Advanced Engineering Materials

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  1. Full Papers

    1. On Local Phase Equilibria and the Appearance of Nanoparticles in the Microstructure of Single-Crystal Ni-Base Superalloys

      Victoria Yardley, Ivan Povstugar, Pyuck-Pa Choi, Dirk Raabe, Alireza B. Parsa, Aleksander Kostka, Christoph Somsen, Antonin Dlouhy, Klaus Neuking, Easo P. George and Gunther Eggeler

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600237

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      Ni-base superalloy single crystals consist of the γ′ (cuboidal particles) and the γ phase (thin channels). Their volume fractions can be measured and calculated. In the present work, the authors use TEM and APT to document the presence of tiny spheroidal (20 nm) nanoparticles and use thermodynamics and kinetics to explain their appearance and their composition.

    2. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Commercial Hot-Extruded Copper Processed by Torsion Deformation

      Ning Guo, Xiaoxia Li, Mei Xiao, Renlong Xin, Linjiang Chai, Bo Song, Hongbing Yu and Lu Li

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600252

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      Free-end torsion deformation is used for processing copper rod in this work. Results show that the torsional rod has a gradient microhardness from core to surface due to a gradient distribution of lamellar dislocation substructures (LDS). With increasing torsion revolutions, the LDS density increases gradually, resulting in the improvement of subsequent tensile strength and hardening capability.

  2. Communications

    1. The Impact of Size and Loading Direction on the Strength of Architected Lattice Materials

      Jens Bauer, Almut Schroer, Ruth Schwaiger and Oliver Kraft

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600235

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      The authors show that the strength of polymer–alumina core–shell composite microlattices doubles when their size is scaled down by 50%. Isotropic strength under tension and compression is achieved when observed thickness-dependent notch effects in the alumina shells are accounted for.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Improving Formability of Mg–Ca–Zr Sheet Alloy by Microalloying of Zn

      Ming Zhe Bian, Zhuo Ran Zeng, Shi Wei Xu, Su Ming Zhu, Yu Man Zhu, Christopher Huw John Davies, Nick Birbilis and Jian Feng Nie

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600293

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      The addition of a small amount of zinc to a Mg–Ca–Zr alloy significantly improves formability and ductility, which makes the resultant alloy become a suitable composition for fabricating sheet. Furthermore, the resultant Zn-containing alloy has age hardening response, and its strength can be higher than that of commercial AZ31 alloy after post-forming ageing treatment.

    2. Directionally Aligned Ultra-Long Boron Nitride Nanotube Induced Strengthening of Aluminum-Based Sandwich Composite

      Pranjal Nautiyal, Chris Rudolf, Archana Loganathan, Cheng Zhang, Benjamin Boesl and Arvind Agarwal

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600212

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      A novel ultra-long Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) reinforced Al-sandwich composite is engineered by a unique processing methodology, involving Al sputtering, spark plasma sintering, and cold rolling. The fabricated composite displays extraordinary, 400%, improvement in strength (200 MPa) compared to pure Al (≈40 MPa), due to crack bridging by directionally aligned long nanotubes and a strong matrix/nanotube interface.

    3. Fabrication of Hierarchical Micro Patterns on PET Substrates Using Direct Laser Interference Patterning

      Florian Rößler, Denise Günther and Andrés Fabián Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600201

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      Multiscale microstructures are produced on PET using direct laser interference patterning. Thereby, three levels were obtained: pillar-like patterns with a period of (i) 10 µm and (ii) 1 to 2 µm from interference and (iii) a third level due to the distance of single laser spots of 35 µm. The structure quality and depth are investigated and the optical properties are determined and simulated.

    4. Microstructure Evolution in the Mushy Zone of a β-Solidifying TiAl Alloy under Different Cooling Processes

      Jieren Yang, Bao Xiao, Peng Han, Hongchao Kou and Jinshan Li

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600144

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      A β-solidifying TiAl alloy is subjected to different cooling processes in the mushy zone. The first image shows the as-cast microstructure consisting of α2/γ lamellar, B2 phase, and massive γ phase. Other images which after TC treatment have the same microstructure, however, the size of lamellar is obviously refined.

