Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 33 Issue 12

Edited By: G.A. Burton, Jr.; Founding Editor: C.H. Ward

Impact Factor: 2.826

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 30/87 (Toxicology); 52/216 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1552-8618

Author Guidelines

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (ET&C) is open to papers of merit dealing with all phases of Environmental Toxicology, Environmental Chemistry, Non-Chemical Ecological Stressors, and Hazard/Risk Assessment. This includes subjects dealing with the harmful effects of a wide range of chemical, biological, and physical stressors on organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Please see Details on Content Published in ET&C below for further information on appropriate content. Manuscripts and related materials should be submitted through ET&C's electronic submission system at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/etc. Please consider reviewing the author guide for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) as you compose your article (see guidelines).

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry publishes manuscripts in 7 formats: Letters to the Editor, Short Communications, Critical Reviews, Reviews, Research Papers, and Focus articles. Please see Types of Manuscripts below for further explanations of these formats. The journal is divided into 4 sections, each with its own editors: Environmental Chemistry; Environmental Toxicology; Non-Chemical Ecological Stressors; and Hazard / Risk Assessment.

The editor-in-chief reviews proposals for special issues or sections that result from a workshop or symposia, (see guidelines), or papers on a related topic that could potentially publish as a group. For more information contact the editor-in-chief or the editorial office at etc@setac.org.

In addition to printed manuscripts, ET&C maintains an online repository for supplemental information, including detailed information about methods, validation, or experimental results. This information is linked to the manuscript in the online journal, but is not printed in the hardcopy.


Manuscript Submission/Resubmission

All manuscripts and related materials should be submitted to the ET&C electronic submission system at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/etc.

Resubmission: Per journal policy, if a manuscript is rejected after the first round of reviews, it can be submitted for 1 additional round of review. If it is rejected a second time, resubmission is not permitted.


Cover Letter--Each manuscript must be accompanied with a cover letter describing specifically how the work advances understanding in the field. This letter should also describe other manuscripts the authors have published or intend to publish on closely related work and the relationship of the current work to these other manuscripts.

Manuscript and Graphics--Submit text, tables, and figures as separate files using the file formats listed below. Your manuscript must be provided in a format that can be edited for ET&C style and subsequently typeset. We cannot accept a PDF of your manuscript text or tables.

Manuscript: Microsoft Word, text, or rtf
Tables: Microsoft Word (preferred), Excel, tab separated text files
Figure/image files: TIFF, GIF, JPG, PDF, or EPS

Supplemental Data--Supplemental data files to be posted in conjunction with the online version of the article must be submitted with the manuscript. Supplemental data is optional.

Documentation of Unpublished, Cited Works--Copies of cited or related manuscripts not yet in print must be part of the submission package, along with supplemental information files to be posted in conjunction with the article.

Conflict of Interest Reporting--Potential conflicts of interest must be reported at the time the manuscript is submitted. Research funding or other support from outside the authors' stated affiliation must be disclosed within the manuscript.

Statement of Protocol Approval for Animal Research--Research involving animals (vertebrates, cephalopods) must conform to the SETAC Code of Ethics (http://www.setac.org/node/18) and to contemporary guidelines for the care and use of animals (http://www.the-aps.org/publications/journals/guide.htm; http://www.toxicology.org/AI/FA/guidingprinciples.pdf; www.avma.org/resources/euthanasia.pdf). The manuscript should include a statement of protocol approval from an Institutional Review Board and an Institution Animal Care and Use Committee.

