STEM CELLS

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 4

Edited By: Jan A. Nolta

Impact Factor: 6.523

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 2/21 (CELL & TISSUE ENGINEERING); 4/68 (Hematology); 10/163 (Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology); 20/211 (Oncology); 33/184 (Cell Biology)

Online ISSN: 1549-4918

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  • Differentiation of Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Ectopic Calcification of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Differentiation of Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Ectopic Calcification of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Effect of atherosclerotic environment on non-atherosclerotic C57BL/6 cells. Control, unprimed C57BL/6 MSC constructs implanted into ApoE−/− mice showed calcified cartilage and some bone formation (black stars). Comparatively, primed C57BL/6 MSC constructs showed more bone formation with marrow like spaces. Control and chondrogenically-primed C57BL/6 VSC constructs implanted in to ApoE−/− mice showed no bone formation while remnants of scaffolds (red stars) were seen. Scale bars, 50 µm. Abbreviations: MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; VSCs, Vessel-derived stem/progenitor cells.

  • Self-Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late-Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling

    Self‐Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late‐Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin‐Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling

    In vivo hind limb ischemic injury using CD34 + and CD34− ECFC. (A): Schematic diagram demonstrating our strategy to FACS sort CD34 + and CD34− ECFC for injection intramuscularly at the ischemic site into nude (nu/nu) mice on day 2 postsurgery. (B): High-definition Laser Doppler images clearly showing increased perfusion following either CD34 + (n = 8) or CD34− (n = 8) ECFC compared to saline (n = 7) controls (***, p < .001). Perfusion quantification was performed as a percentage of the contralateral nonischemic limb. There was further increase in perfusion following CD34 + versus CD34− ECFC injection at day 7 (D7 #, p < .05; 41.9% ± 6.4 vs. 34.4% ± 5.4 SD), day 14 (#, p < .05 59.8% ± 8.4 vs. 51.2% ± 6.4 SD), and day 21 (D21 #, p < .05 78.3% ± 7.1 vs. 72.2% ± 10.3 SD). (C, D): Using human specific Lamin A/C (green) staining of ischemic muscle sections, we counted the number of human cells engrafted at 21 days after delivery of ECFC fractions (scale bar = 100 μm). There were significantly more Lamin A/C positive cells after CD34 + ECFC injection compared to CD34− ECFC (**, p < .01 853 ± 38 vs. 341 ± 29). White arrows demarcate Lamin A/C positive cells that have colocalized with mouse CD31 (msCD31). Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; ECFC, endothelial colony forming cell; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

  • Promotion of Cortical Neurogenesis from the Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mouse Subcallosal Zone

    Promotion of Cortical Neurogenesis from the Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mouse Subcallosal Zone

    Fate of subcallosal zone (SCZ)-derived adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). (A): Distribution of DCX+ neuroblasts in control and injured brains. Brains were examined at 7 (7D) and 30 days (30D) after TBI, as indicated. Nuclei were counter-stained with Hoechst33342 (Hoe) in blue. Dotted lines indicate the border between the SCZ and cortex region (CTX). BOX in the middle panel indicates magnified individual neuroblast. Scale bar = (A) 100 μm. (B): Quantification of DCX+ neuroblasts in control and injured brain. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5), *, p < 0.05, Student's t test. (*, TBI3D vs. TBI30D; **, TBI7D vs. TBI30D). (C): Three days before TBI, aNSCs derived from SCZ were infected with green fluorescent protein-expressing retrovirus. Shown are representative images of injured brains sectioned from animals killed at 30 days after TBI. Sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein as indicated. Insets show enlarged images of single cells. Scale bar = 100 μm. (D): Sections were immunostained for NeuN. Insets show enlarged images of single cells. (E): Dying neuroblasts in the injured cortex. Fifteen days after TBI, activated caspase 3 was detected in several DCX-expressing neuroblasts. . Scale bar = (E) 5 μm. (F): Quantification of cell fate of the NSCs from the SCZ 30 days after TBI. Mice were killed 30 days after TBI, and brain sections were immunostained for GFAP, 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase, or NeuN, as indicated. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). Abbreviations: CNPase, 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase; CTX, cortex; DCX, Doublecortin; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein; MBP, myelin basic protein; SCZ, subcallosal zone; TBI, traumatic brain injury.

  • Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions

    Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions

    Transplantation of expanded cells with high ALDH-activity increased cell proliferation within islets. Representative photomicrographs of proliferating (EdU+) cells (green) within insulin+ islets (red) at day 42 in STZ-treated NOD/SCID mice transplanted with (A) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 6), (B) bulk cells (n = 9), (C) ALDHlo cells (n = 9), or (D) ALDHhi cells (n = 9). Arrows represent EdU+ / Insulin− cells, arrowheads represent EdU+ / Insulin+ cells. Compared with PBS-injected controls, mice transplanted with expanded ALDHhi cells showed (E) an increase in the frequency of islets with EdU+ cells, and (F) an increase total number of EdU+ cells within islets. Data represent mean ± SEM from 5 to 7 umbilical cord blood samples (*, p < 0.05). Abbreviation: PBS, phosphate-buffered saline.

  • A Primitive Growth Factor, NME7AB, Is Sufficient to Induce Stable Naïve State Human Pluripotency; Reprogramming in This Novel Growth Factor Confers Superior Differentiation

    A Primitive Growth Factor, NME7AB, Is Sufficient to Induce Stable Naïve State Human Pluripotency; Reprogramming in This Novel Growth Factor Confers Superior Differentiation

    Human embryonic stem cells cultured in NME7AB minimal media are pluripotent and can form teratomas. (A): FPLC trace and Coomassie blue staining of reducing and nonreducing gels shows that of NME7AB is a 33-kDa monomeric protein. (B): Photos of NME7AB-grown human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on anti-MUC1* antibody-coated surface show typical stem cell morphology but grow in sheets rather than in colonies. Scale bar = 1 mm, 400 µm. (C): Immunostaining of NME7AB-grown hESCs shows typical pluripotency markers. Scale bar = 400 μm. (D): H&E staining of teratoma sections derived from hESCs cultured in NME7AB for 14 passages differentiate down all three germlines. Scale bar = 100 µm. (E): Immunofluorescence staining for H3K27me3 foci was absent in NME7AB-grown hESCs (upper) showing that both X chromosomes are active “XaXa” but present in the parent fibroblast growth factor-grown primed state cells (lower) showing that one X has been inactivated “XaXi”. Scale bar = 200 μm. Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamino-2-phenylindole; FPLC, hESCs, human embryonic stem cells.

  • Directed Dedifferentiation Using Partial Reprogramming Induces Invasive Phenotype in Melanoma Cells

    Directed Dedifferentiation Using Partial Reprogramming Induces Invasive Phenotype in Melanoma Cells

    SNAI3 expression correlates with tumor thickness in human melanomas. (A): IHC analysis of SNAI3 expression in paraffin-embedded tumor samples from patients (melanocytic nevus, primary melanoma); upper panel: scale bar = 500 μm; lower panel: scale bar = 50 μm. (B): IHC score of SNAI3 staining for melanocytic nevi and all primary tumors. Mean and SD for indicated n are presented. (C): IHC score of SNAI3 staining for melanocytic nevi and primary tumors with low risk (≤1 mm) and high risk (>1 mm) to metastasize. Mean and SD for indicated n are shown. Significance was tested using two-tailed t test with *, p < .05; ns = not significant. Abbreviation: IHC, immunohistochemistry.

  • Differentiation of Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Ectopic Calcification of Atherosclerotic Plaque
  • Self‐Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late‐Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin‐Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling
  • Promotion of Cortical Neurogenesis from the Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mouse Subcallosal Zone
  • Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions
  • A Primitive Growth Factor, NME7AB, Is Sufficient to Induce Stable Naïve State Human Pluripotency; Reprogramming in This Novel Growth Factor Confers Superior Differentiation
  • Directed Dedifferentiation Using Partial Reprogramming Induces Invasive Phenotype in Melanoma Cells

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STEM CELLS Video Highlight

Video abstract from Drs. Evans and Janeczek on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Transient Canonical Wnt Stimulation Enriches Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Isolates for Osteoprogenitors" Read the Paper here

Video abstract from Drs. Ambrosio and Barchowsky on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Arsenic Promotes NF-κB-Mediated Fibroblast Dysfunction and Matrix Remodeling to Impair Muscle Stem Cell Function" Read the Paper here

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