Bi2O3 hydrogel materials can be achieved by simply embedding Bi2O3 particles inside PAM hydrogels and a subsequent laser treatment. The marking properties of hydrogels are determined by the Bi2O3 content and the laser power employed. The facile method is very promising for applications including the marking and decoration of soft and wet hydrogel products.

    4. Simulation of Short Fatigue Crack Propagation in a 3D Experimental Microstructure

      Henry Proudhon, Jingyuan Li, Wolfgang Ludwig, Arjen Roos and Samuel Forest

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600721

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      A simulation of short fatigue crack growth in an experimental three dimensional microstructure with several hundreds grains is carried out. To simulate the fatigue process in relation with the material crystallography, a crystal plasticity finite element model is used to capture the plastic activity at the crack tip. The crack propagates through several grains and depicts characteristic features previously observed experimentally.

  6. Communications

    1. An Energy Approach to Determine the Martensite Morphology in Nanocrystalline NiTi

      Manuel Petersmann, Wolfgang Pranger, Thomas Waitz and Thomas Antretter

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600684

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      Nanocrystalline NiTi has become increasingly attractive as an advanced shape memory material, well-known for its biomedical applications. This work determines the energies involved in the martensitic phase transformation of this intermetallic alloy taking advantage of the results provided by HRTEM experiments. Numerical simulations explain the martensite morphology depending on the grain size.

  7. Reviews

    1. Complementary High Spatial Resolution Methods in Materials Science and Engineering

      Oskar Paris, David Lang, Jiehua Li, Peter Schumacher, Marco Deluca, Rostislav Daniel, Michael Tkadletz, Nina Schalk, Christian Mitterer, Juraj Todt, Jozef Keckes, Zaoli Zhang, Gerhard Fritz-Popovski, Christian Ganser, Christian Teichert and Helmut Clemens

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600671

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      The potential of modern high spatial resolution methods in materials science and engineering is demonstrated. Scientific examples include characterization of precipitates in multiphase alloys, as well as determination of stresses in coatings and mesoporous thin films, underlining the importance of modern electron microscopy techniques and of scattering/diffraction at large scale facilities. Moreover, atom probe tomography, Raman scattering and atomic force microscopy are also highlighted.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Carbon Nanoparticle-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites: Microstructural Tailoring and Predictive Modeling

      Leander Reinert, Sebastian Suarez, Thomas Müller and Frank Mücklich

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600750

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      This work studies the effect of different carbon nanoparticles (CNP) on the final microstructure in metal matrix composites. A model based on the Zener equation is adapted to predict the observed grain refinement for all CNP, which can be correlated to the mean CNP agglomerate diameter distribution. As information regarding hybridization state and particle morphology of CNP is considered, valuable information for CNP-reinforced MMC is provided to a general extent.

    2. Substrate Independent Elastic Modulus of Thin Low Dielectric Constant Materials

      Oguzhan Orkut Okudur, Kris Vanstreels, Ingrid de Wolf, Ude Hangen and Anqi Qiu

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600653

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      Measuring the elastic modulus of thin films by nanoindentation technique is not a straightforward task due to the effect of the substrate. The magnitude of this effect depends on the indentation depth, indenter geometry, film thickness, and material properties of both the film and the substrate.

    3. In situ Observation of the Initial Stage of γ Lamella Formation in Ti48Al2Cr2Nb Alloy

      Xiaolei Li, Jinshan Li, Hongchao Kou and Lin Song

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600670

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      The growth process of γ lamellae in a Ti48Al2Cr2Nb alloy during high-temperature heterogeneous transformation is investigated. Images (a) and (b) exhibit that γ lamellae prefer to grow in pair and the distance between growth pairs directly influences the lamellar width. The EBSD (c) and TEM (d) results demonstrate that the two γ lamellae generated by branching have same stacking sequence.

    4. Enhance the Bioactivity and Osseointegration of the Polyethylene-Terephthalate-Based Artificial Ligament via Poly(Dopamine) Coating with Mesoporous Bioactive Glass

      Bin Yu, Peng Pei, Baoqing Yu, Dejian Li, Xu Zhang, Jianming Huang, Huifeng Ding, Shiyi Chen and Yufang Zhu

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600708

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      A straightforward method of PDA-MBG modification on an artificial ligament is used to promote its biocompatibility and bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. And the modified PET artificial ligament is shown to be an efficient process for enhancing the bioactivity of the PET. The surface modification on PET-based artificial ligament may be a novel applied for ligament reconstruction.

