Advanced Engineering Materials

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      Producing High-Strength Metals by I-ECAP

      Michal Gzyl, Andrzej Rosochowski, Sonia Boczkal, Lech Olejnik and Mohd Nizam Katimon

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600261

      This article corrects:

      Producing High-Strength Metals by I-ECAP1

      Vol. 18, Issue 2, 219–223, Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2015

  2. Full Papers

    1. Compression Behavior of Ti Foams with Spherical and Polyhedral Pores

      Krzysztof Pałka, Grzegorz Adamek and Jarosław Jakubowicz

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600169

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      The paper investigates the formation, morphology, and mechanical behavior under compression load of Ti foams. Metal foams (70% porosity) are made with spherical and polyhedral voids (pores), respectively. Foams are tested by interrupted compression during μCT scan.

    2. The TiC/Ni–Cr Composites with Low Thermal Expansion and Electrical Resistivity Applied for IT-SOFC Interconnects

      Qian Qi, Yan Liu, Hui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Linlin Gai and Zhengren Huang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600190

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      TiC/Ni-Cr composites are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnects. The contiguity of TiC plays a crucial role on the CTE and electrical resistivity of composites. The partial in situ method and isothermal heat treatment significantly decrease the CTE and electrical resistivity of TiC/Ni–Cr composites by increasing the contiguity of TiC.

    3. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

      Michail J. Beliatis, Martin Helgesen, Rafael García-Valverde, Michael Corazza, Bérenger Roth, Jon E. Carlé, Mikkel Jørgensen, Frederik C. Krebs and Suren A. Gevorgyan

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600119

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      V2O5 is optimized as a hole transport layer in roll-coated organic solar cells and photodetectors and is tested for stability. As a demonstrator, a proximity sensor is constructed based on an organic detector and a light-emitting diode mounted on 3D-printed scaffold. The work highlights the potential of organic solar cells and photodetectors as cost-efficient emerging technologies.

    4. Bone-Inspired Materials by Design: Toughness Amplification Observed Using 3D Printing and Testing

      Flavia Libonati, Grace X. Gu, Zhao Qin, Laura Vergani and Markus J. Buehler

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600143

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      Nature uses few universal building blocks to achieve multi-functionality and amplification of mechanical properties through different hierarchical structures. With a similar approach, it is possible to use pure polymers as building blocks to investigate, through bio-inspired design and 3D printing, the effect of different geometrical features.

    5. Friction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination of Titanium Alloys during Hot Forging Conditions

      Ritanjali Sethy, Lander Galdos, Joseba Mendiguren and Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600060

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      The friction factor of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy under hot forging situation has been determined taking into account the influence of the HTC in the ring tests. For this reason, the combined approach of columnar upsetting thermal tests (HTC test) and ring-compression tests of as-received specimens with and without glass coatings with FE simulation have been performed in this paper.

    6. High-Performance Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composites Enhanced by Aligned Buckypaper

      Zhongrui Li, Jin Gyu Park and Zhiyong Liang

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600130

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      High-performance thermoplastic composites are fabricated by hotpressing self-reinforcing polyphenylene (Parmax) into highly aligned buckypaper. The strong interfacial interactions between Parmax polymer and flattened carbon nanotubes lead to outstanding tensile properties. The high alignment of tubes also boosts thermal conductance and electric conductivity of the composite along the alignment direction of the buckypaper.

    7. Influence of the Surface and Heat Treatment on the Bond Strength of Galvanized Steel/Aluminum Composites Joined by Plastic Deformation

      Christian Hoppe, Christoph Ebbert, Richard Grothe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Illia Hordych, Werner Homberg, Hans Jürgen Maier and Guido Grundmeier

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600085

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      A high joint strength can be achieved by a mechanical joining of ultra-thin oxide film-covered HDG steel and aluminum sheets. The interfacial bonding is based on the intimate contact caused by the pilger process and the similar surface chemical compositions of both metal alloys.

    8. On the Deformation Analysis during RCSR Process Aided by Finite Element Modeling and Digital Image Correlation

      Saeideh Mirab, Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ali Khajezade, Mohamad Abshirini, Mohammad Habibi Parsa and Naser Soltani

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600100

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      The aim of the present study is to optimize the performance of RCSR process as a severe plastic deformation method with high industrial applicability. We have employed FEM and DIC (digital image correlation) analysis and analytical modeling in order to optimize the operation parameters.

    9. Effect of Vanadium on the Solidification and Homogenization Behaviors in Inconel 718 Alloy

      Yan Mo, Dongzhe Wang, Bin Jiang, Yongyou Li, Haiding Liu, Chunguang Wang, Xinnan Cai and Jintai Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600127

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      The Laves phase volume fraction can be reduced by over 80% due to the addition of 0.066 wt% vanadium. The alloying element greatly improves segregation of Inconel 718 alloy during solidification process.