Copyright Transfer Agreement--Authors must sign the SETAC copyright transfer agreement before their paper can be published. Individual company copyright transfer agreements may not be substituted. If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), he or she will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement--If the OnlineOpen option is not selected, the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs here: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp

For authors choosing OnlineOpen--If the OnlineOpen option is selected, the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

      Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
      Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
      Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements, please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy, please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

Please be aware of the following:

It is the corresponding author's legal responsibility to inform all co-authors of the terms of the CTA and to obtain either their signatures on the CTA or their written consent to sign on their behalf.
If your co-authors are employees of the US, UK, or Canadian governments they will need to sign the CTA themselves (designating themselves a government employee). They may also need to sign and send any additional agreements that their specific government requires of them. This separate CTA will need to be uploaded in Manuscript Central or e-mailed to the editorial office at etc@setac.org.
If your co-authors are "work-for-hire," instruct them to follow the specific instructions on the CTA for that employment designation. Again, if a separate CTA is required, it will need to be uploaded in Manuscript Central or e-mailed to the editorial office at etc@setac.org.

Manuscript Review

Submitted manuscripts will be reviewed initially by the editor-in-chief to verify that the work falls within the scope of the journal and is otherwise appropriate for peer review. All manuscripts are subject to review by at least 2 scientists. During the online submission process, authors will be required to suggest at least three appropriate reviewers; final selection of reviewers, however, is at the discretion of the editor. Papers should contain sufficient information regarding the methods, experimental design, and statistical analysis to allow reviewers to evaluate the integrity of the findings.

Plagiarism and iThenticate

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry uses iThenticate software to screen submissions for content published elsewhere. By submitting your manuscript to ET&C, you accept that your manuscript may be screened against previously published work, and you may be asked to clarify similar work appearing elsewhere. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry reserves the right to reject submissions that contain content judged to have appeared elsewhere. This includes, in certain cases, papers published online, including theses and dissertations.

You must document (cite and reference) any ideas or words taken from the intellectual efforts of yourself or others, whether published or unpublished. This includes citations to your own previously published work. Consult the sections on plagiarism and redundant publication as presented in Scientific Style and Format, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA, USA, including the 4 types of plagiarism as defined by the American Medical Association style manual (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com/oso/private/content/jama/9780195176339/p056.html?q=plagiarism#jama-9780195176339-div2-145):

1. Direct plagiarism: Verbatim lifting of passages without enclosing the borrowed material in quotation marks and crediting the original author.

2. Mosaic: Borrowing the ideas and opinions from an original source and a few verbatim words or phrases without crediting the original author. In this case, the plagiarist intertwines his or her own ideas and opinions with those of the original author, creating a "confused, plagiarized mass."

3. Paraphrase: Restating a phrase or passage, providing the same meaning but in a different form without attribution to the original author.

4. Insufficient acknowledgment: Noting the original source of only part of what is borrowed or failing to cite the source material in a way that allows the reader to know what is original and what is borrowed.

Language Assistance

The journal's staff is unable to provide extensive editorial assistance regarding English usage and grammar. Authors are asked to seek appropriate editorial assistance before submitting their manuscript for review. See http://www.journalexperts.com; http://www.bluepencilscience.com/; http://www.biosciencewriters.com/. For additional resources, see Wiley-Blackwell Author Services at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp

Best Paper Award

Annually, SETAC bestows a Best Paper Award for ET&C. The editors who manage the ET&C manuscript peer review process nominate papers to be considered. Following publication of issue 12 each year, a panel comprised of 5 editors and a member of the SETAC Awards Committee will select the best paper. The award will be announced at all annual SETAC meetings and presented at the annual meeting of the SETAC geographic unit most appropriate for the award winner.

Best Student Paper Award

Annually, SETAC bestows a Best Student Paper Award. To qualify, the first author must have conducted the research as a student, the senior author must be a member of SETAC, and the manuscript must be accepted for publication in ET&C. Graduation of the first author does not preclude consideration for this award. When you submit your manuscript, please indicate if the paper is to be considered for this award.

Exceptional Reviewer Recognition

Annually,ET&C spotlights and thanks reviewers who have consistently provided the journal with high-quality, timely reviews during the previous year. Exceptional reviewers are selected based on the evaluation of each review, number or reviews completed, and average turn around time.