  4. Communications

    1. X-Ray Microtomographic Characterization and Quantification of the Strain Rate Dependent Failure Mechanism in Cenosphere Epoxy Syntactic Foams

      Ruoxuan Huang, Peifeng Li, Zhiyong Wang and Tong Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600215

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      X-ray microtomography reveals the internal failure process in cenosphere epoxy syntactic foams deformed quasi-statically and dynamically. The microscopic failure mechanism is significantly affected by strain rates: at the dynamic rate macro-cracks form earlier in the matrix and can propagate to split cenospheres. An empirical constitutive equation is developed to quantitatively relate the damage to the strain and the strain rate.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Porous Bioceramics Produced by Impregnation of 3D-Printed Wax Mold: Ceramic Architectural Control and Process Limitations

      Baptiste Charbonnier, Coralie Laurent, Gilles Blanc, Olivier Valfort and David Marchat

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600308

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      This study evaluates the reliability and robustness of a bioceramic manufacturing process based on the impregnation of 3D-printed mold. This process offers new architectural opportunities, including architecture standardization, high and reproducible architectural control, phase biocompatibility preservation, and ease of implementation for various phase compositions.

    2. Dependence of Microstructure and Hardening Behavior on Torsion Strain and Strain Rate in Extruded AZ31 Rods

      Hongbing Chen, Tianmo Liu, Hongni Yu, Bo Song, Dewen Hou, Ning Guo and Jiejun He

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600219

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      In this study, torsion deformation is used to enhance the hardness of extruded Mg alloys. Results show that torsion deformation can generate gradient microstructures. The increase of hardness is mainly attributed to dislocation hardening. The high strain rate can enhance the hardening effect by increasing dislocation density.

    3. Kinetics of Intermetallic Phases and Mechanical Behavior of ZnSn3% Hot-Dip Galvanization Coatings

      Andrea Carpinteri, Vittorio Di Cocco, Giovanni Fortese, Francesco Iacoviello, Stefano Natali, Camilla Ronchei, Daniela Scorza and Sabrina Vantadori

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600254

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      In this work, the influence of high contents of Sn (3% by weight) on the performance of the traditional Zn coatings is experimentally analyzed in terms of both microstructure kinetics formation and mechanical properties. Furthermore, a numerical model is proposed to simulate the bending behavior of the tested coated specimens. The agreement between experimental and numerical results is quite satisfactory.

    4. Potential of Photocurrent Improvement in μc-Si:H Solar Cells with TCO Substrates Structured by Direct Laser Interference Patterning

      Marcos Soldera, Kurt Taretto, Jana Berger and Andrés Fabián Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600225

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      The authors simulate the light absorption of µc–Si:H cells deposited on boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates textured by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). The simulated patterns are taken from measurements of DLIP processed samples with sine-like grooves. We find that DLIP can enhance the photocurrent by 35% compared to the flat device.

    5. Characterization of Biocompatible Materials Using Stereo Microscope 3D Digital Image Correlation

      Tomasz Rusin and Magdalena Kopernik

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600266

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      The goal of the work is to introduce the potential of the micro DIC (digital image correlation) method. This technique combines a 3D DIC system based on two cameras in a stereoscopic setup with a stereoscopic microscope. The results include a 3D surface profile, analysis of the sample surface deformations, distribution of surface strains induced by heating, and tensile loading.

    6. Experimental Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of cBN–Ti3SiC2 Composites

      Zhenming Yue, Limin Yang, Jianhong Gong and Jun Gao

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600117

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      Cubic boron nitride–titanium silicon carbide (cBN–Ti3SiC2) is fabricated at high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) condition. Its mechanical properties are investigated using the comparisons of the bending, compression hardening, and Vicker hardness test.

    7. Origin of Inhomogeneous Microstructure in As-Cast Ti–45Al–8.5Nb–(W, B, Y) Alloy at Different Cooling Rates

      Guang Yang, Hongchao Kou, Yan Zhang, Jieren Yang, Jinshan Li and Hengzhi Fu

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600241

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      This work analyses the effect of cooling rate in mushy zone on the microstructure features of a high Nb containing TiAl alloy. It shows that microstructure characteristics including segregation behavior, lamellar colony size and microstructural homogeneity change with the variation of cooling rates. The variation of these microstructure characteristics is discussed based on the element distribution and phase transformation sequences in local regions, as shown in the TOC figure.

