Pediatric Blood & Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 63 Issue 1

Edited By: Peter E. Newburger, M.D.

Impact Factor: 2.386

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 27/120 (Pediatrics); 38/68 (Hematology); 128/211 (Oncology)

Online ISSN: 1545-5017

Author Guidelines

Wiley's Journal Styles

Submission and Contact Information
Pediatric Blood & Cancer welcomes submitted manuscripts online at: Authors are encouraged to check for an existing account. If you are submitting for the first time, and you do not have an existing account, then create a new account. Once you have logged in, you will be presented with the Main Menu and a link to your Author Center. Enter your Author Center to submit your manuscript. At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with manuscript number will appear and you will receive an e-mail confirming that the manuscript has been received by the journal. If this does not happen, please check your submission and/or contact the Editorial Office. 

Editorial OfficeProduction Office
Emily Hammond, Managing Editor
205 Shannon Oaks Circle, Cary, NC 27511
Tel: 919-650-1459, ext. 211
Jennifer Chinworth
Tel: 703-352-0001, ext. 1154

This journal works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Cancer Medicine, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors may be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Cancer Medicine. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Cancer Medicine will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Cancer Medicine is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information please go to


All manuscripts submitted to Pediatric Blood & Cancer must be submitted solely to this journal, may not have been published in any part or form in another publication of any type, professional or lay, and become upon publication the property of the publisher. Any material reproduced or adapted from any other published or unpublished source must be duly acknowledged. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce copyrighted material. Upon submission of a manuscript for publication, the author will be requested to sign an agreement transferring copyright to the publisher, who reserves copyright. Material published in this journal may not be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher and the author. All statements in, or omissions from, published manuscripts are the responsibility of the author who will assist the editor and publisher by reviewing proofs. All authors should have contributed in a significant manner (see Requirements for Authorship below) and be in agreement with all content in a manuscript. The corresponding author will take responsibility for this requirement being met.

PBC discourages the submission of manuscripts written, in any part, by professional medical writers. Such involvement must be approved in advance by the Editor-in-Chief, with a presubmission request indicating the level of involvement and source(s) of funding for the writer.

No page charges will be levied against authors or their institutions for publication in this journal.

NOTE: Pediatric Blood & Cancer employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

English Language Editing

Wiley suggests that authors from non-English speaking countries have their manuscript reviewed and corrected by English Language Services before submission.

1. Wiley’s English Editing Services:

Please note that while this service will greatly improve the readability of your paper, it does not guarantee acceptance of your paper by the journal.

DISCLOSURE STATEMENT. All authors must disclose in a statement following Acknowledgments under the title, "Conflict of Interest Statement," any affiliations that they consider to be relevant and important with any organization that to any author's knowledge has a direct interest, particularly a financial interest, in the subject matter discussed. Such affiliations include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, ownership of stock, membership on a standing advisory council or committee, a seat on the board of directors, or being publicly associated with a company or its products. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest would include receiving honoraria or consulting fees or receiving grants or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations. This requirement will apply to every sort of article submitted to the Journal, including original research, reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and any others, and should be disclosed at the time of submission. The simplest remedy for conflict of interest is disclosure. It will not influence the editorial decision to accept or reject the manuscript. When an article is accepted for publication, the editors will discuss with the authors the manner in which such information is to be presented if additional questions arise.


COVER LETTER. The online submission program requires an author cover letter. Please note that the cover letter should:

--Be addressed to the journal’s Editor-in-Chief;

--State what significant, new information the submission provides from that previously published in medical literature;

--Contain the manuscript title and all author names;

--Provide a brief summary of the findings and why they are important and appropriate for PBC;

--State what manuscript classification it fits, i.e., Research Article, Brief Report, etc;

--State that the manuscript has not been submitted elsewhere nor previously published;

--State any conflicts of interest;

--List names of 3 potential reviewers who: a) are experts in the field, b) are not from the authors’ institutions, and c) have no other conflicts of interest;

--State who and why any colleagues should not be asked to review, if applicable;

--State that all authors have contributed to the manuscript in significant ways, have reviewed and agreed upon the manuscript content.