Types of Manuscripts

Letters to the Editor may concern any scientific topic relevant to the purposes of the journal, including critical discussion of ET&C papers published within the past 24 mo. Letters that concern a previously published paper, if deemed appropriate for publication, will be sent to the original authors for a single response. Two ET&C editors will review Letters to the Editor. Letters to the Editor should not exceed 2 journal pages in length.

Short Communications should present concise statements representing either a preliminary report or a complete accounting of a significant research contribution, and must not exceed 4 journal pages, including abstract, text, figures, tables, and references. Brief methods papers will be accepted in this category.

Critical Reviews of subjects relevant to the purposes of ET&C must indeed be critical reviews, not simply literature reviews. Reviews normally should not exceed 12 journal pages in length, including abstract, text, references, tables, and figures.

Reviews discuss a large collection of papers on a related topic. The list of citations will be extensive, but reviews should not exceed 12 journal pages, including the references.

Original Articles must report original research that has not been submitted elsewhere, other than as an abstract or an oral or poster presentation, and should be kept to 10 journal pages or fewer in length. Students should indicate to their advisors and their university that they are publishing a paper based on their thesis or dissertation and that the document should not be posted online.

Focus Papers are part of a regular series of timely articles intended to sharpen our understanding of current and emerging topics of interest to the scientific community at large. Focus articles should be written in a succinct, magazine style, normally not to exceed 6 journal pages. We encourage authors to include only the most critical references and use color figures, tables, and/or photos. Focus articles have a limited number of authors--1 to 3, if possible. Special attributes of Focus articles include: an abstract and key words, a limited number of references (a Suggested Reading list may be linked online), and use of color figures and tables.

Your Focus paper will undergo the same rigorous peer review to which all ET&C papers are subjected. It will be edited for more journalistic style, more active than passive voice, and more descriptive headings than ET&C research papers. It will also implement the use of sidebar material or boxes of text that highlight important aspects of your paper, as well as define acronyms or terminology for a broader audience.

We would like to hear your suggestions for Focus Papers. Please send ideas to the editor-in-chief, G.A. Burton, at etc@setac.org.

Perspectivesare part of a regular series designed to discuss and evaluate potentially competing viewpoints and research findings on current environmental issues. Two or 3 authors will present their thoughts and opinions on an issue of national and international importance. We prefer the 3 sectors of the SETAC tripartite (academia, government, business) be represented by the lead authors, but this is not required. Each Perspectives will undergo the same rigorous peer review to which all ET&C papers are subjected.

Details on Content Published in ET&C

Inappropriate ContentET&C does not publish papers on certain topics. These include: 1) papers that focus on human health toxicology, unless they are tied closely to exposures to environmental stressors or extrapolated to responses in wildlife or other aspects of ecotoxicology; 2) remediation technologies; 3) papers that focus on treatment processes dealing with effluents, wastes, and contaminants; 4) occupational exposure in humans; and 5) pollution prevention.

Results of studies with high site-specificity, such as toxicity testing of a particular effluent, must have substantial application beyond the immediate environmental setting. Papers that primarily report outcomes of standard toxicity tests, or routine biochemical, molecular, or histological measures, with an additional organism, test system, or chemical are subject to particular scrutiny to ensure that their scientific impact warrants publications in ET&C.

Environmental ChemistryPapers should emphasize how chemistry is applied to measuring, assessing, or predicting chemical fate (abiotic and biological transformations) and environmental exposure (bioavailability, bioaccumulation) including indoor environments. The work should provide insights into toxicological responses of exposed organisms (including humans). The applicability of the work to environmental assessment, environmental toxicology, or ecological risk assessment must be clear. Papers on analytical methods must demonstrate meaningful and useful advancements over existing methods, potential to influence current practice, and application to environmental samples and environmental assessment in general. Theoretical or modeling studies oriented toward predicting environmental behavior, chemical properties, or toxicity must show direct applicability to environmental or ecological risk assessment.

