International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Professor Barry G. Evans

Impact Factor: 0.7

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 16/30 (Engineering Aerospace); 64/82 (Telecommunications)

Online ISSN: 1542-0981


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  1. Special Issue Papers

    1. Robust multi-rate modulation for cognitive radio communications over land mobile satellite channel at Ku-band

      Maurizio Murroni, Vlad Popescu, Mauro Fadda and Daniele Giusto

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1198

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      The performance of MUPA applied to MRM for CR satellite networks is analyzed. Assuming perfect knowledge of the channel opportunities, different typical CR transmission scenarios have been considered by varying channel opportunity (i.e., B × T) availability from low to high busy channel. To reproduce the memory associated with the LMS channel, the two-state Markov model has been used.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Small and large scale site diversity experiment at Ka-band in the south of France

      Xavier Boulanger, Frédéric Lacoste and Laurent Castanet

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1190

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      This article presents the results of the ONERA-CNES Ka-band site diversity experiment. The description of the experimental set-up and the statistical results from July 2013 to December 2014 are provided. The complementary cumulative distribution functions of rain attenuation and the joint distributions for several pairs of radio links are illustrated. Comparisons of the measured diversity gain with two prediction models are also presented.

    2. Cramer-Rao lower bound and parameter estimation for multibeam satellite links

      Wilfried Gappmair and Alberto Ginesi

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1187

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      For multibeam satellite links under (full) frequency reuse, interference mitigation techniques are of paramount importance. Before such methods are applicable, however, the most important transmission parameters have to be recovered successfully. The detailed analysis of the related log-likelihood function shows that a beamwise decoupling of the estimation task is possible, if the following three conditions are met: (i) alignment of all frequency offsets; (ii) symbol synchronicity; (iii) orthogonal synchronization sequences.

    3. Fully digital BPSK demodulator for satellite supressed carrier telecommand system

      Antonio Macilio Pereira de Lucena, Magno Prudêncio de Almeida Filho, Caio Gomes de Figueredo, Diego Braga Pimentel, Clauson Sales do Nascimento Rios and Francisco de Assis Tavares Ferreira da Silva

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1188

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      This paper presents the design of a digital binary phase shift keying demodulator for application in satellite high-rate carrier telecommand system. The design of all functional modules is shown in details as well as the mathematical analyses concerning the performance evaluation. Test results of a field-programmable gate array implemented prototype are presented and discussed.

    4. A constant false alarm rate frame detector for satellite-based automatic identification system

      Haosu Zhou, Jianxin Wang, Peixin Zhang and Tian Ban

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1189

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      We propose a constant false alarm rate frame detector for satellite-based automatic identification system in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise and frequency offset. False alarm probability and detection probability of the proposed detector, which is based on the periodicity of the training sequence, are analyzed in this paper. Simulation results prove that performance of the proposed detector is superior to that of the frame detector based on cyclic autocorrection when message collisions exist.

    5. Peer-to-peer cooperation for GPS positioning

      Simone Morosi, Alessio Martinelli and Enrico Del Re

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1186

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      A peer-to-peer cooperative positioning technique is presented, which is based on the cooperation between two software-defined GPS receivers by means of a wireless LAN connection. Both the outdoor-to-indoor and outdoor-to-outdoor scenarios are considered. For each scenario, we assess the satellite signal acquisition and its computational load and the performance in terms of position accuracy and time-to-first fix of the positioning procedure.

    6. Using SPDY to improve Web 2.0 over satellite links

      Andrea Cardaci, Luca Caviglione, Erina Ferro and Alberto Gotta

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1185

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      This paper evaluates the performance of SPDY, which is a protocol optimized for the access to Web 2.0 contents over fixed and mobile devices, when used both in real and emulated satellite. Results indicate its effectiveness if compared with HTTP, but at the price of a more fragile behavior when in the presence of errors. Nevertheless, our investigation also showcase how SPDY can also reduce the transport overhead experienced by middleboxes typically deployed by service providers using satellite links.

    7. Time diversity evaluation for attenuation mitigation method using attenuation data in Thailand and Japan

      Peeramed Chodkaveekityada and Hajime Fukuchi

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1184

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      Non-real-time satellite communication techniques are alternative methods of transmitting and receiving very important data that must be recorded and retained during the occurrence of severe rainfall events. A novel mitigation approach based on time diversity has been proposed to be an efficient method to solve data loss during severe rainfall. Because of recent advances in technology, this approach is now becoming feasible.

