Advanced Engineering Materials

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  1. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Ag Addition on Hot Deformation Behavior of Cu–Ni–Si Alloys

      Huili Sun, Yi Zhang, Alex A. Volinsky, Bingjie Wang, Baohong Tian, Kexing Song, Zhe Chai and Yong Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600607

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      Hot deformation behavior of Cu–Ni–Si and Cu–Ni–Si–Ag alloys is investigated. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism is a feature of high temperature flow stress–strain curves of the alloy. Ag addition can refine the grains and accelerate dynamic recrystallization. Processing maps are developed and analyzed based on the dynamic material model (DMM). Ag addition can optimize the alloy processing workability.

  2. Communications

    1. Mechanism of Dynamic Formation of Ultrafine Ferrite Grains during High Temperature Processing in Steel

      Lijia Zhao, Nokeun Park, Yanzhong Tian, Akinobu Shibata and Nobuhiro Tsuji

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600778

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      Grain refinement mechanism of ferrite dynamically transformed (DT) from austenite is clarified. The study shows that the role of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) has been previously underestimated in grain refinement of ferrite and it is suggested that new thermomechanical processes should be developed by enhancing the DRX (of DT ferrite), which has a strong strain rate dependency.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Development of Graphene Nano-Platelet Ink for High Voltage Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Cobalt Complex Electrolytes

      Jennifer A. Baker, Carys Worsley, Harrison K. H. Lee, Ronald N. Clark, Wing C. Tsoi, Geraint Williams, David A. Worsley, David T. Gethin and Trystan M. Watson

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600652

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      This work develops a GNP ink of high surface area which can be printed using roll to roll technologies to produce a semi-transparent catalyst. Post deposition the ink needs only a 110 °C drying step enabling the use of plastic substrates. Flexible dye sensitized solar cells suitable for indoor applications are produced with efficiencies of over 6.0%.

    2. Advanced Raman Spectroscopy Using Nanofocusing of Light

      Thomas Nuytten, Janusz Bogdanowicz, Thomas Hantschel, Andreas Schulze, Paola Favia, Hugo Bender, Ingrid De Wolf and Wilfried Vandervorst

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600612

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      The dramatic enhancement of Raman scattering intensities from periodic arrays of narrow semiconductor fins is reported. For a variety of materials, nanofocusing of the incident light translates Raman spectroscopy into the nanoscale world. This, in turn, enables optical stress and composition metrology on deep-subwavelength semiconductor architectures.

    3. Tri-Modal Microstructure Evolution in Near-β and Two Phase Field Heat Treatments of Conventionally Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy

      Zhichao Sun, Huili Wu, Min Wang and Jing Cao

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600796

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      Tri-modal microstructure with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties is obtained by conventional forging (940 °C/60%/0.1 s–1/WQ) combined with subsequent near-β and two-phase field heat treatments (HT1 + HT2, 975 °C 30 min–1/WQ + 935 °C 100–120 min–1/AC) in TA15 Ti-alloy. Enhancing the near-β temperature (T1) decreases the volume fraction of αp –(αp%) and extending two phase field holding time (t2) increases the thickness of lamellar αs (Tαs).

    4. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Oxidation Behavior of AlxCr0.4CuFe0.4MnNi High Entropy Alloys

      Ziyuan Rao, Xun Wang, Qinjia Wang, Ting Liu, Xiaohua Chen, Lu Wang and Xidong Hui

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600726

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      The effects of Al are investigated on the microstructure, tensile properties, and oxidation behavior of Cr0.4CuFe0.4MnNiAlx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) high entropy alloys. The mechanical properties of HEAs are remarkably improved by the small addition of Al. The HEAs exhibit a significant enhanced oxidation resistance after the addition of Al.

    5. Optimized Photoinitiator for Fast Two-Photon Absorption Polymerization of Polyester-Macromers for Tissue Engineering

      Leander Poocza, Michael Gottschaldt, Eric Markweg, Nicole Hauptmann, Gerhard Hildebrand, David Pretzel, Matthias Hartlieb, Christian Reichardt, Joachim Kübel, Ulrich S. Schubert, Olaf Mollenhauer, Benjamin Dietzek and Klaus Liefeith

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600686

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      A novel organic photoinitiator for two photon polymerization (TPP) by functionalization of photoinitiator side groups for enhanced reactivity with lactide-caprolactone methacrylates facilitated TPP structures in centimeter dimensions by a new processing approach. Maximum TPP writing speed revealed a selectiveness for the chosen lactide-caprolactone which was five times faster than in the control material (UDMA).

  4. Reviews

    1. Atomistic Modeling-Based Design of Novel Materials

      David Holec, Liangcai Zhou, Helmut Riedl, Christian M. Koller, Paul H. Mayrhofer, Martin Friák, Mojmír Šob, Fritz Körmann, Jörg Neugebauer, Denis Music, Markus A. Hartmann and Franz D. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600688

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      This review demonstrates an application of atomistic modeling to current materials science problems. As an example, atomic structure of a cubic TiN–AlN solid solution is overlaid with its electronic charge density determining type and strength of bonding, and consequently its physical properties.

  5. Communications

    1. Lattice Materials with Reversible Foldability

      Hamid Ebrahimi, Davood Mousanezhad, Babak Haghpanah, Ranajay Ghosh and Ashkan Vaziri

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600646

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      Presented is a novel concept to dramatically change size of lattice materials through simultaneous folding of the walls while preserving the overall shape. The elastic modulus and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the folding process. The proposed concept may be used to fold any arbitrary shape and provides new tools for development of deployable and multifunctional structures.

  6. Reviews

    1. Open Celled Porous Titanium

      Mohammed Menhal Shbeh and Russell Goodall

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600664

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      Porous metals cover a wide range of materials, foams, sponges, and lattices, and are of interest for some of the unusual properties and property combinations that they can possess. Here, the processing, properties, and current applications of porous titanium are reviewed, highlighting the state of the art of these materials, and delineating future challenges.

  7. Communications

    1. Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

      Christina Hofer, Sophie Primig, Helmut Clemens, Florian Winkelhofer and Ronald Schnitzer

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600658

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      Carbide-free bainitic steels enable a well-balanced combination of high strength and ductility. In this study, their complex multi-phase microstructure is investigated by mechanical, metallographic, and high-resolution methods using correlative microscopy, such as the novel approach of combining transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam microscopy.

