Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 68
  1. Full Papers

    1. Rapid Densification of Carbon/Carbon Composites Plate by Pressure-Gradient Chemical Vapor Infiltration

      Li Hong Xia, Bo Yun Huang, Fu Qin Zhang, Lei Jin, Da Chen and Qian Tang

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600329

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      The C/C composites plate shaped in 300 × 300 × 15 mm is fabricated efficiently and rapidly by an improved pressure-gradient CVI. For 60 h infiltration, the average bulk density is up to 1.52 g cm–3 and the densification rate is three times higher than that of isobaric CVI. In addition, the pore filling and kinetics analysis confirm the advantages of the new densification process.

    2. Investigation on the Manufacture of a Large-Scale Aluminum Alloy Ingot: Microstructure and Macrosegregation

      Ruiqing Li, Zhilin Liu, Pinghu Chen, Zhentao Zhong and Xiaoqian Li

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600375

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      Using a special casting facility, a large-scale Al alloy ingot (1 250 mm in diameter and 3 300 mm in length) is successfully manufactured for the first time. Then, the microstructure and macrosegregation are examined, followed by investigating the relationship between temperature field, growing grains, and macrosegregation. This study provides some insights in manufacturing large-scale metallic ingots for potential application.

  2. Communications

    1. Prediction of Limit Rotation Speeds of SiCf/Ti Composite Rings by Finite Element Analysis

      Xian Luo, Haiman Xu, Yanqing Yang, Chen Wu, Shuai Wu and Bin Huang

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600545

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      The limiting rotation speeds (LRS) of SiCf/Ti–6Al–4V composite rings are predicted by finite element simulations in consideration with different influencing factors, including reinforced area, fiber volume fraction, diameter, and working temperature. The results show that the LRS increases with the increase of reinforced area and fiber volume fraction, and decreases with the increase of diameter and working temperature. The maximum stress locates in the bonding zone between composite core and matrix cladding near the internal diameter.

  3. Full Papers

    1. One-Stage Method for Fabricating Superhydrophobic Stainless Steel Surface and Its Anti-Corrosion Performance

      Liguo Gao, Shuzhang Yang, Hongjing Yang and Tingli Ma

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600511

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      One-stage preparation of superhydrophobic stainless steel surface has been achieved by combining chemical etching and assembly. The contact angle of the prepared surface reaches as high as 175°, which is caused by the formation of the “honeycomb” 3D network structure. Electrochemical corrosion test shows that the prepared superhydrophobic surface possesses 16 times higher corrosion resistance than common stainless steel surface.

    2. Preparation of Mg/Nano-HA Composites by Spark Plasma Sintering Method and Evaluation of Different Milling Time Effects on Their Microhardness, Corrosion Resistance, and Biocompatibility

      Pushan Guo, Zeqin Cui, Lijing Yang, Linxin Cheng, Wenxian Wang and Bingshe Xu

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600294

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      Mg/nano-HA composites are prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. This study finds that an appropriate time (5 h) during high energy ball milling process effectively can eliminate the prior particle boundary (PPB). And also it is a good choice for the preparation of Mg-based composites with desirable microhardness, stable corrosion resistant, and excellent biocompatibility.

    3. Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

      Shannon L. Taylor, Adam E. Jakus, Ramille N. Shah and David C. Dunand

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600365

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      Inks comprised of Fe, Fe2O3, Ni, or NiO powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered in hydrogen to form metallic cellular structures with overall relative densities of 32–49%. This work presents a comparison of the microstructures and compressive properties of the metallic structures derived from either metallic- or oxide-based inks.

    4. A Phenomenological Model of Twinning Kinetics

      Alexei Vinogradov, Evgeny Vasilev, Dmitry Merson and Yuri Estrin

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600092

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      The authors present a model of deformation twinning based on the idea that twin generation is a stress-driven process. The model is validated by means of in situ video observation and the acoustic emission technique during deformation Mg alloys.

    5. Enhancement of the Carbothermal Reduction of Hafnium Oxide by Silicon

      Bastian Weisenseel, Joe Harris, Martin Stumpf, Stephan E. Wolf, Tobias Fey and Peter Greil

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600377

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      In this work, the authors demonstrate a method to significantly increase the carbothermal reduction of HfO2 by the addition of elemental silicon. The carbide yield can be increased by 400%. The silicon addition induces the formation of an amorphous layer on hafnium oxide particles, which increases the accessible surface area for carbide nucleation.