    5. Effects of Ag Addition on Hot Deformation Behavior of Cu–Ni–Si Alloys

      Huili Sun, Yi Zhang, Alex A. Volinsky, Bingjie Wang, Baohong Tian, Kexing Song, Zhe Chai and Yong Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600607

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      Hot deformation behavior of Cu–Ni–Si and Cu–Ni–Si–Ag alloys is investigated. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism is a feature of high temperature flow stress–strain curves of the alloy. Ag addition can refine the grains and accelerate dynamic recrystallization. Processing maps are developed and analyzed based on the dynamic material model (DMM). Ag addition can optimize the alloy processing workability.

  9. Communications

    1. Mechanism of Dynamic Formation of Ultrafine Ferrite Grains during High Temperature Processing in Steel

      Lijia Zhao, Nokeun Park, Yanzhong Tian, Akinobu Shibata and Nobuhiro Tsuji

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600778

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      Grain refinement mechanism of ferrite dynamically transformed (DT) from austenite is clarified. The study shows that the role of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) has been previously underestimated in grain refinement of ferrite and it is suggested that new thermomechanical processes should be developed by enhancing the DRX (of DT ferrite), which has a strong strain rate dependency.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Development of Graphene Nano-Platelet Ink for High Voltage Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Cobalt Complex Electrolytes

      Jennifer A. Baker, Carys Worsley, Harrison K. H. Lee, Ronald N. Clark, Wing C. Tsoi, Geraint Williams, David A. Worsley, David T. Gethin and Trystan M. Watson

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600652

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      This work develops a GNP ink of high surface area which can be printed using roll to roll technologies to produce a semi-transparent catalyst. Post deposition the ink needs only a 110 °C drying step enabling the use of plastic substrates. Flexible dye sensitized solar cells suitable for indoor applications are produced with efficiencies of over 6.0%.

    2. Advanced Raman Spectroscopy Using Nanofocusing of Light

      Thomas Nuytten, Janusz Bogdanowicz, Thomas Hantschel, Andreas Schulze, Paola Favia, Hugo Bender, Ingrid De Wolf and Wilfried Vandervorst

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600612

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      The dramatic enhancement of Raman scattering intensities from periodic arrays of narrow semiconductor fins is reported. For a variety of materials, nanofocusing of the incident light translates Raman spectroscopy into the nanoscale world. This, in turn, enables optical stress and composition metrology on deep-subwavelength semiconductor architectures.

    3. Tri-Modal Microstructure Evolution in Near-β and Two Phase Field Heat Treatments of Conventionally Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy

      Zhichao Sun, Huili Wu, Min Wang and Jing Cao

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600796

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      Tri-modal microstructure with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties is obtained by conventional forging (940 °C/60%/0.1 s–1/WQ) combined with subsequent near-β and two-phase field heat treatments (HT1 + HT2, 975 °C 30 min–1/WQ + 935 °C 100–120 min–1/AC) in TA15 Ti-alloy. Enhancing the near-β temperature (T1) decreases the volume fraction of αp –(αp%) and extending two phase field holding time (t2) increases the thickness of lamellar αs (Tαs).

    4. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Oxidation Behavior of AlxCr0.4CuFe0.4MnNi High Entropy Alloys

      Ziyuan Rao, Xun Wang, Qinjia Wang, Ting Liu, Xiaohua Chen, Lu Wang and Xidong Hui

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600726

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      The effects of Al are investigated on the microstructure, tensile properties, and oxidation behavior of Cr0.4CuFe0.4MnNiAlx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) high entropy alloys. The mechanical properties of HEAs are remarkably improved by the small addition of Al. The HEAs exhibit a significant enhanced oxidation resistance after the addition of Al.

    5. Optimized Photoinitiator for Fast Two-Photon Absorption Polymerization of Polyester-Macromers for Tissue Engineering

      Leander Poocza, Michael Gottschaldt, Eric Markweg, Nicole Hauptmann, Gerhard Hildebrand, David Pretzel, Matthias Hartlieb, Christian Reichardt, Joachim Kübel, Ulrich S. Schubert, Olaf Mollenhauer, Benjamin Dietzek and Klaus Liefeith

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600686

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      A novel organic photoinitiator for two photon polymerization (TPP) by functionalization of photoinitiator side groups for enhanced reactivity with lactide-caprolactone methacrylates facilitated TPP structures in centimeter dimensions by a new processing approach. Maximum TPP writing speed revealed a selectiveness for the chosen lactide-caprolactone which was five times faster than in the control material (UDMA).