    2. Phase Evolution during High Energy Cube Milling of Ti–6Al–4V–0.5 vol% TiC Powders Using Heptane and Tin as Process Control Agents (PCAs)

      N. Kishore Babu, K. Kallip, M. Leparoux, M. K. Talari, K. A. AlOgab and N. M. Alqahtani

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600662

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      This study reports the phase evolution during high energy cube milling of Ti–6Al–4V–0.5 vol% TiC powders using heptane and tin as process control agents. The Ti–6Al–4V–0.5 vol% TiC powders milled for 6 h with heptane show the formation of metastable fcc phase (Ti(C, H)metastable). In contrast, no such phase transformation was observed for Ti–6Al–4V–0.5 vol% TiC powders milled for 4 h with tin.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy René N5 through Scanning Laser Epitaxy (SLE) − Material Processing, Microstructures, and Microhardness Properties

      Amrita Basak and Suman Das

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600690

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      The authors report on the crack-free and dense deposition of René N5 on cast René N5 substrates with [100] and [001] crystallographic orientation using scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process. The René N5 deposits show highly refined columnar dendrites growing in the [001] direction from the interface.

    2. The Effect of SiCp Addition on Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Conventionally and Microwave Sintered PM 316L

      Onur Ertugrul, Monika Willert-Porada and Kazim Onel

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600680

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      10 vol% SiCp reinforced composite samples show acceptable corrosion properties and improved wear resistence compared to plain PM 316L materials in a similar manner, as they show good mechanical properties. In addition, fast and energy saving microwave sintering technology gives samples with better wear and corrosion properties compared to conventional method.

    3. The Challenge of Measuring Strain in FDSOI Device Structures – HRXRD as a Potential Method of Resolution

      Holm Geisler, Martin Weisheit, Petra Hofmann and Hans-Juergen Engelmann

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600744

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      On FDSOI wafers, the strain state of narrow c-Si1-xGex structures depends on the width wi of the active areas, as shown by HRXRD measurements. The original biaxial strain of the unstructured film converts more and more to a uniaxial strain along [110], whereas an elastic strain relaxation is observed along [−110] with decreasing wi. An additional change of the strain state of S/D-Si1-yGey islands on top of c-Si1-xGex structures is also observed along [110] for the narrowest gratings.

  9. Communications

    1. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Thin WC-Co Sintered Pellets

      Esteben A. Álvarez, José Luis García and Carlos J. R. González Oliver

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600544

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      Thin disks of WC-30 vol% Co sintered at 1 400°C in vacuum shows an axial expansion larger than along the in-plane direction. The curves exhibit hysteresis as indicated by the contraction curves making a loop during cooling. Using a model, where the matrix and the 2nd phase are respectively the WC-grains and Co, it was calculated the WC grains are under tensile stresses at RT. This explains the expanded WC unit cell, measured by X-rays diffraction at 20 °C.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Role of Interfaces on Multi-length Scale Wear Mechanics of TaC-based Composites

      Ambreen Nisar and Kantesh Balani

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600713

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      The synergistic reinforcement of SiC and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in TaC, as T15S15C composite, provides an increased fracture toughness (KIC), and scratch- (SR) and tribological-resistance (WR), which is rationalized by comparing micro-scratching and fretting wear to elicit multi-length scale damage mechanics.

    2. Phase Decomposition of a Single-Phase AlTiVNb High-Entropy Alloy after Severe Plastic Deformation and Annealing

      Benjamin Schuh, Bernhard Völker, Verena Maier-Kiener, Juraj Todt, Jiehua Li and Anton Hohenwarter

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600674

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      An AlTiVNb high-entropy alloy is subjected to high-pressure torsion leading to a pronounced grain refinement. The nanocrystalline samples are subjected to various heat treatments, which results in a significant increase in hardness and reduced modulus. Subsequently, investigations by electron microscopy, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation are performed in order to determine the origin of this annealing response.

    3. Micro-CT Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Residual Stresses and Fracture in Metal-Ceramic Composites

      Michał Basista, Witold Węglewski, Kamil Bochenek, Zuzanna Poniżnik and Zdzisław Nowak

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600725

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      An X-ray micro-CT-based FE modeling method is developed to predict macroscopic properties of metal-ceramic composites with account of material microstructure. The method is introduced as a set of operational steps enabling an easy use. Two case studies: i) thermal residual stress and ii) fracture in sintered or infiltrated composites are considered in detail to show the proposed method at work.

  11. Communications

    1. Impact of Defect-Induced Strain on Device Properties

      Manfred Reiche, Martin Kittler, Eckhard Pippel, Hartmut Uebensee, Hans Kosina, Alexander Grill, Zlatan Stanojevic and Oskar Baumgartner

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600736

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      Dislocations in the channel result in a significant increase of the drain current of MOSFETs. This is caused by the extremely high strain in the defect core resulting in sub-stantial changes of the band structure and means that dislocations are quantum wires. Quantum mechanical device simulations proved the transport of carriers on dislocations.

    2. Fabrication of Lead Borate Single Crystal Nanosheets for Attenuating Both Neutron and Gamma Radiations

      Quan-Ping Zhang, Nan Sun, Jian Zheng, Shi-Wei Wang, You Wu, De-Li Luo and Yuan-Lin Zhou

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600650

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      Lead borate single crystal nanosheets have been fabricated by a facile solvothermal process. The 2D nanostructure exhibits an excellent ability to attenuate both neutron and gamma radiations. Importantly, the lead borate exhibits 2D nanostructures that imply other amazing physical properties, such as mechanical enhancement, high thermal conductivity. Thus, the product can be applied to the fabrication of multifunction integrated composites for the radiation protection of complex conditions.

  12. Reviews

    1. Hierarchical Architectures to Enhance Structural and Functional Properties of Brittle Materials

      Raúl Bermejo, Rostislav Daniel, Clara Schuecker, Oskar Paris, Robert Danzer and Christian Mitterer

      Version of Record online: 26 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600683

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      Novel hierarchical architectures at different length scales are combined in a unique multilayer structure. Internal layers with compressive residual stresses possess a textured microstructure, where every elongated grain consists of an array of hard nano-layers with compositional heterogeneity and spatial variations in properties.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties and Life Prediction of the Steels with Trace Silicon

      Meng Xiao Zhang, Jian Chao Pang, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Liang Liang Nie, Yun Xian Mao, Man Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600581

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that cyclic hardening appears in 550TG and cyclic softening in SD320; Basquin & Manson-Coffin and hysteretic energy relationships are more appropriate for the fatigue life prediction. The points of intersection in the two relationships reflect the transition of dominant mechanisms. For 550TG, the dislocation planar slip plays the leading role; and fatigue life is longer than SD320 in short life range. While, in long life range, fatigue life of SD320 is longer, and the wavy slip plays the leading role.

    2. A Significant Improvement in the Mechanical Properties of AISI 304 Stainless Steel by a Combined RCSR and Annealing Process

      Peyman Asghari-Rad, Prof. Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Dr. Hassan Shirazi, Dr. Syamak Hossein Nedjad and Sebastian Koldorf

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600663

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      304 stainless steel is subjected to a new severe plastic deformation method named as RCSR. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties are investigated during a thermo-mechanical process. Results show that the amount of strain-induced martensite is controlled by RCSR cycles and could be reached to 90 vol% after 30 cycles, which, significantly improves the mechanical properties.