    6. Biomorphous Silicon Carbide as Novel Loop Heat Pipe Wicks

      Bastian Weisenseel, Peter Greil and Tobias Fey

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600379

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      The key to enhance the performance of loop heat pipes is to optimize the pore structure of the used porous material (the “wick”). In this work, we present the thermal performance of highly porous biomorphous silicon carbide wicks and demonstrate the possibility to improve the performance by the introduction of macroporous channels in the easily machinable ceramic.

    7. Topographical Control of Preosteoblast Culture by Shape Memory Foams

      Ruiqi Xie, Jinlian Hu, Xia Guo, Frankie Ng and Tingwu Qin

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600343

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      The SMP foam can be fixed in the temporary shape with aligned pore structure at 25 °C and recovered to its original pore structure at 37 °C. Alignment of cells can be determined perpendicular to the strain prior to shape memory activation. The cells reduce the alignment to the tangential direction of the pore edge after shape memory activation at 37 °C.

  4. Communications

    1. Tailoring Toughness and Mechanical Reliability by Controlled Defects: Nature-Inspired Composite Laminates of Laser-Perforated Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

      Sebastian Behr, Andre Köllner and Gerold A. Schneider

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600128

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      The high strength of ceramic materials scatters with the distribution of natural defects and design limits are often far beyond experimentally determined values. This issue can be resolved by controlled defect generation in laminates, leading to composites that are as strong as monolithic ceramics but significantly more reliable and damage tolerant.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Rapidly and Effectively Improving the Mechanical Properties of Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanofibers through Microwave Treatment

      Ning Cai, Chao Han, Xiaogang Luo, Shengpeng Liu and Faquan Yu

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600483

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      Microwave radiation is employed to enhance the mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanofiber membranes. By this simple method, microwave treatment with 600 W for 120 s produces 1.3- and 2.6-folds elevation on Young's modulus and tensile strength of chitosan/gelatin PEC nanofiber membranes, respectively, which are attributed to enhanced intermolecular interactions and increased crystallinity in CG composites.

    2. Tribological Synergy of Filler Components in Multifunctional Polyimide Coatings

      Xian-Qiang Pei, Roland Bennewitz, Christoph Kasper, Harald Tlatlik, Dirk Bentz and Carsten Becker-Willinger

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600363

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      Polyimide-based multifunctional coating is developed for protection of sliding steel contacts in corrosive environments. The composite coating is composed of different filling components, which vary in morphology from hard particles, flakes to platelets with high aspect ratio. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) is used to chemically functionalize the surface of inorganic fillers. In this study, the synergistic effect of different filling components is discussed based on systematic tribological mechanism analysis.

    3. Effect of Solution Pretreatment on Homogeneity and Corrosion Resistance of Biomedical Mg–Zn–Ca Alloy Processed by High Pressure Torsion

      Congzheng Zhang, Shaokang Guan, Liguo Wang, Shijie Zhu, Jun Wang and Ruiming Guo

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600326

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      Biological Mg–Zn–Ca alloys in casting state and solid solution state are processed by (HPT). The microstructure, micro hardness, and corrosion resistance of HPT-treated alloys in physiological environment are evaluated. The results show that compared with HPT-treated cast alloy, both the homogeneity and corrosion resistance of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy in solid solution state processed by HPT are relatively excellent.

    4. Quasi-Static Compression Properties and Failure of PTFE/Al/W Reactive Materials

      Feng Yue Xu, Shu Bo Liu, Yuan Feng Zheng, Qing Bo Yu and Hai Fu Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600350

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      Reactive materials are prepared from powder mixture of PTFE, Al, and W. The mechanical properties, the morphology of deformed PTFE matrix, the formation of PTFE fibers, and the characterization of fracture surfaces are influenced by sintering technique and component ratios. Lots of PTFE fibers are formed on the fracture surface in CIPed specimens.

    5. Clues for Cellular Structure Optimization in Aluminum Foams

      Jaime Lázaro, Eusebio Solórzano and Miguel A. Rodríguez-Pérez

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600496

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      Defects in the cellular structure are responsible for the poor and scattered mechanical properties of aluminum foams. The aim of this paper is to identify the main cause of the principal defects, by analyzing independently each stage of the foaming process, and to present a couple of methods to optimize the cellular structure, reducing both the cellular structure anisotropy and the amount of broken cell walls.

