Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 108
  1. Full Papers

    1. Evaluation of Magnesium Die-Casting Alloys for Elevated Temperature Applications: Castability

      Mark A. Easton, Suming Zhu, Trevor B. Abbott, Matthew Dargusch, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, Norbert Hort and Mark A. Gibson

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500407

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      The castability of eight “creep resistant” magnesium alloys, together with other five conventional Mg alloys, is assessed in a castability die considering cracking, filling, and spangling. Among all “creep resistant” alloys, AE44, AS31, MRI153A, and HP2plus are found to have very good castability, although they are still inferior to conventional Mg alloys, AZ91 and ZA124 (see figure).

    2. 3D Woven Near-Net-Shape Preforms for Composite Structures

      Adil Mountasir, Michael Löser, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif and Knut Großmann

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500441

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      The paper deals with manufacturing technology for non-crimp woven fabrics and simulation of weaving process. The aim of the corresponding research is to ensure a reproducible manufacturing and to ensure mechanical properties of the produced composite structures. The mechanical properties of composites have been tested and the results are presented.

    3. An Assessment of the Role of Fiber Coating and Suspending Fluid on the Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes onto Glass Fibers for Multiscale Composites

      J. J. Ku-Herrera, A. May-Pat and F. Avilés

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500389

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      Increased glass fiber electrical conductivity and improved interfacial shear strength between the CNT-modified fibers and a vinyl ester resin is achieved upon CNT deposition, especially when the fiber coating is maintained and an adequate silane coupling agent is used.

    4. Glass-Forming Ability and Crystallization Behavior of Al86Ni9La5 Metallic Glass with Si Addition

      Jiaojiao Yi, Wanqiang Xu, Xianzhong Xiong, Lingti Kong, Micheal Ferry and Jinfu Li

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500354

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      The glass-forming ability (GFA) increases first and then decreases with the increase of Si addition, as shown in the figure. The change in GFA with the Si addition is interpreted on the basis of atomic packing and chemical interaction in combination with the crystallization kinetics analysis.

  2. Reviews

    1. A Review of Different Creep Mechanisms in Mg Alloys Based on Stress Exponent and Activation Energy

      Karuna Ratnakaran Athul, Uma Thanu Subramonia Pillai, Amirthalingam Srinivasan and Bellambettu Chandrasekhara Pai

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500393

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      Concentrated effort has been expanded during the past few decades for developing and optimizing magnesium alloys with enhanced creep resistance. This article summarizes the various creep deformation mechanisms prevailing in magnesium alloys based on the stress exponent (n) and activation energy (Q), for different temperatures and stresses.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites With Geometric Characteristics of Carbon Allotropes

      Ye Ji Noh, Hyun Su Kim, Bon-Cheol Ku, Myung-Seob Khil and Seong Yun Kim

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500451

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      Effect of the sizes and shapes of the diverse carbon allotropes such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, graphene nanoplatelet, graphite, pitch-based carbon fiber (PCF), and expanded graphite (EG) on the thermal conductivity of polymer composites is investigated. Microsized one-dimensional PCF and EG including the intercalation spacing induced effective improvement of the thermal conductivity.

    2. Microstructural Evolution and Micro-Compression in High-Purity Copper Processed by High-Pressure Torsion

      Jianwei Li, Jie Xu, Chuan Ting Wang, Debin Shan, Bin Guo and Terence G. Langdon

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500488

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      Microstructural evolution and micro-compression are investigated in pure copper processed by HPT. Microstructures are measured by EBSD and X-ray diffraction. The ultrafine-grained specimens produced by HPT exhibit a better surface quality after compression thereby suggesting there is an excellent potential for using this material for applications in micro-forming technology.

    3. Coupling Diffraction Contrast Tomography with the Finite Element Method

      Henry Proudhon, Jia Li, Peter Reischig, Nicolas Guéninchault, Samuel Forest and Wolfgang Ludwig

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500414

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      This paper explains how to turn 3D experimental grain maps into suitable mesh for mechanical analysis. Two examples from diffraction contrast tomography experiments are featured. i) A pure titanium sample of 600 microns diameter composed of 1 400 grains; ii) a significantly large zone of a polycrystalline Al–Li sample is meshed and deformed using crystal plasticity with a finite strain formulation.

    4. Textile-Reinforced Thermoplastics for Compliant Mechanisms – Application and Material Phenomena

      Ilja Koch, Matthias Zscheyge, Robert Gottwald, Matthias Lange, Marco Zichner, Robert Böhm, Bernd Grüber, Martin Lepper, Niels Modler and Maik Gude

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500448

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      Textile reinforced PP is identified as valuable material for compliant structures. The material properties and damage phenomena for tension, shear and compression loading as well as for cyclic loading are elaborated under consideration of elastic and inelastic deformations. Local strain measurements in the vicinity of an open hole sharpen the validity of homogenized models and directing towards multi-scale approaches for a localized deformation analysis.

    5. Polymer Foams Made of Immiscible Polymer Blends Compatibilized by Janus Particles—Effect of Compatibilization on Foam Morphology

      Stefanie Bärwinkel, Ronak Bahrami, Tina I. Löbling, Holger Schmalz, Axel H. E. Müller and Volker Altstädt

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500387

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      Highly active Janus particles result in much finer morphologies in the compact blend materials after compatibilization. Their effect on the foam morphologies is even more significant due to the larger surface area available for nucleation, which result in a very fine cellular structure. Strong JP bonds at the interface also result in partially open cell structures in the foam.

    6. Influence of Pre-Solution Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg–Gd–Nd–Zn–Zr Alloy Processed by ECAP

      Yong Liu, Zhi Xin Kang, Jun Yi Zhang, Fen Wang and Yuan Yuan Li

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500471

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      As-cast and solution-treated Mg–Gd–Nd–Zn–Zr alloys are ECAPed at 375 °C with a speed of 0.4 mm s−1 for one, four, and eight passes, respectively. The as-cast alloy ECAPed for eight passes possesses higher strength and lower tensile elongation than that in case of pre-solution-treated alloy. However, the pre-solution-treated alloy exhibits a large tensile elongation. The change in texture contributes to the increase of ductility and work hardening.

    7. Wave Band Adjustable Infrared Filtering via Mott Transition of Nano Ti2O3

      Weiwei Yan, Lide Zhang, Junxi Zhang and Guangtao Fei

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500395

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      Infrared transmittance descends and filtering band covers from short to long wavelength end with temperature rising, based on the trumpet-like transmittance curves at different temperatures. Grain size distribution controls semiconductor–metal transition in nano Ti2O3 and determines filtering range essentially. The combination of different distributions realizes the broad and adjustable wave band infrared filtering. There might be more applicable materials.