  14. Communications

    1. Atom Probe Tomography Study of As-Quenched Al–Mg–Si Alloys

      Phillip Dumitraschkewitz, Stephan S. A. Gerstl, Peter J. Uggowitzer, Jörg F. Löffler and Stefan Pogatscher

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600668

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      In this study a new method is deployed to gain insight into the as-quenched microstructure of Al–Mg–Si alloys using atom probe tomography. The diffusion of solutes during sample preparation and handling is suppressed via application of cryogenic temperatures, starting from quenching in liquid nitrogen through to APT experiments at 33 K. The solute distribution is studied.

    2. Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Powered Weighing

      Saeed Ahmed Khan, Hu Lin Zhang, Yuhang Xie, Min Gao, Madad Ali Shah, Abdul Qadir and Yuan Lin

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600710

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      A flexible TENG based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced, which not only can be used as a direct power source, but also can be constructed into a self-powered weighing sensor by subtly designing.

    3. Precipitation of Long-Period Stacking Ordered Structure in Mg–Gd–Zn–Mn Alloy

      Jiehua Li, Mihaela Albu, Yujuan Wu, Liming Peng, Martina Dienstleder, Gerald Kothleitner, Ferdinand Hofer and Peter Schumacher

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600705

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      The figure shows HAADF-STEM images (Figurea–c) and EDX line scanning (Figure d) of the LPSO phase in GZ151 alloy after solution treatment, obtained along the [2-1-10] direction (Figure b), and the [01-10] direction (Figure c), respectively. A significant number density of LPSO phase is observed.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Possibility to Predict Extrusion Die Incidental Fracture by Finite Element Simulation

      Alessandro Bevacqua, Alexander E. Medvedev, Andrey Molotnikov, Richard Axe and Rimma Lapovok

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600687

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      The instantaneous die fracture during extrusion can happen unexpectedly despite finite element (FE) simulation predicting a positive outcome. The present study investigates the suitability FE simulations in conjunction with damage modelling for predicting die failure in non-ideal situations. The developed methodology is applied to a case-study of the die failure during T-shape profile extrusion.

  16. Communication

    1. On the Considerability of DSR (Differential Speed Rolling) as a Severe Plastic Deformation Method

      Young Gun Ko, IPutu Widiantara and Kotiba Hamad

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600722

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      In this paper, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained low carbon steel samples fabricated by differential speed rolling (DSR) process are presented to show the validity of DSR processing as a severe plastic deformation method.

  17. Reviews

    1. Deformation-Induced Supersaturation in Immiscible Material Systems during High-Pressure Torsion

      Karoline Sophie Kormout, Reinhard Pippan and Andrea Bachmaier

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600675

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      Severe plastic deformation (SPD)of immiscible composites can result in nanocrystalline single-phase supersaturated solid solutions or in partially supersaturated nanocomposites, similar as in mechanical alloying. SPD permits a detailed analysis of the underlying deformation and supersaturation phenomena without the inherent problems of mechanical alloying (ill-defined applied strain, temperature and impurities).

  18. Full Papers

    1. Characterization and Comparison of Inconel 625 Processed by Selective Laser Melting and Laser Metal Deposition

      Giulio Marchese, Xabier Garmendia Colera, Flaviana Calignano, Massimo Lorusso, Sara Biamino, Paolo Minetola and Diego Manfredi

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600635

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      Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) processes are optimized to fabricate Inconel 625 samples with the highest relative density, reaching mean values of 99.96% and 99.89%, respectively. In both cases, the microstructure is extremely fine, but LMD samples show coarser dendritic structures than SLM ones of about one order of magnitude, and larger precipitates.

    2. Thin Film Adhesion of Flexible Electronics Influenced by Interlayers

      Andreas Kleinbichler, Mattias Bartosik, Bernhard Völker and Megan J. Cordill

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600665

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      The role of interlayers used to improve adhesion in flexible electronics is examined using spontaneous and compression induced delaminations. Induced delamiations are studied with advanced in-situ techniques in order to correlate buckle formation with film stress. Results support uniform deformation of the film even after buckles form, rather than localized failure at buckles with increasing applied tensile strain.

    3. Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of β–γ TiAl-based Alloy during Hot Compression

      Hai Tao Jiang, Shang Wu Zeng, Shi Wei Tian, Bo Wu, Ai Min Zhao and Zhen Hai Xia

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600546

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      A TNM alloy with a chemical composition of Ti–44.45Al–3.80Nb–1.01Mo–0.29Si–0.14B is investigated to determine its microstructure evolution, dynamic recrystallization behavior, and the influence of the deformation conditions in isothermal compression tests. The feasible hot working window is obtained by analyzing the microstructures and the critical conditions for the initiation of dynamic recrystallization. The deformation mechanisms at different deformation stages are also discussed.

    4. Enhanced Thermal Energy Storage Performance of Polyethylene Glycol by Using Interfacial Interaction of Copper-Based Metal Oxide

      Haiquan Zhang, Yanping Yuan, Qinrong Sun and Xiaoling Cao

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600601

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      Crystallization behaviors of phase change materials (PCMs) are a prerequisite for storage/release of latent heat. In order to study interactions between PCM molecules and surface of the supports, the copper-based oxides, which display a controlled micromorphology and a large specific surface area, are reported in this work.

    5. Room Temperature Flow Behavior of Ti Deformed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing Using Core–Sheath Method

      Alireza Derakhshandeh, Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ali Khajezade and Hamed Shahmir

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600552

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      In the present paper, room temperature equal-channel angular pressing processing of a commercially pure titanium by a die with internal channel angle of 90° and taking advantage of core–sheath billet configuration is thoroughly investigated via experiment, finite element modeling, and analytical calculations. The following figure clearly shows how the core–sheath billet method can successfully severely deform titanium, as a hard-to-deform metal, regardless of core size.

  19. Communications

    1. Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Using Interconnected Carbon Nanotubes (iCNT) as Reinforcement

      Peter Samora Owuor, Yang Yang, Takami Kaji, Ryota Koizumi, Sehmus Ozden, Robert Vajtai, Jun Lou, Evgeni S. Penev, Boris I. Yakobson, Chandra S. Tiwary and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600499

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      Interconnected Carbon Nanotubes (iCNT) can results in drastic improvement in mechanical properties.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Microstructural Evolution and Properties of a Hot Extruded and HPT-Processed Resorbable Magnesium WE43 Alloy

      Dexue X. Liu, Xin Pang, Denglu L. Li, Chenggong G. Guo, Jittraporn Wongsa-Ngam, Terence G. Langdon and Marc A. Meyers

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600698

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      Microstructure evolution of HPT-processed resorbable WE43 alloy is investigated. A WE43 alloy with an initial grain size of ≈12 µm is processed by HPT to produce an ultrafine-grained microstructure and the sub-grain size is ≈200–300 nm after 10 turns. The microhardness shows significant improvement with increasing dislocation density. The tensile strength firstly increases and then decreases, while the elongation decreases after HPT deformation.

