Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


  1. 1 - 79
  1. Full Papers

    1. Fracture Behavior of Cracked Giant Magnetostrictive Materials in Three-Point Bending under Magnetic Fields: Strain Energy Density Criterion

      Marco Colussi, Filippo Berto, Kotaro Mori and Fumio Narita

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500533

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      Terfenol-D under three-point bending tests in the presence of a magnetic field fails at a lower load compared to the test under no magnetic field. The decrease in the fracture load is related to the increase of the energy release rate with increasing magnetic fields. The averaged SED criterion captures this behavior by means of coupled-field FE analyses.

  2. Communications

    1. Deterministic Switching of Hierarchy during Wrinkling in Quasi-Planar Bilayers

      Sourabh K. Saha and Martin L. Culpepper

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600048

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      Emergence of hierarchy during compression of quasi-planar bilayers is preceded by a mode-locked state during which the quasi-planar form persists. Transition to hierarchy is determined entirely by geometrically observable parameters. This results in a universal transition phase diagram that enables one to deterministically tune hierarchy even with limited knowledge about material properties.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Polyphosphate as a Bioactive and Biodegradable Implant Material: Induction of Bone Regeneration in Rats

      Xiaohong Wang, Shunfeng Wang, Feng He, Emad Tolba, Heinz C. Schröder, Bärbel Diehl-Seifert and Werner E. G. Müller

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600057

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      Polyphosphate (polyP) has been embedded into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres, which are subsequently inserted as implants into rat calvarial bone defects. After a regeneration time of 56 days the implant region has been evaluate and found to be more completely reconstituted with bone tissue, compared to bone defects filled with control microspheres.

    2. Estimation of Surface Topography and Wear Loss of Laser Metal-Deposited Ti6Al4V and Cu

      Mutiu F. Erinosho and Esther T. Akinlabi

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600062

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      The migration of β-phase is impeded during solidification. Low strain hardening effect is posed by the α-Ti lamella. The energy density and the melt pool increases as the laser power increases. Correlation between the surface topography and the wear loss is established. Nucleation site in surface irregularities leads to corrosion cracking in corrosive environment.

    3. Micro-Mechanical Behavior of an Exceptionally Strong Metal Matrix Nanocomposite Processed by High-Pressure Torsion

      Byungmin Ahn, Han-Joo Lee, In-Chul Choi, Megumi Kawasaki, Jae-Il Jang and Terence G. Langdon

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500520

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      Separate Al and Mg disks are stacked and processed though high-pressure torsion (HPT) as shown in the inset to synthesize a hybrid Al–Mg system of a metal matrix nanocomposite. As shown in the main plot, there are significant opportunities for synthesizing future aluminum nanocomposite by making use of HPT.

  4. Communications

    1. Nanocolumnar Composite Microstructure of Superhard SiC Thin Film Deposited Using Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method

      K.-E. Bae, K.-W. Chae, J.-K. Park, W.-S. Lee and Y.-J. Baik

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600008

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      Nano-composite microstructure composed of nano-columnar SiC crystalline grains embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix is responsible for the superhardness of the SiC thin film deposited using unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Hardness larger than 40 GPa, which is much larger than polycrystalline SiC materials, is obtained by controlling its microstructure of the SiC thin films.

  5. Full Papers

    1. A New Criterion for Rupture Assessment of Rubber-Like Materials under Mode-I Crack Loading: The Effective Stretch Criterion

      Majid R. Ayatollahi, Mahdi Heydari-Meybodi, Mohammad Dehghany and Filippo Berto

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600046

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      The effective stretch criterion is proposed for rupture assessment of rubber-like materials in the presence of a crack. The criterion employs two major parameters: critical distance rc and critical effective stretch λce. The former is determined from finite element analysis and the latter from a uniaxial tensile test.

    2. High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Processed by ECAP and Extrusion

      Irina P. Semenova, Alexander V. Polyakov, Veronika V. Polyakova, Yi Huang, Ruslan Z. Valiev and Terence G. Langdon

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500630

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      The fatigue properties of structural Ti materials are critically important issues for the use of these materials in the aircraft industry. This paper demonstrates the higher fatigue resistance of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by the combination of ECAP and extrusion in comparison with the conventional alloy.

    3. Shape-Memory Topographies on Nickel–Titanium Alloys Trained by Embossing and Pulse Electrochemical Machining

      Mareike Frensemeier, Dominik Schirra, Martin Weinmann, Olivier Weber and Elmar Kroner

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600012

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      The authors present two approaches to obtain switchable topographies using the two-way shape-memory effect in a nickel–titanium alloy. Samples are structured by cold embossing and pulse electrochemical machining. After planarization, a change of the topography from optically smooth to structured is induced by heating and cooling. Both methods enable the preparation of metallic surfaces with dynamic topographies on larger areas.

    4. Mechanical and Electrical Ageing Effects on the Long-Term Stretching of Silicone Dielectric Elastomers with Soft Fillers

      Frederikke B. Madsen, Shamsul Zakaria, Liyun Yu and Anne L. Skov

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600074

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      Functional, soft, and high-permittivity dielectric silicone elastomers are subjected to static straining of 60% for up to 3 months, and characteristic dielectric elastomer properties, such as Young's modulus, strain at breaking, and dielectric breakdown strength, are analyzed before and after the strain ageing experiments.