  11. Reviews

    1. Atomistic Modeling-Based Design of Novel Materials

      David Holec, Liangcai Zhou, Helmut Riedl, Christian M. Koller, Paul H. Mayrhofer, Martin Friák, Mojmír Šob, Fritz Körmann, Jörg Neugebauer, Denis Music, Markus A. Hartmann and Franz D. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600688

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      This review demonstrates an application of atomistic modeling to current materials science problems. As an example, atomic structure of a cubic TiN–AlN solid solution is overlaid with its electronic charge density determining type and strength of bonding, and consequently its physical properties.

    2. Open Celled Porous Titanium

      Mohammed Menhal Shbeh and Russell Goodall

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600664

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      Porous metals cover a wide range of materials, foams, sponges, and lattices, and are of interest for some of the unusual properties and property combinations that they can possess. Here, the processing, properties, and current applications of porous titanium are reviewed, highlighting the state of the art of these materials, and delineating future challenges.

  12. Communications

    1. Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

      Christina Hofer, Sophie Primig, Helmut Clemens, Florian Winkelhofer and Ronald Schnitzer

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600658

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      Carbide-free bainitic steels enable a well-balanced combination of high strength and ductility. In this study, their complex multi-phase microstructure is investigated by mechanical, metallographic, and high-resolution methods using correlative microscopy, such as the novel approach of combining transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam microscopy.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy René N5 through Scanning Laser Epitaxy (SLE) − Material Processing, Microstructures, and Microhardness Properties

      Amrita Basak and Suman Das

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600690

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      The authors report on the crack-free and dense deposition of René N5 on cast René N5 substrates with [100] and [001] crystallographic orientation using scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process. The René N5 deposits show highly refined columnar dendrites growing in the [001] direction from the interface.

    2. The Effect of SiCp Addition on Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Conventionally and Microwave Sintered PM 316L

      Onur Ertugrul, Monika Willert-Porada and Kazim Onel

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600680

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      10 vol% SiCp reinforced composite samples show acceptable corrosion properties and improved wear resistence compared to plain PM 316L materials in a similar manner, as they show good mechanical properties. In addition, fast and energy saving microwave sintering technology gives samples with better wear and corrosion properties compared to conventional method.

    3. The Challenge of Measuring Strain in FDSOI Device Structures – HRXRD as a Potential Method of Resolution

      Holm Geisler, Martin Weisheit, Petra Hofmann and Hans-Juergen Engelmann

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600744

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      On FDSOI wafers, the strain state of narrow c-Si1-xGex structures depends on the width wi of the active areas, as shown by HRXRD measurements. The original biaxial strain of the unstructured film converts more and more to a uniaxial strain along [110], whereas an elastic strain relaxation is observed along [−110] with decreasing wi. An additional change of the strain state of S/D-Si1-yGey islands on top of c-Si1-xGex structures is also observed along [110] for the narrowest gratings.

  14. Communications

    1. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Thin WC-Co Sintered Pellets

      Esteben A. Álvarez, José Luis García and Carlos J. R. González Oliver

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600544

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      Thin disks of WC-30 vol% Co sintered at 1 400°C in vacuum shows an axial expansion larger than along the in-plane direction. The curves exhibit hysteresis as indicated by the contraction curves making a loop during cooling. Using a model, where the matrix and the 2nd phase are respectively the WC-grains and Co, it was calculated the WC grains are under tensile stresses at RT. This explains the expanded WC unit cell, measured by X-rays diffraction at 20 °C.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Role of Interfaces on Multi-length Scale Wear Mechanics of TaC-based Composites

      Ambreen Nisar and Kantesh Balani

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600713

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      The synergistic reinforcement of SiC and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in TaC, as T15S15C composite, provides an increased fracture toughness (KIC), and scratch- (SR) and tribological-resistance (WR), which is rationalized by comparing micro-scratching and fretting wear to elicit multi-length scale damage mechanics.

    2. Phase Decomposition of a Single-Phase AlTiVNb High-Entropy Alloy after Severe Plastic Deformation and Annealing

      Benjamin Schuh, Bernhard Völker, Verena Maier-Kiener, Juraj Todt, Jiehua Li and Anton Hohenwarter

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600674

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      An AlTiVNb high-entropy alloy is subjected to high-pressure torsion leading to a pronounced grain refinement. The nanocrystalline samples are subjected to various heat treatments, which results in a significant increase in hardness and reduced modulus. Subsequently, investigations by electron microscopy, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation are performed in order to determine the origin of this annealing response.