    6. On The Superior High Temperature Hardness of Precipitation Strengthened High Entropy Ni-Based Alloys

      Te-Kang Tsao, An-Chou Yeh, Chen-Ming Kuo and Hideyuki Murakami

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600475

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      The microstructure and high temperature hardness of two FCC high entropy Ni-based alloys with γ′ precipitates have been studied. Their microstructure can be thermal stable from inter-mediate to high temperatures. With minor refractory additions, the room to high temperature hardness of present alloys can surpass that of conventional superalloy due to more significant strengthening from the highly alloyed γ′ phase.

    7. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 2D–SiCf/SiC and Hastelloy N Joints Using 82.5Au–17.5Ni Brazing Filler

      Min Liu, Xinmei Yang, Haijun Zhou, Yantao Gao, Huihao Xia, Ping Huai, Xingtai Zhou and Yanling Lu

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600229

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      SiCf/SiC composites are joined to Hastelloy N alloys using 82.5Au–17.5Ni (wt%) foil as brazing filler. The brazing temperature and holding time have a great influence on the microstructure and shear strength of the joints. Nanocrystalline graphite, Ni2Si, and Ni31Si12 are formed in brazed seams.

  6. Editorials

    1. Fracture and Fatigue of Engineering Materials

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600585

  7. Full Papers

    1. Numerical and Experimental Study of Strain Localization in Notched Specimens of a Ductile Steel on Meso- and Macroscales

      Sergey Panin, Alexey Vinogradov, Dmitry Moiseenko, Pavel Maksimov, Filippo Berto, Anton Byakov, Alexandr Eremin and Natalia Narkevich

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600206

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      The cellular automata technique for modeling the deformation behavior of materials with stress concentrators is proposed. Using acoustic emission and digital image correlation techniques, it is shown that the notch shape exerts a strong influence on the development of localized plastic flow and crack initiation ahead of the notch tip. It is shown that the stress release is most effective when the modulation of force moment values takes place on mesoscopic scale.

    2. Microstructure, Mechanical, and Impression Creep Properties of AlMg5–0.5 vol% Al2O3 Nanocomposites

      Mahesh Kumar Talari, N. Kishore Babu, Kaspar Kallip, Marc Leparoux, Roland E. Koller, Khaled A. AlOgab and Xavier Maeder

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600301

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      This study reports the creep behavior of hot pressed unmilled AlMg5, milled AlMg5, and AlMg5 powders milled with 0.5 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The nanocomposite AlMg5–0.5Al2O3 shows superior room temperature tensile properties and higher creep deformation compared to unmilled samples.

    3. Characterization of Thermomechanical Behavior of Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC Ceramics Elaborated by Spark Plasma Sintering Using Ultrasonic Means

      Karolina Kozak, Ariane Dosi, Guy Antou, Nicolas Pradeilles and Thierry Chotard

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600372

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      The thermomechanical properties of two MAX Phases, Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC, sintered via spark plasma sintering method are investigated. Ultrasound pulse echography permitted to follow the evolution of Young's modulus up to 1 623 K. Additionally, AE activity during heating (up to 1 473 and 1 632 K) and cooling stages is recorded.

    4. Preparation and Properties of High Strength Fe–Ni–P Ternary Alloys

      Wuqian Chai, Randall M. German, Eugene A. Olevsky, Xialu Wei, Runjian Jiang and Guodong Cui

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600285

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      Fe–Ni–P ternary alloys are fabricated using core–shell structured Fe–Ni–P composite powder at lower sintering temperature. The specimens sintered at 950 and 975 °C can obtain the ultra-fine micro-structure and avoid the eutectic compounds precipitating along grain boundaries. Results illustrate that this micro-structure is beneficial to the mechanical properties of alloys.

    5. Improved Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Fluorhydroxyapatite Biocomposite: Mechanical, Chemical Stability, and Antibacterial Activity

      Yu-Long Bai, Yu Bai, Wen Ma, Rui-Lin Jia and Xue-Bin Zheng

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600330

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      The carbon nanotubes/fluoridated hydroxyapatite (CNTs/FHA) composite is fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method and spark plasma sintering technology. The composite shows improved mechanical properties, chemical stability, in vitro bioactivity, and antibacterial properties as compared with pure HA materials.

