Space Weather

Space Weather

The Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module

Guest Editor(s): N. Schwadron

Description: The United States is preparing to return humans to the Moon and setting the stage for exploration to Mars and beyond. However, it is unclear if long missions outside of Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) can be accomplished with acceptable risk. The central objective of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM) is to develop and validate a numerical module for completely characterizing time-dependent radiation exposure in the Earth-Moon-Mars and Interplanetary space environments. EMMREM currently provides the capability to predict radiation exposure in the interplanetary environment outside of Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere and at various heights of a nominal Mars atmosphere. Ongoing and future efforts will fold in the effects of Earth's atmosphere and the geomagnetic field so that the radiation environment can be predicted near the Earth's surface, at LEO and at various geomagnetic latitudes. EMMREM is being designed for broad use by researchers to predict radiation exposure by integrating over time-evolving incident particle distributions from interplanetary space. The EMMREM module represents a growing and developing system of coupled models that describe particle acceleration and transport in interplanetary space, and secondary transport through shielding materials, atmospheres and various parts of the human body to determine doses, dose-rates and Linear-Energy-Transfer spectra. Thus, EMMREM makes the explicit connection from observations, and simulations of solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays to characterization of the potential hazards of the radiation environment and to acute radiation risks. The papers in this volume will describe: The use of observations near 1 AU from ACE, GOES and IMP-5 for the historic August 1972 event to characterize the near Earth radiation environment. These observations are used as time-dependent boundary conditions near 1 AU in an energetic particle propagation and acceleration module (the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module, EPREM) to predict the radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere. Observations at Ulysses (near 5 AU) are then used to validate the EPREM predictions; Event based simulations in the inner heliosphere to predict time-dependent estimates of organ exposures for human crews in deep space; Risk assessment approaches for Solar Particle Events; A model for prompt-SEP dose-rate forecasting for the Earth-moon system; The transmission of SEPs and GCRs through the Mars Atmosphere to predict the radiation environment at Mars; The coupling between the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module and magnetohydrodynamic models to improve the predictions of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere; Ulysses observations and a model of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) used to improve our understanding of recent GCR fluxes and associated GCR dose-rates throughout the inner heliosphere; Predictions of the Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum for the CRaTER detector during the LRO Mission; Predictions of the space radiation environment during gradual solar energetic Particle events using physics based particle acceleration models. Thus, the papers in this special issue of Space Weather introduce the EMMREM project, and provide a baseline for current understanding of the space environment beyond Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere.

  1. Technical Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Technical Article
    1. You have free access to this content
      Evaluating predictions of ICME arrival at Earth and Mars

      T. V. Falkenberg, A. Taktakishvili, A. Pulkkinen, S. Vennerstrom, D. Odstrcil, D. Brain, G. Delory and D. Mitchell

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011SW000682

      Key Points

      • ICME propagation to Mars can be predicted
      • CME input parameters must be improved
      • Travel time for ICMEs from Earth to Mars is shorter than expected
    2. You have free access to this content
      Transmission of galactic cosmic rays through Mars atmosphere

      L. W. Townsend, M. PourArsalan, F. A. Cucinotta, M. Y. Kim and N. A. Schwadron

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000564

      Key Points

      • Estimates needed for human exposure to galactic cosmic rays at Mars surface
      • Lookup tables are provided for estimating GCR exposures on the surface of Mars
    3. You have free access to this content
      Operational models and drag-derived density trends in the thermosphere

      Kenneth Moe and Mildred M. Moe

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010SW000650

    4. You have free access to this content
      Space radiation risk limits and Earth-Moon-Mars environmental models

      Francis A. Cucinotta, Shaowen Hu, Nathan A. Schwadron, K. Kozarev, Lawrence W. Townsend and Myung-Hee Y. Kim

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2010SW000572

    5. You have free access to this content
      Modeling the 2003 Halloween events with EMMREM: Energetic particles, radial gradients, and coupling to MHD

      K. Kozarev, N. A. Schwadron, M. A. Dayeh, L. W. Townsend, M. I. Desai and M. PourArsalan

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000550

    6. You have free access to this content
      Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using EMMREM: May 2003 solar events

      M. A. Dayeh, M. I. Desai, K. Kozarev, N. A. Schwadron, L. W. Townsend, M. PourArsalan, C. Zeitlin and R. B. Hatcher

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000566

    7. You have free access to this content
      Mars Odyssey measurements of galactic cosmic rays and solar particles in Mars orbit, 2002–2008

      C. Zeitlin, W. Boynton, I. Mitrofanov, D. Hassler, W. Atwell, T. F. Cleghorn, F. A. Cucinotta, M. Dayeh, M. Desai, S. B. Guetersloh, K. Kozarev, K. T. Lee, L. Pinsky, P. Saganti, N. A. Schwadron and R. Turner

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000563

    8. You have free access to this content
    9. You have free access to this content
      Galactic cosmic ray radiation hazard in the unusual extended solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24

      N. A. Schwadron, A. J. Boyd, K. Kozarev, M. Golightly, H. Spence, L. W. Townsend and M. Owens

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2010SW000567

    10. You have free access to this content
      Parameterizations of the linear energy transfer spectrum for the CRaTER instrument during the LRO mission

      L. W. Townsend, Y. M. Charara, N. Delauder, M. PourArsalan, J. A. Anderson, C. M. Fisher, H. E. Spence, N. A. Schwadron, M. J. Golightly and F. A. Cucinotta

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000526

    11. You have free access to this content
      Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module framework

      N. A. Schwadron, L. Townsend, K. Kozarev, M. A. Dayeh, F. Cucinotta, M. Desai, M. Golightly, D. Hassler, R. Hatcher, M.-Y. Kim, A. Posner, M. PourArsalan, H. E. Spence and R. K. Squier

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000523

    12. You have free access to this content
      Introduction to special section on the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module

      Nathan A. Schwadron

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1029/2009SW000525