    2. Cranial Polypropylene Implants by Fused Filament Fabrication

      Matthias Katschnig, Florian Arbeiter, Bernd Haar, Gord van Campe and Clemens Holzer

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600676

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      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of polypropylene (PP) implants produced by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) for the substitution of damaged cranial bone material. The establishing of imaging methods, suitable printing material preparations, best printing practice, and a first approach of mechanical testing are addressed. The results indicate that PP implants by FFF are accurately printable and seem to be usable for cranial bone substitution..

    3. Extraction of Flow Behavior and Hall–Petch Parameters Using a Nanoindentation Multiple Sharp Tip Approach

      Alexander Leitner, Verena Maier-Kiener and Daniel Kiener

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600669

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      Nanoindentation retrieves an enormous potential regarding the mechanical characterization of materials which can further be exploited when different tips with varying apex angle are used. We demonstrate that Hall–Petch parameters and flow behavior of Ni and W determined by a multiple sharp tip approach are in excellent agreement with values obtained by uniaxial testing.

    4. Preparation of Nano to Submicro-Porous TiMo Foams by Spark Plasma Sintering

      Faming Zhang, Lili Wang, Ping Li, Suli Liu, Peipei Zhao, Ge Dai and Siyuan He

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600600

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      Nano to submicro-porous β-TiMo foams are prepared by dealloying of TiMoCu master alloy using a solid state dealloying method within Mg powders, which are conducted by a pressureless spark plasma sintering. Solid state dealloying in powders is promising for developing NP Ti alloy foams.

    5. Structuring Solid Surfaces with Bubble Coatings

      Christophe Poulard, Steven Levannier, Alexander Gryson, Meik Ranft and Wiebke Drenckhan

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600534

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      This paper concentrates on the experimental characterization of a new way to make a homogeneous self-ordered bubbles coating of a latex dispersion with pores appearing during the drying process in a highly reproducible manner. The hole sizes depend on the pore size, but not on the latex concentration.

    6. Hydrogen-Induced Improvement of the Cylindrical Drawing Properties of a Ti–22Al–25Nb Alloy

      Bin Shao, Shengxiang Wan, Debin Shan, Bin Guo and Yingying Zong

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600621

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      The 0.2 wt% hydrogenation facilitated the dynamic recrystallization process of the alloy at 960 °C. The cylindrical drawing-forming ability of the alloy increased significantly after adding 0.2 wt% H to the alloy, and no wrinkles are observed in this work piece.

    7. Thiol-Ene versus Binary Thiol–Acrylate Chemistry: Material Properties and Network Characteristics of Photopolymers

      Melahat Sahin, Santhosh Ayalur-Karunakaran, Jakob Manhart, Markus Wolfahrt, Wolfgang Kern and Sandra Schlögl

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600620

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      Detailed insight into the network evolution of thiol-ene and binary thiol-acrylate photopolymers is given in view of the homopolymerization rate of acrylate and allyl monomers. Low field double quantum NMR studies show that the yield of homopolymerization contributes to the heterogeneity of thiol-ene networks, which also clearly influences the corresponding thermo-mechanical properties, such as tensile properties and glass transition temperature.

    8. Preparation of Robust CuO/TiO2 Superamphiphobic Steel Surface through Chemical Deposition and Sol–Gel Methods

      Bingbing Xia, Hongtao Liu, Yinan Fan, Wei Zhu and Chao Geng

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600572

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      The CuO/TiO2 superamphiphobic surfaces are fabricated by chemical deposition and sol–gel methods, the superamphiphobic surfaces obtain good adhesive strength, superior mechanical durability, which could survive 500 times of 3 M adhesive tape peeling, 400 cm abrasion distance under 2.2 kPa pressure on 1 200 grid sandpaper without losing superhydrophobicity. The surfaces also show low adhesion and outstanding corrosion resistance.

  21. Communications

    1. Flexible Thin-Film Electrodes on Porous Polyester Membranes for Wearable Sensors

      Aveek Gangopadhyay, Brian J. Nablo, Mulpuri V. Rao and Darwin R. Reyes

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600592

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      Track etching of polymer membranes impart a greater flexibility than their rigid counterparts. Metallic thin-film electrodes deposited on these porous membranes withstand greater mechanical stress while increasing electrical conductivity, which is enhanced by outward bending. Utilizing these materials as thin-film electronics opens the possibility of greater advancement in wearables, implantable devices, and biosensors.

  22. Full Papers

    1. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Testing and Performance of Mesoporous Invar (FeNi36) Matrix Syntactic Foams Produced by Feedstock Extrusion

      Lorenzo Peroni, Martina Scapin, Dirk Lehmhus, Joachim Baumeister, Matthias Busse, Massimiliano Avalle and Jörg Weise

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600474

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      Syntactic metal foams with high melting matrix alloys can efficiently be produced by means of feedstock extrusion. Matrix behavior dominates the strain rate dependency of the foams in both compressive and tensile testing with higher strain rate influence for the latter load case.

    2. Effect of Rapid Solidification on Microstructure and Elastic Modulus of β Ti–xNb–3Fe Alloys for Implant Applications

      Conrado R. M. Afonso, Javier M. Chaves and Odila Florêncio

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600370

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      Cast Ti–xNb–3Fe (x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 wt%) alloys is obtained by rapid solidification in millimeters cylinder and plate shape. The elastic modulus lowers with Nb addition and stability of β-Ti phase (Ti–10Nb–3Fe, E = 77 GPa), lowering to 70 GPa for 15%Nb and even more for 35%Nb (E = 62 GPa). It confirms β Ti–xNb–3Fe alloys with low additions of β-stabilizing elements for implant applications.

    3. Phases Formation and Evolution at Elevated Temperatures of Al–12Si–3.8Cu–2Ni–1Mg Alloy

      Lijie Zuo, Bing Ye, Jian Feng, Qinghuang Bao, Xiangyang Kong, Haiyan Jiang and Wenjiang Ding

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600623

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      This paper aims to find out the thermal stable phases in Al–Si–Cu–Ni–Mg alloy at 425 °C, which is beneficial to the development of new piston alloys. The block-shape Ti2Al20Ce phase is stable and part of AlSiFeNiCu phase is dissolved during the process of thermal exposure at 425 °C for 200 h.

    4. Microstructural Effects on the Toughness of a High Co–Ni Steel

      Marina Gruber, Gerald Ressel, Sarah Ploberger, Stefan Marsoner, Otmar Kolednik and Reinhold Ebner

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600633

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      For a high Co–Ni steel the austenite to martensite transformation behavior during cooling after tempering is characterized by applying different combinations of heat and cryogenic treatments. By combining these findings with the results from toughness measurements, it is concluded that an increased tendency of austenite to martensite transformation due to tempering has a negative influence on the toughness of the material.