  8. Communications

    1. Electrically Actuated Hydraulic Solids

      Jeffrey Ian Lipton, Sarah Angle, Rona Elinor Banai, Eliad Peretz and Hod Lipson

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600271

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      The authors introduce a new class of electrically actuated soft materials which can generate forces and stress densities that exceed traditional electroactive actuators. For example, a 14 mm diameter 50 mm long cylinder can generate 4 500 N of force while being less dense than water.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Oxidation Behavior of Three Different Zones of Linear Friction Welded Ti2AlNb Alloy

      Xi Chen, Faqin Xie, Tiejun Ma, Wenya Li and Xiangqing Wu

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600529

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      The oxidation behavior of three different zones of linear friction welded Ti2AlNb alloy is studied. For base metal, absorption of more oxygen due to higher amount of α2 phase leads to the thickest oxidation scale, while the preferential formation of Al2O3 for joint is beneficial to the oxidation resistance. However, along with the formation of AlNbO4 phase after long exposure in air, the oxidation behavior of the three zones has become similar.

  10. Communications

    1. Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption in Lightweight Material Inclusions Constrained Near a Critical Point

      Justin Bishop, Quanqi Dai, Yu Song and Ryan L. Harne

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600501

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      Strategically architected elastomeric materials constrained near critical points yield extreme impact energy absorption for structures in which they are embedded. The concepts and model elastomer architecture devised here motivate ideas for reusable protective structures and shock-resilient systems.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Tough TiB2-Based Ceramic Composites Using Metallic Glass Powder as the Sintering Aid

      Chao Yang, Yuanpeng Yao, Yong Huan, Zhiqiang Fu, Fei Chen and Enrique J. Lavernia

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600234

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      The authors report on the formation of toughened TiB2-based ceramic composites using metallic glass powder as sintering aid fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The TiB2 ceramic powder blended with 5 wt% metallic glass sintering aid exhibits an interesting sigmoidal shrinkage behavior. The fabricated TiB2-based ceramic composites have high fracture toughness of 9.9 MPa m1/2. The results provide a novel pathway for fabrication of high-performance ceramic composites.

  12. Communications

    1. Wettability of Low Weight Borides by Commercial Aluminum Alloys − A Basis for Metal Matrix Composite Fabrication

      Steven Ploetz, Rafal Nowak, Andreas Lohmueller, Natalia Sobczak and Robert F. Singer

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600297

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      Isothermal wetting kinetics of liquid aluminum on solid boron compounds (AlB2, B4C, CaB6, MgB2, TiB2) are investigated at typical aluminum casting temperatures and are quantified in terms of the contact angle. No wetting (contact angles <90°) occurs at testing conditions, but for B4C and AlB2 the contact angle decreases over time.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis of Molybdenum and Niobium Mono- and Binary Silicides by the Method of SHS-Metallurgy

      Vladimir Yukhvid, Vladimir Gorshkov, Pavel Miloserdov, Nina Skachkova, Mikhail Alymov, Gert Nolze and Alexander Epishin

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600334

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      Mono- and binary silicides Mo–Nb–Si with different ratios of Nb/Mo are synthesized from the highly exothermic mixtures of MoO3, Nb2O5, Si, and Al by the method of SHS-metallurgy.

  14. Communications

    1. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of (Ni–Fe)–Graphene Composite Coating

      Lan Zhang, Na Li, Huimin Xia, Jingyi Zhang, Pingping Zhang, Miting Xu and Huizhong Ma

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600357

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      (Ni–Fe)–Graphene composite coatings are prepared on the stainless steel substrate by electro-deposition technique. The Graphene Nano-platelets wrapped by Ni–Fe crystalline grains are embedded into the coating layer and substrate coated with composites exhibits maximum threefold enhancement in hardness and 14.9% improvement in elastic modulus, which are attributed to the unique structure and prominent mechanical property of graphene.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Identification of the Norton-Green Compaction Model for the Prediction of the Ti–6Al–4V Densification During the Spark Plasma Sintering Process

      Charles Manière, Ugras Kus, Lise Durand, Ronan Mainguy, Julitte Huez, Denis Delagnes and Claude Estournès

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600348

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      An in situ SPS identification, using a complete and non-reductive method, of the Norton-Green law is performed on a Ti–6Al–4V materials. The identified model is tested on two independent SPS experiments for the densification of this powder material and shows very good prediction of the experimental sintering trajectory.

    2. In Situ Curing and Out-of-Autoclave of Interply Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Hybrid Composites Using Electrical Current

      Nam Nguyen, Ayou Hao, Jin Gyu Park and Richard Liang

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600307

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      Hybrid composite including carbon nanotube sheets and carbon fiber prepregs is in situ cured by applying electrical current to carbon nanotube layers. The relationship between input current and composite temperature is explored. Fully cured samples show low void content and good storage modulus. In situ curing is demonstrated as energy saving technique to fabricate multifunctional composite.

