The Laryngoscope

Cover image for Vol. 126 Issue 6

Edited By: Michael G. Stewart, MD, MPH

Impact Factor: 2.144

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 7/44 (Otorhinolaryngology); 69/123 (Medicine Research & Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1531-4995

Author Guidelines

The Laryngoscope is an international peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of patient care in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery. Published on behalf of the Triological Society and the Official Journal of The American Laryngological Association, The Laryngoscope publishes original articles relating to both the clinical and basic science aspects of otolaryngology.

The Laryngoscope reserves the right to exclusive publication of all accepted manuscripts. We will not consider any manuscript previously published nor under review by another publication. Once accepted for review, the manuscript must not be submitted elsewhere. Unethical publishing, such as plagiarism, undisclosed conflicts of interest, inappropriate authorship, and duplicate publication are forbidden. This includes publication in a non-otolaryngology journal or in another language. In case of doubt, disclosure is essential and the Editor is available for consultation. Transfer of copyright to is a prerequisite of publication. All authors must sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement form.

Authors must disclose any financial relationship(s) at the time of submission, and any disclosures must be updated by the authors prior to publication. Information that could be perceived as potential conflict(s) of interest must be stated. This information includes, but is not limited to, grants or funding, employment, affiliations, patents, inventions, honoraria, consultancies, royalties, stock options/ownership, or expert testimony.


The Laryngoscope publishes the types of articles defined below. When submitting your manuscript, please follow the instructions relevant to the applicable article category.

A title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees, institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate one author as the corresponding author. If a paper was presented at a meeting, provide society name, city, state, country, and exact date the meeting was held.


Original Reports present data that have not yet been published. An emphasis is given for higher levels of evidence. Authors must adhere to the CONSORT statement ( when reporting a randomized trial, including a patient flow diagram.

Abstract (250 words) with the headings: Objective, Study Design, Methods, Results, and Conclusion
Key Words
Level of Evidence (see Level of Evidence )
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgments (grants and research support; contributors to the article but who do not qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE)

Word count: 3000 words (abstract – conclusion)
References: 75 references (max)

Figures/Tables: No more than a total of 8 figures and tables

Multi-paneled figures will be counted as multiple figures
Tables with > 6 columns will be counted as multiple tables.

Level of Evidence: Abstracts in original reports must include the Level of Evidence (click on hyperlink to see table). Please review this form to determine the level that is most appropriate for the study conducted.

Contemporary Reviews should review topics of contemporary interest and importance, and ideally should address controversial issues by expressing both sides of the controversy. The review should be comprehensive and authoritative as reflected by a bibliography of the most significant and up to date literature on the topic. The review should emphasize the best evidence currently available. We especially invite collaborative efforts by authors representing different points of view.

Abstract ( 250 words) with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, and Conclusion
Key Words
Acknowledgment (grants and research support)

Word count: 3000 words (abstract – conclusion)
Figures/Tables: No more than a total of 8 figures and tables

Multi-paneled figures will be counted as multiple figures
Tables with > 6 columns will be counted as multiple tables.

Systematic Reviews present clinical topics with significant recent literature and data sources. The literature and data sources should be explored in a thorough and comprehensive manner, preferably with the assistance of a librarian or other professional trained in the proper search of the medical literature. Clearly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of articles should be used and described in the manuscript. Methods for minimizing bias in the selection and evaluation of articles should also be employed.

Evidence-Based Reviews include a systematic review of the literature and also make recommendations for different treatments or procedures, using the same format as an Evidence-Based Guideline: Strong Recommendation, Recommendation, Option, or No Recommendation. These recommendations should be based on a combination of the strength of the evidence, including the assessment of the internal and external validity of the study and the relative benefit and risk of the intervention.