    8. A Method for Fabricating Stainless Steel Pellets with Open-Cell Porosity by Alkaline Leaching of Silica Template

      Manuela Covaciu, Eduardo Richter, Magdalena Walczak, Jin-Chong Tan and José M. del Valle

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600141

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      Open-cell porosity in bulk steel enables applications that require pores’ interconnectivity. In this paper, a new method is described to fabricate such porous stainless steel relying on the powder metallurgy approach with alkaline leaching of a silica space holder.

  6. Communications

    1. High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Ultrafine-Scale Cu/Ni Laminated Composites

      H. F. Tan, B. Zhang, X. M. Luo, X. F. Zhu and G. P. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600120

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      Cu/Ni laminated composites with a thickness ratio of 1:20 are prepared by the dual-bath electrodeposition technique. The results show that the composites not only have a better synergy of the tensile strength and ductility, but also the higher fatigue strength. The ultrathin Cu layer plays a key role in enhancing the ductility and the fatigue cracking resistance.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Heavy Section Solution Strengthened Ferritic Ductile Iron Castings

      Thomas Borsato, Paolo Ferro, Filippo Berto and Carlo Carollo

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600256

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      Mechanical and fatigue properties of heavy section solution strengthened ferritic ductile irons castings are examined. Metallographic analyses have been performed by using optical microscopy to identify the most important microstructural parameters. Fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens are investigated by means of scanning emission microscopy. Fatigue curves of the analyzed alloy are carried out.

    2. Effects of Laser Surface Melting on Ti–30Nb–2Sn Sintered Alloy

      Juan José Candel, Jose Manuel Amado, Vicente Amigó and María José Tobar

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500640

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      Laser surface melting (LSM) is used to simultaneously melt and quench a thin layer of a Ti–30Nb–2Sn substrate produced by powder metallurgy route. Results show that LSM retains beta titanium without traces of martensite or grain boundary alpha and eliminates non-desirable open porosity. Substrate is progressively hardened but this is accompanied by Young's modulus reduction to reach minimum value at 1 mm from top surface.

    3. Carbon Fiber Composites Based on Multi-Phase Epoxy/PES Matrices with Carbon Nanotubes: Morphology and Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Characterization

      Nakul Prasad, Carmen Tola, Magali Coulaud, Michael Claes, Stepan V. Lomov, Ignaas Verpoest and Larissa Gorbatikh

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600153

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      The interlaminar fracture toughness of unidirectional carbon fiber composites with multi-phase matrices based on epoxy, polyethersulfone (PES), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The fracture toughness doubles by adding 15% of PES. The presence of fibers and CNTs is found to significantly influence multi-phase morphology of the matrix.

  8. Communications

    1. Facile Fabrication of Silicon Nanotube Arrays and Their Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Young-You Kim, Han-Jung Kim, Jun-Ho Jeong, Jihye Lee, Jun-Hyuk Choi, Joo-Yun Jung, Jeong-Hwa Lee, Horchhong Cheng, Ki-Won Lee and Dae-Geun Choi

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600213

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      In this work, the authors report a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate silicon nanotubes using a combination of nanoimprint lithography and etching processes. And, the silicon nanotube anode obtained from this method shows a significantly improved electrochemical cycling performance compared to the SiNWs-based anode.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Hydrogen Concentration in Dual-Phase (DP) and Quenched and Partitioned (Q&P) Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) under Simulated Service Conditions Compared with Cathodic Charging Conditions

      Qinglong Liu, Qingjun Zhou, Jeffrey Venezuela, Mingxing Zhang and Andrej Atrens

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600217

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      Hydrogen permeation through dual-phase (DP) (illustrated) and quenched and partitioned (Q&P) advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) is measured for simulated auto service. The hydrogen concentration during corrosion in 3 wt% NaCl solution is lower than that of cathodic charging at –1.100 VHg/HgO in 0.1 M NaOH. Crevice corrosion introduces three times more hydrogen than free corrosion.