Environmental ToxicologyPapers may deal with the harmful effects of chemical stressors on organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Papers that use data or models to elucidate mechanisms and advance the ability to extrapolate toxicological information across species, chemicals, levels of biological organization, or ecosystems are particularly desirable. In addition, papers that show the interactions of multiple stressors and their resulting effects are also a priority. Studies that report in vivo toxicity endpoints intended to establish exposure- or dose-response relationships to be used in hazard or risk assessment should include analytical confirmation of exposure or dose concentrations. The exception to this requirement is on confirmation of nanomaterial concentrations that are in complex matrices, such as soils, sediments and periphyton, because the state-of-the-science makes this exceedingly difficult.

Non-Chemical Ecological StressorsPapers may deal with the harmful effects of a wide range of biological and physical stressors that may (or may not) interact with naturally occurring or anthropogenic chemicals to affect organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. This includes stressors such as alterations of habitat, climate change, and invasive species. Papers that show the interactions of multiple stressors and their resulting effects are also a priority.

Hazard/Risk AssessmentManuscripts should describe hazard or risk assessments, or provide methods or models to use in such assessments. Case studies must have sufficient scope and impact to be of interest to a broad audience. While most hazard and risk assessments focus on metals and synthetic organic chemicals, we are particularly interested in assessments that also include other cumulative stressor effects, including interactions with non-chemical stressors, such as alteration of habitat, climate change, or invasive species. Hazard/risk assessments should focus on the science of hazard/risk assessments; papers delving deeply into policy, regulation, value judgments, or public, social, or legal issues should be submitted to SETAC's second journal, Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (IEAM).

Manuscript Preparation

Double space and left justify everything, including tables, figure legends, and references. Format documents to be US letter size (8.5 × 11 in), and number the lines of the text continuously from the first page through the figure legends. Consult recent issues for proper placement of main headings, subheadings, and paragraph headings. Titles and subheadings should be brief (55 characters or fewer) and should not be complete sentences, but words, phrases, or brief clauses. Only the first word of a title or subheading should be capitalized.

Order of Manuscript Pages

Arrange the manuscript in the following order:

Page 1Running head (not to exceed 60 characters and spaces), name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author (author to whom copyright and page proofs should be sent).

Page 2Title of article followed by authors' complete names and institutional affiliations, city, state/province, and country. Use the following symbol order to designate authors' affiliations: †, ‡, §, ||, #. When more are needed, double them in the same sequence ††, ‡‡, §§, || ||, ##. All persons listed as authors should have been sufficiently involved in the research to take public responsibility for its content. The affiliation listed for an author MUST be the institution at which the research was conducted.

Page 3Footnote listing the email address of the corresponding author, and the present address of the corresponding author if different from the address on page 2.

Page 4Abstract describing the research, results, and conclusions (maximum of 220 words; 70 words for short communications) and no more than 5 key words. The abstract contains no citations.

Text--Followed by acknowledgement (not to exceed 150 words), references, and figure legends (grouped on 1 page). Tables and figures should be submitted as two separate files (one for all tables and one for all figures) and then ordered to appear after the text. Supplemental data such as very long tables and datasets may be submitted in PDF format for Web publication only. Submit all supplemental data with the manuscript.


Write in simple declarative sentences. ET&C does not have a technical editorial staff to rewrite manuscripts; therefore, submissions must conform to the accepted standards of English style and usage. The title should be brief and informative. With the exception of references, the journal conforms to Scientific Style and Format, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA, USA.


Limit Letters to the Editor to 2 journal pages, Short Communications to 4 journal pages, Critical Reviews and Reviews to 12 journal pages, and Research Papers to 10 journal pages. One journal page equals about 1,100 words. The number of references should not exceed 40 (more are allowed for Critical Reviews); the number of tables 6, and the number of figures 6. Publication of excessively long manuscripts will be delayed.