    8. Densified Kinetics and Properties of Carbon Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Dielectrophoresis

      Jin Song Li, Jia Ming Guan and Rui Ying Luo

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500438

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      A novel technique for CNT-C/C composites by dielectrophoresis and direct resistive heating TG-CVI is presented. The more uniform, aligned CNT network between the carbon fibers is achieved when the frequency is 500 Hz, and exhibit a faster rate combined with a better maximum degree of pore filling.

    9. Improved Wear Behavior of Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings by Three-Beam Laser Interference

      Andreas Rosenkranz, Andreas Stratmann, Carsten Gachot, Gero Burghardt, Georg Jacobs and Frank Mücklich

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500320

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      The authors study the wear behavior of laser-patterned cylindrical roller thrust bearings. The tests are conducted under critical conditions with regard to wear on an adapted FE-8-test rig using a mineral oil with a low concentration of ZDDP. This study demonstrates an 83% reduction in the wear loss of the laser-patterned thrust bearing.

    10. Assembly Dependent Interfacial Property of Carbon Nanotube Fibers with Epoxy and Its Enhancement via Generalized Surface Sizing

      Chaoshuai Lei, Jingna Zhao, Jingyun Zou, Chunyang Jiang, Min Li, Xiaohua Zhang, Zuoguang Zhang and Qingwen Li

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500379

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      The assembly structure of CNT fiber allows rich and different surface treatments to improve the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) as compared to carbon fibers. These treatments generalize the common concept of surface sizing by introducing an interphase inside rather than around the CNT fiber. The IFSS can be improved by more than 27%, from 47.7 to 60.6 MPa.

    11. Anisotropic Wetting and Fluidic Phenomena on Biological Texture and Hydrodynamic Experiments Testing on Different Low Viscous Resistance Surfaces

      Yuehao Luo, Xudong Wang, Gang Liu, Jianshe Wang and Wen Song

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500458

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      In this article, anisotropic wetting and fluidic phenomena on biological sharkskin morphology are revealed. The wetting models based on anisotropic pattern are established and sharkskin surfaces covering different deformed textures are fabricated adopting the bio-aided method, and the relationship between contact angle/rolling angle and stretching ratio is investigated.

    12. Recrystallization Behavior at Diffusion Bonding Interface of High Nb Containing TiAl Alloy

      Bin Tang, Xian Sheng Qi, Hong Chao Kou, Jin Shan Li and Srdjan Milenkovic

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500457

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      The recrystallization behavior of high Nb containing TiAl alloy during the interlayer-free diffusion bonding process is studied in the present work for the first time. It is found that the recrystallization at the bonded zone improves the shear strength of the joint by changing the failure mode.

    13. Plasma Nitriding and DLC Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

      Eugenia L. Dalibón, María Agustina Guitar, Vladimir Trava-Airoldi, Frank Mücklich and Sonia P. Brühl

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500411

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      The duplex treatment consisting in plasma nitriding and DLC deposition results in a very good protection for PH stainless steel against wear and corrosion. Corrosion of DLC is mostly dependent on the density of defects that connect the electrolyte with the metal, initiating delamination, and degradation. The nitrided layer provides in interface which improves adhesion and retards this corrosion process.

  4. Communications

    1. Which Electrode Materials to Select for More Environmentally Friendly Organic Photovoltaics?

      Nieves Espinosa, Alexis Laurent, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Markus Hösel and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500509

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      The effect of substituting the metal electrode materials in organic solar cells has been demonstrated to reduce significantly the environmental impacts of this technology. Four alternatives have been assessed and the conclusion is that other types of materials, such as carbon, should be further investigated by system designers and researchers in the PV field.

  5. Full Papers

    1. High-Temperature Tensile and Compressive Behavior of Peak-Aged Sand-Cast Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr Alloy

      Xiangjun Chen, Wencai Liu, Guohua Wu, Yanlei Li, Zhongquan Li, Song Zhang and Wenjiang Ding

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500367

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      The sand cast T6 Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy exhibits excellent high-temperature tensile and compressive properties even better than that at room temperature. And the alloy shows tension-compression yield asymmetry with a yield asymmetry ratio higher than 1, which may be attribute to the high density of Mg–RE precipitates in T6 alloy.

  6. Reviews

    1. Special Rolling Techniques for Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Metal Sheets: a Review

      Hai Liang Yu, Cheng Lu, Anh Kiet Tieu, Hui Jun Li, Ajit Godbole and Shi Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500369

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      Asymmetric cryorolling is one of the advanced manufacturing techniques for fabrication of UFG metal sheets, in which both additional shear strain and suppression of dynamic recovery at low temperature enhance grain refinement. The technique can enhance both strength and ductility of metal sheets.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Increased Cutting Efficiency due to Multi-Wavelength Remote-Laser-Ablation of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers

      Andreas Fürst, Dominik Hipp, Annett Klotzbach, Jan Hauptmann, Andreas Wetzig and Eckhard Beyer

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500440

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      Near net shape preforms, minimal material consumption, as well as tailored processes are required to increase the acceptance of fiber-reinforced polymers in industry. The remote-laser-ablation expands the area of possible kinds of processing strategies. But the development, therefore, is accompanied with the understanding of the interaction between tool and material, which this paper contributes to.

    2. Programmable Elastic Metamaterials

      Babak Haghpanah, Hamid Ebrahimi, Davood Mousanezhad, Jonathan Hopkins and Ashkan Vaziri

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500295

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      Presented is a novel concept for real-time modification of elastic moduli by activation of internal locks in lattice materials. Through real-time adjustment of the strut connectivity of lattice, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are altered significantly and instantaneously. Buckling strength is tuned by altering the buckling mode.

    3. Microstructures and Corrosion Behaviors of an Austenitic Stainless Steel Strengthened by Nanotwinned Austenitic Grains

      Fengkai Yan, Nairong Tao, Chen Pan and Li Liu

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500368

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      In this paper, the authors synthesize a novel type of nanotwinned austenitic stainless steel mainly consisting of nanotwinned grains embedded in recrystallized matrix. Polarization measurements indicate that introduction of nanotwins do not deteriorate the corrosion resistance. The nanotwinned grains seem to promote the growth rate of passive film while do not compromise the pitting resistance.

    4. Adhesion of Volcanic Ash Particles under Controlled Conditions and Implications for Their Deposition in Gas Turbines

      Catalina Taltavull, James Dean and Trevor William Clyne

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500371

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      Experimental measurement of ash particle adhesion rates is combined with numerical modeling to establish their velocities and temperatures. Particles of ≈10–30 µm diameter are both large enough to strike solid surfaces and small enough to exceed Tg (and hence soften sufficiently to be likely to adhere).