FILE ORDER. When uploading the files into the ScholarOne Manuscript Central system, please order the files as follows:

1. Text file -Word file (.doc) should be 8.5 x 11 inches with at least 1 inch margins on all sides

2. Table files - Each table should be uploaded in a separate Word file in numerical order

3. Figure files - Each figure should be uploaded as a separate TIF, EPS, PNG, or PDF file following in numerical order. Do not upload individual panels as separate files (e.g., “Figure 1a.tif” and “Figure 1b.tif.”).

4. Supplemental files - Please note that Supplemental files will be published in the exact format provided at submission. These files must be clearly identified as “Supplemental” at the top of the first page.

5. For Revised and Resubmitted Manuscripts, Responses to Review Comments should be included in the “View and Respond to Decision Letter” field of the online submission system.


--The complete title of the manuscript;

--The names and degrees of all authors (NOTE: While the number of authors should usually not exceed six, exceptions will be granted with adequate justification that can be included in the cover letter.)

--The complete affiliations of all authors;

--The name, address, phone, fax and email contact for the corresponding author;

--Word Count for:

a) Abstract (if applicable) and

b) Main Text (excludes title page, abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends);

--The number of Tables, Figures, and Supplemental files;

--A short running title (not to exceed 50 characters);

--Three to six keywords to index the content.

--An abbreviations key in a table. This should just be a two-column list, with the abbreviation on the left, and the full term or phrase on the right.


--Abstracts should be included in the online submission form and in the manuscript file.

--Please do not include material in the Abstract that is not described in the main manuscript.

--See Article Types listing for specific formatting guidelines.


--Double spaced with consecutive line numbering

--Font should 12pt in size, Times New Roman or Arial

--Order of elements: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Conflict of Interest statement, References, Legends

--ETHICS STATEMENT: If photographs include human subjects, the author must include an Ethics Statement in the main manuscript text, where appropriate. This statement should affirm that informed consent has been properly documented. When possible, any identifiers in the image (such as facial features or patient ID numbers) should be obscured prior to review.

--Use subheadings and paragraph titles whenever possible. Note, however, that the Discussion section should not have separate subsections. Subheadings should not be underlined or be followed by punctuation.

--No numbered or bulleted lists are allowed in the text file.

--See Journal Style section for further PBC style preferences.


--Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references.

--Include the names of ALL authors. Do not use "et al". NOTE: The EndNote style file for PBC is no longer updated or supported ( Authors using EndNote can manually adjust the number of authors under Bibliography > Author Lists.

--In the text, cite references consecutively as numerals in brackets, e.g., [1], [4-6], and [7, 8]. Reference citations should appear after punctuation marks (for example, following a comma or a period at the end of a sentence).

--All references must be cited whether in text, figures or tables.

--Abstracts, unpublished data, and personal communications should not be listed as references.

--Provide all citations under a References heading, listed in numerical order.

--Include the complete title of the article and inclusive page numbers.

--Abbreviate journal names according to the National Library of Medicine:

--Articles accepted for publication and published on-line should be referenced like a journal article, except that the DOI (digital object identifier) and the date of prepublication should supplant the year, volume number, and page numbers. The cited article must be accessible to readers. See examples 6-7 below.

--Published Abstracts may be cited in the References. See example 10-11 below.

--Unpublished data and personal communications should not be listed as references.

--In the following examples, notice the punctuation and order of information. Do not use all capitals and do not underline.

Journal articles:
1. Plourde PV, Jeha S, Hijiya N, Keller FG, Silverman LB, Rheingold SR, Dreyer ZE, Dahl GV, Mercedes T, Lai C. Safety profile of asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi in a large compassionate-use trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:1232–1238.

2. Cistaro A, editor. Atlas of PET/CT in pediatric patients. Milan: Springer; 2014. 264 p.

Articles or Chapters in Books:
3. Kurmasheva RT, Hosoi H, Kikuchi K, Houghton PJ. Molecular therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Houghton PJ, Arceci RJ. Molecularly targeted therapy for childhood cancer. New York: Springer; 2010: p. 425-458.