    3. Micro-CT Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Residual Stresses and Fracture in Metal-Ceramic Composites

      Michał Basista, Witold Węglewski, Kamil Bochenek, Zuzanna Poniżnik and Zdzisław Nowak

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600725

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      An X-ray micro-CT-based FE modeling method is developed to predict macroscopic properties of metal-ceramic composites with account of material microstructure. The method is introduced as a set of operational steps enabling an easy use. Two case studies: i) thermal residual stress and ii) fracture in sintered or infiltrated composites are considered in detail to show the proposed method at work.

  16. Communications

    1. Impact of Defect-Induced Strain on Device Properties

      Manfred Reiche, Martin Kittler, Eckhard Pippel, Hartmut Uebensee, Hans Kosina, Alexander Grill, Zlatan Stanojevic and Oskar Baumgartner

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600736

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      Dislocations in the channel result in a significant increase of the drain current of MOSFETs. This is caused by the extremely high strain in the defect core resulting in sub-stantial changes of the band structure and means that dislocations are quantum wires. Quantum mechanical device simulations proved the transport of carriers on dislocations.

    2. Fabrication of Lead Borate Single Crystal Nanosheets for Attenuating Both Neutron and Gamma Radiations

      Quan-Ping Zhang, Nan Sun, Jian Zheng, Shi-Wei Wang, You Wu, De-Li Luo and Yuan-Lin Zhou

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600650

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      Lead borate single crystal nanosheets have been fabricated by a facile solvothermal process. The 2D nanostructure exhibits an excellent ability to attenuate both neutron and gamma radiations. Importantly, the lead borate exhibits 2D nanostructures that imply other amazing physical properties, such as mechanical enhancement, high thermal conductivity. Thus, the product can be applied to the fabrication of multifunction integrated composites for the radiation protection of complex conditions.

  17. Reviews

    1. Hierarchical Architectures to Enhance Structural and Functional Properties of Brittle Materials

      Raúl Bermejo, Rostislav Daniel, Clara Schuecker, Oskar Paris, Robert Danzer and Christian Mitterer

      Version of Record online: 26 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600683

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      Novel hierarchical architectures at different length scales are combined in a unique multilayer structure. Internal layers with compressive residual stresses possess a textured microstructure, where every elongated grain consists of an array of hard nano-layers with compositional heterogeneity and spatial variations in properties.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties and Life Prediction of the Steels with Trace Silicon

      Meng Xiao Zhang, Jian Chao Pang, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Liang Liang Nie, Yun Xian Mao, Man Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600581

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that cyclic hardening appears in 550TG and cyclic softening in SD320; Basquin & Manson-Coffin and hysteretic energy relationships are more appropriate for the fatigue life prediction. The points of intersection in the two relationships reflect the transition of dominant mechanisms. For 550TG, the dislocation planar slip plays the leading role; and fatigue life is longer than SD320 in short life range. While, in long life range, fatigue life of SD320 is longer, and the wavy slip plays the leading role.

    2. A Significant Improvement in the Mechanical Properties of AISI 304 Stainless Steel by a Combined RCSR and Annealing Process

      Peyman Asghari-Rad, Prof. Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Dr. Hassan Shirazi, Dr. Syamak Hossein Nedjad and Sebastian Koldorf

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600663

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      304 stainless steel is subjected to a new severe plastic deformation method named as RCSR. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties are investigated during a thermo-mechanical process. Results show that the amount of strain-induced martensite is controlled by RCSR cycles and could be reached to 90 vol% after 30 cycles, which, significantly improves the mechanical properties.

  19. Communications

    1. Atom Probe Tomography Study of As-Quenched Al–Mg–Si Alloys

      Phillip Dumitraschkewitz, Stephan S. A. Gerstl, Peter J. Uggowitzer, Jörg F. Löffler and Stefan Pogatscher

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600668

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      In this study a new method is deployed to gain insight into the as-quenched microstructure of Al–Mg–Si alloys using atom probe tomography. The diffusion of solutes during sample preparation and handling is suppressed via application of cryogenic temperatures, starting from quenching in liquid nitrogen through to APT experiments at 33 K. The solute distribution is studied.

    2. Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Powered Weighing

      Saeed Ahmed Khan, Hu Lin Zhang, Yuhang Xie, Min Gao, Madad Ali Shah, Abdul Qadir and Yuan Lin

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600710

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      A flexible TENG based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced, which not only can be used as a direct power source, but also can be constructed into a self-powered weighing sensor by subtly designing.

