STEM CELLS

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 9

Edited By: Jan A. Nolta

Impact Factor: 5.902

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 3/21 (CELL & TISSUE ENGINEERING); 8/70 (Hematology); 14/161 (Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology); 24/213 (Oncology); 34/187 (Cell Biology)

Online ISSN: 1549-4918

Featured

  • Characterization of the Epigenetic Changes During Human Gonadal Primordial Germ Cells Reprogramming

    Characterization of the Epigenetic Changes During Human Gonadal Primordial Germ Cells Reprogramming

    Chromatin changes of H3K9ac in human fetal PGCs. (A): Immunofluorescence of primordial germ cells and somatic cells for detecting H3K9ac (green), VASA (red), OCT4 (yellow), and DAPI (blue) proteins. Fetal ovaries and testis were stained. Scale bar 10 µm. (B): Quantification of H3K9ac signal in human germ and somatic cells. The error bars represent standard deviation (p < .05; p < .01 in some stages of fetal testis and ovaries). Abbreviation: PGCs, primordial germ cells.

  • Vascular Stem/Progenitor Cell Migration Induced by Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 and Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1 Contributes to Neointima Formation

    Vascular Stem/Progenitor Cell Migration Induced by Smooth Muscle Cell‐Derived Chemokine (C‐C Motif) Ligand 2 and Chemokine (C‐X‐C motif) Ligand 1 Contributes to Neointima Formation

    Lack of CCL2 inhibits Sca-1+ cell migration in vivo. (A): Using a mouse femoral artery wire injury model, GFP-Sca-1+-VPC (1 x 106) were seeded in the adventitia of each injured vessel. En face staining shows the cells were migrated to the intima side of the vessels 72hrs post injury of WT and CCL2−/− mice. Scale bars, 25 µm. (B): The percentage of GFP-Sca-1+-VPC within respective DAPI+ populations in each view was quantified. (C): The femoral arteries sections from WT and CCL2−/− mice 2 weeks post injury were prepared for immunofluorescent Sca-1 staining. Scale bars, 50µm. (D, E): The graphs show the percentage of GFP-Sca-1+-VPC or Sca-1+ cells within the DAPI+ cells in the neointima (white dotted line indicates internal elastin, the neointima area was surrounded by the line). Representative images and graphs shown as mean ± SEM of n = 8 mice/group. **p < .01, ***p < .001. Abbreviations: GFP-Sca-1+-VPC, GFP-Sca-1+ vascular progenitor cells; Sca-1+, stem cell antigen-1; WT, wild type.

  • Hypoxia and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Define a Molecular Mechanism for Fracture Nonunion

    Hypoxia and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Define a Molecular Mechanism for Fracture Nonunion

    Hypoxia induces the formation of ROS in the mitochondria. (A): hPMSCs cultures were maintained under normoxia or hypoxia during 4 hours, the presence of ROS was detected with MitoSOX. Although under normoxic conditions cultures were negative for MitoSOX staining, hypoxia resulted in positive ROS staining that was increased by including PX-12 in the culture medium. Scale bar 200 μm. Nx, Normoxia; Hx, Hypoxia. **, p < .01 by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. (B): PX-12 treatment (10 μM) impairs BMP2 expression by hPMSCs (N = 5 independent donors) under normoxia when ROS is added exogenously (H2O2, 5 μM). *, p < .05. (C): Proposed mechanism for the role of hypoxia signaling, through unidentified growth factors, and redox homeostasis by thioredoxin (TXN) (left panel) and PX-12-mediated impairment of BMP2 expression by hPMSCs under hypoxia (middle panel) or after addition of exogenous ROS (H2O2) in normoxia(right panel). Abbreviations: hPMSCs, periosteum-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells; ROS, reactive oxygen species.

  • Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool

    Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool

    Intense Ulk4 expression in P0 SVZ and reduced neural stem cells (NSCs) in P0 Ulk4tm1a/tm1a mice. (A–C): Anti-ULK4 staining was co-localized with anti-Ki67 in the SVZ region of the P0 brain. (D–K): Four pairs of P0 WT (D–G) and Ulk4tm1a/tm1a (H–K) brain sections were processed for anti-Ki67 staining. (L–Q): The Ki67 positive cells in different areas of the SVZ of WT (L, N, P) and Ulk4tm1a/tm1a (M, O, Q) newborn brain were quantified, (R–T) which showed a significant reduction in NSC pool (R) and in thickness of SVZ subregions (S, T) in the Ulk4tm1a/tm1a mice. Bars = 100 µm. Data were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and presented with mean ± SEM, *, p < .05. +/+, WT and −/− for Ulk4tm1a/tm1a (KO) genotype, n = 4 each. Abbreviation: LV, lateral ventricles.