    8. Prediction model of time diversity using Japan rain radar data

      Peeramed Chodkaveekityada and Hajime Fukuchi

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1182

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      The 21-GHz band has been proposed for next-generation broadcasting satellite. The main problem in higher frequency band of the satellite communication is the rain attenuation. Time diversity is a novel method that can be solved data loss during severe rainfall, and this technique is likely to demonstrate high effectiveness.

    9. A new satellite communication bandwidth allocation combined services model and network performance optimization

      Wenliang Lin, Zhongliang Deng, Qin Fang, Ning Li and Ke Han

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1181

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      A new satellite communication bandwidth allocation combined services model and network performance optimization has been proposed to improve network performance for new satellite services.

    10. Strobe double phase estimator: a multipath mitigating technique for BOC signal in GNSS based on double phase estimator

      Xu Chengtao, Liu Zhe, Tang Xiaomei and Wang Feixue

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1180

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      In this paper, a strobe double phase estimator technique is proposed with two reference strobe waveforms based on the strobe pulse method. The SDPE algorithm has a better performance with 75.1% to 82.5% than the conventional DPE for different BOC signals. However, the SDPE experiences a loss of -6 and -7.25 dB, respectively, in terms of the post-coherent signal-to-noise ratio

    11. A lightweight authentication scheme based on self-updating strategy for space information network

      Yuchen Liu, Aixin Zhang, Shenghong Li, Junhua Tang and Jianhua Li

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1179

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      Our paper proposes a lightweight authentication scheme based on the self-updating strategy for user's temporary identify. The proposed mechanism guarantees that only the registered users and trustworthy network control center can make the updating synchronized. The analysis works show that the proposed authentication scheme can meet all of the security requirements for space information network at the lowest computation and storage costs.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      WiSE – a satellite-based system for remote monitoring

      Sajid Nazir, Gorry Fairhurst and Fabio Verdicchio

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1176

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      Recent technological advancements in sensors, processors and communications technology make it viable to perform digital acquisition of environmental data from remote locations. The Wireless Internet Sensing Environment project developed an architecture providing control and retrieval of data from networked sensors and cameras at a remote location using satellite Internet. This paper describes architecture and innovative design features for motion event detection, power management and data backhaul.

    13. New formulation of GNSS acquisition with CFAR detection

      Kamel Benachenhou, Mhamed Hamadouche and Abdelmalik Taleb-Ahmed

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1177

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      This paper deals with the analysis of the acquisition process performed by a global navigation satellite system receiver with a pilot and data channel or in case of global navigation satellite system hybrid receiver. To realize this operation, firstly, we introduce a cell- averaging-constant false alarm rate (CFAR) then secondly a data-pilot cell-averaging-CFAR detector fusion based. In the two cases, we derive a closed-form analytic expression for the probabilities of detection and false alarm, which are validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

    14. A novel routing design in the IP-based GEO/LEO hybrid satellite networks

      Zhaofeng Wu, Guyu Hu, Fenglin Jin, Yu Song, Yinjin Fu and Guiqiang Ni

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1174

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      Based on the division of the Earth surface, the geostationary orbit/low earth orbit hybrid satellite network is able to achieve the separation of the user layer and the satellite segment along with the separation of the user identifier and locator, which greatly facilitates the user mobility management in the satellite networks. The proposed hop-constrained adaptive routing mechanism can then be applied to realize the load balancing in the low earth orbit satellite segment.

    15. A modified normalized min-sum algorithm for LDPC decoding using order statistics

      Wen Xue, Tian Ban and Jianxin Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1173

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      We propose a new modified normalized min-sum algorithm (NMSA) for low-density parity-check codes decoding. Two different modification factors are used to normalize the results of check node renew calculations. Simulation results show that the new modified NMSA achieves better bit error rate performance than NMSA without adding implementation complexity.

    16. Collision-interference cancellation for space-based AIS using beam synthesis technology with optimal sparse linear array

      Guofeng Zha, Hongqiang Wang, Yongqiang Cheng and Yuliang Qin

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1165

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      This study proposes the sparse linear array optional beam synthesis (SLA–OBS) technology to improve the capture ability of AIS message. The message detection probability with the proposed method can be greater than 95% in the serious situation with small number of spare linear antennas (no more than six). The proposed method has a much higher ship-detection probability compared with the sub-satellite point cancellation (SSPC) method and the crossed dipoles cancellation (CDC method).