These systematic and evidence-based reviews should be focused and follow the standard format as delineated in the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) document. The PRISMA document can be found at

In brief, Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Reviews should include the following:

  • Description of the focused research question, using the PICOS (Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study design) criteria
  • Comparison, Outcome, and Study design) criteria
  • Critical appraisal of prior reviews on the topic
  • Explicit description of the electronic search strategy and databases used
  • Report the results of the search, the studies screened, and the studies included
  • Explicit description of selection criteria for inclusion in the final review
  • State the primary outcome variable
  • Report the statistical methods used for data analysis and synthesis
  • Extract and report the key outcomes and findings from each study
  • Synthesize the data into a summary analysis
  • Discuss risks of bias across studies
  • Summarize the results of the data synthesis and analysis
  • Provide an overall interpretation of the results, in the context of the published literature

Abstract (250 words) with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, and Conclusion
Key Words
Acknowledgment (grants and research report)

Word count: 4000 words (Abstract through Conclusion)
Figures/Tables: No more than a total of 8 figures and tables

Multi-paneled figures will be counted as multiple figures
Tables with > 6 columns will be counted as multiple tables.

How I Do It submissions papers should offer a novel, substantive approach to an existing clinical practice. Originality and quality of illustrations and videos (when appropriate) are essential ingredients.How I Do It manuscripts should have clear practical value.

Materials and Methods

Word count: 800 – 1500 words
References: 10 – 20 references

Figures/Tables: No more than a total of 6 figures and tables

Multi-paneled figures will be counted as multiple figures
Tables with > 6 columns will be counted as multiple tables.

Triological Society Best Practice submissions are concise reviews providing an answer to a pertinent clinical question. Manuscripts in this category are commissioned by invitation only. Please forward any topic proposals to the Editorial Coordinator at

Triological Society Best Practice submissions should be formatted as follows:

Background: State the controversy succinctly.
Literature Review: Recent published data addressing the question should be briefly reviewed.
Best Practice Summary: One or two sentences summarizing the answer to the question based on current knowledge. Additionally, when appropriate, a sentence regarding a gap in knowledge or future direction of research may also be included.
Level of Evidence: Summary of level of evidence of cited literature in 1–2 sentences.

Word count: 800–1100 words
References: 5
Table or Figure (recommended): 1

Rapid Communications report information of importance to otolaryngology that is not suitable for presentation as a full-length manuscript.

Abstract and references are not required.
Word count: 500–800 words
Figures/Tables: None

Case Reports describe encounters with one or several patients with unique or unusual clinical situations. The key to an acceptable Case Report is the identification of a clinical pearl or clinical wisdom that could benefit future patients.

Abstract ( 100 words)
Case Report

Word count: 1100–1500 words (introduction–conclusion)
References: 5–10

Figures/Tables: No more than a total of 5 figures and tables

Multi-paneled figures will be counted as multiple figures
Tables with > 6 columns will be counted as multiple tables.

Letters to the Editor should be directed to the Editor regarding manuscripts previously published in which significant scientific controversy exists. Letters to the Editor deemed appropriate for publication will be submitted to the author(s) of the manuscript so they can provide comments.

Word count: 400 words
References 5–10


When preparing your manuscript for submission, please note the following guidelines. Original scientific manuscripts and review articles that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Title page must be submitted as part of the manuscript. This should contain: 1) article title ( 100 characters, including spaces); 2) names of authors, their degrees and affiliations (dept., institution, city, state, country); 3) institution where the work was done (indicate which author is in which department); 4) a short running title of ≤ 45 letters and spaces; 5) source of financial support or funding; 6) conflict of interest statement; 7) and a footnote indicating the author to whom correspondence, reprint requests, and proofs will be sent, with complete address (including e-mail address and postal codes) and telephone/fax numbers. If the manuscript was presented at a meeting, give society name, city, state, country, and exact date when the meeting was held.

Conflict of Interest: Any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) the authors' actions.

Financial Disclosures: Any specific financial interests, relationship and affiliations relevant to the subject of the manuscript. These can include employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership, etc.

Abbreviations: Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. Define abbreviations at first mention in text and in each table and figure. For commonly accepted abbreviations, consult Logan’s Medical and Scientific Abbreviations.

Text: Manuscripts should be formatted according to the American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed.). See Article Categories for additional formatting requirements.

  • Number all pages, beginning with the title page as #1.
  • Double-space the manuscript (including references, figure legends, and tables) with minimum 1-inch margins.
  • State all measurements in metric units, and if desired, add English units in parentheses.
  • Begin each table on a separate page.
  • Begin references on a separate page after acknowledgments.