References and Citations

Number all references in order of mention in the text, listing references in the table and figure legends last. Group full references at the end of the paper. Cite references by number in square brackets. Basic style is as follows:

  • Book: Author AB, Author CD. 2007. Title of Book. Publisher, City, ST, Country.
  • Book Article: Author AB, Author CD. 2007. Title of article. In Adams AB, Smith DC, eds, Title of Book, 2nd ed, Vol 1-Toxicology. Publisher, City, ST, Country, pp 1-5.
  • Journal Article: Author AB, Author CD. 2007. Title of article. Title of Journal Vol:Pages.
  • Proceedings: Author AB, Author CD. 2007. Title of article. Proceedings, Name of Conference, City, ST, Country, date (month, days, year), pp 00-00 (if no page numbers are available, cite parenthetically in the text).
  • Report: Author AB. 2007. Title of report. EPA 600/334/778. Final/Technical Report. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • Dissertation: Author AB. 2007. Title of thesis. PhD thesis. University, City, ST, Country.
  • Website: Author AB. 2007. Title of website. City (ST or country): Publisher. [cited 29 January 2013]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1552-8618

Cite personal communications and Master's theses parenthetically in the text only; do not include them in the references. Mention personal communications as follows: (A.B. Author, University affiliation, City, ST, Country, personal communication). Verify all personal communications with the source, and obtain approval for use of the author's name. For Master's theses, use the following format: (A.B Author, Year, Master's thesis, University, City, ST, Country).

Papers that have been accepted for publication may be cited as "in press" and placed in the reference list. If the paper remains unpublished by publication time, adding a DOI is preferred. Submit copies of all "in press" papers with the manuscript. Papers still in review may not be cited in the reference list.

Use capitalized zip-code abbreviations for states and Canadian provinces. Spell out names of countries except USA. For abbreviations of journal titles, consult BIOSIS Serial Sources (http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/biosciences.txt); spell out the full names of journals not listed in BIOSIS or in recent issues of ET&C.

Permissions and Copyright

Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reprint a previously published table, figure, or extract of more than 250 words and for submitting written permissions with their manuscript. Acknowledgement alone is not sufficient; if in doubt, obtain permission. Permissions should be submitted quickly after your paper is accepted to avoid any delays in publication. Authors should exercise customary professional courtesy in acknowledging intellectual properties such as patents and trademarks. Authors wishing to reprint illustrations or text previously published in ET&C should contact http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.


First, decide whether a table is needed; Tables are frequently overused in scientific publications, and presenting all data collected is rarely necessary. Tables should not duplicate information in the text or data presented in graphic forms and should stand alone without referring back to the text.

Tables must have at least 3 columns; the center and right columns refer back to the left column. All columns require brief headings that accurately describe the entries listed below. Include explanatory matter such as abbreviation definitions in the footnotes. Identify footnotes with superscript, lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), and list them below the table starting with the title, then upper left footnote designation, proceeding to the right across a row, then down to the next row and proceeding again from left to right. Superscript, lettered footnotes are followed by asterisks for significance (p values), then by a list of acronyms. Designate significant differences using on-line full-size capital letters. An example (adapted from the Scientific Style and Format, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA, USA) can be found at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1552-8618/homepage/SampleTableForET_C.pdf

Define all acronyms used in your table; refer to previous tables if a lengthy list of acronyms is used in successive tables. Avoid lengthy footnotes.

In your manuscript, double-space all information in tables, and place page breaks between each table. Number tables using consecutive Arabic numerals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry does not use designations of Table 1A and 1B, etc. Give each table a separate number or combine into 1 table. In your running text, indicate the first mention of each table and figure in red. For more guidance in constructing tables, see Scientific Style and Format, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA, USA.

Figures and Illustrations

Well-chosen and carefully executed illustrations will aid readers in the comprehension of the text. Illustrations should not duplicate information in tables or text and should be limited to no more than 6 per paper. Ensure that all are necessary to explain the research. Care should be taken to make sure that the figures are clear and can be interpreted without reference to the text.