    5. Mechanical Properties of Shark-Skin Like Structured Surfaces for High-Temperature Applications

      Antje Schlieter, R. Pflumm, I. Shakhverdova, R. Naraparaju, U. Schulz, C. Leyens, M. Schütze and W. Reimers

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500416

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      Applicable processes via halogenation, laser fabrication, and laser ablation followed by oxidation to process riblets on material systems for aero-engines (Ni-based alloys, gamma TiAl) are presented. Several micrometer-sized riblets with optimum dimensions exhibiting high stability are fabricated. The riblet morphology is characterized and a study of the mechanical stability (low-cycle fatigue and quasi cyclic four-point bending tests) outlined promising results.

    6. Investigation of Reactive HPPMS Process and Influence of Bias Voltage during Deposition of Alumina Coatings

      Kirsten Bobzin, Tobias Brögelmann, Ricardo H. Brugnara, Serhan Basturk and Nazlim Bagcivan

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500417

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      In the first part of the work, the hysteresis behavior of aluminum target sputtered in a HPPMS discharge is investigated for various HPPMS pulse lengths. In a second step, crystalline alumina coatings are deposited at various bias voltages for the application in machining operations.

  8. Communications

    1. Mechanical Properties of Diamond-Structured Polymer Microlattices Coated with the Silicon Nitride Film

      Yong Feng Zhou, Chang Zhuang Yao, Qing Lin Yang, Lin Guo and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500424

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      Inspired by crystal structures of the diamond and core/shell structures of biological materials, the authors fabricated polymer/SiN microlattices with lightweight and excellent mechanical properties through 3D printing and PE-CVD. The compressive strength of the resultant microlattices improved significantly with increasing silicon nitride film thickness but the density increased slightly.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Adjustment of the Optical Properties of Dispersion Derived Carbon Nanotube Coatings

      Bastian Weisenseel, Bodo Zierath, Tobias Fey and Peter Greil

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500343

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      In this work, a solution approach is described to produce carbon nanotube coatings on silicon carbide, while controlling their optical properties by the different coating parameters. Furthermore, the usability of these coatings for solar thermal absorber applications is investigated, with regard to their optical and thermal properties.

    2. Failure Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of Nanoporous Aluminum: A Computational Study

      Nicholas Winter, Matthew Becton, Liuyang Zhang and Xianqiao Wang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500315

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      An all-atom computational study of the mode of failure and the effects of ligand size and relative density on nanoporous aluminum's mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength, and toughness has been presented in this paper.

  10. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500465

  11. Full Papers

    1. Corrosion Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Pure Copper with Potential as a Biomaterial

      Mozghan Gholami, Mansour Mhaede, Filip Pastorek, Igor Altenberger, Branislav Hadzima, Manfred Wollmann and Lothar Wagner

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500269

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      Ultra grain refinement of Cu leads to a marked increase of the tensile strength. The Corrosion resistance increased by slight swaging then decreased with further swaging, as indicated in the TOC Figure. Release of Cu2+ increased by slight swaging then decreased with further deformation.

  12. Review

    1. Selective Laser Melting of Titanium Alloys and Titanium Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications: A Review

      Lai-Chang Zhang and Hooyar Attar

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500419

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      Titanium materials are ideal targets for selective laser melting (SLM), because they are expensive and difficult to machinery, using traditional technologies. This review extends attractive progresses in SLM of all types of titanium, their composites and porous structures, with focus on the manufacture by SLM and the resulting microstructure and properties and the development of new alloy powder materials. The SLM process and factors involved are also briefly reviewed.

  13. Communications

    1. On Validity of Axisymmetric Assumption for Modeling an Industrial Scale Electroslag Remelting Process

      Ebrahim Karimi-Sibaki, Abdellah Kharicha, Jan Bohacek, Menghuai Wu and Andreas Ludwig

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500391

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      A full scale 3D simulation of an industrial electroslag remelting (ESR) process with most necessary details is performed. Despite of the chaotic and transient 3D flow behavior in the slag and melt pool, the pool profile of the solidifying ingot is found to be fairly stable and axisymmetric, which validates widely used 2D axis symmetrical calculations for the melt pool.

  14. Full Papers

    1. A Novel Hybrid-Structured Titanium Surface Promotes Adhesion of Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Osteogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells while Reducing S. epidermidis Biofilm Accumulation

      Byung-Wook Park, Jessica Krieger, Gregory R. Sondag, Fouad M. Moussa, Johanna Rankenberg, Fayez F. Safadi, Nikolaos A. Gatsonis, W. Grant McGimpsey, Christopher R. Lambert and Christopher Malcuit

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500282

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      This article examines the synergist effect of a combined micro- and nano-structured titanium surface on the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts, the osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells, and the capacity to resist biofilm accumulation by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  15. Communications

    1. Nanostructuring and Phase Transformations in the β-Alloy Ti-15Mo during High-Pressure Torsion

      Svetlana Gatina, Irina Semenova, Jörn Leuthold and Ruslan Valiev

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500104

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      In this paper, the possibility of a significant enhancement of strength, while preserving a low elastic modulus, is demonstrated. The obtained results are very important for the medical application of the Ti-15Mo alloy.

    2. Centimeter-Sized Quaternary Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses with High Ti Content of 50 at%

      Shaofan Zhao, Na Chen, Pan Gong and Kefu Yao

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500165

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      The Ti50Zr16Be24Ni10 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) is the only centimeter-sized one among all the reported BMGs with Ti content equal or larger than 50 at%. Meanwhile, it exhibits high specific strength, which provides potentials for engineering applications.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Assessment of Periodic Open Cellular Structures for Enhanced Heat Conduction in Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactors

      Enrico Bianchi, Wilhelm Schwieger and Hannsjörg Freund

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500356

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      Numerical simulations show that the effective thermal conductivity of periodic open cellular structures depends not only on the solid fraction, but also significantly on the distribution of the solid along the strut. Thus, literature correlations established for non-ideal open-cell foams cannot be applied to ideal cellular structures.

  17. Reviews

    1. Thermoelectric Devices for Power Generation: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

      Qi Hao Zhang, Xiang Yang Huang, Sheng Qiang Bai, Xun Shi, Ctirad Uher and Li Dong Chen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500333

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      Considerable progress has been achieved over the past few years in exploiting development of thermoelectric (TE) devices for power generation. Particular attention is paid in this review to skutterudites and bismuth telluride-based devices with regard to electrode fabrication, barrier layer design, interface optimization, protective coating and evaluation strategy of the elements and modules.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Role of Process Control Agent in the Synthesis of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Titanium Metal Matrix Powder Mixtures

      Khurram S. Munir, Daniel T. Oldfield and Cuie Wen

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500346

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      Process control agent (PCA) improves the dispersion of MWCNTs in the titanium powder by attaching its hydrophilic head to metal powder particles and hydrophobic tail with C–C network of MWCNTs. The decomposition of PCA at higher milling energies triggers the sp3 amorphous phase in the MWCNTs and facilitates the formation of in situ titanium carbide.