    3. Precipitation of Long-Period Stacking Ordered Structure in Mg–Gd–Zn–Mn Alloy

      Jiehua Li, Mihaela Albu, Yujuan Wu, Liming Peng, Martina Dienstleder, Gerald Kothleitner, Ferdinand Hofer and Peter Schumacher

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600705

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      The figure shows HAADF-STEM images (Figurea–c) and EDX line scanning (Figure d) of the LPSO phase in GZ151 alloy after solution treatment, obtained along the [2-1-10] direction (Figure b), and the [01-10] direction (Figure c), respectively. A significant number density of LPSO phase is observed.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Possibility to Predict Extrusion Die Incidental Fracture by Finite Element Simulation

      Alessandro Bevacqua, Alexander E. Medvedev, Andrey Molotnikov, Richard Axe and Rimma Lapovok

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600687

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      The instantaneous die fracture during extrusion can happen unexpectedly despite finite element (FE) simulation predicting a positive outcome. The present study investigates the suitability FE simulations in conjunction with damage modelling for predicting die failure in non-ideal situations. The developed methodology is applied to a case-study of the die failure during T-shape profile extrusion.

  21. Communication

    1. On the Considerability of DSR (Differential Speed Rolling) as a Severe Plastic Deformation Method

      Young Gun Ko, IPutu Widiantara and Kotiba Hamad

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600722

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      In this paper, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained low carbon steel samples fabricated by differential speed rolling (DSR) process are presented to show the validity of DSR processing as a severe plastic deformation method.

  22. Reviews

    1. Deformation-Induced Supersaturation in Immiscible Material Systems during High-Pressure Torsion

      Karoline Sophie Kormout, Reinhard Pippan and Andrea Bachmaier

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600675

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      Severe plastic deformation (SPD)of immiscible composites can result in nanocrystalline single-phase supersaturated solid solutions or in partially supersaturated nanocomposites, similar as in mechanical alloying. SPD permits a detailed analysis of the underlying deformation and supersaturation phenomena without the inherent problems of mechanical alloying (ill-defined applied strain, temperature and impurities).

  23. Full Papers

    1. Characterization and Comparison of Inconel 625 Processed by Selective Laser Melting and Laser Metal Deposition

      Giulio Marchese, Xabier Garmendia Colera, Flaviana Calignano, Massimo Lorusso, Sara Biamino, Paolo Minetola and Diego Manfredi

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600635

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      Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) processes are optimized to fabricate Inconel 625 samples with the highest relative density, reaching mean values of 99.96% and 99.89%, respectively. In both cases, the microstructure is extremely fine, but LMD samples show coarser dendritic structures than SLM ones of about one order of magnitude, and larger precipitates.

    2. Thin Film Adhesion of Flexible Electronics Influenced by Interlayers

      Andreas Kleinbichler, Mattias Bartosik, Bernhard Völker and Megan J. Cordill

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600665

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      The role of interlayers used to improve adhesion in flexible electronics is examined using spontaneous and compression induced delaminations. Induced delamiations are studied with advanced in-situ techniques in order to correlate buckle formation with film stress. Results support uniform deformation of the film even after buckles form, rather than localized failure at buckles with increasing applied tensile strain.

    3. Microstructural Evolution and Properties of a Hot Extruded and HPT-Processed Resorbable Magnesium WE43 Alloy

      Dexue X. Liu, Xin Pang, Denglu L. Li, Chenggong G. Guo, Jittraporn Wongsa-Ngam, Terence G. Langdon and Marc A. Meyers

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600698

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      Microstructure evolution of HPT-processed resorbable WE43 alloy is investigated. A WE43 alloy with an initial grain size of ≈12 µm is processed by HPT to produce an ultrafine-grained microstructure and the sub-grain size is ≈200–300 nm after 10 turns. The microhardness shows significant improvement with increasing dislocation density. The tensile strength firstly increases and then decreases, while the elongation decreases after HPT deformation.

    4. Cranial Polypropylene Implants by Fused Filament Fabrication

      Matthias Katschnig, Florian Arbeiter, Bernd Haar, Gord van Campe and Clemens Holzer

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600676

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      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of polypropylene (PP) implants produced by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) for the substitution of damaged cranial bone material. The establishing of imaging methods, suitable printing material preparations, best printing practice, and a first approach of mechanical testing are addressed. The results indicate that PP implants by FFF are accurately printable and seem to be usable for cranial bone substitution..