Include titles and brief explanatory legends for all illustrations on a separate page after the References in your main document. Include symbol and acronym definitions in the figure legend, not on the figure itself. Label multipart figures with consecutive letters of the alphabet, using an upper case letter (A, B, C, etc.). Place this letter in the upper left corner of the figure, outside the figure itself (not on the figure). For examples, please see previous issues of ET&C.

In addition:

Ensure that the figure will be legible when reduced to the width of a column of text (80 mm).

Use sentence case (capitalize the first word ONLY) for axis titles, labels, and legends.

Place the legend inside the figure or label the lines.

Use Arial font and the same font size for all figures in the manuscript.

Describe what the error bars mean (SE, SD).

Use minor ticks, especially on log-scales.

Avoid textures or shading that will not reproduce well or will not be distinguishable in your legend.

Do not use a grid on graphs and do not use 3-dimensional bar charts.

If the graph is a characterization of correlation, add the coefficient of correlation to the graph.

Use full words and avoid abbreviations. If you do use an abbreviation, define it in the figure legend.

If graphs are stacked (preferably vertically) consider eliminating tick labels on all but the bottom graphic.

Label each stacked graphic in full; do not use abbreviations.

If graphs are meant to be compared, use the same scales on the x and y axes.

If concentration– or dose–response is being characterized, use an arithmetic or log scale, not a categorical scale.

General Appearance--Halftones (gray scale images) do not reproduce well. Avoid small dotted lines, shading, and stippling. For bar graphs, use black, white, striped, or hatched designs, but only if they are sufficiently wide or separated in order to appear distinct from one another. If no important information will be lost, consider placing fewer numbers on the axes to achieve an uncluttered look. Make lines on maps bold and distinct and eliminate information not pertinent to the subject. Naming too many rivers, towns, and geographical elements results in a cluttered map that is difficult to read.

Size and Proportion--When possible, submit figures in the size they are to appear in the journal. Most illustrations, except some maps and very wide graphs, should be 1-column size (3.5 inches) and a resolution of 300 dpi. If the graph is composed in that size, legibility will be easy to determine. The font size on the x and y axes should not be larger than that of the title, and the same font (Arial or Times New Roman is preferred) should be used throughout. Numbers on the x and y axes should be smaller than the descriptive title, which should be 12-point font. Fonts smaller than 12 points are generally not legible when reduced to 1 column size. Use boldface type with care; if illustrations are to be reduced, the letters with open spaces will disappear.

Shading--Half-tones (gray scale) and stippling do not reproduce well. Occasionally, graphs are composed with four or more half tones that are barely discernible in the original; invariably the difference is lost entirely in print. Diagonal and horizontal stripes, checks, and solid black or white bars reprint well. If many differences must be presented, a color illustration may be the best alternative.

Symbols and Lines--Avoid very small symbols (no smaller than 2 mm) on line graphs; squares and circles look remarkably alike after being reduced to page size. Dotted lines often become invisible, and very complicated combinations of dots and dashes are difficult to read and even more difficult to define in the legend. Print all elements of the graph with the same degree of intensity. Figures with headings in boldface type but very light lines and symbols appear incongruous. Placing symbol definitions in a box to the right or left of the figure will make placement of the figure in 1 column impossible. Place definitions in the figure legend if at all possible or on the figure itself if only a few definitions are required.

Potential Cover Images--Each cover image is carefully selected by the editor-in-chief and editorial office. Criteria involved in selecting an appropriate image are size and resolution, style, variety, and space for title placement. Each cover image must represent an article in its designated issue. If you would like a photograph you have taken to be considered for a cover please contact the editorial office at etc@setac.org.


Use acronyms and abbreviations sparingly to avoid impeding comprehension of the text, and use only those that are well known. Too many acronyms make your manuscript difficult to read. Define each acronym at first introduction at the text, and on each table and figure legend, giving the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses. Spell out acronyms that begin a sentence. Do not use an acronym for words or phrases if that word or phrase is used fewer than five times. Symbols and abbreviations commonly used can be found here: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1552-8618/homepage/ETCSymbolsandAbbrevs.pdf

Technical Information

Equations, mathematical formulas, flow diagrams

Simple equations should be written as A/B on 1 line. Decimals are preferred to fractions. Write out and hyphenate simple fractions (two-thirds), except in figures, graphs, legends, and in parentheses. Refer to the document Math to Type.pdf for specific guidelines.