    5. On the Effect of Hot Isostatic Pressing on the Creep Life of a Single Crystal Superalloys

      Lais Mujica Roncery, Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea, Benjamin Ruttert, David Bürger, Philip Wollgramm, Gunther Eggeler and Werner Theisen

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600071

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      In the present work the authors compare the creep behavior of a single crystal Ni-base superalloy in two microstructural states, with and without HIP. The HIP process improves creep in two respects: the finer γ/γ’-microstructure results in lower minimum creep rates and the shrinkage of cast porosity during HIP results in higher rupture strains in the low temperature high stress regime.

    6. A Two-Step Heat Treatment to Eliminate the Micro-Segregation of Ti–45Al–8.5Nb–0.2W–0.2B–0.02Y Alloy

      Yan Zhang, Hongchao Kou, Guang Yang, Bin Tang, Xiangyi Xue and Jinshan Li

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600004

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      Two kinds of high Nb–TiAl alloy are subjected to a novel two-step heat treatment approach. Up images are the initial microstructure, which exist serious β segregation and solidification segregation. After heat treatment, both β and solidification segregation are eliminated (down-left and down-right, respectively).

    7. Effect of Rate Sensitivity on Structural Sandwich Plates with Sinusoidal Corrugated Cores

      Yihai Shi, Pizhe Zhao, Peidong Wu, David J. Lloyd and J. David Embury

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500604

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      The paper studies a composite system with a rate sensitivity-reinforced core and how a sinusoidal corrugated core can be optimized to improve the composite ductility through core geometry arrangement. The goal of the corresponding research is to establish a generic numerical tool to investigate both material and core geometry on elongation improvement of this composite system under tension.

    8. Effects of Superimposed Micro/Nano-Structured Titanium Alloy Surface on Cellular Behaviors In Vitro

      Teng Wang, Yi Wan and Zhanqiang Liu

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600045

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      A novel superimposed micro/nano-topography on titanium alloy surface is fabricated by hybrid micro-milling technology and alkali-hydrothermal reaction. The hydrophilicity is tremendously enhanced and the surface free energy significantly increases after surface modification. The modified implants provide a beneficial interfacial environment for the growth of osteoblasts.

    9. On the Structural Testing Monitoring of CFRP Cockpit and Concrete/CFRP Pillar by FBG Sensors

      Rosario Fernández, Nicolás Gutiérrez, Humberto Jiménez, Fernando Martín, Luis Rubio, José D. Jiménez-Vicaria, Carlo Paulotto and Fernando Lasagni

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600065

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      Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology is applied for the monitoring of the structural integrity of two full scale components: a CFRP cockpit and a concrete/CFRP pillar. In the first case, several fiber optic lines, including 24 FBG sensors, have been installed on the cockpit skin for analyzing the component behavior during two pressurization tests. The second demonstrator has been monitored during mechanical loading by using 4 FBG sensors.

  6. Communications

    1. An Active Microarchitectured Material that Utilizes Piezo Actuators to Achieve Programmable Properties

      Yuanping Song, Peter C. Dohm, Babak Haghpanah, Ashkan Vaziri and Jonathan B. Hopkins

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500607

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      The aim of this paper is to introduce a new microarchitectured material that consists of a large periodic lattice of small compliant unit cells that are independently controlled using piezo actuators, sensors, and microprocessors embedded within each cell. This material exhibits desired bulk mechanical properties according to control instructions that are uploaded to the material's microprocessors.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Numerical Analysis of Skin Effect on Microplastic Flow of HPDC Mg Alloys

      Bao Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600029

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      Due to internal interaction arising from skin effect, initiation of microplastic flow requires an externally applied stress higher than microyield strength, while propagation can take place at external stresses lower than yield strength. Instable microplastic flow occurs when internal constraint stress exceeds a critical value.

    2. Direct Laser Interference Patterning of Nickel Molds for Hot Embossing of Polymers

      Andreas Rank, Tim Kunze, Tina Hoffmann and Andrés F. Lasagni

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600068

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      The influence of the laser parameters on the structure height as function of the spatial period is investigated. Thermal simulations by finite element method are realized permitting to find a linear correlation between the structure height and the simulated amount of molten material. Hot embossing of PET-foils considering the imprint time and temperature is successfully performed.

    3. Atomic-Scale Structural and Chemical Study of Columnar and Multilayer Re–Ni Electrodeposited Thermal Barrier Coating

      Sung-Il Baik, Alla Duhin, Patrick J. Phillips, Robert F. Klie, Eliezer Gileadi, David N. Seidman and Noam Eliaz

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500578

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      A unique combination of a columnar and multilayer structure was observed, for the first time, in a Re-Ni coating for high-temperature applications employing aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atom-probe tomography (APT).