    3. Enhanced Grain Refinement and Porosity Control of the Polycrystalline Superalloy by a Modified Thermally Controlled Solidification

      Ziqi Jie, Jun Zhang, Taiwen Huang, Haijun Su, Yafeng Li, Lin Liu, Wenchao Yang and Hengzhi Fu

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600320

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      A technique combined a modified thermally controlled solidification process (MTCS) with mixed refiner is designed to enhance grain refinement and restrain porosity in polycrystalline superalloy castings. In comparison to the conventional casting process (CC), the technique significantly refines grain size, almost eliminates porosities, and dramatically improves the mechanical properties.

    4. Superconducting Resonators Based on TiN/Tapering/NbN/Tapering/TiN Heterostructures

      Yong-Chao Tang, Hui Zhang, Sangil Kwon, Hamid R. Mohebbi, David G. Cory, Li-Cong Peng, Lin Gu, Hai-Zhong Guo, Kui-Juan Jin and Guo-Xing Miao

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600226

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      We grow and characterize novel composite films of TiN/Tapering/NbN/Tapering/TiN on c-cut sapphire substrate. The tapering layer is a gradual transition between TiN and NbN so that no distinct interface exists. A micro-strip resonator is fabricated and its intrinsic quality factors from the composite film under 16 mK is over 9 000 at 0 field and 5 300 under 100 mK at 0.35 T. The resonators are designed to support electron spin resonance for sensing and quantum information processing.

    5. Preparation and Interface Investigation of Fe/Al2O3P Composite Activated by Ni and Ti

      Shuli Tang, Yimin Gao, Yefei Li and Qiaoling Zheng

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600302

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      Ceramic particles preforms are synthesized by vacuum sintering reaction between Al2O3 particles and Ni–Ti complex powders. Then the Cr15 matrix composite is fabricated by infiltration casting process. The preforms sintered by Al2O3 and Ni–Ti have high compressive strength, and the three-body abrasive wear resistance of composite is over 12 times higher than Cr15.

    6. Influence of Structural Defects on the Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Polymer Composites

      G. Domínguez-Rodríguez, A. Tapia, G. D. Seidel and F. Avilés

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600116

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      The influence of CNT defects, distributed both randomly and in clusters, on the electrical conductivity of CNT/polymer composites is investigated considering covalent bonds as electrical resistors. The composite electrical conductivity with different fractions of CNT defects and orientations are modeled through the composite cylinder and Mori–Tanaka's methods. The composite electrical conductivity decreased about 30% for an 8% fraction of defects.

    7. Correlation between Flow Behavior and Microstructure Evolution during α/β Deformation of TA19 Titanium Alloy

      Ke Wang, Dongliang Sun, Yanlin Wu, Renlong Xin, Mingyu Wu and Qing Liu

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600198

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      The correlation between the flow behavior and microstructure evolution is studied to interpret the influencing mechanism of deformation parameters on the flow behavior. The DRX occurring in both primary α and β phases makes the Q-value in 900–980 °C much higher than that in 820–860 °C.

    8. Process Development for Innovative Iron Alloy Metallic Glass Coatings

      Kirsten Bobzin, Mehmet Öte, Thomas Frederik Linke and Tim Königstein

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600177

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      Amorphous iron-based alloys are highly innovative materials showing unique properties such as low thermal diffusivity. In addition, further studies report about high corrosive resistance and good tribological performance. Considering all these results, this material opens up new application fields, e.g., in combustion engines.

    9. Analysis of Forging Cracks during Hot Compression of Powder Metallurgy Nickel-Based Superalloy on Simulation and Experiment

      Guoai He, Feng Liu, Lan Huang and Liang Jiang

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600270

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      This investigation aims to study how the forging cracks initiated and propagated by using Deform 3D simulation and experiment. Thermally induced porosity and MC type carbides of grain boundaries are the primary mechanisms for inducing cracks, which are characterized as intergranular fracture. This report can be of interest for those focusing on processing of nickel-based superalloys.

    10. Influence of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg/Al Composite Sheets Fabricated by Roll Bonding

      Haipeng Zheng, Jinliang Yang, Ruizhi Wu, Tianzi Wang, Xudong Ma, Legan Hou, Milin Zhang, Sergey Betsofen and Boris Krit

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600304

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      The layer of Al3Mg2 forms at the interface after annealing at 250 °C, and the thickness increases with the increase of annealing temperature. The layer of Al3Mg2 is the most vulnerable area of sheets, which causes the occurring of delamination and has a very significant impact on fracture process.