    10. Thermal Stability Study of Vacancy-Type Defects in Commercial Pure Titanium Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

      Ricardo Domínguez-Reyes, Begoña Savoini, Miguel Ángel Monge, Ángel Muñoz and Carmen Ballesteros

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500649

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      Positron annihilation measurements are performed on samples of CP Ti grade 3 in the as-received state and after deformation at true strains up to 3.24 by hydrostatic extrusion at RT. To study the nature and evolution of the resulting defects, isochronal thermal treatments from room temperature to 1 200 °C have been performed.

    11. Energy-Filtered Backscattered Imaging Using Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy: Characterizing Blends of ZnPc–C60 for Organic Solar Cells

      Aránzazu Garitagoitia Cid, Mona Sedighi, Markus Löffler, Willem F. van Dorp and Ehrenfried Zschech

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600063

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      The morphology of a zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and fullerene (C60) blend is imaged using the energy selective backscattered (EsB) electron detector in combination with low primary beam voltages. This blend can be used as an active layer for organic solar cells. Comparing the results to TEM micrographs, the EsB detector allows for a simple and fast identification of the blend phases. The relevance of the findings for applying ZnPc–C60 blends in solar cells is discussed.

    12. Mechanical Properties of the Boron Nitride Analog of Graphyne: Scaling Laws and Failure Patterns

      Matthew Becton, Xiaowei Zeng and Xianqiao Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600112

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      BNyne, a boron nitride analog of the material graphyne, is a novel material with unexplored properties. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanism of boron nitride analogs of graphyne with varying chain length. Results indicate that the number of triple-single-bond linker is a vital indicator of material strength and stiffness of BNyne.

    13. Bending Fatigue Testing of Commercial Purity Titanium for Dental Implants

      Alexander E. Medvedev, Rimma Lapovok, Yuri Estrin, Terry C. Lowe and Venkata N. Anumalasetty

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600002

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      Bending fatigue testing of ultrafine-grained titanium shows that its strength is independent of the testing environment as opposed to conventional coarse-grained titanium, for which fatigue performance is slightly reduced when tested in simulated body fluid.

    14. Texture Development in Cold Deformed and Recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn Alloy and Its Effects on Hardness and Young's Modulus

      Leonardo Fanton, Nelson Batista de Lima, Alexandra de Oliveira França Hayama, Rubens Caram and João Batista Fogagnolo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600058

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      This study analyzes the development of texture in cold rolled and recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn alloy. Cold rolling promotes an increase in hardness and a decrease in Young's modulus. The decrease in Young's modulus with plastic deformation and the low Young's modulus of the recrystallized sample are associated with the development of texture.

    15. Thermodynamic Explanation for the Large Difference in Improving Shape Memory Effect of Fe–Mn Alloys by Co and Si Addition

      Jie Chen, Jiangwei Sun, Qin Yang, Huabei Peng, Shanling Wang and Yuhua Wen

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500645

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      This figure shows that the values of chemical driving force for ϵ[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]γ transformation (inline image) at room temperature (RT) in the Fe–Mn and Fe–Mn–Co alloys are much lower than in Fe–Mn–Si alloy. This result leads to the occurrence of the stress-induced reverse transformation of thermal ϵ martensite and the poorer shape memory effect in the Fe–Mn and Fe–Mn–Co alloys than in the Fe–Mn–Si alloy.

    16. Influence of Substrate Temperature on LPCVD ZnO Thin Film and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells

      Yuting Guo, Hongbing Zhu, Xiaona Niu, Wen Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Jingwei Chen and Yaohua Mai

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600113

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      ZnO thin films are deposited at different substrate temperatures by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique for application in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells. The substrate temperature has a great influence on the properties of LPCVD ZnO thin films and the device performance of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells.

  3. Reviews

    1. Bulk Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials: A Review

      Jamie J. Kruzic

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600066

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      This paper reviews some of the mechanical behaviors of BMGs relevant for successful structural materials and how they compare and contrast with crystalline metals and ceramics. This paper also reviews some of the strategies that may be used to improve or exploit the characteristics of BMGs so that they may be used in engineering applications.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Fracture Behavior of Cracked Giant Magnetostrictive Materials in Three-Point Bending under Magnetic Fields: Strain Energy Density Criterion

      Marco Colussi, Filippo Berto, Kotaro Mori and Fumio Narita

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500533

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      Terfenol-D under three-point bending tests in the presence of a magnetic field fails at a lower load compared to the test under no magnetic field. The decrease in the fracture load is related to the increase of the energy release rate with increasing magnetic fields. The averaged SED criterion captures this behavior by means of coupled-field FE analyses.