  10. Reviews

    1. Mechanical Characterization of BSCF, a Prospective Perovskite Material for Oxygen Separation Membrane: A Brief Review

      Bablu Sikder and Abhijit Chanda

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600199

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      This paper presents a comprehensive review on the mechanical behavior of BSCF, a potential material for oxygen separation membrane. It shows a typical anomalous mechanical behavior at intermediate temperatures which is yet to be explained clearly. The paper critically evaluates all proposed models and identifies the challenges, still lying ahead.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Influence of the Reinforcement Distribution and Interface on the Electronic Transport Properties of MWCNT-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

      Sebastián Suarez, Nicolás Souza, Federico Lasserre and Frank Mücklich

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600216

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      This work analyses the electrical properties of MWCNT-reinforced bulk Ni bulk composites. The authors observe a reduction in the electrical resistivity for 1 wt% CNTs, with a slight increase for higher CNT concentrations. It is concluded that the transport properties are strongly related to the interfacial coherence instead of CNT clustering, as claimed until now by other reports.

    2. Uniaxial Compaction-Based Manufacturing Strategy and 3D Microstructural Evaluation of Near-Net-Shaped ZrO2-Toughened Al2O3 Acetabular Socket

      Debasish Sarkar, Bhimavarapu Sambi Reddy, Sourav Mandal, Mamilla RaviSankar and Bikramjit Basu

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600147

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      Micro-computed tomography image (3D isosurface) of uniaxially pressed ceramic acetabular socket prototype.

  12. Reviews

    1. Three Decades of Auxetics Research − Materials with Negative Poisson's Ratio: A Review

      Krishna Kumar Saxena, Raj Das and Emilio P. Calius

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600053

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      Auxetic materials possess an interesting property of negative Poisson's ratio. By virtue of this negative Poisson's ratio, several other mechanical properties can be enhanced. This review presents briefly the current state of the art and progress in the auxetics research made in the past three decades. The review attractively covers most of the aspects of auxetic materials such as classification, structure, properties, applications, design, and modeling.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Mold Casted TiZrAlV Alloy with Various Zr Contents

      Shunxing Liang, Lixia Yin, Liyun Zheng, Mingzhen Ma and Riping Liu

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600132

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      The TiZr-based alloys with various Zr contents are prepared using graphite mold casting to investigate whether it is suitable for casting and final to reduce application costs. Castings with 60 to 75 wt% Zr have favorable formability and obdurability. Also, major factors affecting mechanical properties are discussed.

    2. Effect of Start-Up Levels on the Stress–Strain Field and Cracking Tendency during Direct-Chill Casting of Magnesium Alloy AZ80

      Yuanyuan Bai, Rufei Wei, Qichi Le and Haitao Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600151

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      Start-up levels have effects on the stress–strain field and cracking tendency during direct-chill casting of magnesium alloy AZ80. Changing the start-up levels causes the changing of dangerous positions. At dangerous position of the billets, increasing start-up levels is benefit for the decrease of cracking damage index (CDI), stresses, and strains. Consequently, increasing start-up levels reasonably can reduce the risk of cracks in the billets.

  14. Communications

    1. High-Speed Surface Structuring of Polycarbonate Using Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Toward 1 m2 min−1 Fabrication Speed Barrier

      Valentin Lang, Teja Roch and Andrés Fabián Lasagni

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600173

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      Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) is used for high-speed processing of carbon-doped polycarbonate. The influence of the laser parameters on the surface topology is investigated. Record fabrication speeds up to 0.9 m2 min–1 are reported, what is enabled by development of advanced optical heads which are capable to overlap the interfering beams and shape them into a line-like contour.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Die Design Modification to Improve Workability during Equal Channel Angular Pressing

      Mohsen Torabi, Ali Reza Eivani, Hamidreza Jafarian and Mohammad Taghi Salehi

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600110

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      Workability of the material during equal channel angular pressing is improved with application of a die with choked exit channel. For comparison, two dies with relieved and choked exit channels are utilized. AA6063 aluminum samples are deformed to failure. Higher workability is found for the sample deformed in the die with choked exit channel.

