Past Cover Pictures 2001
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Cover: The cover shows the microstructure of two magnesium alloys AZ91 (left) and AZ71 (right) that have been cast using the new rheocasting (NRC) process under solution-treated conditions (400°C for 24 h + natural aging). These images clearly show that while there is still some eutectic phase left in AZ91, the microstructure of AZ71 is mostly free of brittle b-phase. A schematic illustration of the NRC process — involving the formation of a thixotropic semi-solid structure — is also depicted on the cover. Full details about this technique, which is useful for semi-solid casting of light metals, and what effect it has on the resulting mechanical properties of the alloys can be found in the review by H. Kaufmann and P. J. Uggowitzer on page 963.
Cover: The cover shows the microstructures of the coated and uncoated (left insert) carbide-hardened superalloy NiCr22Co12Mo9. More about its microstructure and the modeling of its high-temperature deformation behavior can be found in the article by U. Martin et al. on page 871. The authors are from the Institute of Metallurgy of the TU Freiberg, Germany, which celebrates its 100th anniversary this month.
Cover: In the future, surface coatings for steel strip have to be tailored to the specific application, extended in terms of functionality and reduced in thickness. To realise such innovative surface coating technologies a continuous pilot line was set up as an essentialpart of the new surface technology centre DOC (Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum) of ThyssenKrupp Stahl, see the article by B. Schuhmacher et al. on page 681.
Cover: The background shows an atomic force microscopy image of a Cu/Ni multilayer after indentation, while the inserts present (from left to right) Raman spectroscopy imaging on a cross-section of a chromia scale grown on Fe-15Cr-0.5Si-0.2Ti stainless steel, a scanning electron miscroscopy image of a porous substitute for improved bone ingrowth, and a 3D representation of a metallic foam. More on these topics can be found in the articles by M. Verdier et al. (p. 597), M. Pijolat et al. (p. 555), J. Chevalier et al. (p. 563), and E. Maire et al. (p. 539).
Cover: The cover picture shows an EBSD map of transverse section of laser traces for two different solidification conditions. More about solidification microstructure-processing maps can be found in the review article by W. Kurz on page 444.
Cover: The cover shows early evolution stages of an AlSi7 foam (porosities= 23,28,32,43%) as seen by synchrotron tomography. Spatial resolution is 6mm. Monochromatic 30keV X-rays were used which allowed to obtain a strong contrast between pores (black) metal (white) and the blowing agent TiH2 (red). Further foam expansion finally leads to porosities of 85% and spherical pores (see background picture). Surprisingly the early stages of aluminium foams show pronounced fissure-like pores instead of round bubbles as one might expect. Closer examination of the pictures shows that blowing agent particles are mostly located. More about the real-time investigation of aluminum foams can be found in the paper by J. Banhart et al. on page 407.
Cover: The cover shows two longitudinal and transverse cross sections made in a predicted grain structure by simulating the thermal cooling conditions of a con-tinuous casting process. More about the 3D cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model for the prediction of macrostructures formed in casting can be found in the article by Ch.-A. Gandin on page 303.
Cover: The cover picture shows a GE Aircraft Engines CF6 high pressure turbine blade with EB-PVD thermal barrier coating (TBC) in front of a micrograph showing the columnar structure of a YPSZ TBC fabricated by EB-PVD. More about thermal barrier coatings for aeroengines and gas turbines can be read on page 193.
Cover: The cover picture illustrates the diffusion multiple concept to generate large multicomponent composition libraries in a bulk sample for combinatorial surveys of phases, crystal structures, phase diagrams, properties, and composition-phase-property data. More about this combinatorial approach for structural materials can be found in the paper by J.-C. Zhao on page 143.
Cover: The cover shows a modular ceramic microreactor for use in microreaction technology in front of a partial view of a fluidic ceramic component with a medium passage. All components have been produced by means of the rapid prototyping process chain (see article by R. Knitter et al. on page 49).
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