  5. Communications

    1. Deterministic Switching of Hierarchy during Wrinkling in Quasi-Planar Bilayers

      Sourabh K. Saha and Martin L. Culpepper

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600048

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      Emergence of hierarchy during compression of quasi-planar bilayers is preceded by a mode-locked state during which the quasi-planar form persists. Transition to hierarchy is determined entirely by geometrically observable parameters. This results in a universal transition phase diagram that enables one to deterministically tune hierarchy even with limited knowledge about material properties.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Polyphosphate as a Bioactive and Biodegradable Implant Material: Induction of Bone Regeneration in Rats

      Xiaohong Wang, Shunfeng Wang, Feng He, Emad Tolba, Heinz C. Schröder, Bärbel Diehl-Seifert and Werner E. G. Müller

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600057

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      Polyphosphate (polyP) has been embedded into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres, which are subsequently inserted as implants into rat calvarial bone defects. After a regeneration time of 56 days the implant region has been evaluate and found to be more completely reconstituted with bone tissue, compared to bone defects filled with control microspheres.

    2. Estimation of Surface Topography and Wear Loss of Laser Metal-Deposited Ti6Al4V and Cu

      Mutiu F. Erinosho and Esther T. Akinlabi

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600062

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      The migration of β-phase is impeded during solidification. Low strain hardening effect is posed by the α-Ti lamella. The energy density and the melt pool increases as the laser power increases. Correlation between the surface topography and the wear loss is established. Nucleation site in surface irregularities leads to corrosion cracking in corrosive environment.

    3. Micro-Mechanical Behavior of an Exceptionally Strong Metal Matrix Nanocomposite Processed by High-Pressure Torsion

      Byungmin Ahn, Han-Joo Lee, In-Chul Choi, Megumi Kawasaki, Jae-Il Jang and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500520

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      Separate Al and Mg disks are stacked and processed though high-pressure torsion (HPT) as shown in the inset to synthesize a hybrid Al–Mg system of a metal matrix nanocomposite. As shown in the main plot, there are significant opportunities for synthesizing future aluminum nanocomposite by making use of HPT.

  7. Communications

    1. Nanocolumnar Composite Microstructure of Superhard SiC Thin Film Deposited Using Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method

      K.-E. Bae, K.-W. Chae, J.-K. Park, W.-S. Lee and Y.-J. Baik

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600008

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      Nano-composite microstructure composed of nano-columnar SiC crystalline grains embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix is responsible for the superhardness of the SiC thin film deposited using unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Hardness larger than 40 GPa, which is much larger than polycrystalline SiC materials, is obtained by controlling its microstructure of the SiC thin films.

  8. Full Papers

    1. A New Criterion for Rupture Assessment of Rubber-Like Materials under Mode-I Crack Loading: The Effective Stretch Criterion

      Majid R. Ayatollahi, Mahdi Heydari-Meybodi, Mohammad Dehghany and Filippo Berto

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600046

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      The effective stretch criterion is proposed for rupture assessment of rubber-like materials in the presence of a crack. The criterion employs two major parameters: critical distance rc and critical effective stretch λce. The former is determined from finite element analysis and the latter from a uniaxial tensile test.

    2. High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Processed by ECAP and Extrusion

      Irina P. Semenova, Alexander V. Polyakov, Veronika V. Polyakova, Yi Huang, Ruslan Z. Valiev and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500630

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      The fatigue properties of structural Ti materials are critically important issues for the use of these materials in the aircraft industry. This paper demonstrates the higher fatigue resistance of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by the combination of ECAP and extrusion in comparison with the conventional alloy.

    3. Shape-Memory Topographies on Nickel–Titanium Alloys Trained by Embossing and Pulse Electrochemical Machining

      Mareike Frensemeier, Dominik Schirra, Martin Weinmann, Olivier Weber and Elmar Kroner

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600012

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      The authors present two approaches to obtain switchable topographies using the two-way shape-memory effect in a nickel–titanium alloy. Samples are structured by cold embossing and pulse electrochemical machining. After planarization, a change of the topography from optically smooth to structured is induced by heating and cooling. Both methods enable the preparation of metallic surfaces with dynamic topographies on larger areas.

    4. Mechanical and Electrical Ageing Effects on the Long-Term Stretching of Silicone Dielectric Elastomers with Soft Fillers

      Frederikke B. Madsen, Shamsul Zakaria, Liyun Yu and Anne L. Skov

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600074

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      Functional, soft, and high-permittivity dielectric silicone elastomers are subjected to static straining of 60% for up to 3 months, and characteristic dielectric elastomer properties, such as Young's modulus, strain at breaking, and dielectric breakdown strength, are analyzed before and after the strain ageing experiments.

    5. On the Effect of Hot Isostatic Pressing on the Creep Life of a Single Crystal Superalloys

      Lais Mujica Roncery, Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea, Benjamin Ruttert, David Bürger, Philip Wollgramm, Gunther Eggeler and Werner Theisen

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600071

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      In the present work the authors compare the creep behavior of a single crystal Ni-base superalloy in two microstructural states, with and without HIP. The HIP process improves creep in two respects: the finer γ/γ’-microstructure results in lower minimum creep rates and the shrinkage of cast porosity during HIP results in higher rupture strains in the low temperature high stress regime.