Online-Only Journal Articles:
4. Angelico F, Burattin M, Alessandri C, Del Ben M, Lirussi F. Drugs improving insulin resistance for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;CD005166.
5. Willberg CW, Ward SM, Clayton RF, Naumov NV, McCormick C. Proto S. Harris M, Patel AH. Klenerman P. Protection of hepatocytes from cytotoxic T cell mediated killing by interferon-alpha. PloS ONE 2007;2:e791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000791.

E-Pub Ahead of Print:
6. Salerno F, Gerbes A, Gines P, Wong F, Arroyo V. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. A consensus workshop of the international ascites club. Gut 2009; doi: 10.1136/guy.2006.107789.
7. Lindor, KD, Gores GA. Future course of hepatology research. Hepatology 2009; doi:10.1002/hep.22749.

Information from a URL:
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis C fact sheet. Division of Viral Hepatitis home page. Published April 22, 2006, Accessed August 10, 2008.
9. Levin J. Viramidine phase III study-did not meet efficacy endpoint. Valeant looking at weight-based dosing of viramidine based on post-hoc analysis [NATAP conference report on Benhamou et al., J Hepatol 2006;44 (Suppl 2):S293.] Accessed May 12, 2009.

Published Abstracts (print):
10. Pere, J.J. Abstracts of Papers, Part 1. 223rd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Orlando, FL, Apr 7-11, 2002: American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2002; CELL 30.

Published Abstracts (electronic):
11. Costello, C.E. Development of "Biomolecule-Friendly" MS Methods eop , J.J. Abstrcts of Papers, Part 1. 223rd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Orlando, FL, Apr 7-11, 2002. In PITTCON 2006, Orlando, FL, March 12-17, 2006 [CD-ROM]: Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy: Pittsburgh, PA, 2007; Session 10, Paper 1.


--Number tables consecutively with Roman numerals

--Do not include multi-part Tables (e.g., Table Ia, Ib, and Ic.)

--The table number, followed by a period, and title should be placed above the table.

Correct Example: TABLE I. Graph Demonstrating Results

Incorrect Example: Table 1: Graph demonstrating results

--Abbreviations should be in footnotes beneath the table, in paragraph form and not in lists.

Correct Example: a) Patient symptoms, b) Age at diagnosis

Incorrect Example: a) Patient symptoms
                                  b) Age at diagnosis


--Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals, i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc., and cited in the manuscript as (Figure 1), (Figures 3A and 3B), etc. Do not include a label (“Figure X”) in the image itself.

--The figure number and legend should be included in BOTH:

a) The legend list at the end of the manuscript AND

b) The Description field of the online submission form for that file.

--Figures and text within a figure should not be surrounded by boxed lines. Crop extra white space from around images. Do not include legend text in the figure files.

--Label each panel with a capital letter in the upper left corner

--Panels should be labeled as A and B (not A. or A- or A)).

--Presentation of growth charts may be facilitated by utilizing tools such as those listed below:


--Upload figures as individual TIF, EPS, or PNG files. High resolution PDF files may also be uploaded.

--Upload composite figures (with multiple panels) as one file. Do not upload separate panel files for a single figure.

--The journal requires a minimum resolution of 300dpi for all figures.

• 1200 DPI/PPI for black and white images, such as line drawings or graphs

• 300 DPI/PPI for picture-only photographs

• 600 DPI/PPI for photographs containing pictures and line elements, i.e., text labels, thin lines, arrows

--Figures must be legible at 100% zoom in the file itself. We recommend that all text in figures be at least 6pt.

--Arrows should be included in radiographs or histology figures to point out areas of interest described in the figure legends below the figures.

--Please ensure that all axes are labeled clearly and in accordance with the journal's requirements for numbering (all numbers over 999 must contain commas, zeroes before decimals).