  16. Reviews

    1. A Review of SiC Fiber Oxidation with a New Study of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber Oxidation

      Megan Wilson and Elizabeth Opila

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600166

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      Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers are oxidized in dry O2 at temperatures between 700 and 1 300 °C. Oxidation rates are determined from oxide thickness measurements, as shown for a fiber oxidized at 1 200 °C for 100 h. A literature review reveals that oxidation kinetics vary with SiC fiber composition.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Solid-State Reactions of SiC/W–25Re Alloy and Thermal Stability of SiC/Ti/W–25Re Alloy under High-Temperature Annealing

      Jun Sae Han, Seung Sik Jang, Dong Yong Park, Yong Jun Oh and Seong Jin Park

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500660

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      Solids-state reactions of SiC/W–25Re and SiC/Ti/W–25Re alloys are investigated under the high-temperature annealing. As an intercalated secondary buffer layer, Ti layer enhances the thermal stability of joint while reducing the thicknesses of both brittle sigma phase and dendrite layer. The work highlights the potential of proposed functionally graded material for the high-temperature environment application.

    2. Synthesis by Vacuum Infiltration, Microstructure, and Thermo-Physical Properties of Graphite–Aluminum Composite

      Haitao Fu, Ying Huang, Haiwei Wu, Yiwen Yang and Meng Zong

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600101

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      Graphite–aluminum composites are fabricated by vacuum infiltration process, and graphite maintains a good integrity and arranges uniformly in aluminum alloy. Thermal conductivity of graphite–aluminum composites perpendicularly to the pressing direction increases from 282 to 398 W mK–1 whereas the volume fraction of flake graphite increases from 40 to 75% in the composites.

  18. Communications

    1. Nano-Size Zirconium-Enriched Cores in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr: An Atomic-Scale HAADF–STEM Study

      Jing-Xu Zheng and Bin Chen

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600140

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      In the present study, nano-size zirconium-enriched cores are observed in Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy by means of atomic-scale HAADF–STEM. The ZCs are identified as defect-incorporated Al2Zr and AlZr2. The interface between the type-I ZC particles and the α-Mg is semi-coherent, which can provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for the solidification of liquid Mg during casting.

    2. Investigation of Interfacial Reaction Products and Stress Distribution in Selective Laser Melted Al12Si/SiC Composite Using Confocal Raman Microscopy

      Xiaopeng Li, Charlie Kong, Thomas Becker and Tim Sercombe

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600150

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      The interfacial reaction products and stress distribution in a selective laser melted Al12Si/SiC composite are studied using confocal Raman microscopy. The results show that the Gaussian distribution of the laser energy density and the interfacial reaction play an important role in determining the stresses within the composite fabricated using selective laser melting.

  19. Full Papers

    1. FE Exploratory Investigation on the Performance of SMA-Reinforced Laminated Glass Panels

      Chiara Bedon and Filipe Amarante dos Santos

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600096

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      The paper explores the feasibility of SMA-reinforced laminated glass panels, in which an adaptive embedded reinforcement system built up of martensitic SMA wires is used. The figure highlights the effects of SMA wires on a point-supported glass panel under wind pressures, by varying the reference temperature. Stress control in glass and decrease of deflections are generally achieved, hence, suggesting further developments toward optimization.

  20. Correction

    1. You have free access to this content
      Producing High-Strength Metals by I-ECAP

      Michal Gzyl, Andrzej Rosochowski, Sonia Boczkal, Lech Olejnik and Mohd Nizam Katimon

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600261

      This article corrects:

      Producing High-Strength Metals by I-ECAP1

      Vol. 18, Issue 2, 219–223, Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2015

  21. Full Papers

    1. Compression Behavior of Ti Foams with Spherical and Polyhedral Pores

      Krzysztof Pałka, Grzegorz Adamek and Jarosław Jakubowicz

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600169

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      The paper investigates the formation, morphology, and mechanical behavior under compression load of Ti foams. Metal foams (70% porosity) are made with spherical and polyhedral voids (pores), respectively. Foams are tested by interrupted compression during μCT scan.

    2. The TiC/Ni–Cr Composites with Low Thermal Expansion and Electrical Resistivity Applied for IT-SOFC Interconnects

      Qian Qi, Yan Liu, Hui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Linlin Gai and Zhengren Huang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600190

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      TiC/Ni-Cr composites are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnects. The contiguity of TiC plays a crucial role on the CTE and electrical resistivity of composites. The partial in situ method and isothermal heat treatment significantly decrease the CTE and electrical resistivity of TiC/Ni–Cr composites by increasing the contiguity of TiC.