    6. A Two-Step Heat Treatment to Eliminate the Micro-Segregation of Ti–45Al–8.5Nb–0.2W–0.2B–0.02Y Alloy

      Yan Zhang, Hongchao Kou, Guang Yang, Bin Tang, Xiangyi Xue and Jinshan Li

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600004

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      Two kinds of high Nb–TiAl alloy are subjected to a novel two-step heat treatment approach. Up images are the initial microstructure, which exist serious β segregation and solidification segregation. After heat treatment, both β and solidification segregation are eliminated (down-left and down-right, respectively).

    7. Effect of Rate Sensitivity on Structural Sandwich Plates with Sinusoidal Corrugated Cores

      Yihai Shi, Pizhe Zhao, Peidong Wu, David J. Lloyd and J. David Embury

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500604

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      The paper studies a composite system with a rate sensitivity-reinforced core and how a sinusoidal corrugated core can be optimized to improve the composite ductility through core geometry arrangement. The goal of the corresponding research is to establish a generic numerical tool to investigate both material and core geometry on elongation improvement of this composite system under tension.

    8. Effects of Superimposed Micro/Nano-Structured Titanium Alloy Surface on Cellular Behaviors In Vitro

      Teng Wang, Yi Wan and Zhanqiang Liu

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600045

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      A novel superimposed micro/nano-topography on titanium alloy surface is fabricated by hybrid micro-milling technology and alkali-hydrothermal reaction. The hydrophilicity is tremendously enhanced and the surface free energy significantly increases after surface modification. The modified implants provide a beneficial interfacial environment for the growth of osteoblasts.

    9. On the Structural Testing Monitoring of CFRP Cockpit and Concrete/CFRP Pillar by FBG Sensors

      Rosario Fernández, Nicolás Gutiérrez, Humberto Jiménez, Fernando Martín, Luis Rubio, José D. Jiménez-Vicaria, Carlo Paulotto and Fernando Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600065

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      Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology is applied for the monitoring of the structural integrity of two full scale components: a CFRP cockpit and a concrete/CFRP pillar. In the first case, several fiber optic lines, including 24 FBG sensors, have been installed on the cockpit skin for analyzing the component behavior during two pressurization tests. The second demonstrator has been monitored during mechanical loading by using 4 FBG sensors.

  9. Communications

    1. An Active Microarchitectured Material that Utilizes Piezo Actuators to Achieve Programmable Properties

      Yuanping Song, Peter C. Dohm, Babak Haghpanah, Ashkan Vaziri and Jonathan B. Hopkins

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500607

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      The aim of this paper is to introduce a new microarchitectured material that consists of a large periodic lattice of small compliant unit cells that are independently controlled using piezo actuators, sensors, and microprocessors embedded within each cell. This material exhibits desired bulk mechanical properties according to control instructions that are uploaded to the material's microprocessors.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Numerical Analysis of Skin Effect on Microplastic Flow of HPDC Mg Alloys

      Bao Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600029

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      Due to internal interaction arising from skin effect, initiation of microplastic flow requires an externally applied stress higher than microyield strength, while propagation can take place at external stresses lower than yield strength. Instable microplastic flow occurs when internal constraint stress exceeds a critical value.

    2. Direct Laser Interference Patterning of Nickel Molds for Hot Embossing of Polymers

      Andreas Rank, Tim Kunze, Tina Hoffmann and Andrés F. Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600068

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      The influence of the laser parameters on the structure height as function of the spatial period is investigated. Thermal simulations by finite element method are realized permitting to find a linear correlation between the structure height and the simulated amount of molten material. Hot embossing of PET-foils considering the imprint time and temperature is successfully performed.

    3. Atomic-Scale Structural and Chemical Study of Columnar and Multilayer Re–Ni Electrodeposited Thermal Barrier Coating

      Sung-Il Baik, Alla Duhin, Patrick J. Phillips, Robert F. Klie, Eliezer Gileadi, David N. Seidman and Noam Eliaz

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500578

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      A unique combination of a columnar and multilayer structure was observed, for the first time, in a Re-Ni coating for high-temperature applications employing aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atom-probe tomography (APT).

    4. Conductivity Enhancement of Binder-Based Graphene Inks by Photonic Annealing and Subsequent Compression Rolling

      Kirill Arapov, Guy Bex, Rob Hendriks, Eric Rubingh, Robert Abbel, Gijsbertus de With and Heiner Friedrich

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500646

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      Conductivity enhancement for high-definition binder-based graphene inks by photonic annealing with subsequent compression rolling is demonstrated. High-density light pulses result in a five times decrease of sheet resistance and a layer expansion. Compression rolling restores the structure lowering sheet resistance further reaching 1.4 Ω □−1 when normalized to 25 µm thickness.

