Space Weather


  1. Introduction to Special Section

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to Special Section
    3. Research Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      The CRaTER Special Issue of Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation (pages 47–48)

      N. A. Schwadron, S. Smith and H. E. Spence

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20026

      Key Points

      • Need for validated measurements of radiation environment
  2. Research Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to Special Section
    3. Research Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Radiation modeling in the Earth and Mars atmospheres using LRO/CRaTER with the EMMREM Module (pages 112–119)

      C. J. Joyce, N. A. Schwadron, J. K. Wilson, H. E. Spence, J. C. Kasper, M. Golightly, J. B. Blake, L. W. Townsend, A. W. Case, E. Semones, S. Smith and C. J. Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013SW000997

      Key Points

      • We model GCR dose and dose equivalent rates in Earth and Mars atmospheres
      • Dose rates are in reasonable agreement with nearby measurements
      • Data products will soon be made available on PREDICCS website
  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to Special Section
    3. Research Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Papers
    1. Does the worsening galactic cosmic radiation environment observed by CRaTER preclude future manned deep space exploration? (pages 622–632)

      N. A. Schwadron, J. B. Blake, A. W. Case, C. J. Joyce, J. Kasper, J. Mazur, N. Petro, M. Quinn, J. A. Porter, C. W. Smith, S. Smith, H. E. Spence, L. W. Townsend, R. Turner, J. K. Wilson and C. Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014SW001084

      Key Points

      • GCR radiation is increasingly hazardous
      • Radiation limited duration for missions in deep space
      • Timing during solar cycle of missions remains a critical factor
    2. Radiation environment at the Moon: Comparisons of transport code modeling and measurements from the CRaTER instrument (pages 329–336)

      Jamie A. Porter, Lawrence W. Townsend, Harlan Spence, Michael Golightly, Nathan Schwadron, Justin Kasper, Anthony W. Case, John B. Blake and Cary Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013SW000994

      Key Points

      • Vavilov corrections should be incorporated into simulated results
      • The predictions of the transport codes reasonably agree with the CRaTER LET
      • The observed LET can be used to help validate space radiation transport codes
  4. Technical Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Introduction to Special Section
    3. Research Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Relative contributions of galactic cosmic rays and lunar proton “albedo” to dose and dose rates near the Moon (pages 643–650)

      Harlan E. Spence, Michael J. Golightly, Colin J. Joyce, Mark D. Looper, Nathan A. Schwadron, Sonya S. Smith, Lawrence W. Townsend, Jody Wilson and Cary Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013SW000995

      Key Points

      • GCR accounts for ~91% of dose near the Moon; 9% comes from albedo, mainly protons
      • Heavy ions contribute significantly to dose equivalent
      • Lunar dose rate is approximately one half of deep space, but albedo adds back ~9%
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      Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (pages 547–556)

      Nathan Schwadron, Chris Bancroft, Peter Bloser, Jason Legere, James Ryan, Sonya Smith, Harlan Spence, Joe Mazur and Cary Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20095

      Key Points

      • Early-stage space technology research project
      • Laboratory measurements from DoSEN prototype
      • Low-mass instrument that detects full spectrum of radiation
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      The deep space galactic cosmic ray lineal energy spectrum at solar minimum (pages 361–368)

      A. W. Case, J. C. Kasper, H. E. Spence, C. J. Zeitlin, M. D. Looper, M. J. Golightly, N. A. Schwadron, L. W. Townsend, J. E. Mazur, J. B. Blake and Y. Iwata

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20051

      Key Points

      • GCR measured by CRaTER during highest flux in space age
      • Lineal energy spectra are presented from solar minimum
      • Lineal energy spectra provide basis for detailed transport modeling
    4. You have free access to this content
      Validation of PREDICCS using LRO/CRaTER observations during three major solar events in 2012 (pages 350–360)

      C. J. Joyce, N. A. Schwadron, J. K. Wilson, H. E. Spence, J. C. Kasper, M. Golightly, J. B. Blake, J. Mazur, L. W. Townsend, A. W. Case, E. Semones, S. Smith and C. J. Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20059

      Key Points

      • The PREDICCS radiation model is capable of accurate forecasting
      • Dose rates measured by CRaTER and predicted by PREDICCS are in good agreement
      • CRaTER dose rates may be used to compute the modulation potential at the Moon
    5. You have free access to this content
      Measurements of galactic cosmic ray shielding with the CRaTER instrument (pages 284–296)

      C. Zeitlin, A. W. Case, H. E. Spence, N. A. Schwadron, M. Golightly, J. K. Wilson, J. C. Kasper, J. B. Blake, M. D. Looper, J. E. Mazur, L. W. Townsend and Y. Iwata

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20043

      Key Points

      • CRaTER measures the shielding effects of cosmic rays by TEP
      • Measurements are compared both to model predictions and accelerator data
      • The results agree with predictions from models and accelerator data
    6. You have free access to this content
      The radiation environment near the lunar surface: CRaTER observations and Geant4 simulations (pages 142–152)

      M. D. Looper, J. E. Mazur, J. B. Blake, H. E. Spence, N. A. Schwadron, M. J. Golightly, A. W. Case, J. C. Kasper and L. W. Townsend

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/swe.20034

      Key Points

      • CRaTER measured GCRs and lunar
      • Geant4 models of sensor response and albedo help us understand the observations
      • We extract LET spectra over a broad energy deposit range from the measurements

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