    5. Extraction of Flow Behavior and Hall–Petch Parameters Using a Nanoindentation Multiple Sharp Tip Approach

      Alexander Leitner, Verena Maier-Kiener and Daniel Kiener

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600669

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      Nanoindentation retrieves an enormous potential regarding the mechanical characterization of materials which can further be exploited when different tips with varying apex angle are used. We demonstrate that Hall–Petch parameters and flow behavior of Ni and W determined by a multiple sharp tip approach are in excellent agreement with values obtained by uniaxial testing.

    6. Hydrogen-Induced Improvement of the Cylindrical Drawing Properties of a Ti–22Al–25Nb Alloy

      Bin Shao, Shengxiang Wan, Debin Shan, Bin Guo and Yingying Zong

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600621

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      The 0.2 wt% hydrogenation facilitated the dynamic recrystallization process of the alloy at 960 °C. The cylindrical drawing-forming ability of the alloy increased significantly after adding 0.2 wt% H to the alloy, and no wrinkles are observed in this work piece.

    7. Thiol-Ene versus Binary Thiol–Acrylate Chemistry: Material Properties and Network Characteristics of Photopolymers

      Melahat Sahin, Santhosh Ayalur-Karunakaran, Jakob Manhart, Markus Wolfahrt, Wolfgang Kern and Sandra Schlögl

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600620

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      Detailed insight into the network evolution of thiol-ene and binary thiol-acrylate photopolymers is given in view of the homopolymerization rate of acrylate and allyl monomers. Low field double quantum NMR studies show that the yield of homopolymerization contributes to the heterogeneity of thiol-ene networks, which also clearly influences the corresponding thermo-mechanical properties, such as tensile properties and glass transition temperature.

    8. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Testing and Performance of Mesoporous Invar (FeNi36) Matrix Syntactic Foams Produced by Feedstock Extrusion

      Lorenzo Peroni, Martina Scapin, Dirk Lehmhus, Joachim Baumeister, Matthias Busse, Massimiliano Avalle and Jörg Weise

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600474

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      Syntactic metal foams with high melting matrix alloys can efficiently be produced by means of feedstock extrusion. Matrix behavior dominates the strain rate dependency of the foams in both compressive and tensile testing with higher strain rate influence for the latter load case.

    9. Effect of Rapid Solidification on Microstructure and Elastic Modulus of β Ti–xNb–3Fe Alloys for Implant Applications

      Conrado R. M. Afonso, Javier M. Chaves and Odila Florêncio

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600370

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      Cast Ti–xNb–3Fe (x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 wt%) alloys is obtained by rapid solidification in millimeters cylinder and plate shape. The elastic modulus lowers with Nb addition and stability of β-Ti phase (Ti–10Nb–3Fe, E = 77 GPa), lowering to 70 GPa for 15%Nb and even more for 35%Nb (E = 62 GPa). It confirms β Ti–xNb–3Fe alloys with low additions of β-stabilizing elements for implant applications.

    10. Phases Formation and Evolution at Elevated Temperatures of Al–12Si–3.8Cu–2Ni–1Mg Alloy

      Lijie Zuo, Bing Ye, Jian Feng, Qinghuang Bao, Xiangyang Kong, Haiyan Jiang and Wenjiang Ding

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600623

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      This paper aims to find out the thermal stable phases in Al–Si–Cu–Ni–Mg alloy at 425 °C, which is beneficial to the development of new piston alloys. The block-shape Ti2Al20Ce phase is stable and part of AlSiFeNiCu phase is dissolved during the process of thermal exposure at 425 °C for 200 h.

    11. Microstructural Effects on the Toughness of a High Co–Ni Steel

      Marina Gruber, Gerald Ressel, Sarah Ploberger, Stefan Marsoner, Otmar Kolednik and Reinhold Ebner

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600633

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      For a high Co–Ni steel the austenite to martensite transformation behavior during cooling after tempering is characterized by applying different combinations of heat and cryogenic treatments. By combining these findings with the results from toughness measurements, it is concluded that an increased tendency of austenite to martensite transformation due to tempering has a negative influence on the toughness of the material.

    12. Correlation between Boundary Misorientation and a Geometric Parameter for Cross-Boundary Twins in Mg Alloys

      Qiaoli Huang and Renlong Xin

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600614

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      A geometric compatibility factor (m′) has been used to evaluate the variant selection of cross-boundary twins in Mg alloys. This study calculated the distribution of the high peak m′ values with grain boundary angle (θ). It also evaluated the misorientation angles (α) between potential variants of the cross-boundary twins. It reveals that α is a reasonable reflection of the m′ parameter for ideal basal texture, and θ correlates reasonably with high peak values of m′, particularly below 30° of misorientation.