    4. Conductivity Enhancement of Binder-Based Graphene Inks by Photonic Annealing and Subsequent Compression Rolling

      Kirill Arapov, Guy Bex, Rob Hendriks, Eric Rubingh, Robert Abbel, Gijsbertus de With and Heiner Friedrich

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500646

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      Conductivity enhancement for high-definition binder-based graphene inks by photonic annealing with subsequent compression rolling is demonstrated. High-density light pulses result in a five times decrease of sheet resistance and a layer expansion. Compression rolling restores the structure lowering sheet resistance further reaching 1.4 Ω □−1 when normalized to 25 µm thickness.

    5. Active Cooling of a Microvascular Shape Memory Alloy-Polymer Matrix Composite Hybrid Material

      Anthony M. Coppola, Liangfa Hu, Piyush R. Thakre, Miladin Radovic, Ibrahim Karaman, Nancy R. Sottos and Scott R. White

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600020

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      A vascularized hybrid material containing shape memory alloy (SMA) and polymer matrix composite (PMC) hybrid is fabricated by the Vaporization of Sacrificial Components (VaSC) technique. Channels are revealed by embedding a sacrificial template during material production then removal of the template during thermal treatment. Active cooling through the vascular network is demonstrated.

  8. Communications

    1. A Comparison of Processing Properties of Anatomic Facsimile Models (AFM) of the Temporal Bone with Original Human Bone Structures

      Cornelia Hahne, Michael Scheffler, Gabriele Dietze, Joachim Döring, Fabian Klink and Ulrich Vorwerk

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600033

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      The Magdeburg temporal bone model is an epoxy resin facsimile of human os temporale, manufactured by 3D printing for training purposes in ear surgery. This study investigates the processing properties in drilling and milling as well as the elastic modulus of the model in comparison to human os temporale.

    2. Study of Phase Decomposition in ZrW2O8

      Anna Fedorova, Timo Kämpf and Michael Scheffler

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600035

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      Thermal mismatch stresses between the initial phases ZrO2 and WO3 and the resulting ZrW2O8 are evaluated. The obtained stress values are high enough to initiate the transformation into the γ-ZrW2O8. The change of the phase composition with longer holding times above the decomposition temperature of the ZrW2O8 shows remarkable differences depending on the used synthesis route (sol–gel or solid-state).

  9. Full Papers

    1. Interfacial Mechanical Behavior and Electrochemical Corrosion Characteristics of Cold-Sprayed and Hot-Rolled Titanium/Stainless-Steel Couples

      Zhiming Li, Xiaoping Yang, Junbao Zhang and Aidang Shan

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500567

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      Fully dense Ti/304SS couples are successfully produced by cold-spraying and hot-rolling. Metallurgical bonding is formed through a slight diffusion at the interface. Interfacial mechanical behavior is investigated. The cold-sprayed and hot-rolled Ti part also exhibits excellent electrochemical corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions.

  10. Editorials

  11. Full Papers

    1. Functional Coatings Based on Preceramic Polymers

      Gilvan Barroso, Tobias Kraus, Ulrich Degenhardt, Michael Scheffler and Günter Motz

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500600

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      Functional ceramic coatings based on particle-filled preceramic polymers are developed and applied to steel (left) and graphite (right). The middle image presents polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) spheres as fillers prepared by ultrasound-assisted emulsification; they result in structured coatings.

    2. Failure Mechanism of Brass with Three V-Notches Characterized by Acoustic Emission in In Situ Three-Point Bending Tests

      Pengliang Hou, Zunqiang Fan, Lin Zhang, Xiangguo Zhai, Shizhong Zhang, Cong Li, Yumeng Du and Hongwei Zhao

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500599

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The brass specimens of three V-notches are tested by the AE in in situ three-point bending tests, as shown in the figure. During the bending, the AE signals and in situ images of middle V notch tip morphology are sampled at the same time. The ABAQUS is used to construct the finite element of three-point bending static–load simulations.

    3. The Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of 2198 Al–Li Alloy

      Bin Chen, Ming-Feng Guo, Jing-Xu Zheng, Kun-Yi Zhang, Yun Fan, Ling-Ye Zhou, Xiao-Ling Li and Chen Lu

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500613

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      A commercial sheet of 2198-T8 alloy is subjected to thermal exposure at elevated temperatures varying from 200 to 500 °C. Thermal exposure at 200 °C leads to deterioration of the ductility while thermal exposure at 300 °C and above leads to deterioration of the strengths. It is mainly due to the phase transition during thermal exposure.

    4. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    5. Nanostructured Titanium for Maxillofacial Mini-Implants

      Irina P. Semenova, Gennady V. Klevtsov, Natal'ya A. Klevtsova, Grigory S. Dyakonov, Aleksandr A. Matchin and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500542

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      There has been a growing interest in modern traumatology and implantology to novel biomaterials that combine high strength and biocompatibility. This paper demonstrates the results of successful studies of miniature implants for osteosynthesis in the maxillofacial areas from nanostructured Ti Grade 4 produced by severe plastic deformation via ECAP-Conform scheme and subsequent drawing.