Express parts per million (ppm) as microliters per liter µl/L) or parts per billion (ppb) as nanoliters per liter (nl/L). Use metric system only.


Represent ions as follows: Na+, Mn3+, Br-, and PO3-


An isotopically labeled compound is indicated by placing the isotopic symbol in square brackets attached to the name or the formula [14C]ethanol; [32P]ATP; [2H]C2H2; [3H]DNA. The specific position of the isotope should be given at the time of first mention; thereafter, it can be abbreviated to the less specific notation. The symbol indicating configuration should precede the isotopic symbol, and the position of isotopic labeling is indicated by Arabic numerals as in D-[14C]lactate;D-[14C]glucose 6-P; sodium D-[14C]acetate; L-[1,2-14 C]alanine.

The term U indicates uniform labeling, as in [U-14C]sucrose, where the isotope is uniformly distributed among all 12 carbons. Preference is given to [14C2] and 32Pi rather than to [14C]CO2 or [14C]CO2 and [32P]Pi.


The metric system is standard, and SI units should be used as far as possible. Spell out all numbers or fractions that begin a sentence. If this is awkward, rephrase the sentence to avoid beginning with a numeral. Do not use a hyphen to replace the preposition "to" between numerals: 13 to 22 min, 3 to 10°C. Exception: Use the dash in tables, figures, graphs, and in parentheses.

Check tabular data, as well as numerical values, reported in the text for the proper number of significant figures. For decimals smaller than one, insert a zero before the decimal point: 0.345.

Powers in tables and figures

Care is needed in tables and figures to avoid numbers with many digits. The unit should be followed by the power of 10 by which the actual quantity was multiplied to give the reported quantity; the unit may be changed by the use of prefixes such as "mM" or "m." For example, an entry "5" under the heading "g x 10-3" means that the value of g is 0.005; and entry "5" under the heading "g x 103" means that the value of g is 5,000. A concentration of 0.0015 M may be expressed as 1.5 under the heading "concn. (mM)" or as 1,500 under the heading "concn. (mM)" as 15 under the heading "10-4 x concn. (M)."


Mixtures use "to" when general words are used, i. e., "the chloroform to methanol" ratio. Always use a colon with words when numerical ratio is provided, i. e., chloroform:methanol (2:1,v/v). Always use a colon with a number ratio. Use a hyphen with a mixture only if a numerical value is not given, i. e., "used in chloroform-methanol."

Scientific names

The complete scientific name (genus, species authority for the binomial, and cultivar or strain), when appropriate, of all experimental organisms should be included in the Abstract and Materials and Methods sections. Following this initial citation, the generic name may be abbreviated to the initial, except when confusion could arise by reference to other genera with the same initial. The algae and microorganisms referred to in the manuscript should be identified by a Collection number or that of a comparable listing. Scientific names (genus and species) should be italicized.

Soil classification

Measured values for soil physicochemical characteristics having a bearing on the research must be reported in the manuscript for each individual type of soil used and may be reported in table format. Authors are strongly encouraged, whenever feasible, to give the soil type/name, texture, and scientific classification of each soil. This scientific nomenclature for soils must be consistent with a modern published soil classification system, and the system must be cited.


Solutions of common acids and bases should be described in terms of normality (N) , and salts in terms of molarity (M), thus 1 N NaOH, 0.1 N acetic acid and 0.1 M Na2SO4. Fractional concentrations should be expressed in the decimal system: 0.1 N acetic acid and not N/10 acetic acid. The term % must be defined as w/w, w/v, or v/v; 10% (w/v) signifies 10 g/100 ml. Express concentrations as ng/L, mg/L, mg/L, ng/g, mg/g, etc.