    5. Correlation between Boundary Misorientation and a Geometric Parameter for Cross-Boundary Twins in Mg Alloys

      Qiaoli Huang and Renlong Xin

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600614

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      A geometric compatibility factor (m′) has been used to evaluate the variant selection of cross-boundary twins in Mg alloys. This study calculated the distribution of the high peak m′ values with grain boundary angle (θ). It also evaluated the misorientation angles (α) between potential variants of the cross-boundary twins. It reveals that α is a reasonable reflection of the m′ parameter for ideal basal texture, and θ correlates reasonably with high peak values of m′, particularly below 30° of misorientation.

    6. Effect of Crystallization Temperature on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Enamel Substrate RT330

      Junhui Tao, Shubing Hu, Fei Yan and Junhua Kong

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600500

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      This study investigates the effect of crystallization temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of enamel substrate RT330 and explores methodologies to obtain a good mechanical property. Precipitation strengthening exerts a substantial impact on the strengthening mechanism.

    7. Manufacturing of Reticulated Open-Cellular Aluminum Nitride Ceramic Foams from Aqueous AlN Suspensions

      Ulf Betke, Alexandra Lieb, Franziska Scheffler and Michael Scheffler

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600660

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      Reticulated, mechanically stable open-celled aluminum nitride ceramic foams are prepared by the polymeric sponge replication (Schwartzwalder) technique from aqueous suspensions of moisture-protected AlN powder. Their microstructure is characterized by XRD with Rietveld analysis, SEM and confocal Raman microscopy and correlated to the thermal conductivity determined in TPS experiments.

    8. Differential Speed Rolling of Ni3Al-Based Intermetallic Alloy − Electron Backscatter Diffraction and X-Ray Diffraction Study on Structure and Texture Evolution

      Wojciech Polkowski, Paweł Jóźwik, Radosław Łyszkowski and Zbigniew Bojar

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600618

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      A new severe plastic deformation method called differential speed rolling has been introduced for the first time to the processing of a hardly deformable Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloy. The EBSD and XRD methods are used to evaluate an effect of the applied rolls speed mismatch on microstructure, texture, and long range order changes.

    9. Fast Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography of Dynamic Processes in Liquid Aluminium Alloy Foam

      Paul Hans Kamm, Francisco García-Moreno, Tillmann Robert Neu, Korbinian Heim, Rajmund Mokso and John Banhart

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600550

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      Series of fast synchrotron X-ray tomographies are taken continuously at a rate of up to 5 Hz while aluminium alloy precursors are foamed in an X-ray transparent setup for several minutes. The entire foaming process from the solid precursor to the expanded liquid foam is captured and the nucleation and bubble growth analyzed.

  23. Communications

    1. Piezotronic Effect on Electrical Characteristics of Bulk ZnO Varistors

      Nadine Raidl, Michael Hofstätter and Peter Supancic

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600677

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      In piezoelectric semiconductors mechanical stresses generate polarization charges that alter potential barriers and modify electrical properties (i.e., piezotronic effect). The impact of this effect on the electrical conductivity and volume efficiency in ZnO varistors is demonstrated. A new model that considers not only externally applied stresses, but also inherent residual stresses in the ZnO grains is introduced.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Metallic Copper Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Air Stable Precursors

      Alexander Sasinska, Daniel Ritschel, Lisa Czympiel and Sanjay Mathur

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600593

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      Metallic Copper thin film deposition from an easily accessible and air stable heteroarylalkenolate precursor by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition is presented. Conformal coating of different substrate types due to chemisorption reaction at the surface as well as their impact on the film resistivity is investigated and the effect of post-deposition hydrogen plasma treatment on the film properties explained.

    2. Zinc Oxide PVDF Nano-Composites–Tuning Interfaces toward Enhanced Mechanical Properties and UV Protection

      Erwan Castanet, Mohamed Al Thamish, Nishar Hameed, Andrew Krajewski, Ludovic F. Dumée and Kevin Magniez

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600611

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      This study investigates the potential of improving the mechanical performance and UV stability of PVDF by melt-dispersion of zinc oxide nano-particles. Zinc oxide/PVDF nano-composites are processed into thin films or into injection molded bars. The impact of the processing conditions on the morphology and properties of the resulting materials are systematically investigated. Specifically, the highest volume of nano-particles results in a complete UV-shielding and up to 60% of the mechanical properties improvement, opening the door to new potential applications, such as advanced ultra-thin PVDF-ZnO coating.

    3. Selective Mineralization of Tough Hydrogel Lumens for Simulating Arterial Plaque

      Lihong Lao, Sanlin S. Robinson, Bryan Peele, Huichan Zhao, Benjamin C. Mac Murray, James K. Min, Bobak Mosadegh, Simon Dunham and Robert F. Shepherd

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600591

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      Hydrogel lumens are molded using tough polyacrylamide with regions selectively mineralized with calcium phosphate to fabricate artificial coronary arteries (phantoms) that mimic plaque buildup. The extent of lumen occlusion can be controlled under different conditions. These synthetic, occluded lumens significantly increase the stiffness, and reduce pressure (up to ≈ 7.79 kPa) during fluid flow compared to the non-calcified hydrogels (≈1.24 kPa).

    4. The Local Microscale Reverse Deformation of Metallic Material under Laser Shock

      Guoxin Lu, Jide Liu, Hongchao Qiao, Chuanyong Cui, Yizhou Zhou, Tao Jin, Jibin Zhao, Xiaofeng Sun and Zhuangqi Hu

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600672

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      Local plastic deformations with an opposite direction to the external force occur on metallic target surface under the action of invisible shock waves.

    5. Highly Thermally Conductive Yet Flexible Composite of Carbon Fiber, Carbon Nanotube, and Rubber Obtained by Decreasing the Thermal Resistivity at the Interface between Carbon Fiber and Carbon Nanotube

      Seisuke Ata, Chandramouli Subramaniam, Ayumi Nishizawa, Takeo Yamada and Kenji Hata

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600596

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      Flexible and high thermal conductive rubbery sheet is achieved by mixing supergrowth single wall carbon nanotube, pitch-based carbon fiber, and fluorinated rubber. The hybrid thermal conductive sheet shows more than 80 W mK–1 which is higher than that of brass. This composite is promising material for thermal interface material (TIM).

    6. Effects of Li on Microstructures, Mechanical, and Biocorrosion Properties of Biodegradable Mg94-xZn2Y4Lix Alloys with Long Period Stacking Ordered Phase

      Ximei Zong, Jinshan Zhang, Wei Liu, Jingai Chen, Kaibo Nie and Chunxiang Xu

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600606

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      The UTS and elongation of Mg94-xZn2Y4Lix alloys with refined α-Mg grains are improved as Li is 5 at% compared to Li-free alloy. As a novel biomaterial, the Mg89Zn2Y4Li5 alloy possesses superior mechanical performance, appropriate corrosion rate, and high biocorrosion resistance.