    13. Manufacturing of Reticulated Open-Cellular Aluminum Nitride Ceramic Foams from Aqueous AlN Suspensions

      Ulf Betke, Alexandra Lieb, Franziska Scheffler and Michael Scheffler

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600660

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      Reticulated, mechanically stable open-celled aluminum nitride ceramic foams are prepared by the polymeric sponge replication (Schwartzwalder) technique from aqueous suspensions of moisture-protected AlN powder. Their microstructure is characterized by XRD with Rietveld analysis, SEM and confocal Raman microscopy and correlated to the thermal conductivity determined in TPS experiments.

    14. Differential Speed Rolling of Ni3Al-Based Intermetallic Alloy − Electron Backscatter Diffraction and X-Ray Diffraction Study on Structure and Texture Evolution

      Wojciech Polkowski, Paweł Jóźwik, Radosław Łyszkowski and Zbigniew Bojar

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600618

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      A new severe plastic deformation method called differential speed rolling has been introduced for the first time to the processing of a hardly deformable Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloy. The EBSD and XRD methods are used to evaluate an effect of the applied rolls speed mismatch on microstructure, texture, and long range order changes.

    15. Fast Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography of Dynamic Processes in Liquid Aluminium Alloy Foam

      Paul Hans Kamm, Francisco García-Moreno, Tillmann Robert Neu, Korbinian Heim, Rajmund Mokso and John Banhart

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600550

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      Series of fast synchrotron X-ray tomographies are taken continuously at a rate of up to 5 Hz while aluminium alloy precursors are foamed in an X-ray transparent setup for several minutes. The entire foaming process from the solid precursor to the expanded liquid foam is captured and the nucleation and bubble growth analyzed.

  24. Communications

    1. Piezotronic Effect on Electrical Characteristics of Bulk ZnO Varistors

      Nadine Raidl, Michael Hofstätter and Peter Supancic

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600677

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      In piezoelectric semiconductors mechanical stresses generate polarization charges that alter potential barriers and modify electrical properties (i.e., piezotronic effect). The impact of this effect on the electrical conductivity and volume efficiency in ZnO varistors is demonstrated. A new model that considers not only externally applied stresses, but also inherent residual stresses in the ZnO grains is introduced.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Zinc Oxide PVDF Nano-Composites–Tuning Interfaces toward Enhanced Mechanical Properties and UV Protection

      Erwan Castanet, Mohamed Al Thamish, Nishar Hameed, Andrew Krajewski, Ludovic F. Dumée and Kevin Magniez

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600611

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      This study investigates the potential of improving the mechanical performance and UV stability of PVDF by melt-dispersion of zinc oxide nano-particles. Zinc oxide/PVDF nano-composites are processed into thin films or into injection molded bars. The impact of the processing conditions on the morphology and properties of the resulting materials are systematically investigated. Specifically, the highest volume of nano-particles results in a complete UV-shielding and up to 60% of the mechanical properties improvement, opening the door to new potential applications, such as advanced ultra-thin PVDF-ZnO coating.

    2. Effects of Li on Microstructures, Mechanical, and Biocorrosion Properties of Biodegradable Mg94-xZn2Y4Lix Alloys with Long Period Stacking Ordered Phase

      Ximei Zong, Jinshan Zhang, Wei Liu, Jingai Chen, Kaibo Nie and Chunxiang Xu

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600606

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      The UTS and elongation of Mg94-xZn2Y4Lix alloys with refined α-Mg grains are improved as Li is 5 at% compared to Li-free alloy. As a novel biomaterial, the Mg89Zn2Y4Li5 alloy possesses superior mechanical performance, appropriate corrosion rate, and high biocorrosion resistance.

    3. An Experimental Study on Evolution of Grain-Scale Stress/Strain and Geometrical Necessary Dislocations in Advanced TA15 Titanium Alloy during Uniaxial Tension Deformation

      Dong He, Tabassam Yasmeen, Qiang Li, Hong Li and Stefan Zaefferer

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600306

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      This study investigates the spatial distributions of grain-scale stress/strain and geometrical necessary dislocations (GNDs) in near-α titanium alloy (TA15) subjected to uniaxial tensile deformation at room temperature through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The microstructure characteristics and macroscopic deformation parameters influences on the heterogeneity of stress/strain and GND distributions are fully analyzed and discussed.