    5. Active Cooling of a Microvascular Shape Memory Alloy-Polymer Matrix Composite Hybrid Material

      Anthony M. Coppola, Liangfa Hu, Piyush R. Thakre, Miladin Radovic, Ibrahim Karaman, Nancy R. Sottos and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600020

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      A vascularized hybrid material containing shape memory alloy (SMA) and polymer matrix composite (PMC) hybrid is fabricated by the Vaporization of Sacrificial Components (VaSC) technique. Channels are revealed by embedding a sacrificial template during material production then removal of the template during thermal treatment. Active cooling through the vascular network is demonstrated.

  11. Communications

    1. A Comparison of Processing Properties of Anatomic Facsimile Models (AFM) of the Temporal Bone with Original Human Bone Structures

      Cornelia Hahne, Michael Scheffler, Gabriele Dietze, Joachim Döring, Fabian Klink and Ulrich Vorwerk

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600033

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      The Magdeburg temporal bone model is an epoxy resin facsimile of human os temporale, manufactured by 3D printing for training purposes in ear surgery. This study investigates the processing properties in drilling and milling as well as the elastic modulus of the model in comparison to human os temporale.

    2. Study of Phase Decomposition in ZrW2O8

      Anna Fedorova, Timo Kämpf and Michael Scheffler

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600035

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      Thermal mismatch stresses between the initial phases ZrO2 and WO3 and the resulting ZrW2O8 are evaluated. The obtained stress values are high enough to initiate the transformation into the γ-ZrW2O8. The change of the phase composition with longer holding times above the decomposition temperature of the ZrW2O8 shows remarkable differences depending on the used synthesis route (sol–gel or solid-state).

  12. Full Papers

    1. Interfacial Mechanical Behavior and Electrochemical Corrosion Characteristics of Cold-Sprayed and Hot-Rolled Titanium/Stainless-Steel Couples

      Zhiming Li, Xiaoping Yang, Junbao Zhang and Aidang Shan

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500567

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      Fully dense Ti/304SS couples are successfully produced by cold-spraying and hot-rolling. Metallurgical bonding is formed through a slight diffusion at the interface. Interfacial mechanical behavior is investigated. The cold-sprayed and hot-rolled Ti part also exhibits excellent electrochemical corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions.

    2. Failure Mechanism of Brass with Three V-Notches Characterized by Acoustic Emission in In Situ Three-Point Bending Tests

      Pengliang Hou, Zunqiang Fan, Lin Zhang, Xiangguo Zhai, Shizhong Zhang, Cong Li, Yumeng Du and Hongwei Zhao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500599

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      The brass specimens of three V-notches are tested by the AE in in situ three-point bending tests, as shown in the figure. During the bending, the AE signals and in situ images of middle V notch tip morphology are sampled at the same time. The ABAQUS is used to construct the finite element of three-point bending static–load simulations.

    3. The Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of 2198 Al–Li Alloy

      Bin Chen, Ming-Feng Guo, Jing-Xu Zheng, Kun-Yi Zhang, Yun Fan, Ling-Ye Zhou, Xiao-Ling Li and Chen Lu

      Version of Record online: 9 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500613

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      A commercial sheet of 2198-T8 alloy is subjected to thermal exposure at elevated temperatures varying from 200 to 500 °C. Thermal exposure at 200 °C leads to deterioration of the ductility while thermal exposure at 300 °C and above leads to deterioration of the strengths. It is mainly due to the phase transition during thermal exposure.

    4. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    5. Nanostructured Titanium for Maxillofacial Mini-Implants

      Irina P. Semenova, Gennady V. Klevtsov, Natal'ya A. Klevtsova, Grigory S. Dyakonov, Aleksandr A. Matchin and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500542

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      There has been a growing interest in modern traumatology and implantology to novel biomaterials that combine high strength and biocompatibility. This paper demonstrates the results of successful studies of miniature implants for osteosynthesis in the maxillofacial areas from nanostructured Ti Grade 4 produced by severe plastic deformation via ECAP-Conform scheme and subsequent drawing.

  13. Review

    1. The Effect of Transition Elements on High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Al–Si Foundry Alloys–A Review

      Jovid Rakhmonov, Giulio Timelli and Franco Bonollo

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500468

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      The effect of transition metals on high temperature mechanical properties of Al–Si alloys is critically reviewed. The formation of thermally stable and coarsening resistant dispersoids in the microstructure enhances the creep resistivity of a material. Further advances can be achieved by transforming the trialuminides into ternary or quaternary forms by alloying with appropriate elements.