References: The authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references. References should be formatted according to American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed.) Each reference should be identified in the text in numerical order and should be identified by superscript Arabic numerals. Please begin the reference list on a separate page after the acknowledgments. Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references.

When formatting references, provide all authors’ names when fewer than seven; when seven or more, list the first three and add et al. Any articles that are not in English must be translated. See Cumulative Index Medicus for abbreviating journal titles.

Examples of correct forms of references are:

Journal Article

Domenick NA, Johnson JT. Parotid tumor size predicts proximity to the facial nerve. Laryngoscope 2011; 121:2366–2370.

Online Journals

Friedman SA. Preeclampsia: a review of the role of prostaglandins. Obstet Gynecol [serial online]. January 1988;71:22–37. Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean, VA. Accessed December 15, 1990.

Book Chapter

Todd VR. Visual information analysis: frame of reference for visual perception. In: Kramer P, Hinojosa J, eds. Frames of Reference for Pediatric Occupational Therapy. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:205–256.

Entire Book

Webster NR, Galley HF. Anaesthesia Science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.; 2006.


CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 29, 1996.


Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1994.

Web Sites

Gostin LO. Drug use and HIV/AIDS [JAMA HIV/AIDS Web site]. June 1, 1996. Available at: Accessed June 26, 2012.

Tables: Data in tables should supplement, not duplicate, information provided in the text. Tables must be submitted in Excel or Word table format and not as images. Tables should contain at least 2 columns of data, and should not list qualitative information or single-column numeric data that can be easily described in the Results section. Put tables on separate pages and number them in order of their mention in the text. Provide a brief title for each table, and define any abbreviations in table footnotes. See Permissions for information on adapted/reproduced tables.

Figures: Figures must be uploaded separately, including the number of the figure in the description box (e.g., Figure 1). Multi-paneled figures will be counted as separate figures (eg, Figure 1A and Figure 1B = 2 Figures.

Figures can be submitted as EPS, JPEG, and TIFF file types. Figures cannot be embedded in Microsoft programs (Word, PowerPoint, etc.) as this decreases resolution size.

Color illustrations online are free of charge. Authors will be charged for color illustrations in print. The Publisher will provide, upon request, an estimate of the cost of color artwork. Please note that some color figures submitted may be selected by the Editor to be in color for print.

RGB and gray-scale images must be at least 300 dpi. Line art/bitmap images must be at least 1200 dpi.

Please refer to the following Web site for detailed information on digital figure preparation, and to check your figure instantly for printer compatibility:

See Permissions for information on adapted/reproduced figures.

Patient Privacy and Informed Consent: Authors should review the ICMJE section on Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research: Privacy and Confidentiality ( before submitting their manuscript. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Information (eg, names, initials, photographs, etc.) that can identify a patient should not be submitted until written informed consent has been provided. A Patient Consent Form is available, which can be submitted with the manuscript. Any photos of patients must include a black box over the eyes to prevent identification.

Figure Legends: A figure legend is required for each figure. If a figure has multiple panels (eg, left, right or A, B, C) please specify each panel in the legend. Figure legends should appear on a separate text page after the reference list. Please provide definitions for all abbreviations used in the figures, and provide description for all symbols.

Permissions: The author is responsible for obtaining written permission to reproduce previously published material, including figures and tables, from the copyright holder. Enclose all letters granting permission at the time the manuscript is submitted for publication. Any permissions fees that might be required by the copyright owner are the responsibility of the authors requesting use for the borrowed material, not the responsibility of the Triological Society or Wiley-Blackwell. Photographs of recognizable persons must be accompanied by a signed release from the patient. For a photograph of a minor, signed parental permission is required.

Pre-Submission English-Language Editing: Authors for whom English is a second language are encouraged to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Use of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Supporting Information

Supporting information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of supporting information include appendices, additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. All supplemental materials must be submitted with the original submission via ScholarOne for peer review and be approved by the Editor in order to be published online.

Supporting information should be cited within the article text and cover letter, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any supporting information in the desired final format.

Example of Supporting Information in text:

"Robotic-assisted surgery facilitates the performance of highly complex surgeries (Supporting Figure 1)..."

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:


Appendices are considered supporting information and will be published online-only.
Appendices must be submitted online with the rest of the manuscript and labeled as such.