  12. Review

    1. The Effect of Transition Elements on High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Al–Si Foundry Alloys–A Review

      Jovid Rakhmonov, Giulio Timelli and Franco Bonollo

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500468

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      The effect of transition metals on high temperature mechanical properties of Al–Si alloys is critically reviewed. The formation of thermally stable and coarsening resistant dispersoids in the microstructure enhances the creep resistivity of a material. Further advances can be achieved by transforming the trialuminides into ternary or quaternary forms by alloying with appropriate elements.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Composite Materials with Enhanced Conductivities

      Hanxing Zhu, Tongxiang Fan and Di Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500482

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      Closed-form results for the isotropic conductivities of two types of specially structured two-phase composites are obtained in this paper. It is found that the type-I composites can achieve the maximum possible theoretical upper limit for isotropic conductivity and the type-II composites have a conductivity significantly greater than the conventional particle or fiber composites.

    2. Additive Manufacturing of γ-TiAl: Processing, Microstructure, and Properties

      Vamsi Krishna Balla, Mitun Das, Ashfaq Mohammad and Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500588

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      Deposition-based laser additive manufacturing of γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy is reported. Defect-free parts can be obtained with incident laser energy input between 40 and 50 J mm–2. High cooling rates result in fine γ matrix containing small amount of γ+Ti3Al lamellar. Process parameters strongly influence the tribological and electrochemical properties of LENS-processed γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy.

    3. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

    4. Platinum Thin-Film Electrodes Prepared by a Cost-Effective Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

      Meike V. F. Schlupp, Moritz M. Wehrle, Karsten Kunze, Arndt Remhof and Ulrich F. Vogt

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500636

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      Thin-film growth of metallic platinum by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD) is an attractive alternative to the application of vacuum-based methods. The authors tune the deposition parameters for Pt thin-film applications at 600 °C and discuss microstructure, thermal stability, and electrical/electrochemical performance on different substrates (silicon, YSZ).

    5. Electrically Conductive Silver Nanoparticles-Filled Nanocomposite Materials as Surface Coatings of Composite Structures

      Rouhollah Dermanaki Farahani, Martin Gagne, Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha and Daniel Therriault

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500544

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      Electrically conductive nanocomposite materials composed of silver nanoparticles (Figure a) mixed with a conductive polymer are fabricated and used as surface coatings for composite substrates. Thermal annealing at 200 °C considerably improves conductivity (Figure b) and mechanical properties (e.g., scratch test results in Figure c–d) of the coatings.

    6. Flow Characterization of a Duplex near α Ti6242 Alloy through Interrelation of Microstructural Evolution, 3D Activation Energy Map, and Processing Map

      Mohammad Rezaee, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki, Mohammad Ghambari, Pooriya Dastranjy Nezhadfar and Erfan Ghasemi

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500426

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      The microstructural evolutions, constitutive equation, 3D activation energy and processing maps were used to investigate the dominant restoration mechanisms for hot deformation behavior of Ti6242 in two-phase region. Consequently, the occurrence of kinking/bending in transformed β, dynamic recrystallization (DRX), and subsequently the small amount of globularization in primary α phase can be observed for flow softening.

    7. Molecular Engineering of Aluminum–Copper Interfaces for Joining by Plastic Deformation

      Christian Hoppe, Christoph Ebbert, Markus Voigt, Hans Christian Schmidt, Dmytro Rodman, Werner Homberg, Hans Jürgen Maier and Guido Grundmeier

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500501

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      Molecular interface modification is shown to improve the copper and aluminum joining by plastic deformation. The pilger process in combination with a moderate thermal annealing step leads to the formation of a covalent link according to Cu–S–(CH2)–SiOx–Al2O3/Al which results in a high mechanical strength of the joint.

    8. Ultra-Fast One-Step Fabrication of Cu2Se Thermoelectric Legs With Ni–Al Electrodes by Plasma-Activated Reactive Sintering Technique

      Linchun Wu, Xianli Su, Yonggao Yan, Ctirad Uher and Xinfeng Tang

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500548

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      Ultra-fast one-step fabrication of Cu2Se thermoelectric legs is achieved by plasma-activated reactive sintering (PARS) technique, offering a low-cost, rapid, and large-scale fabrication method of thermoelectric modules.

    9. Mechanical, Structural, and Chemical Analysis of Athrombogenic Multilayer Wall of Ventricular Assist Device Tested in Hydrodynamic Fatigue Tests

      Magdalena Kopernik, Sławomir Kąc, Maciej Gawlikowski and Grzegorz Cios

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500492

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      The purpose of the paper is to assess an impact of short- and long-term operational load on continuity and composition of effective layers deposited on the polymer that the pulsatile ventricular assist device is made of. The additional objective is to determine mechanical properties of the effective layers deposited on the polymer.

    10. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction of Copper Busbar

      Jian Chao Pang, Liang Liang Nie, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Ge Yao, Yun Xian Mao, Men Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500561

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that both the fatigue life and dislocation spacing have direct relation without total hysteresis energy, but with relatively simple and stable parameters (strain amplitude, stress amplitude, and hysteresis energy at half-life); however, they have no direct relation with each other.