Statistical treatment

When appropriate, statistical analysis should be included. Define all statistical measures clearly and use lower-case letters for abbreviations such as r, f, and t.

Trade names

The names of the manufacturers or suppliers of special material should be given in parenthesis following the name. If desired, include the superscript copyright, trademark, or registered designation (©, TM, or ®) after the first mention in the text and first mention in table or figure legends. Trade names must be capitalized. The use of trade names and code numbers of experimental chemical compounds used in experimentation should be avoided. Such compounds should be identified by common name (ASA), if such a name exists, or by chemical name and structural formula. Lot numbers, purity, impurities, etc., may be appropriate.

Manuscript Processing


Each manuscript is assigned to an editor with expertise in the field discussed, who, in turn, sends it to a minimum of two reviewers. Reviewers give evaluations, suggest improvements, and recommend acceptance or rejection of the paper. Reviewing should be completed within 2 mo. If reviewers disagree, the paper may be sent to a third reviewer. The editor sends a decision letter and the critiques of reviewers to the corresponding author, along with a detailed list of editorial issues to be amended or improved. Authors who do not follow ET&C style and format will experience a delay in publication.

The decision letter from the editor will give instructions for uploading the revised manuscript to Manuscript Central. Include a response to reviewers that describes the disposition of each of the reviewers' suggestions, item by item. Indicate the page and line number of the revised text and highlight the sections that have been changed on the revised manuscript to aid the editor in determining acceptability. Authors wishing to reject all or specific suggestions should state their reasons. Manuscripts not received within 3 mo of the date of provisional acceptance will be considered new submissions. Contact the assigned editor if an extension is needed. Take care to include all necessary changes on the final revised manuscript.

All papers need reviewers, and all authors are obligated to serve in this capacity. To become an eligible reviewer, go to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/etc and register as a New User (see right side of the page). When you have completed the registration process, email the editorial office at etc@setac.org, who will send your information to all of ET&C's editors. Be certain to enter specific keywords during the appropriate point in the registration process so that your expertise can be matched with manuscript content.

Page Proofs and Publication

Authors are able to track their manuscript through the production process by registering for Author Services (http://authorservices.wiley.com)for additional information. Page proofs are emailed to the corresponding author approximately 1 mo prior to the online publication date. Proofs will be Adobe Acrobat PDFs and corrections should be made electronically. Authors are responsible for proofreading. Limit changes to correcting printer's errors when possible. Return the corrected proof to Wiley-Blackwell within 24 hr. Accepted articles will be available for viewing at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1552-8618/accepted after being accepted and on EarlyView approximately 1 mo later. Save a copy of the corrected proof for reference. Manuscripts will be pulled and rescheduled if proofs are not received as directed. The ET&C Editorial Office is also responsible for reading page proofs and may submit additional changes consistent with ET&C's style.


Authors should call to attention any significant errors in their published manuscripts to the editorial staff. If necessary, corrections will be published.

Author Fees

When a manuscript is accepted for publication and sent in for typesetting, it is expected to be in its final form. Excessive revisions may result in additional charges.

Page Charges

Authors are no longer required to pay page charges.

Charges for Use of Color

The cost of using a color figure in an article is US$550 per printed page. You may choose to print your figures in black and white in the hardcopy manuscript and use the color figures in the online version only. There is no charge for color figures printed online only. There are no color figure charges for Focus articles. Color charges will be invoiced upon print publication.


Upon payment of the page charges, the corresponding author will receive a PDF at no additional charge. Authors of accepted manuscripts will be invited to send by e-mail a PDF offprint of their final published paper direct from the publisher to up to 10 individuals located anywhere in the world free of charge.

Additional reprints may be ordered at https://caesar.sheridan.com/reprints/redir.php?pub=10089&acro=ETC

Open Access

Any author wishing to publish his or her paper as a part of the publisher's OnlineOpen program, which provides open access for all online readers, may read more about Wiley's OnlineOpen policy at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen.asp.