Video Submission

File Size Limitations : < 100 MB

Video Length: 3–5 minutes (exceptions might be considered; contact the editorial office at

Audio: The videos are expected to have an audio component, with “voice-over” explaining the video. The audio component must be in English.

When submitting manuscripts online, authors must indicate whether the manuscript has an accompanying video. This information should be included in the text and cover letter. Video content should be edited to illustrate the key findings in a concise and informative manner. Legends for the video segments should be placed at the end of the manuscript and should concisely and sequentially describe what is seen in the video so that it can be readily understood by the viewer. Do not repeat explanatory material that is already in text. The video should be of high quality (both in content and visibility).

The use of text and/or special transition effects between the titles, subtitles and video segments is permitted. The video submitted should be the final product that will be published with the article. The Editor reserves the right to request additional video editing by the authors.

Permissions: The corresponding author must confirm in the Copyright Transfer Form that he/she has received a signed release form from each patient videotaped authorizing the offline and/or online distribution of this video material. Manuscripts with videos will require the patient consent form at initial submission or (latest) revision.

Studies on Hearing Levels

For studies describing hearing levels, the journal requires that authors utilize the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery minimal reporting standard for reporting audiometric data. While authors are welcome to interpret their data in any way they find interesting and informative, to facilitate comparison among studies, results must include the minimal data set in the standardized reporting format. To assist authors, a formatted Excel database template is available:

To use the spreadsheet, follow the directions below:

1. Open spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel for Windows or for the 2004 version of Excel for Apple computers. This spreadsheet creates images through Visual Basic software which is not compatible with more recent versions of Excel for Macs.
2. Enable macros.
3. Copy and paste your pre-treatment PTA and WRS data in to the columns labeled "Pre-treatment PTA" and "Pre-treatment WRS."
4. Copy and paste your post-treatment PTA and WRS data into the columns labeled "Post-treatment PTA" and "Post-treatment WRS."
5. Ensure that your "pre-" and "post-" treatment columns are aligned so that the same patients' data are entered on the same row.
6. Press the "Pre-treatment PTA vs. WRS" and/or "Changes after treatment" buttons to generate a high-resolution .bmp image file. This file can then be manipulated by imaging software to change its format as needed.


Authorship Criteria: The Laryngoscope insists that all authors are truly qualified to be listed as such according to the criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The following three criteria must be met to qualify for authorship:

1. Conception and design of project or analysis of the manuscript data;
2. Drafting or critically revising the content of the manuscript submitted for publication, and;
3. Giving final approval of the version to be published.

Others who have contributed to the work but are not qualified to be authors should be “acknowledged” at the end of the article.

Financial Disclosure Information: In the title page of the manuscript, all authors must disclose all financial relationships for their manuscript and work. Any financial interests the authors may have in companies or other entities must be cited. These include grants, advisory boards, employment, consultancies, contracts, honoraria, royalties, expert testimony, partnerships, or stock ownership in medically-related fields. If the authors disclose no conflicts of interest, please write “none.”

Policy Regarding Inappropriate Submissions and Publications: All Editors, Editorial Board members, and publisher’s staff at The Laryngoscope take great responsibility to ensure that the highest ethical publication standards are maintained by assisting in safeguarding the medical scientific literature against fraudulent publications. Please note manuscript submissions are now submitted for plagiarism detection through iThenticate. The Laryngoscope’s policy is based on the “Guidelines on Good Publication Practice” published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Examples of fraud in scientific research include (but are not limited to): 1) the submission of duplicate publications using similar data (ie, attesting the work submitted is original when it was submitted or accepted by another journal); 2) falsification of data, copyright, or information regarding conflict of interest; 3) submission of work from other sources that was not done by the author and is presented as original (ie, plagiarism); 4) authorship (allowing one’s name to appear as an author or adding an author to a manuscript) without substantial input or without having agreed to submission of the manuscript; 5) self-plagiarism (duplicating previously published material).