    2. Organosilanes Surface Modification of Zirconium Diboride Composite Engineering Ceramics and Its Effect on the Tribological Performance of Epoxy Composites

      Xiaolei Yang, Zhiqiang Yu and Yicheng Wu

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500285

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      Surface modification of zirconium diboride composite particles is achieved by oxygen-bridge bonds between particles and organosilanes. Modified zirconium diboride composite particles can disperse more evenly in epoxy matrix compared to unmodified one. The epoxy composites filled with modified particles present better tribological performance.

  19. Communications

    1. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of an Mg–Zn–Ca Alloy Using High-Pressure Torsion

      Olga B. Kulyasova, Rinat K. Islamgaliev, Yonghao Zhao and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500176

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      The structure and properties of an Mg–Zn–Ca alloy processed by HPT are investigated. Microstructure is studied by TEM, SEM, and X-ray diffraction. An enhanced microhardness of 990 MPa is observed in the HPT samples due to an uniform microstructure with a grain size of 150 nm. After additional annealing at 200 °C, the HPT samples demonstrates an UTS of 270 MPa with a ductility of 9%.

    2. Fabrication of Nanostructures by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

      Swathi Murthy, Maria Matschuk, Qian Huang, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Nikolaj A. Feidenhans'l, Peter Johansen, Lars Christensen, Henrik Pranov, Guggi Kofod, Henrik C. Pedersen, Ole Hassager and Rafael Taboryski

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500347

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      Fabrication of micro- and nanostructures at line-speed of 60 m min−1 by large-area roll-to-roll extrusion coating is demonstrated. Nanopillars with diameters 80 nm and heights 100 nm are replicated in polypropylene. The main limiting factor for replication on nanoscale is the retardation time for solidification of the melt.

    3. Direct Ink Writing of Silicon Carbide for Microwave Optics

      Chris M. Larson, Justin J. Choi, Patricio A. Gallardo, Shawn W. Henderson, Michael D. Niemack, Ganesan Rajagopalan and Robert F. Shepherd

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500298

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      3D silicon carbide structures are patterned via direct ink writing (DIW) of borosiloxane-colloidal SiC ink blends. These hybrid inks enable printing over a wide range of colloidal volume fractions (0.38 < ɸ < 0.54) to produce relative densities of ≈30–50%. Structural (bars, cylinders, turbines) and functional (periodic lattices, microwave feedhorns) components are printed and sintered with excellent shape stability. The SiC feedhorns transmit microwaves (8.5 GHz) with very low insertion losses (≈0.05 dB) relative to commercial standards, demonstrating their potential in microwave optics applications.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis and Mechanical Properties of Novel Ni/PU Hybrid Foams: A New Economic Composite Material for Energy Absorbers

      Anne Jung and Stefan Diebels

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500405

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      Ni/PU hybrid foams are a new class of highly economic cellular energy absorbers of a polyurethane (PU) substrate foam coated with nanocrystalline nickel. The Ni/PU hybrid foams have been prepared using electrochemical deposition. The mechanical properties are compared with Al and PU foams, as well as with Ni/Al hybrid foams.

    2. Improving the Operational Stability of PBDTTTz-4 Polymer Solar Cells Modules by Electrode Modification

      Bérenger Roth, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Michael Corazza, Jon E. Carlé, Martin Helgesen, Suren A. Gevorgyan, Mikkel Jørgensen, Roar R. Søndergaard and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500361

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      The lifetime of large area organic solar cell modules is studied during both indoor and outdoor tests. The modules are fully roll-to-roll manufactured in ambient air with the high-efficiency polymer PBDTTTz-4. The stability of modules with various ITO-free electrodes is compared. During high-temperature tests, a new type of degradation mechanism is observed.

    3. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Al-Based Composites Reinforced with In-Situ and Ex-Situ Al2O3 Nanoparticles

      Riccardo Casati, Alberto Fabrizi, Giulio Timelli, Ausonio Tuissi and Maurizio Vedani

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500297

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      Ball milling breaks the native oxide layer that covers the Al particles and the alumina clusters added ex-situ. It is also responsible for the embedding of the oxide particles in the ductile Al matrix. ECAP is used to consolidate the nanocomposite powders into high strength bulk materials.

    4. Transparent Polyimide Film with Improved Water and Oxygen Barrier Property by In-Situ Exfoliating Graphite

      Mei-Hui Tsai, I-Hsiang Tseng, Yi-Chia Huang, Hsin-Pei Yu and Po-Ya Chang

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500286

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      We fabricate transparent flexible polyimide (PI) films with improved moisture and oxygen barrier property by in-situ blending PI precursor solution with low-content exfoliated graphite, rather than graphene oxide, under ultrasonication. When the concentration of graphite in solvent is less than 0.3 wt%, graphite can be exfoliated to a thickness of less than 800 nm and homogeneously distributed in PI matrix. In addition, the free standing PI films exhibit enhanced mechanical strength and thermal stability, and simultaneously remain sufficient optical transparency and electrical insulation as potential electronic substrate materials.

  21. Communications

    1. Stability of an Amorphous TiCuNi Alloy Subjected to High-Pressure Torsion at Different Temperatures

      Dmitry Gunderov, Viacheslav Slesarenko, Alexander Lukyanov, Anna Churakova, Evgeniy Boltynjuk, Vladinir Pushin, Evgeniy Ubyivovk, Alexander Shelyakov and Ruslan Valiev

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500216

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      In the melt-spun (MS) Ti50Ni25Cu25 amorphous alloy after HPT at T = 150 °C, dark “clusters” (size ≈40 nm) separated by thin brighter interfaces are visible in the bright-field TEM image, which may be a result of redistribution of free volume. HPT leads to a decrease in the energy of structural relaxation and alters the crystallization kinetics.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Directional Solidification with Constant Ice Front Velocity in the Ice-Templating Process

      Christian Stolze, Tobias Janoschka, Ulrich S. Schubert, Frank A. Müller and Stefan Flauder

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500235

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      An exponential cooling function is investigated both theoretically and experimentally for the directional solidification of liquids with constant ice front velocities with respect to an enhanced control over the ice-templating process. The function is mathematically derived, set into relation to other cooling functions found in the literature, and its theoretical limit of applicability is discussed.

    2. A Cost-Effective Approach to Fabricate Superhydrophobic Coatings Using Hydrophilic Materials

      Xiao Gong, Austin Bartlett, Andrew Kozbial and Lei Li

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500313

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here the authors report a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate superhydrophobic coatings using alumina powders, which are intrinsically hydrophilic. This work provides a facile yet robust approach to fabricate superhydrophobic coatings, which is potentially applicable for many other hydrophilic materials.