  14. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Composite Materials with Enhanced Conductivities

      Hanxing Zhu, Tongxiang Fan and Di Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500482

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      Closed-form results for the isotropic conductivities of two types of specially structured two-phase composites are obtained in this paper. It is found that the type-I composites can achieve the maximum possible theoretical upper limit for isotropic conductivity and the type-II composites have a conductivity significantly greater than the conventional particle or fiber composites.

    2. Additive Manufacturing of γ-TiAl: Processing, Microstructure, and Properties

      Vamsi Krishna Balla, Mitun Das, Ashfaq Mohammad and Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500588

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      Deposition-based laser additive manufacturing of γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy is reported. Defect-free parts can be obtained with incident laser energy input between 40 and 50 J mm–2. High cooling rates result in fine γ matrix containing small amount of γ+Ti3Al lamellar. Process parameters strongly influence the tribological and electrochemical properties of LENS-processed γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy.

    3. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

    4. Platinum Thin-Film Electrodes Prepared by a Cost-Effective Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

      Meike V. F. Schlupp, Moritz M. Wehrle, Karsten Kunze, Arndt Remhof and Ulrich F. Vogt

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500636

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      Thin-film growth of metallic platinum by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD) is an attractive alternative to the application of vacuum-based methods. The authors tune the deposition parameters for Pt thin-film applications at 600 °C and discuss microstructure, thermal stability, and electrical/electrochemical performance on different substrates (silicon, YSZ).

    5. Electrically Conductive Silver Nanoparticles-Filled Nanocomposite Materials as Surface Coatings of Composite Structures

      Rouhollah Dermanaki Farahani, Martin Gagne, Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha and Daniel Therriault

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500544

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      Electrically conductive nanocomposite materials composed of silver nanoparticles (Figure a) mixed with a conductive polymer are fabricated and used as surface coatings for composite substrates. Thermal annealing at 200 °C considerably improves conductivity (Figure b) and mechanical properties (e.g., scratch test results in Figure c–d) of the coatings.

    6. Flow Characterization of a Duplex near α Ti6242 Alloy through Interrelation of Microstructural Evolution, 3D Activation Energy Map, and Processing Map

      Mohammad Rezaee, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki, Mohammad Ghambari, Pooriya Dastranjy Nezhadfar and Erfan Ghasemi

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500426

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The microstructural evolutions, constitutive equation, 3D activation energy and processing maps were used to investigate the dominant restoration mechanisms for hot deformation behavior of Ti6242 in two-phase region. Consequently, the occurrence of kinking/bending in transformed β, dynamic recrystallization (DRX), and subsequently the small amount of globularization in primary α phase can be observed for flow softening.

    7. Molecular Engineering of Aluminum–Copper Interfaces for Joining by Plastic Deformation

      Christian Hoppe, Christoph Ebbert, Markus Voigt, Hans Christian Schmidt, Dmytro Rodman, Werner Homberg, Hans Jürgen Maier and Guido Grundmeier

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500501

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      Molecular interface modification is shown to improve the copper and aluminum joining by plastic deformation. The pilger process in combination with a moderate thermal annealing step leads to the formation of a covalent link according to Cu–S–(CH2)–SiOx–Al2O3/Al which results in a high mechanical strength of the joint.

    8. Ultra-Fast One-Step Fabrication of Cu2Se Thermoelectric Legs With Ni–Al Electrodes by Plasma-Activated Reactive Sintering Technique

      Linchun Wu, Xianli Su, Yonggao Yan, Ctirad Uher and Xinfeng Tang

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500548

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      Ultra-fast one-step fabrication of Cu2Se thermoelectric legs is achieved by plasma-activated reactive sintering (PARS) technique, offering a low-cost, rapid, and large-scale fabrication method of thermoelectric modules.

    9. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction of Copper Busbar

      Jian Chao Pang, Liang Liang Nie, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Ge Yao, Yun Xian Mao, Men Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500561

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that both the fatigue life and dislocation spacing have direct relation without total hysteresis energy, but with relatively simple and stable parameters (strain amplitude, stress amplitude, and hysteresis energy at half-life); however, they have no direct relation with each other.

  15. Communications

    1. The Influence of Individual Rare Earth Elements (La, Ce, or Nd) on Creep Resistance of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy AE44

      Suming Zhu, Mark A. Easton, Trevor B. Abbott, Mark A. Gibson and Jian-Feng Nie

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500545

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The choice of RE elements is shown to have a significant influence on the creep resistance of die-cast magnesium alloy AE44, which cannot be accounted for by the thermal stability of the Al11RE3 phase as reported previously. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases and the Mn content are considered to be contributing factors for the observed differences in creep resistance.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ti–43Al–9V–0.3Y Alloy Joints Brazed With Ti–Zr–Ni–Cu + Mo Composite Filler

      Ying Wang, Qiwen Qiu, Zhenwen Yang and Dongpo Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500549

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ti–Zr–Ni–Cu + Mo composite filler is developed to braze Ti–43Al–9V–0.3Y alloy. The Mo additive, acting as a β-stabilized element, inhibits the eutectoid transformation of β phase during cooling. It is beneficial to refine the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of the reaction phases, and thus to enhance the joints bonding strength.