    17. Joint cooperative spectrum sensing and channel selection optimization for satellite communication systems based on cognitive radio

      Min Jia, Xin Liu, Xuemai Gu and Qing Guo

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1169

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      A cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm based on a time or bandwidth-based cooperative spectrum-sensing model of an integrated/hybrid cooperative satellite communication system is proposed. The cooperative spectrum sensing is able to cope with the interference to the primary user caused by a secondary user better. The satellite component combines the sensing results from earth stations to reach a final decision, and the optimal combination weights to maximize the detection probability of the secondary user are obtained.

    18. Co-channel interference cancelation at the user terminal in multibeam satellite systems

      Giuseppe Cocco, Martina Angelone and Ana I. Pèrez-Neira

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1155

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      We study the applicability of soft interference cancelation in the forward link of multibeam satellite systems with focus on mobile terminals. Starting from the analysis of the interference pattern, we study the application of a low-complexity soft interference cancelation scheme for commercial applications. Our results show that, under realistic conditions, a two-colors frequency reuse scheme can be employed while guaranteeing service availability across the coverage and keeping the complexity at the user terminals relatively low.

    19. Smart framework for GNSS-based navigation in urban environments

      Sul Gee Park and Deuk Jae Cho

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1166

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      Intelligent Transport System applications require accurate and reliable positioning. When stand-alone global positioning system is used in urban areas, the results dramatically degrade, because of signal outages and multipath. This paper unveils new signal processing techniques for carrier phase-based navigation in urban environments. The techniques identify multipath or weak signals using carrier phase-based receiver autonomous integrity monitoring, and abnormal signals and situational measurements are eliminated or estimated.

    20. Optimising DVB-S2 spectral efficiency with hierarchical modulation for broadband applications

      Hugo Méric

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1170

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      This article demonstrates that hierarchical modulation can improve the spectral efficiency of broadband applications in a digital video broadcasting–satellite–second-generation system. The computation of the spectral efficiency relies on solving a linear programming problem. Our proposal achieves significant gains, up to 15%, for a large range of channel quality.

    21. Packet scheduling in MIMO satellite long term evolution networks

      Gbolahan Aiyetoro, Giovanni Giambene and Fambirai Takawira

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1156

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      The aim of this paper is to propose new cross-layer packet scheduling schemes that achieve a good trade-off among throughput, QoS and fairness and to conduct performance comparisons with other scheduling schemes in the literature. This is the reason this paper also proposes a new performance index that can be used to evaluate the overall performance of each scheduler. The work shows that the new cross-layer scheduler, called channel-based queue sensitive scheduler, attains the best performance in terms of the new comprehensive performance index, thus representing an interesting solution for future mobile satellite systems.

    22. DTN routing for quasi-deterministic networks with application to LEO constellations

      R. Diana, E. Lochin, L. Franck, C. Baudoin, E. Dubois and P. Gelard

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1159

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      This article proposes a DTN routing algorithm, called DQN, specifically designed for quasi-deterministic networks such as satellite constellations. DQN efficiently forwards the information over a satellite network while keeping a low replication overhead. DQN is compared against other well-known DTN routing schemes and provides the lowest replication ratio with a delivery ratio of the same order of magnitude than a reference theoretical optimal routing.

    23. Robust security framework for DVB-RCS satellite networks (RSSN)

      Ahmed Abdelsalam, Daniel Caragata, Michele Luglio, Cesare Roseti and Francesco Zampognaro

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1154

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      Security is a paramount requirement in satellite communication. This paper proposes a suitable robust security framework for security internet protocol traffic over digital video broadcasting-return channel via satellite networks. The proposed security framework is inspired from the robust security mechanism of IEEE802.11i wireless local area network. However, we considered the special characteristics of satellite networks during the design of each phase of the framework. The proposed security framework has been analyzed considering the three main aspects required: compatibility, security, and performance.

    24. Efficient soft demodulation schemes for the DVB-S2X system

      Meixiang Zhang and Sooyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1139

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      This paper proposes efficient soft demodulation methods for the 64, 128, and 256 amplitude and phase shift keying schemes defined in the digital video broadcasting via satellite second-generation system. This paper first derives hard decision threshold lines for the constituent bits in a symbol and subsequently presents compact equations to estimate the soft bit information. In addition, a modified max-log method is proposed, which achieves the same performance as the original max-log method but with reduced complexity.

    25. Receiver memory management method for HARQ in LTE-based satellite communication system

      Tae Chul Hong, Kunseok Kang, Bon-Jun Ku and Dae-Ig Chang

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1137

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      For quality of service provision, the satellite user terminal needs a larger size of memories than the terrestrial terminal does. This is very evident by considering that the N-channel stop and wait hybrid automatic repeat request requires proportionally increasing memory size by the propagation delay, resulting in unmanageable amount of memories in the satellite system. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient memory management method at the user terminal when the size of memory is insufficient.