    3. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Surfaces Affect Fibro- and Osteoblasts in Opposite Ways

      Juergen Taxis, Tobias Moest, Birgit Joana Pedimonte, Karl Andreas Schlegel, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam and Cornelius von Wilmowsky

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500305

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      Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with a mean pore diameter varying from 15 to 40 nm, titanium and Al2O3 as controls are investigated with human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) and human fibroblasts (HFF) for cell proliferation, cell morphology, and cell arrangement. The results show that the pore diameter of AAO affects fibroblasts and osteoblasts in opposite ways.

    4. High-Strength AlCrFeCoNi High Entropy Alloys Fabricated by Using Metallic Glass Powder as Precursor

      Chao Yang, Jianan Lin, Jin Zeng, Shenggua. Qu, Xiaoqiang Li, Weiwen Zhang and Datong Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500339

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The report on the formation of high-strength AlCrFeCoNi HEAs fabricated by using metallic glass powder as precursor is presented. Results indicate that the fabricated HEAs have a microstructure of a micron-sized BCC solid solution matrix surrounding a dispersed micron-sized BCC region. Moreover, the fabricated HEAs exhibit simultaneous ultra-high fracture strength and large ductility, far superior to the cast counterpart HEAs.

    5. Deformation of Pure Aluminum Along the Groove Path of ECAP-Conform Process

      Vahid Ayati, Mohammad Habibi Parsa and Hamed Mirzadeh

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500251

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      During ECAP-Conform process, three main deformations steps of rolling, bending and forging affect the properties of sample before reaching the ECAP die. The influences of these steps on the properties of 5 mm annealed Al bar are discussed based on the simulation and experimental results. Yield and ultimate strengths change from 80 and 100 MPa to 110 and 120 MPa, respectively, during mentioned steps.

    6. Nanostructured MWCNT/Polypyrrole Actuators with Anisotropic Strain Response

      Thea I. W. Schnoor, Ulla Vainio, Li-Hua Shao, Erica T. Lilleodden, Martin Müller, Andreas Schreyer, Karl Schulte and Bodo Fiedler

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500287

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      The alignment of a nanostructured MWCNT/PPy hybrid films is studied by SAXS and correlated to its anisotropic actuation strain. The actuation strain perpendicular to the main MWCNT orientation is about ten times higher than in the axial direction; the actuation response much faster than compared to the bulk PPy.

    7. Processing Map Development through Elaborating Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Based Models

      Ehsan Farabi, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki and Hamid Reza Abedi

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500296

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New method for constructing the processing maps and identifying the safe–unsafe regions have been developed. First, the experimental flow stress data were employed to build the processing maps. In an alternative approach, through constitutive modeling the power efficiency and instability maps were developed. The examination of the microstructures, proved the high accuracy of sinh-based processing map.

    8. Pull-Off Behavior of MAX Phase Ceramic Bolted Connections: Experimental Testing and Simulation Analysis

      Rujie He, Xiangmeng Cheng, Zhaoliang Qu and Daining Fang

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500288

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ti3SiC2 bolt and nut are fabricated and the pull-off behavior of this novel Ti3SiC2 bolted connection is experimental and simulated investigated. The FEM results showed good agreement with experimental results. The stress distributions are also simulated.

  23. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Producing High-Strength Metals by I-ECAP

      Michal Gzyl, Andrzej Rosochowski, Sonia Boczkal, Lech Olejnik and Mohd Nizam Katimon

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500363

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Incremental equal channel angular pressing (I-ECAP) is used in this work to produce ultrafine-grained: iron, titanium, aluminum, and magnesium alloys. The benefits include up to 50% strength increase, revealing weight-saving opportunities for structural applications, and elimination of harmful or expensive alloying elements. The process has a great potential for implementation into industrial practice due to its incremental nature, which enables processing long billets.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Investigations on Grain Boundary Segregation Energy of Phosphorus in 12Cr1MoV Steel Under Elastic Stress

      Lei Zheng, Yudong Fu, Pavel Lejček, Shenhua Song, Guido Schmitz and Ye Meng

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500314

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      GB segregation of P in 12Cr1MoV steel after 15 h-aging under elastic stress of 30 MPa equals nearly to that after full thermal aging. By formulating elastic stress and segregation Gibbs energy, the effect of elastic stress on segregation thermodynamics of P is calculated to be slight, showing a good agreement between experiment and calculation. The agreement proves the validity of the formulation.

  25. Communications

    1. Enhancing Mechanical Properties of TiZrAlV by Engineering a Multi-Modal-Laminated Structure

      Yindong Shi, Lina Wang, Ming Li, Guosheng Zhang, Defeng Guo and Xiangyi Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500194

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      High strength and high ductility is the prerequisite for structural materials for their applications. An excellent combination of tensile properties, i.e., an ultimate tensile strength of ≈1 630 MPa and an elongation to failure ≈6.6%, has been achieved in a new β-metastable TiZrAlV alloy. This is attributed to the formation of a refined β microstructure with grain size of ≈10 µm and a multi-modal-laminated structure that consists of large microscale primary αp grains (2 µm and 9.5 vol%), submicroscale (300 nm and 21 vol%), and nanoscale (50 nm and 65 vol%) α precipitates.

  26. Full Papers

    1. High-Strain-Rate Superplasticity in Mg–Y–Nd Alloy Prepared by Submerged Friction Stir Processing

      Genghua Cao, Datong Zhang, Fang Chai, Wen Zhang and Cheng Qiu

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500221

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      A fine-grained Mg–Y–Nd alloy is prepared by submerged friction stir processing. Due to its fine microstructure and high thermal stability, which are beneficial to grain boundary sliding during superplastic deformation, excellent high-strain-rate superplasticiy is achieved in this material, with an elongation of 549% at 1 × 10−1 s−1 and 758 K.

    2. Sintering Behavior of Lanthana-Bearing Nanostructured Ferritic Steel Consolidated via Spark Plasma Sintering

      Somayeh Pasebani, Indrajit Charit, Darryl P. Butt, James I. Cole, Yaqiao Wu and Jatuporn Burns

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500294

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      The work reported herein investigates the effect of milling time on the spark plasma sintering kinetics and microstructural evolution of 14LMT alloy, a nanostructured ferritic steel, containing lanthanum instead of yttrium. The predominance of grain boundary diffusion during sintering is noted. Microstructure is characterized by SEM/EBSD and TEM, and mechanical property by Vickers microhardness technique.