  17. Reviews

    1. Nanoscale Materials Patterning by Local Electrochemical Lithography

      He Liu, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500486

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      Scanning probe lithography (SPL) represents a promising method with high accuracy, low cost, and mild fabrication conditions. Moreover, electrical field-induced SPL is attractive because a variety of chemical changes can be induced based on electrochemical reactions during the lithography process. In this review, an overview of recent advances in the field of the electrical field-induced SPL is summarized, specifically some technological changes are highlighted.

  18. Full Papers

    1. An Unusual Extrusion Texture in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr Alloys

      Reza Alizadeh, Reza Mahmudi, Alfonso H. W. Ngan and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500516

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Textural study in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloys shows that while they exhibit common extrusion textures at the low extrusion-ratio, an unusual extrusion texture is observed after high-ratio extrusion. It is proposed that the RE elements modify the texture through retarding recrystallization by solute drag effects on grain boundaries and pinning effects of RE-rich precipitates.

    2. Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Steel Substrates for Application in Supercapacitors

      Jagdeep S. Sagu, Kahagala Gamage Upul Wijayantha, Mallika Bohm, Siva Bohm and Tapan Kumar Rout

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500585

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of a ferrocene/ethanol precursor is used to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on steel substrates for application in supercapacitors. A capacitance of 3.4 mF cm–2 is demonstrated for these CNT/steel electrodes.

    3. Corrosion-Induced Strengthening: Development of High-Strength Nanoporous Metals

      Xing-Long Ye and Hai-Jun Jin

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500521

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      In conventional materials, replacing parts of a solid with voids usually leads to a decrease in its strength. Here, the authors report that a material (Au–Pt–Ag alloy) can bear seven times higher load – its compressive strength increases from 50 to 345 MPa, when ≈40% of solid component (Ag) is dissolved and replaced with pore space during dealloying.

    4. Advanced Materials for Applications at High Temperature: Fatigue Assessment by Means of Local Strain Energy Density

      Pasquale Gallo and Filippo Berto

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500547

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      The present paper investigates the accuracy of Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged over a control volume approach when applied to high-temperature fatigue data from notched components. The main advantage of SED is that different geometries can be summarized in a single narrow scatter band.

    5. Approving Restoration Mechanism in 7075 Aluminum Alloy through Constitutive Flow Behavior Modeling

      Mohammad Moghaddam, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki, Ehsan Farabi and Mahsa Taheri-Mandarjani

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500378

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      The hot flow behavior characteristic of 7075 aluminum alloy has been studied through processing maps. For a deeper understanding of main restoration mechanism, constitutive equations has been elaborated. It was proposed that DRX based model, in comparison with other employed models, not only predicts the material's flow behavior but also can be used to predict the main restoration mechanism.

    6. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Fine Cell Structure under Increased Pressure

      Zhuokun Cao, Min Li, Yang Yu and Hongjie Luo

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500511

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      It is found that increasing operating pressure can cause significant decrease in both cell size and cell wall thickness of aluminum foams, leading to a homogenous cell structure with fine pores. When foaming under increased pressure, bubble coalescence is slowed down and the stability of liquid film separating bubbles is enhanced.

  19. Communications

    1. A Catalyst-Based Self-Sufficient System with Durable Self-Healing Functionality

      Wen Sun, Lida Wang, Tingting Wu, Tianzhen Zhu, Hongbin Xie, Yanqiu Pan and Guichang Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500494

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel self-healing system which is capable of repeatedly restoring the protection barrier for metals is demonstrated. The system is sustainable, self-sufficient, and can autonomously provide effective and durative protection for metals through utilizing available conditions in the environment surrounding coating defects, while without adding any additional consumable reagents or external powers.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Influence of the Composition on the Properties of (Cr1–xAlx)N/MoySz PVD Coatings

      Kirsten Bobzin, Tobias Brögelmann, Serhan Basturk, Fritz Klocke, Patrick Mattfeld, Daniel Trauth, Peter Polcik and Szilárd Kolozsvári

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500499

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, PVD (Cr1–xAlx)N/MoySz coatings are deposited with the variation of the chemical composition. This influences the coating properties considerably. A reduction of the friction coefficient can be achieved with a certain amount of MoySz.

    2. Novel Fabrication of Bulk Fine-Grained Al–Cu–Mg Alloy with Superior Mechanical Properties

      Ruixiao Zheng and Chaoli Ma

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500450

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      Fine-grained Al–Cu–Mg alloy is fabricated by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal–mechanical processing. It is shown that simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility can be obtained in the peak-aged sample, which is mainly attributed to the enhanced work-hardening rate.