  14. Communications

    1. The Influence of Individual Rare Earth Elements (La, Ce, or Nd) on Creep Resistance of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy AE44

      Suming Zhu, Mark A. Easton, Trevor B. Abbott, Mark A. Gibson and Jian-Feng Nie

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500545

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      The choice of RE elements is shown to have a significant influence on the creep resistance of die-cast magnesium alloy AE44, which cannot be accounted for by the thermal stability of the Al11RE3 phase as reported previously. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases and the Mn content are considered to be contributing factors for the observed differences in creep resistance.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Combining Sensor and Protective Functionalities in Ferromagnetic Nanocomposite Thin Films for Applications in Harsh Environments

      Klaus Seemann, Harald Leiste, Michael Stüber, Kathrin Krüger, Hayo Brunken, Alfred Ludwig, Claas Thede and Eckhard Quandt

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500474

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      The paper introduces the development of Fe48Co52/TiN, Fe32Co44Hf12N12/TiN, Fe–Co/Al–N multilayer, and Fe2B single layer films as sensor components for monitoring, e.g., the actual state of stress and/or temperature of cutting tools which are used in metal processing. The films are produced by magnetron sputtering processes. They ought to combine appropriate magnetic property changes and wear resistance.

    2. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ti–43Al–9V–0.3Y Alloy Joints Brazed With Ti–Zr–Ni–Cu + Mo Composite Filler

      Ying Wang, Qiwen Qiu, Zhenwen Yang and Dongpo Wang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500549

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      Ti–Zr–Ni–Cu + Mo composite filler is developed to braze Ti–43Al–9V–0.3Y alloy. The Mo additive, acting as a β-stabilized element, inhibits the eutectoid transformation of β phase during cooling. It is beneficial to refine the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of the reaction phases, and thus to enhance the joints bonding strength.

  16. Reviews

    1. Nanoscale Materials Patterning by Local Electrochemical Lithography

      He Liu, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500486

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      Scanning probe lithography (SPL) represents a promising method with high accuracy, low cost, and mild fabrication conditions. Moreover, electrical field-induced SPL is attractive because a variety of chemical changes can be induced based on electrochemical reactions during the lithography process. In this review, an overview of recent advances in the field of the electrical field-induced SPL is summarized, specifically some technological changes are highlighted.

  17. Full Papers

    1. An Unusual Extrusion Texture in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr Alloys

      Reza Alizadeh, Reza Mahmudi, Alfonso H. W. Ngan and Terence G. Langdon

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500516

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      Textural study in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloys shows that while they exhibit common extrusion textures at the low extrusion-ratio, an unusual extrusion texture is observed after high-ratio extrusion. It is proposed that the RE elements modify the texture through retarding recrystallization by solute drag effects on grain boundaries and pinning effects of RE-rich precipitates.

    2. Adaptive Silicon Oxycarbide Coatings With Controlled Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic Properties

      Boris Reznik, Jordan Denev and Henning Bockhorn

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500364

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      The study presents a method for producing of polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide coatings with variable surface properties as well as a dedicated technique for molecular design of the polymer coating precursor. The coating contains periodic grooves and in situ formed scrolled filaments which are formed simultaneously. The scrolled fibers exhibit thermal adaptive behavior.

    3. Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Steel Substrates for Application in Supercapacitors

      Jagdeep S. Sagu, Kahagala Gamage Upul Wijayantha, Mallika Bohm, Siva Bohm and Tapan Kumar Rout

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500585

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      Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of a ferrocene/ethanol precursor is used to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on steel substrates for application in supercapacitors. A capacitance of 3.4 mF cm–2 is demonstrated for these CNT/steel electrodes.

    4. Corrosion-Induced Strengthening: Development of High-Strength Nanoporous Metals

      Xing-Long Ye and Hai-Jun Jin

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500521

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      In conventional materials, replacing parts of a solid with voids usually leads to a decrease in its strength. Here, the authors report that a material (Au–Pt–Ag alloy) can bear seven times higher load – its compressive strength increases from 50 to 345 MPa, when ≈40% of solid component (Ag) is dissolved and replaced with pore space during dealloying.

    5. Advanced Materials for Applications at High Temperature: Fatigue Assessment by Means of Local Strain Energy Density

      Pasquale Gallo and Filippo Berto

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500547

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      The present paper investigates the accuracy of Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged over a control volume approach when applied to high-temperature fatigue data from notched components. The main advantage of SED is that different geometries can be summarized in a single narrow scatter band.

    6. Approving Restoration Mechanism in 7075 Aluminum Alloy through Constitutive Flow Behavior Modeling

      Mohammad Moghaddam, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki, Ehsan Farabi and Mahsa Taheri-Mandarjani

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500378

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      The hot flow behavior characteristic of 7075 aluminum alloy has been studied through processing maps. For a deeper understanding of main restoration mechanism, constitutive equations has been elaborated. It was proposed that DRX based model, in comparison with other employed models, not only predicts the material's flow behavior but also can be used to predict the main restoration mechanism.