  27. Communications

    1. You have free access to this content
      The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

      Francesco Pastorelli, Thomas M. Schmidt, Markus Hösel, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500348

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      The footprint of organic electronic technologies is important when united in complex circuitry. We describe the area requirements for roll-to-roll processed electrochromics, solar cells, and printed organic power transistors in joint operation of a large area window shading application and find that organic power transistors and OPVs can drive electrochromics while taking up very little area.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Comparison of TiAl-Based Intermetallics Joints Brazed with Amorphous and Crystalline Ti–Zr–Cu–Ni–Co–Mo Fillers

      Li Li, Xiaoqiang Li, Zhifeng Li, Ke Hu, Shengguan Qu and Chao Yang

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500190

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      The room temperature shear strength of the joint brazed with the amorphous filler is always much higher than that with the crystalline filler, and the maximum joint shear strength is 202 MPa at a brazing temperature of 1 000 °C. The differences in performance of the joints are related to the microstructure characteristics of the brazing seams.

    2. Fabrication of Coaxial Wet-Spun Graphene–Chitosan Biofibers

      Azadeh Mirabedini, Javad Foroughi, Brianna Thompson and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500201

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      The novel technique of coaxial wet-spinning is employed for the fabrication of electroactive biofibres of chitosan/graphene oxide in a basic coagulation bath. As-prepared fibres were found to be cytocompatible with good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The results imply that the developed fibres hold a great promise in applications such as drug delivery, batteries and tissue scaffolds in nearby future.

    3. Preparation of Fine-Grained and High-Strength Mg–8Li–3Al–1Zn Alloy by Accumulative Roll Bonding

      Tianzi Wang, Haipeng Zheng, Ruizhi Wu, Jinliang Yang, Xudong Ma and Milin Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500211

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      Fine-grained and high-strength Mg–8Li–3Al–1Zn alloy is obtained using accumulative roll bonding (ARB) technique. The ARB refines the grains and causes the phase distribution to be scattered. With the increase of ARB passes, the σ0.2, σb, and hardness values are enhanced, whereas the elongation value first decreases, then slightly increases with the increase of ARB passes.

    4. Al–RE Intermetallic Phase Stability and Effects on Corrosion Behavior in Cold-Chamber HPDC AE44 Alloy

      Yufeng Jiao, Jinghuai Zhang, Lili He, Milin Zhang, Fengchun Jiang, Wei Wang, Liming Han, Longjiang Xu and Ruizhi Wu

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500226

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      Mg–4Al–4RE (wt%, AE44) alloy is prepared by cold-chamber high-pressure die casting (HPDC). The Al–RE phases are investigated by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The microstructure of Al11RE3 would be changed when heated at 400 °C. While after heat treatment at 400 °C for 1000 h and 5000 h, the corrosion resistance performance degrades due to the changes of morphology and distribution of Al–RE phases.

    5. Recent Advances in Processing and Application of Nanostructured Titanium for Dental Implants

      Alexander V. Polyakov, Ludĕk Dluhoš, Grigory S. Dyakonov, Georgy I. Raab and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500212

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      This paper introduces the results of use of a new ECAP-Conform and drawing processing route for fabrication of nanostructured titanium in the shape of long-length rods for automatic machining of dental implants. Superior properties of nanotitanium rods made it possible to improve the design of implants by considerably reducing their diameter. As evidence, the paper demonstrates the results of successful clinical trials of such implants conducted in cooperation with the Czech company Timplant.

    6. Effect of Carbon/Carbon Preform Density on the Microstructure and Properties of Mo2C Interlayer-Modified Carbon/Carbon–Copper Composites for Sliding Contact Materials

      Wen Yan Zhou, Li Ping Ran, Ke Peng, Yi Cheng Ge, Huang Wu and Mao Zhong Yi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500172

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      C/C-Cu composites are fabricated by pressure-less infiltration of Cu into Mo2C-modified C/C preforms. With the increase of preform density, the electrical resistivity, flexural strength increases, impact toughness decreases, and tribological performance is improved due to the better lubrication of transfer films. Fiber pull-out and crack propagation contributes to the pseudo-plastic fracture.

    7. Optimization of the SEM Working Conditions: EsB Detector at Low Voltage

      Aránzazu Garitagoitia Cid, Rüdiger Rosenkranz and Ehrenfried Zschech

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500161

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Material contrast in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is studied for several kinds of samples with an energy selective backscattered (EsB) electron detector using low voltage. Brightness and contrast settings of the Carl Zeiss SEM/FIB NVision 40 are adjusted, as well as the optimum parameter set is applied for every specimen. Mitigation of undesirable beam-induced effects are also discussed.

    8. Microstructure and Ablation Property of a Carbon/Carbon–ZrC Composite Fabricated by Reactive Melt Infiltration with Zr/Cu Powder Mixture

      Wen Yan Zhou, Li Ping Ran, Ke Peng, Yi Cheng Ge, Huang Wu and Mao Zhong Yi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500206

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A carbon/carbon–ZrC(C/C–ZrC) composite is fabricated by reactive infiltration of a Zr–40 wt%Cu powder mixture. Continuous ZrC layers around the pyrolytic carbon and isolated ZrC particles dispersed in Cu are detected. The better ablation resistance of the C/C–ZrC composite is mainly attributed to the protective ZrO2 layer and the cooling effect of Cu.

    9. Influence of Heat Treatment Temperature on Corrosion Characteristics of Biodegradable EW10X04 Mg Alloy Coated with Nd

      Galit Katarivas Levy and Eli Aghion

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500253

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The corrosion resistance of EW10X04 Mg alloy coated with 1 μm Nd in simulated physiological solution can be modified by subsequent heat treatment. Here, the authors demonstrate that heat treatment at 350 °C for 3 h provide superior corrosion resistance due to the formation of a nearly continuous network of Mg41Nd5 around grain boundaries within the external interface layer.

  29. Communications

    1. Enhanced Strengthening in Ultrafine-Grained Al–Mg–Si Alloys Produced via ECAP with Parallel Channels

      Elena Vladimirovna Bobruk, Vil Uzbekovich Kazykhanov, Maxim Yurievich Murashkin and Ruslan Zufarovich Valiev

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500119

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      This paper discusses fabrication of optimal high strength and ductility combination in aluminum Al–Mg–Si alloys through formation of a UFG structure with ordered distribution of strengthening metastable β′ and β″ precipitates via SPD followed by artificial aging.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of the As-Cast and Extruded Mg–Gd Alloys

      Nazanin Bayat Tork, Seyyed Hossein Razavi, Hassan Saghafian and Reza Mahmudi

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500189

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      The yield and ultimate shear strength of Mg–xGd (x = 0, 1, 2) alloys are studied in both as-cast and extruded conditions. In the as-cast materials, the enhancement in shear strength is attributed to the formation of Mg5Gd particles, while in the extruded materials the severe grain refinement achieved after extrusion is responsible for such improvements.