  21. Communications

    1. Influence of Twin Thickness and Grain Size on the Tensile Behavior of Fully Nanotwinned CuAl Alloys

      Nathan M. Heckman, Leonardo Velasco and Andrea M. Hodge

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500496

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The tensile behavior of fully nanotwinned CuAl is presented. Samples with varying twin thickness, grain width, and composition are synthesized by magnetron sputtering and tensile tested utilizing digital image correlation to investigate local deformation behavior. The effects of varying twin thickness, grain width, and composition are isolated in order to understand how each parameter can affect the mechanical behavior.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Preparation of an α″-Fe16N2 Magnet via a Ball Milling and Shock Compaction Approach

      Yanfeng Jiang, Jinming Liu, Pranav K. Suri, Greg Kennedy, Naresh N. Thadhani, David J. Flannigan and Jian-Ping Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500455

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An approach based on ball milling plus shock compaction is experimentally demonstrated as a means to mass produce an α″-Fe16N2 powder for permanent magnets with enhanced magnetic properties. In the ball milling approach, ammonium nitrate is used as the nitrogen source. The prepared α″-Fe16N2 powder shows an obvious hard magnetic property (Hc = 854 Oe) with high Ms (210 emu g–1).

    2. Effect of Graphitization on the Microstructure and Properties of Mo2C-Modified C/C–Cu Composites

      Wen Yan Zhou, Ke Peng, Li Ping Ran, Yi Cheng Ge and Mao Zhong Yi

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Both the C/C preforms with and without graphitization are penetrated by Cu after modifying with Mo2C interlayer. The C/C–Cu composite with graphitization shows better electrical and thermal conductivity, while lower strength and wear resistance. The composite with and without graphitization exhibits mainly abrasive wear and adhesion wear, respectively, and both composites show oxidation wear.

    3. Modeling, Design, and Development of Soft Pneumatic Actuators with Finite Element Method

      Philip Moseley, Juan Manuel Florez, Harshal Arun Sonar, Gunjan Agarwal, William Curtin and Jamie Paik

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500503

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs) are compliant, elastomer-based actuators that enable safer human–robot interaction. This work presents an open-source simulation and design tool for SPAs using finite element method, compatible and extensible to different soft materials and design parameters.

    4. Evaluation of Magnesium Die-Casting Alloys for Elevated Temperature Applications: Castability

      Mark A. Easton, Suming Zhu, Trevor B. Abbott, Matthew Dargusch, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, Norbert Hort and Mark A. Gibson

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500407

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The castability of eight “creep resistant” magnesium alloys, together with other five conventional Mg alloys, is assessed in a castability die considering cracking, filling, and spangling. Among all “creep resistant” alloys, AE44, AS31, MRI153A, and HP2plus are found to have very good castability, although they are still inferior to conventional Mg alloys, AZ91 and ZA124 (see figure).

    5. An Assessment of the Role of Fiber Coating and Suspending Fluid on the Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes onto Glass Fibers for Multiscale Composites

      J. J. Ku-Herrera, A. May-Pat and F. Avilés

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500389

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Increased glass fiber electrical conductivity and improved interfacial shear strength between the CNT-modified fibers and a vinyl ester resin is achieved upon CNT deposition, especially when the fiber coating is maintained and an adequate silane coupling agent is used.

    6. Glass-Forming Ability and Crystallization Behavior of Al86Ni9La5 Metallic Glass with Si Addition

      Jiaojiao Yi, Wanqiang Xu, Xianzhong Xiong, Lingti Kong, Micheal Ferry and Jinfu Li

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500354

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The glass-forming ability (GFA) increases first and then decreases with the increase of Si addition, as shown in the figure. The change in GFA with the Si addition is interpreted on the basis of atomic packing and chemical interaction in combination with the crystallization kinetics analysis.

    7. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites With Geometric Characteristics of Carbon Allotropes

      Ye Ji Noh, Hyun Su Kim, Bon-Cheol Ku, Myung-Seob Khil and Seong Yun Kim

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500451

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Effect of the sizes and shapes of the diverse carbon allotropes such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, graphene nanoplatelet, graphite, pitch-based carbon fiber (PCF), and expanded graphite (EG) on the thermal conductivity of polymer composites is investigated. Microsized one-dimensional PCF and EG including the intercalation spacing induced effective improvement of the thermal conductivity.

    8. Coupling Diffraction Contrast Tomography with the Finite Element Method

      Henry Proudhon, Jia Li, Peter Reischig, Nicolas Guéninchault, Samuel Forest and Wolfgang Ludwig

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500414

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      This paper explains how to turn 3D experimental grain maps into suitable mesh for mechanical analysis. Two examples from diffraction contrast tomography experiments are featured. i) A pure titanium sample of 600 microns diameter composed of 1 400 grains; ii) a significantly large zone of a polycrystalline Al–Li sample is meshed and deformed using crystal plasticity with a finite strain formulation.

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