    7. Integrated Performance Monitoring of Three-Way Catalytic Converters by Self-Regenerative and Adaptive High-Temperature Catalyst and Sensors

      Bilge Saruhan, Guillermo Cesar Mondragón Rodríguez, Azhar Ali Haidry, Ayhan Yüce, Sascha Heikens and Wolfgang Grünert

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500410

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      Combination of a sputtered TiO2:Al-sensor layer with perovskite powder catalytic filter layers allows selective NO2 sensing in the presence of CO at temperatures as high as 900 °C.

    8. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Fine Cell Structure under Increased Pressure

      Zhuokun Cao, Min Li, Yang Yu and Hongjie Luo

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500511

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      It is found that increasing operating pressure can cause significant decrease in both cell size and cell wall thickness of aluminum foams, leading to a homogenous cell structure with fine pores. When foaming under increased pressure, bubble coalescence is slowed down and the stability of liquid film separating bubbles is enhanced.

  18. Communications

    1. A Catalyst-Based Self-Sufficient System with Durable Self-Healing Functionality

      Wen Sun, Lida Wang, Tingting Wu, Tianzhen Zhu, Hongbin Xie, Yanqiu Pan and Guichang Liu

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500494

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      A novel self-healing system which is capable of repeatedly restoring the protection barrier for metals is demonstrated. The system is sustainable, self-sufficient, and can autonomously provide effective and durative protection for metals through utilizing available conditions in the environment surrounding coating defects, while without adding any additional consumable reagents or external powers.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Influence of the Composition on the Properties of (Cr1–xAlx)N/MoySz PVD Coatings

      Kirsten Bobzin, Tobias Brögelmann, Serhan Basturk, Fritz Klocke, Patrick Mattfeld, Daniel Trauth, Peter Polcik and Szilárd Kolozsvári

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500499

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      In this work, PVD (Cr1–xAlx)N/MoySz coatings are deposited with the variation of the chemical composition. This influences the coating properties considerably. A reduction of the friction coefficient can be achieved with a certain amount of MoySz.

    2. Novel Fabrication of Bulk Fine-Grained Al–Cu–Mg Alloy with Superior Mechanical Properties

      Ruixiao Zheng and Chaoli Ma

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500450

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      Fine-grained Al–Cu–Mg alloy is fabricated by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal–mechanical processing. It is shown that simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility can be obtained in the peak-aged sample, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced work-hardening rate.

  20. Communications

    1. Influence of Twin Thickness and Grain Size on the Tensile Behavior of Fully Nanotwinned CuAl Alloys

      Nathan M. Heckman, Leonardo Velasco and Andrea M. Hodge

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500496

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      The tensile behavior of fully nanotwinned CuAl is presented. Samples with varying twin thickness, grain width, and composition are synthesized by magnetron sputtering and tensile tested utilizing digital image correlation to investigate local deformation behavior. The effects of varying twin thickness, grain width, and composition are isolated in order to understand how each parameter can affect the mechanical behavior.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Preparation of an α″-Fe16N2 Magnet via a Ball Milling and Shock Compaction Approach

      Yanfeng Jiang, Jinming Liu, Pranav K. Suri, Greg Kennedy, Naresh N. Thadhani, David J. Flannigan and Jian-Ping Wang

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500455

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      An approach based on ball milling plus shock compaction is experimentally demonstrated as a means to mass produce an α″-Fe16N2 powder for permanent magnets with enhanced magnetic properties. In the ball milling approach, ammonium nitrate is used as the nitrogen source. The prepared α″-Fe16N2 powder shows an obvious hard magnetic property (Hc = 854 Oe) with high Ms (210 emu g–1).

    2. Effect of Graphitization on the Microstructure and Properties of Mo2C-Modified C/C–Cu Composites

      Wen Yan Zhou, Ke Peng, Li Ping Ran, Yi Cheng Ge and Mao Zhong Yi

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500489

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      Both the C/C preforms with and without graphitization are penetrated by Cu after modifying with Mo2C interlayer. The C/C–Cu composite with graphitization shows better electrical and thermal conductivity, while lower strength and wear resistance. The composite with and without graphitization exhibits mainly abrasive wear and adhesion wear, respectively, and both composites show oxidation wear.

    3. Mechanism of Gas Separation through Amorphous Silicon Oxycarbide Membranes

      Ravi Mohan Prasad, Yvonne Jüttke, Hannes Richter, Ingolf Voigt, Ralf Riedel and Aleksander Gurlo

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500380

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      Asymmetric multilayer amorphous-SiOC/γ-Al2O3/α-Al2O3 membranes are designed for hydrogen purification by the coating of vinyl-functionalized polysiloxane polymer on porous supports followed by thermolysis under argon. The membranes exhibit high H2/CO2 and H2/SF6 permselectivities of about 10 and 320, respectively, at 300 °C. Mechanism of gas (He, H2, CO2, SF6) transport through membranes is addressed.