  31. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Nanoporous Gold Tubes

      Theresa Juarez and Andrea M. Hodge

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500249

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      A method for synthesizing nanoporous gold tubes as a hierarchical structure is presented. Samples are fabricated via electrodeposition, homogenization, and dealloying to generate a random porous network in the tube wall. Electrodeposition parameters are optimized by using a reverse pulse current setup. The hierarchy of the tubes is further altered by controlling the ligament size through heat treatments.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Mg17Sr2 Phase on the Bio-Corrosion Behavior of Mg–Zr–Sr Alloys

      Yunfei Ding, Yuncang Li and Cuie Wen

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500222

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      The Mg17Sr2 phase in Mg5ZrxSr (x ≤ 5 wt%) alloys plays a crucial role on their bio-corrosion behavior. The corrosion starts from the galvanic effects between the Mg17Sr2 phase and the Mg matrix and subsequently extends from the regions adjacent to the Mg17Sr2 phase gradually to the central Mg matrix.

    2. Versatile Self-Cleaning Coating Production Through Sol–Gel Chemistry

      A. C. Power, A. Barrett, J. Abubakar, L. J. Suarez, L. Ryan, D. Wencel, T. Sullivan and F. Regan

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500112

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      This work describes the development of a self-cleaning coating using a nanoparticle coated super hydrophobic sol–gel. The material is flexible, transparent and robust, and suitable for application to optical windows or solar panels. The coating can be easily applied as a two-part solution by spraying.

    3. The Enhanced Shape Memory Effect and Mechanical Properties in Thermomechanically Processed Semi-Equiatomic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

      A. Shamsolhodaei, A. Zarei-Hanzaki and H. R. Abedi

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500252

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      The hot compression tests were carried out in a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. A significant influence on the critical transformation temperatures was realized. This could affect the martensite plates’ features and the fraction of retained austenite phase. In consequence the room temperature mechanical properties and shape memory response of the alloy were influenced. In an optimized specimen, the recovery ratio was increased from ≈30% to ≈80%.

  33. Communications

    1. Size Effects in the Mechanical Properties of Bulk Bicontinuous Ta/Cu Nanocomposites Made by Liquid Metal Dealloying

      Ian McCue, Stephen Ryan, Kevin Hemker, Xiandong Xu, Nan Li, Mingwei Chen and Jonah Erlebacher

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500219

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      Extremely strong and ductile Cu/Ta bulk nanocomposites are fabricated by liquid metal dealloying. These materials exhibit a complex two-phase microstructure with a tunable length scale that allows for a significant increase in strength with decreasing feature size. Their yield behavior is consistent with a bulk manifestation of size effects previously associated only with nanofabricated materials.

  34. Full Papers

    1. A Flexible Encapsulation Structure for Ambient-Air Operation of Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

      A. Asadpoordarvish, A. Sandström and L. Edman

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500245

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      We report the fabrication and ambient-air performance of flexible light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). A flexible LEC sandwiched between multilayer barriers, featuring a water and oxygen barrier property of ≈1 × 10−3 g/m2/day and ≈1 × 10−3 cm3/m2/bar/day respectively, and as attached together with UV-curable epoxy, performs on par with identical glass-encapsulated devices. Such a flexible LEC also remains functional after one year storage under ambient air.

    2. Phase Transformations in Ti–Fe Alloys Induced by High-Pressure Torsion

      B. B. Straumal, A. R. Kilmametov, Yu. Ivanisenko, A. S. Gornakova, A. A. Mazilkin, M .J. Kriegel, O. B. Fabrichnaya, B. Baretzky and H. Hahn

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500143

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      Severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion (HPT) leads to the strong grain refinement in Ti-based alloys and to the formation of high-pressure ω-Ti-phase. However, the ω-Ti-phase disappears in the Ti–Fe alloys with increasing contain of iron, and only the α+β mixture remains (see the dark field TEM micrograph of the Ti–10 wt% Fe alloy after HPT).

  35. Review

    1. Formation of Corrosion-Resistant Thermal Diffusion Boride Coatings

      Eugene Medvedovski

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500102

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      Corrosion resistance of iron boride-based coatings obtained through thermal diffusion process has been studied in the environments simulating some oil production conditions. These coatings demonstrated superior performance compared to untreated steels due to high structural and chemical stability of iron borides dealt with their thermodynamic properties and strong Fe-B and B-B covalent bonds, specific coating structure and good adhesion to steel substrates.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Photocurrent Generation in Graphene/Copper Phthalocyanine/Mg–Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Layer-by-Layer Multilayers

      Qinzheng Yang, Jing Yang, Fujiao Jiang and Huazhang Zhao

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500224

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      Visible-light-driven-photovoltaic G/TSCuPc/LDH nanofilms are prepared by LBL method based on electrostatic interaction. This preparation strategy endows a high content and a homogeneous dispersion of grapheme and TSCuPc in the polymer matrix, enhancing photocurrent generation in this novel system.

  37. Communications

    1. Bi-Functional Mechanism in Degradation of Toxic Water Pollutants by Catalytic Amorphous Metals

      Santanu Das, Seth Garrison and Sundeep Mukherjee

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500239

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      AZO dye is a toxic water pollutant and carcinogen used widely as a coloring agent in textile industries. Efficient catalytic degradation of AZO dye by aluminum based metallic glass particles is presented in this report. The high catalytic activity originates from the simultaneous ionization of the transition metals in the alloy, which help in charge transfer to the [BOND]N[DOUBLE BOND]N[BOND] bonds in AZO dye, resulting in rapid degradation of AZO dye in an aqueous medium.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Core/Shell Iron/Oxide Nanoparticles for Improving the Magneto-Dielectric Properties of Polymer Composites

      Ta-I Yang, Chun-Yu Chuang, Shu-Chian Yang, Leo C. Kempel and Peter Kofinas

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500234

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      A simple method to obtain high magnetic permeability (μr), high dielectric permittivity (ϵr), and low loss polymer composites with core/shell iron/metal oxide particles is developed. The layers of SiO2 or TiO2 on the magnetic Fe0 particle provide electrical insulting layers which decrease energy loss and also prevent the possibility of µr decrease due to Fe0 oxidation. Furthermore, using TiO2 to modify Fe0 surfaces improve ϵr of Fe@TiO2 without compromising its µr.

    2. Aging Processes in Ultrafine-Grained Low-Alloyed Bronzes Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing

      Sergey V. Dobatkin, Natalia R. Bochvar and Daria V. Shangina

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500099

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      The aging processes in ultrafine-grained (UFG) bronzes alloyed with Cr and Hf after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been studied. It is shown that the ECAP leads to a considerable strengthening due to the UFG structure formation. The subsequent aging results in additional hardening and an increase in electrical conductivity at the expense of decomposition of supersaturated solid solution.