    3. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

      Michail J. Beliatis, Martin Helgesen, Rafael García-Valverde, Michael Corazza, Bérenger Roth, Jon E. Carlé, Mikkel Jørgensen, Frederik C. Krebs and Suren A. Gevorgyan

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600119

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      V2O5 is optimized as a hole transport layer in roll-coated organic solar cells and photodetectors and is tested for stability. As a demonstrator, a proximity sensor is constructed based on an organic detector and a light-emitting diode mounted on 3D-printed scaffold. The work highlights the potential of organic solar cells and photodetectors as cost-efficient emerging technologies.

    4. Bone-Inspired Materials by Design: Toughness Amplification Observed Using 3D Printing and Testing

      Flavia Libonati, Grace X. Gu, Zhao Qin, Laura Vergani and Markus J. Buehler

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600143

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      Nature uses few universal building blocks to achieve multi-functionality and amplification of mechanical properties through different hierarchical structures. With a similar approach, it is possible to use pure polymers as building blocks to investigate, through bio-inspired design and 3D printing, the effect of different geometrical features.

    5. Friction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination of Titanium Alloys during Hot Forging Conditions

      Ritanjali Sethy, Lander Galdos, Joseba Mendiguren and Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600060

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      The friction factor of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy under hot forging situation has been determined taking into account the influence of the HTC in the ring tests. For this reason, the combined approach of columnar upsetting thermal tests (HTC test) and ring-compression tests of as-received specimens with and without glass coatings with FE simulation have been performed in this paper.

    6. High-Performance Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composites Enhanced by Aligned Buckypaper

      Zhongrui Li, Jin Gyu Park and Zhiyong Liang

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600130

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      High-performance thermoplastic composites are fabricated by hotpressing self-reinforcing polyphenylene (Parmax) into highly aligned buckypaper. The strong interfacial interactions between Parmax polymer and flattened carbon nanotubes lead to outstanding tensile properties. The high alignment of tubes also boosts thermal conductance and electric conductivity of the composite along the alignment direction of the buckypaper.

    7. Influence of the Surface and Heat Treatment on the Bond Strength of Galvanized Steel/Aluminum Composites Joined by Plastic Deformation

      Christian Hoppe, Christoph Ebbert, Richard Grothe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Illia Hordych, Werner Homberg, Hans Jürgen Maier and Guido Grundmeier

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600085

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      A high joint strength can be achieved by a mechanical joining of ultra-thin oxide film-covered HDG steel and aluminum sheets. The interfacial bonding is based on the intimate contact caused by the pilger process and the similar surface chemical compositions of both metal alloys.

    8. On the Deformation Analysis during RCSR Process Aided by Finite Element Modeling and Digital Image Correlation

      Saeideh Mirab, Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ali Khajezade, Mohamad Abshirini, Mohammad Habibi Parsa and Naser Soltani

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600100

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      The aim of the present study is to optimize the performance of RCSR process as a severe plastic deformation method with high industrial applicability. We have employed FEM and DIC (digital image correlation) analysis and analytical modeling in order to optimize the operation parameters.

    9. Effect of Vanadium on the Solidification and Homogenization Behaviors in Inconel 718 Alloy

      Yan Mo, Dongzhe Wang, Bin Jiang, Yongyou Li, Haiding Liu, Chunguang Wang, Xinnan Cai and Jintai Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600127

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      The Laves phase volume fraction can be reduced by over 80% due to the addition of 0.066 wt% vanadium. The alloying element greatly improves segregation of Inconel 718 alloy during solidification process.

    10. Thermal Stability Study of Vacancy-Type Defects in Commercial Pure Titanium Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

      Ricardo Domínguez-Reyes, Begoña Savoini, Miguel Ángel Monge, Ángel Muñoz and Carmen Ballesteros

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500649

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      Positron annihilation measurements are performed on samples of CP Ti grade 3 in the as-received state and after deformation at true strains up to 3.24 by hydrostatic extrusion at RT. To study the nature and evolution of the resulting defects, isochronal thermal treatments from room temperature to 1 200 °C have been performed.