--Any axis in a given figure must have a centered label. Note that numbers on the y-axis should be oriented to read left to right. For example:

Figure 1. Platelet count and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) versus time since diagnosis. Treatment courses are indicated at top with doses as described in Table I: Vbl, vinblastine; Pred, prednisone; Ritux, rituximab; MP, mercaptopurine. IVIg = short course intravenous immunoglobulin 1 g/kg/day for 2 days, given for immune thrombocytopenia.

Image from: Cooper, S. L., Arceci, R. J., Gamper, C. J., Teachey, D. T. and Schafer, E. S. (2015), Successful Treatment of Recurrent Autoimmune Cytopenias in the Context of Sinus Histiocytosis With Massive Lymphadenopathy Using Sirolimus. Pediatr. Blood Cancer. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25770


--Supplementary material will be published as submitted and will not be corrected or checked for scientific content, typographical errors or functionality. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains entirely with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect with any supporting information published.

--Supplementary material should always be provided in its final format, as it will not be copyedited or changed from its original format. It will not be available for review prior to publication.

--Upload these files as either “Supplementary Material for Review” or “Supplementary Material NOT for Review,” as appropriate.

--For each individually uploaded supplementary file, a corresponding legend must be included in the manuscript file.

--Supplementary tables or figures may be made cited within the text (as Supplemental Table I and Supplemental Figure 1) and will be made available to readers online.

--Tables should be limited to 1-2 pages in a Word file, preferably in portrait orientation. Overly long tables should likely be reformatted as Supplementary material. In this case, uploading Excel files is suitable.


--Either American or British style is acceptable. American: use Merriam-Webster's; British: Oxford Shorter Dictionary.

--The statement ‘data not shown’ is not allowed within the manuscript text as readers cannot evaluate if the data are not shown. Such information should either be included in the manuscript or provided as a Supplementary Material for Review file.

--Please do not use slang expressions, such as “On the other hand”.

--Avoid statements such as “This is the first study…” and “To our knowledge…” and “this is the largest.” These expressions are not meaningful.

>>Name Formatting

--Disease names should be written without apostrophes, as follows: Wilms tumor, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, Ewing sarcoma.

--Abbreviations should be defined on first usage, then using of abbreviation alone is acceptable: e.g., Wilms Tumor (WT), then referred to as WT in subsequent mention, without quotation marks.

--Abbreviations should follow the guidelines in the CBE Style Manual, 5th Edition (available from the Council of Biology Editors, Inc., One Illinois Center, Suite 200, 111 East Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL60601-4298).

--Gene and protein designations should be written in the international style approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee at

--Use uncapitalized generic names (e.g., cyclophosphamide) for all drugs and pharmaceutical preparations.

--Trade names (capitalized) for appliances, etc., may be used in the Methods section, and the manufacturers identified by name and location (city, state or country).

>>Human Subjects

--Please do not refer to patients by their diseases, e.g. “Wilms tumor patients” or “ALL patients.” Instead, identify them as “patients with Wilms tumor” and “patients with ALL.”

--Patients should be referred to only by subject numbers and not with names, initials, or other potentially identifying characters.

--Manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigations on human subjects must include a statement to the effect that procedures had received official institutional approval.

--There should be no dates in the text or on radiographs as these are potential patient identifiers.


--All measurements must be in metric units.

--Decimal numbers should have a zero preceding the decimal point (e.g., 0.95g).

--Decimal points should be periods and not commas.

--Do not begin sentences with a number. For example, it should be “Three patients…” instead of “3 patients…”

--Numbers over 999 must include a comma, e.g., 2,000.

--P values should not be zero but refer to a number (e.g., p<0.0001 not p=0.0000).


RESEARCH ARTICLES. Articles should represent original and in-depth studies involving any aspect of clinical or laboratory investigation.

Abstract: structured under headings (Background, Procedure, Results, and Conclusions. Length should be 250 words or less.

Length: 3,500 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.) References: 50 or fewer

Figures/Tables: The number combined should be not be greater than 6 (excluding supplemental material). Tables and figures should not simply repeat information in the text.

