Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 105 Issue 2

Edited By: Rocky S. Tuan

Impact Factor: 2.633

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 21/41 (Developmental Biology)

Online ISSN: 1542-9768

Associated Title(s): Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology

Featured

  • Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm

    Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm

    Migration pathways of NCCs in the developing neural tube. The migratory routes and derivatives of NCCs vary with rostrocaudal position along the neural tube. The vagal crest, derived from the caudal hindbrain, contributes to the heart, and together with the sacral neural crest, also forms the enteric nervous system that innervates the gut. At the cephalic level, NCCs form the mesectoderm, which subsequently gives rise to craniofacial connective, dermal and skeletal tissues, neurons, and the cranial ganglia. With respect to ocular development, the NCCs migrating to the eye are primarily derived from the prosencephalon (developing forebrain and brainstem) and mesencephalon (developing midbrain).

  • Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm

    Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm

    Overview of the embryonic derivatives in the developing eye. Surface ectodermal-derived structures in green, neural ectodermal-derived structures in purple, neural crest-derived structures in blue, and mesoderm-derived structures in red.

  • Conserved genetic pathways associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma

    Conserved genetic pathways associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma

    Schematic drawing of vertebrate ocular development. (A) Optic vesicle formation as an evagination from the diencephalon. (B) Following close contact with the surface ectoderm, the optic vesicle becomes divided into presumptive RPE, neural retina, and optic stalk, while the surface ectoderm is induced to form the lens placode. (C, D) The optic vesicle and lens placode coinvaginate, giving rise to the bilayered optic cup and the lens vesicle, respectively. (E) The lens differentiates to form the primary lens fibers (posterior) and the lens epithelium (anterior); the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium continue to develop; the optic stalk gives rise to the optic nerve; the surface ectoderm adjacent to the lens gives rise to the corneal epithelium. Abbreviations: C: Cornea; L: lens; LP: lens placode; LV: lens vesicle; MS: mesenchyme; NR: neural retina; ON: optic nerve; OS: optic stalk; OV: optic vesicle; RPE: retinal pigment epithelium; S: sclera; SE: surface ectoderm. Adapted from Adler and Canto-Soler with permission from Elsevier (Adler and Canto-Soler, ).

  • The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell

    The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell

    A) Diagram of F-actin-rich structures at the apical surface of the hair cell. The F-actin-based cytoskeletal elements are colored in green and include the stereocilia, cuticular plate (CP), and circumferential belt. The stereocilia and circumferential belt are primarily formed by parallel bundles of actin filaments, but the cuticular plate is a dense meshwork of cross-linked actin filaments. Adjacent to the tallest stereocilium is the microtubule-based kinocilium (gray), which has a bulbed tip in some hair cells of some species. The kinocilium degenerates during maturation of auditory hair cells of some species. Microtubules are also found fanning out from the basal body (purple) associated with the kinocillium as well as underlying the base of the cuticular plate. B) Electron micrograph of a thin section of the apical region of an alligator lizard hair cell. The stereocilia (S) are much larger than the microvilli (MV) of the adjacent supporting cells (SC), and each stereocilium extends into the cuticular plate (CP) as a densely-packed rootlet (R). The cuticular plate is very dense and excludes the mitochondria (M) and other organelles from the apical-most region of the hair cell. Scale bar 1 µm. Adapted from DeRosier and Tilney, . Used with permission of the publisher.

  • The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell

    The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell

    Schematic of linker proteins in the cuticular plate. Stereocilia and cuticular plate are highlighted in gray. (1) Actin (green) of the rootlets is linked to the actin filaments forming the cuticular plate by small nonactin filaments. (2) Actin filaments forming the cuticular plate are cross-linked with one another by a different set of nonactin filament linkers (purple). (3) Individual actin filaments forming the rootlet are cross-linked with one another by linker proteins (orange). (4) Another protein (dark blue) links the cuticular plate actin to underlying somatic microtubules (light blue) that insert into the base of the cuticular plate. (5) Other nonactin filaments (yellow) link the ends of the cuticular plate actin filaments to the adjacent plasma membrane.

  • Thalidomide-induced teratogenesis: History and mechanisms

    Thalidomide‐induced teratogenesis: History and mechanisms

    Structure of thalidomide enantiomers and packaging. A: Thalidomide is a stereo-isomer and can exist in two enantiomeric states, depending on the state of the chiral carbon (see asterisk) allowing each form to have slightly different structural moieties. Both enantiomers, R and S, can rapidly interconvert (racemize) in body fluids and tissues and form equal concentrations of each form. B: Thalidomide was sold/distributed as a racemic mix of both enantiomers and called “Distaval” in the UK. These images are from an actual packet of “Distaval,” which was a Physician's Sample and given to women in early pregnancy. Note the safety advice on the packet. Reproduced from Vargesson, BioEssays, 2009,31,1327–1336.

  • Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm
  • Neural crest derivatives in ocular development: Discerning the eye of the storm
  • Conserved genetic pathways associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma
  • The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell
  • The cuticular plate: A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell
  • Thalidomide‐induced teratogenesis: History and mechanisms

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