    11. One-Pot Fabrication of a Novel Agar-Polyacrylamide/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Double Network Hydrogel with High Mechanical Properties

      Pang Zhu, Meng Hu, Yonghong Deng and Chaoyang Wang

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600272

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      Agar-polyacrylamide/graphene oxide (agar-PAM/GO) double network hydrogel consists of agar network cross-linked by hydrogen bond and PAM network cross-linked by GO nanosheets. The agar-PAM/GO DN gel exhibits favorable mechanical properties, self-healing ability, and an unusual necking phenomenon which is contrast to other DN gels during uniaxial tension is observed.

    12. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Property and Formability of Cu/Al Clad Bipolar Plates in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

      Chuanjie Wang, Shaoxi Xue, Gang Chen, Xiyuan Lin, Hongwei Liu, Huan Liu and Peng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600289

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      Cu/Au clad bipolar plates are manufactured by micro coining process. The height distribution is different from that using single metal sheet.

    13. Elucidating the Mechanism of Fatigue Crack Acceleration Following the Occurrence of an Underload

      Enrico Salvati, Tan Sui, Hongjia Zhang, Alexander J. G. Lunt, Kai Soon Fong, Xu Song and Alexander M. Korsunsky

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600069

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      Complex mechanisms of fatigue crack acceleration after compressive Underload are elucidated by synchrotron XRD and DIC for residual stress and crack closure evaluation, respectively, and FE analysis. The validated model allows parametric numerical analysis that reveals the fundamental significance of the baseline fatigue cyclic loading for the evolution of the cyclic J-integral after Underload.

    14. The Effect of Porosity and Milling Induced Defects on the Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Bi2Te3-Based Bulks

      Cheng Cheng Zhang, Xi An Fan, Jie Hu, Cheng Peng Jiang, Bo Feng, Qiu Sheng Xiang, Guang Qiang Li and Ya Wei Li

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600295

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      With the decrease of the grain size and the increase of pore volume fraction, anti-site defects, interaction of vacancies and antisite defect, grain-boundaries, and interface defects increase, which lead to lower carrier concentration and mobility. As a result, the TE properties of Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 bulks change significantly. The maximum ZT value is about 1.0 at room-temperature.

    15. Surface Modification of Powder Metallurgy Titanium by Colloidal Techniques and Diffusion Processes for Biomedical Applications

      Julia Ureña, Carlos Mendoza, Begoña Ferrari, Yolanda Castro, Sophia A. Tsipas, Antonia Jiménez-Morales and Elena Gordo

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600207

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      Surface modified powder metallurgy Ti materials are developed by colloidal techniques and diffusion processes. The addition of the β-stabilizing element, Mo, leads to an α [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α-β and β microstructural change. Diffusion layers with different characteristics are obtained by co-sintering and diffusion processes. It is beneficial to improve hardness and of interest for further investigations about wear and corrosion.

    16. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Commercial Hot-Extruded Copper Processed by Torsion Deformation

      Ning Guo, Xiaoxia Li, Mei Xiao, Renlong Xin, Linjiang Chai, Bo Song, Hongbing Yu and Lu Li

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600252

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      Free-end torsion deformation is used for processing copper rod in this work. Results show that the torsional rod has a gradient microhardness from core to surface due to a gradient distribution of lamellar dislocation substructures (LDS). With increasing torsion revolutions, the LDS density increases gradually, resulting in the improvement of subsequent tensile strength and hardening capability.

    17. Improving Formability of Mg–Ca–Zr Sheet Alloy by Microalloying of Zn

      Ming Zhe Bian, Zhuo Ran Zeng, Shi Wei Xu, Su Ming Zhu, Yu Man Zhu, Christopher Huw John Davies, Nick Birbilis and Jian Feng Nie

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600293

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      The addition of a small amount of zinc to a Mg–Ca–Zr alloy significantly improves formability and ductility, which makes the resultant alloy become a suitable composition for fabricating sheet. Furthermore, the resultant Zn-containing alloy has age hardening response, and its strength can be higher than that of commercial AZ31 alloy after post-forming ageing treatment.

    18. Directionally Aligned Ultra-Long Boron Nitride Nanotube Induced Strengthening of Aluminum-Based Sandwich Composite

      Pranjal Nautiyal, Chris Rudolf, Archana Loganathan, Cheng Zhang, Benjamin Boesl and Arvind Agarwal

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600212

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      A novel ultra-long Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) reinforced Al-sandwich composite is engineered by a unique processing methodology, involving Al sputtering, spark plasma sintering, and cold rolling. The fabricated composite displays extraordinary, 400%, improvement in strength (200 MPa) compared to pure Al (≈40 MPa), due to crack bridging by directionally aligned long nanotubes and a strong matrix/nanotube interface.