    11. Mechanical Properties of the Boron Nitride Analog of Graphyne: Scaling Laws and Failure Patterns

      Matthew Becton, Xiaowei Zeng and Xianqiao Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600112

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      BNyne, a boron nitride analog of the material graphyne, is a novel material with unexplored properties. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanism of boron nitride analogs of graphyne with varying chain length. Results indicate that the number of triple-single-bond linker is a vital indicator of material strength and stiffness of BNyne.

    12. Texture Development in Cold Deformed and Recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn Alloy and Its Effects on Hardness and Young's Modulus

      Leonardo Fanton, Nelson Batista de Lima, Alexandra de Oliveira França Hayama, Rubens Caram and João Batista Fogagnolo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600058

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      This study analyzes the development of texture in cold rolled and recrystallized Ti–30Nb–4Sn alloy. Cold rolling promotes an increase in hardness and a decrease in Young's modulus. The decrease in Young's modulus with plastic deformation and the low Young's modulus of the recrystallized sample are associated with the development of texture.

    13. Thermodynamic Explanation for the Large Difference in Improving Shape Memory Effect of Fe–Mn Alloys by Co and Si Addition

      Jie Chen, Jiangwei Sun, Qin Yang, Huabei Peng, Shanling Wang and Yuhua Wen

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500645

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      This figure shows that the values of chemical driving force for ϵ[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]γ transformation (inline image) at room temperature (RT) in the Fe–Mn and Fe–Mn–Co alloys are much lower than in Fe–Mn–Si alloy. This result leads to the occurrence of the stress-induced reverse transformation of thermal ϵ martensite and the poorer shape memory effect in the Fe–Mn and Fe–Mn–Co alloys than in the Fe–Mn–Si alloy.

    14. Influence of Substrate Temperature on LPCVD ZnO Thin Film and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells

      Yuting Guo, Hongbing Zhu, Xiaona Niu, Wen Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Jingwei Chen and Yaohua Mai

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600113

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      ZnO thin films are deposited at different substrate temperatures by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique for application in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells. The substrate temperature has a great influence on the properties of LPCVD ZnO thin films and the device performance of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells.

  22. Reviews

    1. Bulk Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials: A Review

      Jamie J. Kruzic

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600066

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      This paper reviews some of the mechanical behaviors of BMGs relevant for successful structural materials and how they compare and contrast with crystalline metals and ceramics. This paper also reviews some of the strategies that may be used to improve or exploit the characteristics of BMGs so that they may be used in engineering applications.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Fracture Behavior of Cracked Giant Magnetostrictive Materials in Three-Point Bending under Magnetic Fields: Strain Energy Density Criterion

      Marco Colussi, Filippo Berto, Kotaro Mori and Fumio Narita

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500533

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      Terfenol-D under three-point bending tests in the presence of a magnetic field fails at a lower load compared to the test under no magnetic field. The decrease in the fracture load is related to the increase of the energy release rate with increasing magnetic fields. The averaged SED criterion captures this behavior by means of coupled-field FE analyses.

    2. Polyphosphate as a Bioactive and Biodegradable Implant Material: Induction of Bone Regeneration in Rats

      Xiaohong Wang, Shunfeng Wang, Feng He, Emad Tolba, Heinz C. Schröder, Bärbel Diehl-Seifert and Werner E. G. Müller

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600057

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      Polyphosphate (polyP) has been embedded into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres, which are subsequently inserted as implants into rat calvarial bone defects. After a regeneration time of 56 days the implant region has been evaluate and found to be more completely reconstituted with bone tissue, compared to bone defects filled with control microspheres.

    3. Estimation of Surface Topography and Wear Loss of Laser Metal-Deposited Ti6Al4V and Cu

      Mutiu F. Erinosho and Esther T. Akinlabi

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600062

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      The migration of β-phase is impeded during solidification. Low strain hardening effect is posed by the α-Ti lamella. The energy density and the melt pool increases as the laser power increases. Correlation between the surface topography and the wear loss is established. Nucleation site in surface irregularities leads to corrosion cracking in corrosive environment.

    4. A New Criterion for Rupture Assessment of Rubber-Like Materials under Mode-I Crack Loading: The Effective Stretch Criterion

      Majid R. Ayatollahi, Mahdi Heydari-Meybodi, Mohammad Dehghany and Filippo Berto

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600046

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      The effective stretch criterion is proposed for rupture assessment of rubber-like materials in the presence of a crack. The criterion employs two major parameters: critical distance rc and critical effective stretch λce. The former is determined from finite element analysis and the latter from a uniaxial tensile test.

