Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 102 Issue 3

Edited By: Rocky S. Tuan

Impact Factor: 3.865

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 8/41 (Developmental Biology)

Online ISSN: 1542-9768

Associated Title(s): Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology

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  • The neural crest, A multifaceted structure of the vertebrates

    The neural crest, A multifaceted structure of the vertebrates

    Expression of Hoxa2 and the skeletogenic capacity of cephalic NCC. (A) Removal of the Hox-negative anterior NC domain (FSNC) in five somite-chicken embryo (dotted lines) results in absence of the face and brain malformation at E7 (B). (C) Replacement of FSNC by a subdomain of Hox-expressing NC taken from a stage-matched quail embryo, severely hampers head morphogenesis (D). (E) Following removal of whole FSNC (as in A), graft of only a fragment of FSNC restores normal development of face and forebrain (F). (G, I) In ovo electroporation of Hoxa2 and GFP constructs in Hox-negative NC; GFP reporter (G) and forced Hoxa2 (I) expression in transfected FSNC migrating to the forehead (compare with normal pattern of Hoxa2 expression in H). At E7, compared with facial morphology (J, J′) and skeletal elements (Alcian blue staining; K) in control embryos, embryos after overexpression of Hoxa2 exhibit severe defects in facial development (L, L′), and absence of facial skeleton (M). (From Le Douarin et al., , with permission).

  • Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Key events in ethanol-induced apoptosis of chick cranial neural crest. The green box on the left panel indicates the headfold region where calcium is imaged in the 3-somite chick embryo. Exposure to 52 mM ethanol instigates the mobilization of intracellular calcium stores (*) within the early head fold (boxed region) as quantified using Fura2. This selectively activates CaMKII within the anterior neural folds including neural crest (arrows), as detected using antibody directed against phospho-CaMKII (green signal, arrows). A dorsal view of the headfolds is depicted. Among other targets, CaMKII phosphorylates and destabilizes β-catenin protein (green signal at green arrows in boxed region) within the dorsal neural folds enriched in neural crest (D). Shown is a transverse section, dorsal at top, through the headfold of embryos having 3 somites; blue indicates DAPI-stained nuclei. Subsequently, there is significant apoptosis (red signal) within ethanol-exposed dorsal neuroprogenitors of the hindbrain including neural crest (strong green signal), detected using antibody against the neural crest marker snail2. The saline-treated control hindbrain displays little cell death. Shown is a transverse section through rhombomere 4, which normally lacks appreciable cell death, of embryos having 16–18 somites. Chick embryos normally have a low-level green autofluorescence background.

  • Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as candidates for cell-based therapies, disease modeling, and drug discovery

    Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as candidates for cell‐based therapies, disease modeling, and drug discovery

    Ventralization and maturation of hEPI-NCSC derived dopaminergic neurons. All cells express the ventral neural tube marker, OTX2, (A) and the rate-limiting enzyme leading to dopamine, TH (B). (C), corresponding DAPI nuclear stain. (D) Merged images A–C.

  • The neural crest: A versatile organ system

    The neural crest: A versatile organ system

    Human NCPCs derived in vitro from ES cells behave like NC cells in vivo when transplanted into chick embryos. A: GFP-expressing NCPCs implanted in the trunk of an E2.5 embryo spread in the somites along characteristic hemisegmental NC pathways. B: NCPCs extend in the medioventral NC pathway along with host NC cells of the DRG and ventral root. C: Many NCPCs express the NC marker SOX10. D: Some NCPCs develop axons when localized in host sympathetic ganglia. Images provided by M. Denham, M. Dottori, and D. Zhang.

  • The capacity of neural crest-derived stem cells for ocular repair

    The capacity of neural crest‐derived stem cells for ocular repair

    A subset Müller cells is derived from neural crest cells. (A) P21 Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina stained for X-gal. X-gal staining identifies neural crest-derived cell aggregates. (B) Flat mount of Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina stained for X-gal; the neural crest-derived cells span from RPE to GCL. (C) Section from P7 Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina stained for X-gal. (D) Co-staining of X-gal and GS with P7 Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina. (E) Co-immunostaining of Sox9 and beta-gal with P7 Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina. (F) Co-immunostaining of CRALBP and beta-gal with P7 Wnt1Cre:R26RLacZ/+ retina. (G) Imaging of tomato fluorescence with adult Sox10Cre:R26RTomato/+ retina. (H) Co-localization of GS immunofluorescent staining and tomato fluorescence with adult Sox10Cre:R26RTomato/+ retina. gcl, ganglion cell layer. Scale bars: 500 μm (A, C, D), 100 μm (B, E–H).

  • Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: Building a divided outflow tract

    Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: Building a divided outflow tract

    Cranial neural crest streams in relation to the developing cardiac vasculature of divided (A) and un-divided (B) outflow tracts. (A) In mammals and birds, the cells arising from the third cranial neural crest stream (shown in green) contribute to the aortic arch arteries and eventually the outflow tract (dashed green arrow). (B) In teleosts, cells from the third cranial neural crest stream contribute to the branchial arches that will bear gills arch arteries.

  • Cranial neural crest cell contribution to craniofacial formation, pathology, and future directions in tissue engineering

    Cranial neural crest cell contribution to craniofacial formation, pathology, and future directions in tissue engineering

    Diagram of positional head deformation versus lambdoid synostosis. The ability to differentiate between similar phenotypic presentations is key. Noting ear and frontal protuberance position is critical to differentiate these diagnoses. Red indicates a fused suture whereas green indicates patency.

  • The neural crest, A multifaceted structure of the vertebrates
  • Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as candidates for cell‐based therapies, disease modeling, and drug discovery
  • The neural crest: A versatile organ system
  • The capacity of neural crest‐derived stem cells for ocular repair
  • Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: Building a divided outflow tract
  • Cranial neural crest cell contribution to craniofacial formation, pathology, and future directions in tissue engineering

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