    19. Fabrication of Hierarchical Micro Patterns on PET Substrates Using Direct Laser Interference Patterning

      Florian Rößler, Denise Günther and Andrés Fabián Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600201

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      Multiscale microstructures are produced on PET using direct laser interference patterning. Thereby, three levels were obtained: pillar-like patterns with a period of (i) 10 µm and (ii) 1 to 2 µm from interference and (iii) a third level due to the distance of single laser spots of 35 µm. The structure quality and depth are investigated and the optical properties are determined and simulated.

    20. Porous Bioceramics Produced by Impregnation of 3D-Printed Wax Mold: Ceramic Architectural Control and Process Limitations

      Baptiste Charbonnier, Coralie Laurent, Gilles Blanc, Olivier Valfort and David Marchat

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600308

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      This study evaluates the reliability and robustness of a bioceramic manufacturing process based on the impregnation of 3D-printed mold. This process offers new architectural opportunities, including architecture standardization, high and reproducible architectural control, phase biocompatibility preservation, and ease of implementation for various phase compositions.

    21. Kinetics of Intermetallic Phases and Mechanical Behavior of ZnSn3% Hot-Dip Galvanization Coatings

      Andrea Carpinteri, Vittorio Di Cocco, Giovanni Fortese, Francesco Iacoviello, Stefano Natali, Camilla Ronchei, Daniela Scorza and Sabrina Vantadori

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600254

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      In this work, the influence of high contents of Sn (3% by weight) on the performance of the traditional Zn coatings is experimentally analyzed in terms of both microstructure kinetics formation and mechanical properties. Furthermore, a numerical model is proposed to simulate the bending behavior of the tested coated specimens. The agreement between experimental and numerical results is quite satisfactory.

  16. Communications

    1. High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Ultrafine-Scale Cu/Ni Laminated Composites

      H. F. Tan, B. Zhang, X. M. Luo, X. F. Zhu and G. P. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600120

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      Cu/Ni laminated composites with a thickness ratio of 1:20 are prepared by the dual-bath electrodeposition technique. The results show that the composites not only have a better synergy of the tensile strength and ductility, but also the higher fatigue strength. The ultrathin Cu layer plays a key role in enhancing the ductility and the fatigue cracking resistance.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Heavy Section Solution Strengthened Ferritic Ductile Iron Castings

      Thomas Borsato, Paolo Ferro, Filippo Berto and Carlo Carollo

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600256

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      Mechanical and fatigue properties of heavy section solution strengthened ferritic ductile irons castings are examined. Metallographic analyses have been performed by using optical microscopy to identify the most important microstructural parameters. Fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens are investigated by means of scanning emission microscopy. Fatigue curves of the analyzed alloy are carried out.

    2. Effects of Laser Surface Melting on Ti–30Nb–2Sn Sintered Alloy

      Juan José Candel, Jose Manuel Amado, Vicente Amigó and María José Tobar

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500640

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      Laser surface melting (LSM) is used to simultaneously melt and quench a thin layer of a Ti–30Nb–2Sn substrate produced by powder metallurgy route. Results show that LSM retains beta titanium without traces of martensite or grain boundary alpha and eliminates non-desirable open porosity. Substrate is progressively hardened but this is accompanied by Young's modulus reduction to reach minimum value at 1 mm from top surface.

    3. Carbon Fiber Composites Based on Multi-Phase Epoxy/PES Matrices with Carbon Nanotubes: Morphology and Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Characterization

      Nakul Prasad, Carmen Tola, Magali Coulaud, Michael Claes, Stepan V. Lomov, Ignaas Verpoest and Larissa Gorbatikh

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600153

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      The interlaminar fracture toughness of unidirectional carbon fiber composites with multi-phase matrices based on epoxy, polyethersulfone (PES), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The fracture toughness doubles by adding 15% of PES. The presence of fibers and CNTs is found to significantly influence multi-phase morphology of the matrix.