    4. The Processing and Properties of Syntactic Al Foams Containing Low Cost Expanded Glass Particles

      Andrew Wright and Andrew Kennedy

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600467

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      Foamed glass spheres can be used to make Al syntactic foams with low densities via a simple casting method. Paradoxically, enhanced energy absorption is achieved when the spheres are extensively damaged during processing or via an additional quenching step. These “low strength” foams are a cost-effective alternative to metal foams and porous metals rather than “traditional” syntactic foams.

    5. Rapid Densification of Carbon/Carbon Composites Plate by Pressure-Gradient Chemical Vapor Infiltration

      Li Hong Xia, Bo Yun Huang, Fu Qin Zhang, Lei Jin, Da Chen and Qian Tang

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600329

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      The C/C composites plate shaped in 300 × 300 × 15 mm is fabricated efficiently and rapidly by an improved pressure-gradient CVI. For 60 h infiltration, the average bulk density is up to 1.52 g cm–3 and the densification rate is three times higher than that of isobaric CVI. In addition, the pore filling and kinetics analysis confirm the advantages of the new densification process.

    6. Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

      Shannon L. Taylor, Adam E. Jakus, Ramille N. Shah and David C. Dunand

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600365

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      Inks comprised of Fe, Fe2O3, Ni, or NiO powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered in hydrogen to form metallic cellular structures with overall relative densities of 32–49%. This work presents a comparison of the microstructures and compressive properties of the metallic structures derived from either metallic- or oxide-based inks.

    7. Clues for Cellular Structure Optimization in Aluminum Foams

      Jaime Lázaro, Eusebio Solórzano and Miguel A. Rodríguez-Pérez

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600496

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      Defects in the cellular structure are responsible for the poor and scattered mechanical properties of aluminum foams. The aim of this paper is to identify the main cause of the principal defects, by analyzing independently each stage of the foaming process, and to present a couple of methods to optimize the cellular structure, reducing both the cellular structure anisotropy and the amount of broken cell walls.

    8. Surface Modification of Powder Metallurgy Titanium by Colloidal Techniques and Diffusion Processes for Biomedical Applications

      Julia Ureña, Carlos Mendoza, Begoña Ferrari, Yolanda Castro, Sophia A. Tsipas, Antonia Jiménez-Morales and Elena Gordo

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600207

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      Surface modified powder metallurgy Ti materials are developed by colloidal techniques and diffusion processes. The addition of the β-stabilizing element, Mo, leads to an α [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α-β and β microstructural change. Diffusion layers with different characteristics are obtained by co-sintering and diffusion processes. It is beneficial to improve hardness and of interest for further investigations about wear and corrosion.

    9. Effects of Laser Surface Melting on Ti–30Nb–2Sn Sintered Alloy

      Juan José Candel, Jose Manuel Amado, Vicente Amigó and María José Tobar

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500640

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      Laser surface melting (LSM) is used to simultaneously melt and quench a thin layer of a Ti–30Nb–2Sn substrate produced by powder metallurgy route. Results show that LSM retains beta titanium without traces of martensite or grain boundary alpha and eliminates non-desirable open porosity. Substrate is progressively hardened but this is accompanied by Young's modulus reduction to reach minimum value at 1 mm from top surface.

    10. Friction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination of Titanium Alloys during Hot Forging Conditions

      Ritanjali Sethy, Lander Galdos, Joseba Mendiguren and Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600060

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      The friction factor of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy under hot forging situation has been determined taking into account the influence of the HTC in the ring tests. For this reason, the combined approach of columnar upsetting thermal tests (HTC test) and ring-compression tests of as-received specimens with and without glass coatings with FE simulation have been performed in this paper.

    11. Thermal Stability Study of Vacancy-Type Defects in Commercial Pure Titanium Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

      Ricardo Domínguez-Reyes, Begoña Savoini, Miguel Ángel Monge, Ángel Muñoz and Carmen Ballesteros

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500649

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      Positron annihilation measurements are performed on samples of CP Ti grade 3 in the as-received state and after deformation at true strains up to 3.24 by hydrostatic extrusion at RT. To study the nature and evolution of the resulting defects, isochronal thermal treatments from room temperature to 1 200 °C have been performed.

    12. Texture Development in Cold Deformed and Recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn Alloy and Its Effects on Hardness and Young's Modulus

      Leonardo Fanton, Nelson Batista de Lima, Alexandra de Oliveira França Hayama, Rubens Caram and João Batista Fogagnolo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study analyzes the development of texture in cold rolled and recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn alloy. Cold rolling promotes an increase in hardness and a decrease in Young's modulus. The decrease in Young's modulus with plastic deformation and the low Young's modulus of the recrystallized sample are associated with the development of texture.

    13. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    14. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

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