If there are questions as to any issues regarding inappropriate submission, the Editor should be consulted prior to the submission. If a submitted or published manuscript is discovered or suspected to be inappropriate, the authors will be asked for a written explanation. If the rationale provided by the authors remains unsatisfactory in the judgment of the editors, the manuscript will be rejected or retracted. Retractions become a matter of public record and are registered in PubMed. The provost (or equivalent) of the authors’ academic institutions will be informed of inappropriate submissions or publications, and the authors will not be allowed to subsequently submit their research to The Laryngoscope. The leadership of The Laryngoscope will also inform the editors and publishers of other journals which have published manuscripts judged to be inappropriately submitted to The Laryngoscope.

Institutional Review Board Policy and Animal Studies: Manuscripts that report data involving human participants require formal review and approval or formal review and waiver (exemption) by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee. This should be described in the Methods section with the full name of the reviewing entity. All critical research require formal review.

Manuscripts reporting the results of investigations of animal subjects must indicate approval by an Animal Care, Use, and Research Committee. Authors should state that the care and handling of the animals were in accord with National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines or other internationally recognized guidelines for ethical animal research. Any questions regarding the IRB requirements should be directed to the editorial office.

Researchers working in countries that have different requirements for approval of research involving human subjects or animals must meet local legal requirements and generally accepted ethical principles such as those set out in the Nuremberg code, Belmont report, and the Declaration of Helsinki.

Notice NIH Grant Recipients: Pursuant to the NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see


Manuscripts should be submitted online at:

Before submitting, check for an existing account. If authors are submitting for the first time, create a new account. At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with a manuscript number will appear and the author will receive an e-mail confirming that the manuscript has been received by the journal. If this does not happen, please check the submission and/or contact tech support at

Submitting Revisions: If you have been invited to submit a revised manuscript, please submit it online via ScholarOne following instructions found there. When submitting a revision, please submit both a clean copy and marked copy of the manuscript. The marked copy should highlight all of the changes made the by the authors after the original review. Authors can use the track changes feature of the Microsoft Word program to create a marked copy. Authors also should submit all tables and figures in separate files for production purposes.

Author Corrections on Proofs: The corresponding author will be provided page proofs and asked to check for errors and editorial queries. Although the correction of editorial and typographical errors will be made without charge, the cost of excessive additional alterations may be charged to the author. Proofs must be checked carefully and corrections returned within 24 to 48 hours of receipt, as requested in the communication accompanying the page proofs. Publication of the article may be delayed if the proofs are not sent back in a timely manner.

Reprints. Authors can order reprints at Reprint requests should be faxed to the publisher with the corrected proofs. Reprints are normally shipped 4 to 6 weeks after publication of the issue in which the item appears. For questions on reprints, contact the reprint representative at

Note to Contributors on Deposit of Accepted Version

Authors are permitted to self-archive the peer-reviewed (but not final) version of the Contribution on the Contributor’s personal website, in the Contributor’s company/institutional repository or archive, and in certain not for profit subject-based repositories such as PubMed Central as listed at the following website:, subject to an embargo period of 12 months for scientific, technical and medical (STM) journals and 24 months for social science and humanities (SSH) journals following publication of the final Contribution.

There are separate arrangements with certain funding agencies governing reuse of this version as set forth at the following website:

The Contributor may not update the accepted version or replace it with the published Contribution.

Author Services: WALS Author Services enables authors to track their accepted article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production. The author will receive an email with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete email address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Copyright/License Agreement
f your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the non-standard CTA
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the non-standard CTA to sign. The terms and conditions of the non-standard CTA can be previewed below:\

Terms and Conditions of the non-standard CTA
Please do not complete this PDF until you are prompted to log in to Author Services as described above.

Note to Contributors on Deposit of Accepted Version
Funder Arrangements:
Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period. Details of funding arrangements are set out at the following website: Please contact the Journal production editor if you have additional funding requirements.
Institutions: Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit the deposit of the Accepted Version in the institutional repository after an embargo period. Details of such arrangements are set out at the following website:

Note to Authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following:

Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA)

• Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit

Publisher’s Contact: Email corrected page proofs and any other related materials to the Senior Production Editor at

Editorial Coordinator: Questions/concerns on manuscript types, author guidelines, etc. can be directed to the Editorial Coordinator at

Peer Review Coordinator: Questions on manuscript uploading, manuscript status, etc. can be directed to the Peer Review Coordinator at