    7. Determining the Dependence of Deformation during Diffusion Welding on the Aspect Ratio Using Samples Made of SS 304 (1.4301)

      Thomas Gietzelt, Volker Toth, Andreas Huell and Roland Dittmeyer

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600344

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      Experiments show that deformation for diffusion welding with uniaxial pressure depends on aspect ratio and number of bonding planes. For large diameters and small heights deformation decrease. One reason is friction between stamps, possessing a low TEC, and sample. For layered samples, multiple surfaces must be leveled and deformation increase.

  25. Reviews

    1. Nano- and Micro-Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Materials Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Techniques

      Megumi Kawasaki, Byungmin Ahn, Praveen Kumar, Jae-il Jang and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600578

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      This review paper concentrates on the experimental results available to date that demonstrate an enhancement in strength and ductility in terms of the micro-mechanical behavior, especially analyzed though the nanoindentation technique, in a range of UFG metals and alloys processed by SPD.

  26. Communications

    1. 3D Printed Chiral Cellular Solids with Amplified Auxetic Effects Due to Elevated Internal Rotation

      Yunyao Jiang and Yaning Li

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600609

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      For the first time, the concept of amplifying chirality-induced auxetic effect via elevating internal rotation efficiency is proposed and proved via multi-material 3D printing, mechanical experiments, and finite element (FE) simulations. A linear relationship between the internal rotation efficiency and the Poisson's ratio is discovered. This study provides guidelines to design new chiral cellular solids with robust auxetic effects under large deformation.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Refining and Reinforcing Effects of In Situ AlN–TiN–TiB2/Al Composite Refiner on Aluminum

      Qian Wang, Xin Wang, Chun Xiang Cui, Li Chen Zhao and Shuang Jin Liu

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600486

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      Grain refining and reinforcing effect of in situ AlN–TiN–TiB2/Al composite refiner which is prepared by nitrogen alloying based on an Al–8Ti–1B melt is much better than that of Al–5Ti–1B refiner on aluminum. That can be attributed to the miniaturization of Al3Ti, the diversification of ceramic particles and homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles/clusters caused by nitridation.

    2. Dry-Sliding Wear Response of MoTaWNbV High Entropy Alloy

      Anthoula Poulia, Emmanuel Georgatis, Angela Lekatou and Alexander Karantzalis

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600535

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      The tribological performance of Mo20Ta20W20Nb20V20 Refractory High Entropy Alloy is examined for the first time, under different experimental conditions of dry-sliding testing. Various wear me-chanisms are proposed in each case. By comparing the wear response of Mo20Ta20W20Nb20V20 with that of a commercial Ni super-alloy (Inconel 718), the improved behavior of the High Entropy Alloy is highlighted in all cases.

    3. Development of a Transparent Scratch Resistant Coating through Direct Oxidation of Al-Coated Glass

      Sayed Hadi Mousavi, Mohammad Hossein Jilavi, Marcus Koch, Eduard Arzt and Peter William de Oliveira

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600617

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      Scratch resistant thin films of aluminum oxide are developed through a simple and cost-effective sputtering method. The fabricated layers are composed of aluminum oxide, silicon, and silicon dioxide which play an important role in the high scratch resistance and lead to acceptable transmission. The development of protective transparent layers may find different applications in display and glass industry.

    4. Dual Wavelength Laser Beam Cutting of High-Performance Composite Materials

      Andreas Fürst, Achim Mahrle, Dominik Hipp, Annett Klotzbach, Jan Hauptmann, Andreas Wetzig and Eckhard Beyer

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600356

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      The remote-laser-ablation expands the area of processing strategies for fiber reinforced polymers. Laser cutting of FRP is an ambitious process because of the inhomogeneity of the reinforcement material and the polymer matrix material. The present paper shows an approach to respect this limiting factor.

    5. Bioinspired Multifunctional Ceramic Platelet-Reinforced Piezoelectric Polymer Composite

      Zhe Xu, Julia Bykova, Mahmoud Baniasadi, Salvador Morenor, Zhong Zhou, Nandita Das, Sasaank Bandi, Yang Xi, Dong Qian, Ray H. Baughman and Majid Minary-Jolandan

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600570

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      Bioinspired multifunctional composite of single crystal ceramic platelets and piezoelectric polymer prepared by layer-by-layer approach. The composite is transparent, is piezoelectric, and shows large ductility. Effect of annealing process on the morphology of the polymer phase and on the mechanical properties of the composite is also investigated.

  28. Communications

    1. Inverse Magnetostrictive Effect in Fe29Co71 Wire/Polymer Composites

      Fumio Narita

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600586

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      Magnetostrictive wire/polymer composites are developed for the first time by embedding Fe–Co wires in an epoxy matrix, and their inverse magnetostrictive characteristics are studied. The results show that the output voltage density of this novel composite due to compressive load dramatically increases with increasing stress-rate. This work represents an important step forward in the development of magnetostrictive energy harvesting materials.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Precipitation in Mg–Nd–Y–Zr–Ca Alloy during Isothermal Aging: A Comprehensive Atomic-Scaled Study by Means of HAADF-STEM

      Jingxu Zheng, Zhi Li, Zhongyuan Luo, Xuesong Xu and Bin Chen

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600244

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      The present paper comprehensively investigates the precipitation hardening mechanism in Mg–Nd–Y–Zr–Ca alloy by means of atomic-resolution HAADF-STEM. As shown in the figure, a number of complex precipitate structures are unraveled at the atomic scale, which provides new insights into the solid-state phase transformation. In addition, the paper correlates the microstructural evolution with the mechanical property of the alloy.

    2. Cold Metal Transfer Welding–Brazing of Pure Titanium TA2 to Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6

      Junzhao Li, Qingjie Sun, Yibo Liu, Chunwei Cai and Jicai Feng

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600494

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      One milimeter thick 6061-T6 aluminum alloys and 2 mm pure titanium are joined using AlSi5 filler wire by cold metal transfer (CMT). The investigation focuses on the effect of different overlapping configurations on the microstructure and tensile shear strength of joints. The bonding mechanism and the fracture morphology of these two joints are also analyzed.

    3. Optimizing Bulk Metallic Glasses for Robust, Highly Wear-Resistant Gears

      Douglas C. Hofmann, Laura M. Andersen, Joanna Kolodziejska, Scott N. Roberts, John-Paul Borgonia, William L. Johnson, Kenneth S. Vecchio and Andrew Kennett

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600541

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      In the paper by Hofmann et al., a new method for casting bulk metallic glass (BMG) gears is presented, as shown in the figure. By running gears, the authors find that when toughness is considered as the design parameter, not hardness, highly wear-resistant gears can be developed. This may lead to an entirely new class of high-performance gearboxes.