    3. Thermal Shock Study on Different Advanced Ceramics by Laser Irradiation in Different Media

      Robert Pulz, Birgit Rehmer, Gerold A. Schneider and Birgit Skrotzki

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500162

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      The thermal shock behavior of three ceramics is characterized applying a heating-up laser thermal shock. The time- and space-resolved measurement of the temperature distribution allows the calculation of the local stress state as a function of time. The thermal shock strength is highest for SSiC and lowest in Al2O3 with MgO–PSZ in between. The investigated environment does not affect the thermal shock resistance under the studied experimental conditions.

    4. Hybrid Filtration Membranes incorporating Nanoporous Silica within a Nanoscale Alumina Fibre Scaffold

      Veronica Mei Tiing Su and Trevor William Clyne

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500220

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      Membranes comprising assemblies of (10–20 nm) alumina fibres, with or without nanoporous silica in the interstices, have outstanding filtration performance. The figure demonstrates that small (≈ 2 nm diameter) dye molecules can be filtered, and also that charge-related effects can operate.

  39. Reviews

    1. Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Metals: New Challenges and Perspectives

      Alexei Vinogradov

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500177

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      An enhancement of strength concurs with a great loss of ductility in UFG metals produced by severe plastic deformation. Experimental data are reviewed, and a phenomenological dislocation kinetics-based model approach is proposed to provide a unified view for the hardening behavior and early macroscopic strain localization in UFG materials.

  40. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis of Hybrid Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation: A New Paradigm of SPD Processing

      Yan Beygelzimer, Yuri Estrin and Roman Kulagin

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500083

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      The claim in this article is that established techniques of severe plastic deformation are ideally suited for producing advanced hybrid materials. Their advantage is the possibility to combine nanostructuring with the formation of specially designed inner architecture of the hybrids. This establishes a new paradigm in research on hybrid materials.

    2. On the Processing Pathway Dependence of Microstructure Evolution During Severe Plastic Deformation: Nickel as a Case Example

      Daria Prokoshkina, Anna Moros, Gerrit Reglitz, Guru Prasad Dinda, Dmitrij D. Kuznetsov, Vladimir V. Popov, Alexey V. Stolbovsky, Evgeniy Shorohov, Sergiy V. Divinski and Gerhard Wilde

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500174

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      Comparison of the results such as the microhardness as function of grain size obtained on Nickel processed along different processing pathways indicates that the extreme states achieved by SPD seem in fact to be achievable also by more conventional processes such as rolling-based deformation routes that offer access to industrial processing schemes.

    3. Deformation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Cu–Ag Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Torsion

      Karoline S. Kormout, Bo Yang and Reinhard Pippan

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500109

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      In order to investigate the deformation behavior of composites in immiscible systems, different Cu–Ag alloys are produced by high-pressure torsion processing. Their microstructural evolution from lamellar ultrafine-grained to nanocrystalline is analyzed and related to mechanical properties.

    4. Ultrafine Grained Structures Resulting from SPD-Induced Phase Transformation in Al–Zn Alloys

      Xavier Sauvage, Maxim Yu. Murashkin, Boris B. Straumal, Elena V. Bobruk and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500151

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      We have investigated microstructures resulting from the concomitant mechanisms of grain refinement and phase separation in Al–Zn alloys processed by SPD. We show that a higher processing temperature could give rise to a finer structure because of a competition between the classical discontinuous precipitation of Zn and SPD-induced dynamic precipitation.

  41. Communications

    1. Modeling of Metal Flow during Processing by Multi-ECAP-Conform

      Elvira I. Fakhretdinova, Georgy I. Raab and Ruslan Z. Valiev

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500125

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      The article is focused on the studies of the new SPD processing technique of Multi-ECAP-Conform. To evaluate the influence of the tool geometry, four design versions are considered. The schemes are compared on the basis of the following parameters: strain rate, strain degree, stress intensity, and contact stresses. To estimate the parameters, virtual modeling by the finite-element method with the Deform-3D software is employed.

  42. Communication

    1. A Novel Strong and Ductile TWIP/Martensite Steel Composite

      O. Bouaziz, J. P. Masse, G. Petitgand and M. X. Huang

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500113

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A bi-layered steel composite consisting of a martensitic steel and a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is fabricated by roll bonding. The steel composite possesses the advantages of TWIP (high ductility) and martensitic steels (high yield stress) so that it has simultaneously high yield stress and high uniform elongation.

  43. Communications

    1. Functionally Graded Ti-6Al-4V Meshes with High Strength and Energy Absorption

      Shujun Li, Shuo Zhao, Wentao Hou, Chunyu Teng, Yulin Hao, Yi Li, Rui Yang and R. D. K. Misra

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graded/gradient Ti-6Al-4V mesh structures are fabricated by electron beam melting. The results of compressive properties indicate that the deformation behavior of these graded meshes is the weighted average of stress–strain response of each uniform mesh constituents. Through appropriate design of property and volume fraction of each constituents, graded/gradient meshes with high strength and energy absorption can be fabricated.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Some Physical Characteristics of Strain Hardening in Severe Plastic Deformation

      Yan Beygelzimer, Laszlo S. Toth and John J. Jonas

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using group theory it is shown that the von Mises strain is valid for both simple shear and tension/compression, while the Hencky strain is valid only for the latter. In large strain hardening, microstructure self-similarity results in power law hardening and deviations between curves of different strain paths are due to differences in slip system activity and textures.

    2. Effect of Severe Cold or Warm Deformation on Microstructure Evolution and Tensile Behavior of a 316L Stainless Steel

      Marina Odnobokova, Andrey Belyakov and Rustam Kaibyshev

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The nanocrystalline 316L stainless steel is processed by large strain cold or warm rolling. The development of nanocrystalline structures is accompanied by significant strengthening. The yield strength increases from 235 MPa in the original annealed state to 1 680 or 1 070 MPa after rolling to a strain of 3 at 293 or 573 K, respectively.

    3. Mechanical Behavior of an Al–Mg–Mn–Sc Alloy with an Ultrafine Grain Structure at Cryogenic Temperatures

      Daria Zhemchuzhnikova and Rustam Kaibyshev

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500138

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this paper, the effect of a grain size of an Al–Mg–Mn–Sc alloy on the mechanical and fracture behavior at temperatures ranging from 77 to 293 K was examined. It is shown that the ductility of the alloy with the fine grain structure increases with decreasing temperature due to an increase in the strain-hardening rate.

    4. Solid-State Foaming by Oxide Reduction and Expansion: Tailoring the Foamed Metal Microstructure in the Cu–CuO System with Oxide Content and Annealing Conditions

      Mark A. Atwater, Kris A. Darling and Mark A. Tschopp

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Copper foam is created by the reduction of a ball-milled Cu–CuO composite. Final density is dependent on time and temperature, but very small pore and grain sizes are achieved under all processing conditions. This presents unique implications for creating tailored foam structures in loose powder as well as in bulk parts created via powder metallurgy.


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