    5. High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Processed by ECAP and Extrusion

      Irina P. Semenova, Alexander V. Polyakov, Veronika V. Polyakova, Yi Huang, Ruslan Z. Valiev and Terence G. Langdon

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500630

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      The fatigue properties of structural Ti materials are critically important issues for the use of these materials in the aircraft industry. This paper demonstrates the higher fatigue resistance of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by the combination of ECAP and extrusion in comparison with the conventional alloy.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shape-Memory Topographies on Nickel–Titanium Alloys Trained by Embossing and Pulse Electrochemical Machining

      Mareike Frensemeier, Dominik Schirra, Martin Weinmann, Olivier Weber and Elmar Kroner

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600012

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      The authors present two approaches to obtain switchable topographies using the two-way shape-memory effect in a nickel–titanium alloy. Samples are structured by cold embossing and pulse electrochemical machining. After planarization, a change of the topography from optically smooth to structured is induced by heating and cooling. Both methods enable the preparation of metallic surfaces with dynamic topographies on larger areas.

    7. On the Effect of Hot Isostatic Pressing on the Creep Life of a Single Crystal Superalloys

      Lais Mujica Roncery, Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea, Benjamin Ruttert, David Bürger, Philip Wollgramm, Gunther Eggeler and Werner Theisen

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600071

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      In the present work the authors compare the creep behavior of a single crystal Ni-base superalloy in two microstructural states, with and without HIP. The HIP process improves creep in two respects: the finer γ/γ’-microstructure results in lower minimum creep rates and the shrinkage of cast porosity during HIP results in higher rupture strains in the low temperature high stress regime.

    8. Failure Mechanism of Brass with Three V-Notches Characterized by Acoustic Emission in In Situ Three-Point Bending Tests

      Pengliang Hou, Zunqiang Fan, Lin Zhang, Xiangguo Zhai, Shizhong Zhang, Cong Li, Yumeng Du and Hongwei Zhao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500599

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      The brass specimens of three V-notches are tested by the AE in in situ three-point bending tests, as shown in the figure. During the bending, the AE signals and in situ images of middle V notch tip morphology are sampled at the same time. The ABAQUS is used to construct the finite element of three-point bending static–load simulations.

    9. Optimization of the Cold Expansion Process for Titanium Holes

      Victor Achard, Alain Daidie, Manuel Paredes and Clément Chirol

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500626

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      This paper discusses the consequences of the cold expansion process on a single titanium hole through a numerical and experimental study. This study presents a new methodology for measuring the intensity of the compressive residual stresses generated at the hole edge. Specifically, the authors use the incremental hole drilling technique to characterize the expanded holes.

    10. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured and Cryogenic-Machined Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

      Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Alberto Bordin, Andrea Ghiotti, Luca Pezzato and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500629

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      Cryogenic machining is a useful technique for finishing Ti6Al4V biomedical implants, as the application of liquid nitrogen improves the machined surface conditions in terms of residual stress, micro-hardness, and corrosion resistance. Fretting corrosion tests are performed for dry- and cryogenic-machined Ti6Al4V samples and the latter ones show both better wear and fretting corrosion behavior.

    11. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction of Copper Busbar

      Jian Chao Pang, Liang Liang Nie, Li Bei Zhu, Zhen Jun Zhang, Ge Yao, Yun Xian Mao, Men Chen and Zhe Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500561

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      By comparing and analyzing the experimental results, it is found that both the fatigue life and dislocation spacing have direct relation without total hysteresis energy, but with relatively simple and stable parameters (strain amplitude, stress amplitude, and hysteresis energy at half-life); however, they have no direct relation with each other.

    12. Advanced Materials for Applications at High Temperature: Fatigue Assessment by Means of Local Strain Energy Density

      Pasquale Gallo and Filippo Berto

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500547

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      The present paper investigates the accuracy of Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged over a control volume approach when applied to high-temperature fatigue data from notched components. The main advantage of SED is that different geometries can be summarized in a single narrow scatter band.

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