    4. An Experimental Study on Evolution of Grain-Scale Stress/Strain and Geometrical Necessary Dislocations in Advanced TA15 Titanium Alloy during Uniaxial Tension Deformation

      Dong He, Tabassam Yasmeen, Qiang Li, Hong Li and Stefan Zaefferer

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600306

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      This study investigates the spatial distributions of grain-scale stress/strain and geometrical necessary dislocations (GNDs) in near-α titanium alloy (TA15) subjected to uniaxial tensile deformation at room temperature through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The microstructure characteristics and macroscopic deformation parameters influences on the heterogeneity of stress/strain and GND distributions are fully analyzed and discussed.

  30. Communications

    1. Inkjet-Printing of Single-Spot-Structured Electrodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

      Danny Lehmann, Vico Haverkamp, Klaus Krüger, Yaowapa Treekamol and Mauricio Schieda

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600278

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      A new approach for fabricating surface structured electrodes for solar driven devices by inkjet printing is proposed. The approach includes modifications of the standard inkjet printing process as well as a systematic way to formulate the functional inks with desired parameters. Utilizing the new approach, electrodes for photoelectrical cells are printed. The fabricated electrodes show higher activity due to the generated structure.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Direct Deposit of Highly Reactive Bi(IO3)3- Polyvinylidene Fluoride Biocidal Energetic Composite and its Reactive Properties

      Xiuli Hu, Jeffery B. DeLisio, Xiangyu Li, Wenbo Zhou and Michael R. Zachariah

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500532

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      Bi(IO3)3/Al/PVDF biocidal composite is direct-deposited using electrospray, to create an energetic material which is flexible, crack-free with high particle mass loading. Combustion is vigorous and shows that elemental iodine is released.

    2. The Processing and Properties of Syntactic Al Foams Containing Low Cost Expanded Glass Particles

      Andrew Wright and Andrew Kennedy

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600467

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      Foamed glass spheres can be used to make Al syntactic foams with low densities via a simple casting method. Paradoxically, enhanced energy absorption is achieved when the spheres are extensively damaged during processing or via an additional quenching step. These “low strength” foams are a cost-effective alternative to metal foams and porous metals rather than “traditional” syntactic foams.

    3. Rapid Densification of Carbon/Carbon Composites Plate by Pressure-Gradient Chemical Vapor Infiltration

      Li Hong Xia, Bo Yun Huang, Fu Qin Zhang, Lei Jin, Da Chen and Qian Tang

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600329

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      The C/C composites plate shaped in 300 × 300 × 15 mm is fabricated efficiently and rapidly by an improved pressure-gradient CVI. For 60 h infiltration, the average bulk density is up to 1.52 g cm–3 and the densification rate is three times higher than that of isobaric CVI. In addition, the pore filling and kinetics analysis confirm the advantages of the new densification process.

    4. Investigation on the Manufacture of a Large-Scale Aluminum Alloy Ingot: Microstructure and Macrosegregation

      Ruiqing Li, Zhilin Liu, Pinghu Chen, Zhentao Zhong and Xiaoqian Li

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600375

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      Using a special casting facility, a large-scale Al alloy ingot (1 250 mm in diameter and 3 300 mm in length) is successfully manufactured for the first time. Then, the microstructure and macrosegregation are examined, followed by investigating the relationship between temperature field, growing grains, and macrosegregation. This study provides some insights in manufacturing large-scale metallic ingots for potential application.

  32. Communications

    1. Prediction of Limit Rotation Speeds of SiCf/Ti Composite Rings by Finite Element Analysis

      Xian Luo, Haiman Xu, Yanqing Yang, Chen Wu, Shuai Wu and Bin Huang

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600545

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      The limiting rotation speeds (LRS) of SiCf/Ti–6Al–4V composite rings are predicted by finite element simulations in consideration with different influencing factors, including reinforced area, fiber volume fraction, diameter, and working temperature. The results show that the LRS increases with the increase of reinforced area and fiber volume fraction, and decreases with the increase of diameter and working temperature. The maximum stress locates in the bonding zone between composite core and matrix cladding near the internal diameter.

  33. Full Papers

    1. One-Stage Method for Fabricating Superhydrophobic Stainless Steel Surface and Its Anti-Corrosion Performance

      Liguo Gao, Shuzhang Yang, Hongjing Yang and Tingli Ma

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600511

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      One-stage preparation of superhydrophobic stainless steel surface has been achieved by combining chemical etching and assembly. The contact angle of the prepared surface reaches as high as 175°, which is caused by the formation of the “honeycomb” 3D network structure. Electrochemical corrosion test shows that the prepared superhydrophobic surface possesses 16 times higher corrosion resistance than common stainless steel surface.

    2. Preparation of Mg/Nano-HA Composites by Spark Plasma Sintering Method and Evaluation of Different Milling Time Effects on Their Microhardness, Corrosion Resistance, and Biocompatibility

      Pushan Guo, Zeqin Cui, Lijing Yang, Linxin Cheng, Wenxian Wang and Bingshe Xu

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600294

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      Mg/nano-HA composites are prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. This study finds that an appropriate time (5 h) during high energy ball milling process effectively can eliminate the prior particle boundary (PPB). And also it is a good choice for the preparation of Mg-based composites with desirable microhardness, stable corrosion resistant, and excellent biocompatibility.

    3. Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

      Shannon L. Taylor, Adam E. Jakus, Ramille N. Shah and David C. Dunand

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600365

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      Inks comprised of Fe, Fe2O3, Ni, or NiO powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered in hydrogen to form metallic cellular structures with overall relative densities of 32–49%. This work presents a comparison of the microstructures and compressive properties of the metallic structures derived from either metallic- or oxide-based inks.

    4. A Phenomenological Model of Twinning Kinetics

      Alexei Vinogradov, Evgeny Vasilev, Dmitry Merson and Yuri Estrin

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600092

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      The authors present a model of deformation twinning based on the idea that twin generation is a stress-driven process. The model is validated by means of in situ video observation and the acoustic emission technique during deformation Mg alloys.

    5. Enhancement of the Carbothermal Reduction of Hafnium Oxide by Silicon

      Bastian Weisenseel, Joe Harris, Martin Stumpf, Stephan E. Wolf, Tobias Fey and Peter Greil

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600377

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      In this work, the authors demonstrate a method to significantly increase the carbothermal reduction of HfO2 by the addition of elemental silicon. The carbide yield can be increased by 400%. The silicon addition induces the formation of an amorphous layer on hafnium oxide particles, which increases the accessible surface area for carbide nucleation.

    6. Biomorphous Silicon Carbide as Novel Loop Heat Pipe Wicks

      Bastian Weisenseel, Peter Greil and Tobias Fey

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600379

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      The key to enhance the performance of loop heat pipes is to optimize the pore structure of the used porous material (the “wick”). In this work, we present the thermal performance of highly porous biomorphous silicon carbide wicks and demonstrate the possibility to improve the performance by the introduction of macroporous channels in the easily machinable ceramic.