  • A Novel Role for miR-1305 in Regulation of Pluripotency-Differentiation Balance, Cell Cycle, and Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    A Novel Role for miR‐1305 in Regulation of Pluripotency‐Differentiation Balance, Cell Cycle, and Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Identification of candidate miRNAs involved in maintenance of pluripotency and cell cycle regulation in pluripotent stem cells. (A): Summary table displaying the number of candidate miRNA whose expression changed significantly (p < .05 and fold-change > 2.0) during cell cycle stages or between hESCs and human placental fibroblasts; (B): Venn diagram representation of candidate miRNAs shown in (A) and selection of 34 candidate miRNAs that were differently expressed between hESCs versus human placental fibroblast cells, S phase versus G1 phase, and S phase versus G2 phase; (C): Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of miR-1305 expression in various cell cycle stages in hESC. Data is presented as mean ± SEM (n = 3). The unsynchronised control was set to 1.0 and all other values were calculated with respect to that. Significance was assessed using Student t-test, ** p < .01; (D): Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of miR-1305 expression during hESC differentiation using the Embryoid body method (EB). Ad3 fibroblasts – dermal skin fibroblasts from a 37-year-old Adult. Data is presented as mean ± SEM (n = 3). The H9 was set to 1.0 and all other values were calculated with respect to that. Significance was assessed using Student t-test, ** p < .01.

  • COX-2 Induces Breast Cancer Stem Cells via EP4/PI3K/AKT/NOTCH/WNT Axis

    COX‐2 Induces Breast Cancer Stem Cells via EP4/PI3K/AKT/NOTCH/WNT Axis

    COX-2 over-expression increased SLC contents in breast cancer: (A) preferential colocalization of COX-2 and SLC markers in MCF-7-COX-2 spheroids compared to Mock (yellow, shown in inset). FACS analysis showed 7 and 6% increase in ALDH positive cell populations in (B) MCF-7-COX-2 and (C) SKBR-3-COX-2 cell lines, compared to Mock cell lines, DEAB staining serving as negative control. (D): In dual labeled (ALDH-CD44) and (ALDH-CD24) MCF-7-COX-2 cells, more than 95% of ALDH positive cells are positive also for CD44 and CD24. In triple-labeled cells, all ALDH high cells are also positive for both CD44 and CD24; only a small side population of ALDH high cells was low in CD24 and high in CD44. Scale bar in figure (A) represents 50 μm.

  • TGFβ-Responsive HMOX1 Expression Is Associated with Stemness and Invasion in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    TGFβ‐Responsive HMOX1 Expression Is Associated with Stemness and Invasion in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Modular expression of putative CSC markers during proliferation and differentiation. PrGBM obtained from GT-1 tumor and healthy NSCs were grown in cell culture conditions that are known to be permissive to stemness as evident from the enrichment of (A) nestin (green) and (B) CD133 (red) expression. Such expression of stem cell factors were diminished when cells were allowed to differentiate as evident in (C) from the expression of differentiating marker GFAP expression; enrichment of putative CSC markers (D) HMOX1 and (E) SLC16A1 in proliferating conditions and subsequent diminishing expression in differentiating conditions are similar to that of known stem cell factors nestin and CD133. This observation may highlight the association of putative CSC marker expression with stemness. Nuclei were stained with DAPI. Images were captured at ×10 magnification. Abbreviations: NSCs, neural stem cells; PrGBM, primary GBM cells.

  • Characterization of the Epigenetic Changes During Human Gonadal Primordial Germ Cells Reprogramming
  • Vascular Stem/Progenitor Cell Migration Induced by Smooth Muscle Cell‐Derived Chemokine (C‐C Motif) Ligand 2 and Chemokine (C‐X‐C motif) Ligand 1 Contributes to Neointima Formation
  • Hypoxia and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Define a Molecular Mechanism for Fracture Nonunion
  • Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool
  • A Novel Role for miR‐1305 in Regulation of Pluripotency‐Differentiation Balance, Cell Cycle, and Apoptosis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • COX‐2 Induces Breast Cancer Stem Cells via EP4/PI3K/AKT/NOTCH/WNT Axis
  • TGFβ‐Responsive HMOX1 Expression Is Associated with Stemness and Invasion in Glioblastoma Multiforme

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STEM CELLS Video Highlight

Video abstract from Drs. Barnawi, Al-Khaldi, Sleiman, Sarkar, Al-Dhfyan, Al-Mohanna, Ghebeh, and Al-Alwan on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Fascin is Critical for the Maintenance of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Pool Predominantly via the Activation of the Notch Self-Renewal Pathway" Read the Paper here

Video abstract from Dr. Allen on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Angiopellosis as an Alternative Mechanism of Cell Extravasation" Read the Paper here

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