PRIORITY REPORTS. At the recommendation of the journal’s Editor-in-Chief and with recommendations from members of the Editorial Board, certain high-impact research articles will selected to be fast-tracked for online publication within 4 weeks after final acceptance and print publication within 2 months of final acceptance. Cover letters for articles submitted as Priority Reports should include an explanation as to the reason for this designation.

Abstract: Structured, 150 word maximum

Length: 2,000 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 50 or fewer

Figures/Tables: The number combined should not be more than 4 (excluding Supplemental Material).

Tables and figures should not simply repeat information in the text. .

BRIEF REPORTS. Brief reports may include descriptions of single or several patients that demonstrate novel findings or add in a significant way to already existing literature. Brief reports may also include novel laboratory observations relating to clinical questions or advances in laboratory methodologies. Brief reports should include the following sections: Introduction, Results (including Methods or Case Descriptions), and Discussion.

Abstract: 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 1,200 word maximum (excludes the title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 20 or fewer

Figures/Tables: The number combined should be not be greater than 2 (excluding supplemental material). Tables and figures should not simply repeat information in the text.

CRITICAL REVIEWS. Reviews of important and timely subjects can be invited through the Editorial Board or submitted after a brief introduction to the Editor-in-Chief. Authors should consult the editor prior to submission by e-mailing The inquiry should include the authors’ names and affiliations, subject matter of the review, and rationale for publication in PB&C. Reviews should focus on the critical aspects of a subject, linking what is known to what areas remain controversial or unanswered. Historical accounts of important events relating to pediatric hematology/oncology are also acceptable. Requests for permission to submit manuscripts of greater length should be emailed to the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.

Abstract: 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 3,500 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 100 or fewer

Figures/Tables: Illustrations and tables should be used only to provide summaries or a synthesis of ideas and/or data not included in the text.

REVIEWS OF BOOKS AND OTHER MEDIA FORMATS. Reviews of books, films or other media formats relevant to the scientific or clinical practice of medicine with particular importance to pediatric hematology/oncology can be invited or submitted independently. In the latter case, consultation with the Editor-in-Chief should be made prior to submission.

Length: 1,000 word maximum (excludes title page, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

CORRESPONDENCE AND LETTERS. Letters to the Editor should usually be in reference to previously published manuscripts in Pediatric Blood and Cancer. Correspondence relating to important and timely publications or topics from other sources and brief descriptions of interesting laboratory or clinical observations may also be appropriate.

No Abstract.

Length: 500 word maximum (excludes title page, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

Figures/Tables: Illustrations or tables should only be included when absolutely necessary; maximum of 1 total.

References: 10 or fewer

HIGHLIGHT. Highlights are submitted only at the invitation of the Editor-in-Chief. These will summarize findings from one or more recently accepted papers and put them into perspective in terms of past work and future challenges. Controversial areas should be included.

No Abstract.

Length: 1,000 word maximum (excludes title page, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 10 or fewer

Figures/Tables: A single original figure or table that summarizes the content or text of the paper(s) is encouraged but not required.

COMMENTARY. Commentaries are usually invited but may be submitted independently after consultation with the Editor-in-Chief. Commentaries should focus on a controversial subject or a timely topic of relevance to the journal’s readership. Commentaries will be reviewed and may require changes or be rejected.

No Abstract.

Length: 1,200 word maximum (excludes title page, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 10 or fewer

Figures/Tables: Include only if they highlight or clarify points made in the text.

MEETING REPORTS AND SUPPLEMENTS. Concise summaries of meetings that have important information to convey to the readers of Pediatric Blood & Cancer are welcomed but consultation with the Editor-in-Chief should occur before submission. Summaries should emphasize the issues discussed at the meeting along with why they are important or controversial. More extensive meeting reports with manuscripts from the speakers at the meeting are also welcomed but early consultation with the Editor-in-Chief must take place in order to determine the type and number of manuscripts, expected pages to be published, and the review process, as well as procurement of additional funding if required.

Abstract (optional): 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 1,500 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

Figures/Tables: Include only if they highlight or clarify points made in the text.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. A Historical Perspective should be submitted only after consultation with the journal’s Editor-in-Chief. This occasionally-appearing series focuses on the history of pediatric hematology/oncology.