    4. Effect of Zr Content on the Morphology and Emissivity of Surface Oxide Scales on FeCrAlY Alloys

      Pawel Huczkowski, Sayee Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Wojciech Nowak, Heike Hattendorf, Riza Iskandar, Joachim Mayer and Willem Joseph Quadakkers

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500439

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      The investigation aims at obtaining a life time extension of FeCrAlY heating elements by increasing the emissivity of the alumina surface scales. It is shown that an optimized high Zr content might be a suitable concept for obtaining a high emissivity in thin foil heating elements.

    5. Modeling, Design, and Development of Soft Pneumatic Actuators with Finite Element Method

      Philip Moseley, Juan Manuel Florez, Harshal Arun Sonar, Gunjan Agarwal, William Curtin and Jamie Paik

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500503

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      Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs) are compliant, elastomer-based actuators that enable safer human–robot interaction. This work presents an open-source simulation and design tool for SPAs using finite element method, compatible and extensible to different soft materials and design parameters.

    6. Evaluation of Magnesium Die-Casting Alloys for Elevated Temperature Applications: Castability

      Mark A. Easton, Suming Zhu, Trevor B. Abbott, Matthew Dargusch, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, Norbert Hort and Mark A. Gibson

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500407

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      The castability of eight “creep resistant” magnesium alloys, together with other five conventional Mg alloys, is assessed in a castability die considering cracking, filling, and spangling. Among all “creep resistant” alloys, AE44, AS31, MRI153A, and HP2plus are found to have very good castability, although they are still inferior to conventional Mg alloys, AZ91 and ZA124 (see figure).

    7. An Assessment of the Role of Fiber Coating and Suspending Fluid on the Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes onto Glass Fibers for Multiscale Composites

      J. J. Ku-Herrera, A. May-Pat and F. Avilés

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500389

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      Increased glass fiber electrical conductivity and improved interfacial shear strength between the CNT-modified fibers and a vinyl ester resin is achieved upon CNT deposition, especially when the fiber coating is maintained and an adequate silane coupling agent is used.

    8. Glass-Forming Ability and Crystallization Behavior of Al86Ni9La5 Metallic Glass with Si Addition

      Jiaojiao Yi, Wanqiang Xu, Xianzhong Xiong, Lingti Kong, Micheal Ferry and Jinfu Li

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500354

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      The glass-forming ability (GFA) increases first and then decreases with the increase of Si addition, as shown in the figure. The change in GFA with the Si addition is interpreted on the basis of atomic packing and chemical interaction in combination with the crystallization kinetics analysis.

  22. Reviews

    1. A Review of Different Creep Mechanisms in Mg Alloys Based on Stress Exponent and Activation Energy

      Karuna Ratnakaran Athul, Uma Thanu Subramonia Pillai, Amirthalingam Srinivasan and Bellambettu Chandrasekhara Pai

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500393

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      Concentrated effort has been expanded during the past few decades for developing and optimizing magnesium alloys with enhanced creep resistance. This article summarizes the various creep deformation mechanisms prevailing in magnesium alloys based on the stress exponent (n) and activation energy (Q), for different temperatures and stresses.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites With Geometric Characteristics of Carbon Allotropes

      Ye Ji Noh, Hyun Su Kim, Bon-Cheol Ku, Myung-Seob Khil and Seong Yun Kim

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500451

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      Effect of the sizes and shapes of the diverse carbon allotropes such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, graphene nanoplatelet, graphite, pitch-based carbon fiber (PCF), and expanded graphite (EG) on the thermal conductivity of polymer composites is investigated. Microsized one-dimensional PCF and EG including the intercalation spacing induced effective improvement of the thermal conductivity.

    2. Coupling Diffraction Contrast Tomography with the Finite Element Method

      Henry Proudhon, Jia Li, Peter Reischig, Nicolas Guéninchault, Samuel Forest and Wolfgang Ludwig

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500414

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      This paper explains how to turn 3D experimental grain maps into suitable mesh for mechanical analysis. Two examples from diffraction contrast tomography experiments are featured. i) A pure titanium sample of 600 microns diameter composed of 1 400 grains; ii) a significantly large zone of a polycrystalline Al–Li sample is meshed and deformed using crystal plasticity with a finite strain formulation.

    3. Polymer Foams Made of Immiscible Polymer Blends Compatibilized by Janus Particles—Effect of Compatibilization on Foam Morphology

      Stefanie Bärwinkel, Ronak Bahrami, Tina I. Löbling, Holger Schmalz, Axel H. E. Müller and Volker Altstädt

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500387

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      Highly active Janus particles result in much finer morphologies in the compact blend materials after compatibilization. Their effect on the foam morphologies is even more significant due to the larger surface area available for nucleation, which result in a very fine cellular structure. Strong JP bonds at the interface also result in partially open cell structures in the foam.

    4. Influence of Pre-Solution Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg–Gd–Nd–Zn–Zr Alloy Processed by ECAP

      Yong Liu, Zhi Xin Kang, Jun Yi Zhang, Fen Wang and Yuan Yuan Li

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500471

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      As-cast and solution-treated Mg–Gd–Nd–Zn–Zr alloys are ECAPed at 375 °C with a speed of 0.4 mm s−1 for one, four, and eight passes, respectively. The as-cast alloy ECAPed for eight passes possesses higher strength and lower tensile elongation than that in case of pre-solution-treated alloy. However, the pre-solution-treated alloy exhibits a large tensile elongation. The change in texture contributes to the increase of ductility and work hardening.