    7. Topographical Control of Preosteoblast Culture by Shape Memory Foams

      Ruiqi Xie, Jinlian Hu, Xia Guo, Frankie Ng and Tingwu Qin

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600343

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      The SMP foam can be fixed in the temporary shape with aligned pore structure at 25 °C and recovered to its original pore structure at 37 °C. Alignment of cells can be determined perpendicular to the strain prior to shape memory activation. The cells reduce the alignment to the tangential direction of the pore edge after shape memory activation at 37 °C.

    8. Rapidly and Effectively Improving the Mechanical Properties of Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanofibers through Microwave Treatment

      Ning Cai, Chao Han, Xiaogang Luo, Shengpeng Liu and Faquan Yu

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600483

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      Microwave radiation is employed to enhance the mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanofiber membranes. By this simple method, microwave treatment with 600 W for 120 s produces 1.3- and 2.6-folds elevation on Young's modulus and tensile strength of chitosan/gelatin PEC nanofiber membranes, respectively, which are attributed to enhanced intermolecular interactions and increased crystallinity in CG composites.

    9. Tribological Synergy of Filler Components in Multifunctional Polyimide Coatings

      Xian-Qiang Pei, Roland Bennewitz, Christoph Kasper, Harald Tlatlik, Dirk Bentz and Carsten Becker-Willinger

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600363

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      Polyimide-based multifunctional coating is developed for protection of sliding steel contacts in corrosive environments. The composite coating is composed of different filling components, which vary in morphology from hard particles, flakes to platelets with high aspect ratio. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) is used to chemically functionalize the surface of inorganic fillers. In this study, the synergistic effect of different filling components is discussed based on systematic tribological mechanism analysis.

    10. Effect of Solution Pretreatment on Homogeneity and Corrosion Resistance of Biomedical Mg–Zn–Ca Alloy Processed by High Pressure Torsion

      Congzheng Zhang, Shaokang Guan, Liguo Wang, Shijie Zhu, Jun Wang and Ruiming Guo

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600326

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      Biological Mg–Zn–Ca alloys in casting state and solid solution state are processed by (HPT). The microstructure, micro hardness, and corrosion resistance of HPT-treated alloys in physiological environment are evaluated. The results show that compared with HPT-treated cast alloy, both the homogeneity and corrosion resistance of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy in solid solution state processed by HPT are relatively excellent.

    11. Quasi-Static Compression Properties and Failure of PTFE/Al/W Reactive Materials

      Feng Yue Xu, Shu Bo Liu, Yuan Feng Zheng, Qing Bo Yu and Hai Fu Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600350

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      Reactive materials are prepared from powder mixture of PTFE, Al, and W. The mechanical properties, the morphology of deformed PTFE matrix, the formation of PTFE fibers, and the characterization of fracture surfaces are influenced by sintering technique and component ratios. Lots of PTFE fibers are formed on the fracture surface in CIPed specimens.

    12. Clues for Cellular Structure Optimization in Aluminum Foams

      Jaime Lázaro, Eusebio Solórzano and Miguel A. Rodríguez-Pérez

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600496

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      Defects in the cellular structure are responsible for the poor and scattered mechanical properties of aluminum foams. The aim of this paper is to identify the main cause of the principal defects, by analyzing independently each stage of the foaming process, and to present a couple of methods to optimize the cellular structure, reducing both the cellular structure anisotropy and the amount of broken cell walls.

    13. On The Superior High Temperature Hardness of Precipitation Strengthened High Entropy Ni-Based Alloys

      Te-Kang Tsao, An-Chou Yeh, Chen-Ming Kuo and Hideyuki Murakami

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600475

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      The microstructure and high temperature hardness of two FCC high entropy Ni-based alloys with γ′ precipitates have been studied. Their microstructure can be thermal stable from inter-mediate to high temperatures. With minor refractory additions, the room to high temperature hardness of present alloys can surpass that of conventional superalloy due to more significant strengthening from the highly alloyed γ′ phase.

    14. Surface Modification of Powder Metallurgy Titanium by Colloidal Techniques and Diffusion Processes for Biomedical Applications

      Julia Ureña, Carlos Mendoza, Begoña Ferrari, Yolanda Castro, Sophia A. Tsipas, Antonia Jiménez-Morales and Elena Gordo

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600207

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      Surface modified powder metallurgy Ti materials are developed by colloidal techniques and diffusion processes. The addition of the β-stabilizing element, Mo, leads to an α [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α-β and β microstructural change. Diffusion layers with different characteristics are obtained by co-sintering and diffusion processes. It is beneficial to improve hardness and of interest for further investigations about wear and corrosion.

    15. Effects of Laser Surface Melting on Ti–30Nb–2Sn Sintered Alloy

      Juan José Candel, Jose Manuel Amado, Vicente Amigó and María José Tobar

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500640

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      Laser surface melting (LSM) is used to simultaneously melt and quench a thin layer of a Ti–30Nb–2Sn substrate produced by powder metallurgy route. Results show that LSM retains beta titanium without traces of martensite or grain boundary alpha and eliminates non-desirable open porosity. Substrate is progressively hardened but this is accompanied by Young's modulus reduction to reach minimum value at 1 mm from top surface.

    16. Friction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination of Titanium Alloys during Hot Forging Conditions

      Ritanjali Sethy, Lander Galdos, Joseba Mendiguren and Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600060

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      The friction factor of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy under hot forging situation has been determined taking into account the influence of the HTC in the ring tests. For this reason, the combined approach of columnar upsetting thermal tests (HTC test) and ring-compression tests of as-received specimens with and without glass coatings with FE simulation have been performed in this paper.

    17. Thermal Stability Study of Vacancy-Type Defects in Commercial Pure Titanium Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

      Ricardo Domínguez-Reyes, Begoña Savoini, Miguel Ángel Monge, Ángel Muñoz and Carmen Ballesteros

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500649

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      Positron annihilation measurements are performed on samples of CP Ti grade 3 in the as-received state and after deformation at true strains up to 3.24 by hydrostatic extrusion at RT. To study the nature and evolution of the resulting defects, isochronal thermal treatments from room temperature to 1 200 °C have been performed.

    18. Texture Development in Cold Deformed and Recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn Alloy and Its Effects on Hardness and Young's Modulus

      Leonardo Fanton, Nelson Batista de Lima, Alexandra de Oliveira França Hayama, Rubens Caram and João Batista Fogagnolo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600058

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      This study analyzes the development of texture in cold rolled and recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn alloy. Cold rolling promotes an increase in hardness and a decrease in Young's modulus. The decrease in Young's modulus with plastic deformation and the low Young's modulus of the recrystallized sample are associated with the development of texture.

    19. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    20. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

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