Abstract (optional): 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 1,500 word maximum (excludes title page, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 20 or fewer

Figures/Tables: No more than 2 figures or tables combined.

SPECIAL REPORT. To be submitted only after consultation with the journal’s Editor-in-Chief, the report should focus on a subject of current interest in developing countries.

Abstract: 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 2,500 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 20 or fewer

Figures/Tables: No more than 2 figures or tables combined.

CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES (CPG) should concern important and timely subjects. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine updated its definition of a CPG to reflect essential components of evidence-based guidelines: “CPGs are statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options.” CPG submissions must receive pre-submission approval from the Editor-in-Chief. CPGs must meet the Institute of Medicine standards for trustworthiness as operationalized by the criteria for inclusion in the National Guideline Clearinghouse ( Criteria include, but are not limited to, recommendations being based upon a systematic review (the search strategy should be included as an Appendix) and the creation of evidence tables. Use of an approach for recommendation development such as Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) is encouraged. An excellent resource for preparing a CPG can be found at: Guideline developers are encouraged to evaluate their own CPG using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II tool (

Abstract: 100 word maximum; unstructured

Length: 4,500 word maximum (excludes title page, Abstract, References, Tables, Figures, and Legends.)

References: 150 or fewer

Figures/Tables: Illustrations, tables, and tools for implementation such as clinical care algorithms are encouraged to augment the text.


*Abstract text should be 300 words or less. That word count excludes the abstract title, author names and affiliations.

*There should be 4 sections to the abstract: Background/Objectives, Design/Methods, Results, Conclusion. All text should be included in a single paragraph and contain no lists.

*Abstract text should be written in complete sentences and in correct English.

*There should be a period at the end of all sentences.

*Tables and figures (if allowed in the submitting society’s instructions), only when critical to the content, may be included and must comply with PBC Author Guideline format.

*Abstract titles should be in all capital letters, e.g., INDUCTION OUTCOMES IN CHILDREN WITH ALL

*Author names should be listed below the abstract title. The first and last names of authors should be written in upper and lower case letters and should be boldface. No degrees of authors should be included.

*Author affiliations should be written in upper and lower case letters, e.g., Tata Memorial Centre

*Geographic location should be indicated by city and country, with state, province, or other subdivision added if necessary for disambiguation, e.g. London, UK; but Portland, OR, USA. Names of cities and countries with 2 words should be written in upper and lower case letters, e.g., Czech Republic, South Africa, Los Angeles, St. Louis. Common abbreviations may be used, e.g. UK, USA.

*Periods should be used in numbers for decimal points, not commas, e.g., P=0.015, and numbers beginning with a decimal point should be preceded by a zero.

*Disease names should be written without apostrophes, e.g., Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma

*Numbers containing more than 3 digits should have a comma, e.g., 3,000.

*Abbreviations should be defined on first usage, then using of abbreviation alone is acceptable: e.g., Wilms Tumor (WT), then referred to as WT in subsequent mention, no quotation marks, however.

*Abstracts need to be proofread for all spelling and grammatical errors.

*Abstracts that do not satisfy publication instructions will not be published.


- Reporting prospectively conducted trials is strongly encouraged and such trials will be prioritized

- Retrospective reporting of clinical data is potentially acceptable for publication. All such manuscripts need to comply with documentation of approval by an institutional ethical review board or equivalent. Retrospective therapeutic studies should be avoided, as they may circumvent necessary informed consent, safety, and monitoring standards.

- All manuscripts reporting clinical trials need to document that the trial or study was approved Institutional Review Board or equivalent.

- All manuscripts reporting clinical trials need to be registered with ‘ClinicalTrials.Gov’ and/or an equivalent site.

NIH Public Access Mandate
For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement

Wiley Author Licensing Services (WALS)

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

For additional tools visit Author Resources - an enhanced suite of online tools for Wiley Online Library journal authors, featuring Article Tracking, E-mail Publication Alerts and Customized Research Tools.