    26. Satellite constellation design for telecommunication in Antarctica

      Sanghyun Lee, Yunhe Wu and Daniele Mortari

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1128

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      This paper addresses the problem of designing a small satellite constellation suitable for communications with Antarctica. The scientific expeditions in Antarctica require continuous and reliable communication services. A three-satellite constellation using elliptical orbits is proposed. The critical inclination has been selected to predominantly keep the satellites over Antarctica. This configuration has been obtained by using the two-dimensional lattice flower constellation design theory. This aspect provides the continuous coverage necessary for reliable communications using only a small number of satellites.

    27. Code design for adaptive coding and modulation indicator in broadcast systems

      Farbod Kayhan and Guido Montorsi

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1131

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      In this paper, we propose an unequal error protection coding scheme for frame headers of adaptive coding and modulation systems. We show that both the average and maximum lengths of a frame header can be reduced significantly by properly designing the codebook considering the characteristics of the given communication system.

    28. Space communications with variable elevation angle faded by rain: Radio links to the Sun–Earth first Lagrangian point L1

      Emilio Matricciani

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1134

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      Differently from geostationary satellites, all the other types of space orbits, including Low Earth Orbits, Medium Earth Orbits, High Elliptical Orbits, or orbits for interplanetary navigation, communicate with ground stations with radio links through slant paths in the troposphere with a time-variable elevation angle. At frequencies greater than 10 GHz, all these radio links are faded by rain. I have investigated how rain attenuation changes in slant paths to a spacecraft located at the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L1. The results are valid also for communications with spacecrafts orbiting Mercury, such as the ESA Bepi Colombo spacecraft. The time distribution of the rain events during the 24 h is an important factor when the observation time is only during the daylight; therefore, the prediction of rain attenuation must consider only the rain rate collected during the contact time, according to the local climate.

    29. A channel state-driven ACM algorithm for mobile satellite communications

      Daniele Tarchi, Giovanni E. Corazza and Alessandro Vanelli Coralli

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1133

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      The last decade has been characterized by an increasing demand of higher throughput and more reliable communication links for supporting multimedia applications. In order to exploit such advanced services, ubiquitous and efficient mobile connections are required: satellite communications, able to cover low-density populated areas and to fill terrestrial coverage gaps, are a viable solution. In this paper, we focus on a novel state-driven adaptive coding and modulation approach based on channel state estimation and a Markov propagation model.

    30. A new design approach for dual-band patch antenna serving Ku/K band satellite communications

      M. R. Ahsan, M. T. Islam, M. Habib Ullah, R. W. Aldhaheri and M. M. Sheikh

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1130

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      A modified rectangular slotted patch antenna of 40 × 35 × 1.905 mm3 has been proposed and fabricated on ceramic-polytetrafluoroethylene substrate of dielectric constant εr = 10.2. The results from experimental analysis show that the antenna covers 12.0 to 16.4 GHz for Ku band and 17.53 to 19.5 GHz for K band satellite and radar applications. The proposed antenna has achieved good reflection coefficients over the operating bands and satisfactory gain characteristics; this antenna is reasonably suitable candidate for Ku/K band satellite applications.

    31. A method to achieve clear-sky data-volume download in satellite links affected by tropospheric attenuation

      Emilio Matricciani

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1126

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      We study a particular time integral of Atrop(t): (a) to define the average efficiency of a radio channel faded by the troposphere and (b) to design a method that can theoretically achieve the same volume of data downloaded in clear-sky conditions (no troposphere), even if the radio link is faded by the troposphere. The average efficiency and its bounds can be calculated from the complementary probability distribution of A as follows: inline image

    32. A congestion control middleware layer with dynamic bandwidth management for satellite communications

      Maurizio Casoni, Carlo Augusto Grazia, Martin Klapez and Natale Patriciello

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/sat.1129

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      While the standard transmission control protocol performs badly when employed on satellite links for the high propagation delay, when a number of client hosts are wirelessly connected to a gateway that forwards and receives traffic across such links, the major limit is represented by the channel condition estimation performed by transmission control protocol itself. This paper presents C2ML+, a congestion control middleware layer coupled with a bandwidth management algorithm, designed to exploit the full bottleneck link potential even in the case of oscillations in bandwidth utilization from client hosts.


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