    5. Wave Band Adjustable Infrared Filtering via Mott Transition of Nano Ti2O3

      Weiwei Yan, Lide Zhang, Junxi Zhang and Guangtao Fei

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500395

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      Infrared transmittance descends and filtering band covers from short to long wavelength end with temperature rising, based on the trumpet-like transmittance curves at different temperatures. Grain size distribution controls semiconductor–metal transition in nano Ti2O3 and determines filtering range essentially. The combination of different distributions realizes the broad and adjustable wave band infrared filtering. There might be more applicable materials.

    6. Densified Kinetics and Properties of Carbon Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Dielectrophoresis

      Jin Song Li, Jia Ming Guan and Rui Ying Luo

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500438

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      A novel technique for CNT-C/C composites by dielectrophoresis and direct resistive heating TG-CVI is presented. The more uniform, aligned CNT network between the carbon fibers is achieved when the frequency is 500 Hz, and exhibit a faster rate combined with a better maximum degree of pore filling.

    7. Improved Wear Behavior of Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings by Three-Beam Laser Interference

      Andreas Rosenkranz, Andreas Stratmann, Carsten Gachot, Gero Burghardt, Georg Jacobs and Frank Mücklich

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500320

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      The authors study the wear behavior of laser-patterned cylindrical roller thrust bearings. The tests are conducted under critical conditions with regard to wear on an adapted FE-8-test rig using a mineral oil with a low concentration of ZDDP. This study demonstrates an 83% reduction in the wear loss of the laser-patterned thrust bearing.

    8. Assembly Dependent Interfacial Property of Carbon Nanotube Fibers with Epoxy and Its Enhancement via Generalized Surface Sizing

      Chaoshuai Lei, Jingna Zhao, Jingyun Zou, Chunyang Jiang, Min Li, Xiaohua Zhang, Zuoguang Zhang and Qingwen Li

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500379

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      The assembly structure of CNT fiber allows rich and different surface treatments to improve the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) as compared to carbon fibers. These treatments generalize the common concept of surface sizing by introducing an interphase inside rather than around the CNT fiber. The IFSS can be improved by more than 27%, from 47.7 to 60.6 MPa.

    9. Anisotropic Wetting and Fluidic Phenomena on Biological Texture and Hydrodynamic Experiments Testing on Different Low Viscous Resistance Surfaces

      Yuehao Luo, Xudong Wang, Gang Liu, Jianshe Wang and Wen Song

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500458

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      In this article, anisotropic wetting and fluidic phenomena on biological sharkskin morphology are revealed. The wetting models based on anisotropic pattern are established and sharkskin surfaces covering different deformed textures are fabricated adopting the bio-aided method, and the relationship between contact angle/rolling angle and stretching ratio is investigated.

    10. Plasma Nitriding and DLC Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

      Eugenia L. Dalibón, María Agustina Guitar, Vladimir Trava-Airoldi, Frank Mücklich and Sonia P. Brühl

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500411

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      The duplex treatment consisting in plasma nitriding and DLC deposition results in a very good protection for PH stainless steel against wear and corrosion. Corrosion of DLC is mostly dependent on the density of defects that connect the electrolyte with the metal, initiating delamination, and degradation. The nitrided layer provides in interface which improves adhesion and retards this corrosion process.

  24. Reviews

    1. Special Rolling Techniques for Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Metal Sheets: a Review

      Hai Liang Yu, Cheng Lu, Anh Kiet Tieu, Hui Jun Li, Ajit Godbole and Shi Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500369

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      Asymmetric cryorolling is one of the advanced manufacturing techniques for fabrication of UFG metal sheets, in which both additional shear strain and suppression of dynamic recovery at low temperature enhance grain refinement. The technique can enhance both strength and ductility of metal sheets.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Adhesion of Volcanic Ash Particles under Controlled Conditions and Implications for Their Deposition in Gas Turbines

      Catalina Taltavull, James Dean and Trevor William Clyne

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500371

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      Experimental measurement of ash particle adhesion rates is combined with numerical modeling to establish their velocities and temperatures. Particles of ≈10–30 µm diameter are both large enough to strike solid surfaces and small enough to exceed Tg (and hence soften sufficiently to be likely to adhere).

    2. Mechanical Properties of Shark-Skin Like Structured Surfaces for High-Temperature Applications

      Antje Schlieter, R. Pflumm, I. Shakhverdova, R. Naraparaju, U. Schulz, C. Leyens, M. Schütze and W. Reimers

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500416

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      Applicable processes via halogenation, laser fabrication, and laser ablation followed by oxidation to process riblets on material systems for aero-engines (Ni-based alloys, gamma TiAl) are presented. Several micrometer-sized riblets with optimum dimensions exhibiting high stability are fabricated. The riblet morphology is characterized and a study of the mechanical stability (low-cycle fatigue and quasi cyclic four-point bending tests) outlined promising results.


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