  18. Reviews

    1. Three Decades of Auxetics Research − Materials with Negative Poisson's Ratio: A Review

      Krishna Kumar Saxena, Raj Das and Emilio P. Calius

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600053

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      Auxetic materials possess an interesting property of negative Poisson's ratio. By virtue of this negative Poisson's ratio, several other mechanical properties can be enhanced. This review presents briefly the current state of the art and progress in the auxetics research made in the past three decades. The review attractively covers most of the aspects of auxetic materials such as classification, structure, properties, applications, design, and modeling.

    2. A Review of SiC Fiber Oxidation with a New Study of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber Oxidation

      Megan Wilson and Elizabeth Opila

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600166

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      Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers are oxidized in dry O2 at temperatures between 700 and 1 300 °C. Oxidation rates are determined from oxide thickness measurements, as shown for a fiber oxidized at 1 200 °C for 100 h. A literature review reveals that oxidation kinetics vary with SiC fiber composition.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Friction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination of Titanium Alloys during Hot Forging Conditions

      Ritanjali Sethy, Lander Galdos, Joseba Mendiguren and Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600060

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      The friction factor of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy under hot forging situation has been determined taking into account the influence of the HTC in the ring tests. For this reason, the combined approach of columnar upsetting thermal tests (HTC test) and ring-compression tests of as-received specimens with and without glass coatings with FE simulation have been performed in this paper.

    2. Thermal Stability Study of Vacancy-Type Defects in Commercial Pure Titanium Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

      Ricardo Domínguez-Reyes, Begoña Savoini, Miguel Ángel Monge, Ángel Muñoz and Carmen Ballesteros

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500649

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      Positron annihilation measurements are performed on samples of CP Ti grade 3 in the as-received state and after deformation at true strains up to 3.24 by hydrostatic extrusion at RT. To study the nature and evolution of the resulting defects, isochronal thermal treatments from room temperature to 1 200 °C have been performed.

    3. Texture Development in Cold Deformed and Recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn Alloy and Its Effects on Hardness and Young's Modulus

      Leonardo Fanton, Nelson Batista de Lima, Alexandra de Oliveira França Hayama, Rubens Caram and João Batista Fogagnolo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600058

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      This study analyzes the development of texture in cold rolled and recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn alloy. Cold rolling promotes an increase in hardness and a decrease in Young's modulus. The decrease in Young's modulus with plastic deformation and the low Young's modulus of the recrystallized sample are associated with the development of texture.

    4. Fracture Behavior of Cracked Giant Magnetostrictive Materials in Three-Point Bending under Magnetic Fields: Strain Energy Density Criterion

      Marco Colussi, Filippo Berto, Kotaro Mori and Fumio Narita

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500533

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      Terfenol-D under three-point bending tests in the presence of a magnetic field fails at a lower load compared to the test under no magnetic field. The decrease in the fracture load is related to the increase of the energy release rate with increasing magnetic fields. The averaged SED criterion captures this behavior by means of coupled-field FE analyses.

    5. High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Processed by ECAP and Extrusion

      Irina P. Semenova, Alexander V. Polyakov, Veronika V. Polyakova, Yi Huang, Ruslan Z. Valiev and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500630

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      The fatigue properties of structural Ti materials are critically important issues for the use of these materials in the aircraft industry. This paper demonstrates the higher fatigue resistance of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by the combination of ECAP and extrusion in comparison with the conventional alloy.

    6. Failure Mechanism of Brass with Three V-Notches Characterized by Acoustic Emission in In Situ Three-Point Bending Tests

      Pengliang Hou, Zunqiang Fan, Lin Zhang, Xiangguo Zhai, Shizhong Zhang, Cong Li, Yumeng Du and Hongwei Zhao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500599

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The brass specimens of three V-notches are tested by the AE in in situ three-point bending tests, as shown in the figure. During the bending, the AE signals and in situ images of middle V notch tip morphology are sampled at the same time. The ABAQUS is used to construct the finite element of three-point bending static–load simulations.

    7. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    8. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

    9. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction of Copper Busbar

      Jian Chao Pang, Liang Liang Nie, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Ge Yao, Yun Xian Mao, Men Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500561

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that both the fatigue life and dislocation spacing have direct relation without total hysteresis energy, but with relatively simple and stable parameters (strain amplitude, stress amplitude, and hysteresis energy at half-life); however, they have no direct relation with each other.

    10. Advanced Materials for Applications at High Temperature: Fatigue Assessment by Means of Local Strain Energy Density

      Pasquale Gallo and Filippo Berto

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500547

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      The present paper investigates the accuracy of Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged over a control volume approach when applied to high-temperature fatigue data from notched components. The main advantage of SED is that different geometries can be summarized in a single narrow scatter band.

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