Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 8

Edited By: Linda J. Sandell

Impact Factor: 2.875

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 7/65 (Orthopedics)

Online ISSN: 1554-527X

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Publication Forms

Author Guidelines

Manuscript Submission Information
Editorial Office Information
Editorial Policies
Manuscript Preparation
Proofs and Reprints

The Journal of Orthopaedic Research is the forum for the rapid publication of high quality reports of new information on the full spectrum of orthopaedic research including life sciences, engineering, translational, and clinical studies.

The Journal accepts manuscripts reporting original research only. Case reports and unsoliticed review articles will not be accepted for review.

Announcing a New Submission Fee
Beginning July 15, 2013, The Journal of Orthopaedic Research will implement a standard fee of $50.00 US for all unsolicited nonmember submissions with the exception of revised manuscripts, invited reviews and commentaries, and Letters to the Editor. ORS members are not subject to submission fees.

Manuscript Submission Information

Journal of Orthopaedic Research is pleased to offer authors web-based submission and peer-review.

Submit your manuscripts online at Manuscripts are received on the day of submission and quickly assigned to reviewers. Through individual Author Centers on this website, authors can view the status of their manuscripts as they progress through the review process. Notification of the disposition of each manuscript will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author on the day of decision. To submit your manuscript online:

  • Go to the manuscript submission site
  • If you do not already have an account, then create an account for yourself by clicking on the "Create an Account" button. You then will be able to submit and monitor the progress of your manuscripts. If you have forgotten your password, enter your email address in the field provided and click “go” to have your account information emailed to you.
  • Follow the instructions carefully. Submit your manuscript as a Word file (text and tables) and separate figure files (TIFF or EPS). You do not need to mail any paper copies of your manuscript.
  • At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with manuscript number will appear, and you will receive an E-mail confirming that the manuscript has been received by the Journal.

Editorial Office Information

Authors are strongly encouraged to submit online at For those who are unable to do so, suitable articles should be submitted in full for editorial consideration.

All clinical articles and those dealing with the biological aspects of orthopaedic research should be sent to:

Joseph A. Buckwalter, MD
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1088
Fax: 319-356-8999

To contact the Iowa City Editorial Office, please e-mail Jeanette Marsh, Director of Publications:

All multidisciplinary articles reporting the application of engineering methods to orthopaedic research should be sent to:

Timothy M. Wright, PhD
Department of Biomechanics & Biomaterials
The Hospital for Special Surgery
535 East 70 th Street
New York, NY 10021-1490
Fax: 212-606-1490

To contact the New York Editorial Office, please e-mail Anna Mirabal, Director of Publications:

Editorial Policies

Human and Animal Research Subjects. Manuscripts that describe experimental work using human or animal subjects must include a statement in the Methods section that approval was obtained from an Institutional Review Board or an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee prior to performing the study. The Journal prefers that authors use line drawings rather than photographs of cadaveric material or experimental animals. Photographs of human subjects are acceptable if the authors have received appropriate permission for publication of the photographs or taken appropriate measures to disguise the individual's identity.

Reviewers. Authors should submit the names, institutional affiliations, and e-mail addresses of three reviewers who have the necessary expertise to evaluate the submitted manuscript. The editorial offices have the responsibility of assigning reviewers but will take into consideration the individuals named by the authors.

Review Criteria. Criteria for acceptance of a manuscript for publication include outstanding quality and originality of the research, excellence in the writing and organization of the manuscript, and the priority and potential impact of the manuscript to readers of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research . Manuscripts must, therefore, not only be technically competent, but also significantly impact orthopaedic research.

All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by the Editors for quality, novelty, scientific importance, and relevance to the journal's general readership. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication or those that are outside the scope of the journal are not reviewed further, and are returned to the authors. Manuscripts judged worthy of further consideration are sent to Deputy Editors for assignment of referees.

Manuscripts will be reviewed by peer experts chosen by the editors and/or suggested by the authors. The editors make every effort to have reviews returned within two weeks. If the reviewers provide comments and suggestions and recommend that a revised manuscript be resubmitted for review, authors will have two months deadline, it will be viewed as a new submission requiring new, initial reviews. This policy is intended to avoid long delays in resubmission and to ensure publication of high quality, timely orthopaedic research.

Scientific Misconduct. The editors of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research strongly condemn all forms of scientific misconduct. New submissions are actively scrutinized for signs of misconduct and all allegations are taken seriously. The Journal will investigate any suspicion of misconduct and, if proof of misconduct is discovered, notify the corresponding author's institution and funding agencies. Additionally, the Journal will not consider publication of any papers by the offending authors for at least one year, subject to the editors' judgment of the severity of the case.

The Journal of Orthopaedic Research adheres to the definitions and guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Scientific misconduct includes, but is not limited to the following:

Data falsification: fabrication, omission, or distortion of data.

Plagiarism: appropriation of language, data, or ideas without due credit.

Self-plagiarism, redundancy, or duplicate publication: publication of an article that significantly overlaps with another the author(s) published previously. This may be accomplished by reusing the same data with similar findings, implementing superficial changes to disguise the similarity between the two articles, or publishing the same article in two different languages.

Journal of Orthopaedic Research uses a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to us, you agree that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Authorship issues: improperly assigning credit by excluding legitimate authors or including authors who did not significantly contribute to the research, submitting a multi-authored paper without consent of all authors; failing to fully disclose funding or conflicts of interest.

Deviation from standard research practices or legislative and regulatory requirements: including but not limited to use of funds, care of animals , human subjects or tissues, drugs, devices, or radioactive, biological or chemical materials.

Image manipulation: enhancing, obscuring, moving, removing, or introducing a specific element of an image is considered data falsification. Adjustments that affect the whole image (e.g., brightness or contrast) are generally acceptable provided all data from the original image are still present. All image modifications must be noted in the figure legend.


The purpose of this policy is to provide readers of your manuscript with information about your other interests that could influence how they receive and understand your work. We ask that you err on the side of full disclosure; it is better to disclose a relationship than not to do so.

The Journal of Orthopaedic Research and Wiley-Blackwell requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to: Board membership, Consultancy, Employment, Grants/grants pending, Patents (planned, pending, or issued), Royalties, Stock/Stock Options, Speaker’s fees, and/or payment for development of educational presentations.

The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission.

It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.


Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 1999. Guidelines on Good Publication Practice.

Graf C. et al. 2007. Best Practice Guildelines on Publication Ethics: A Publisher's Perspective. Int J Clin Pract 61: 1-26.

Nakamura, Y. and Christensen, N.B. 2009. Plagiarism. Cancer Sci 100:1563-1565.

Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts must be submitted in English via on-line submission.  The manuscript should be formatted for standard 8.5 x 11 inch (21 x 28 cm) paper with at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) margins on all sides and double-spaced.  The font for all text and legends should be Times New Roman, 12 point. The manuscripts should be no longer than 16 pages which includes the title page, abstract, text, references, acknowledgements which includes a statement regarding the sources of financial support for the study, and tables/figure legends. Manuscripts that do not adhere to these instructions WILL BE RETURNED to the corresponding author for correction before being sent out for peer review. 

The text of the manuscript should be organized in the following sequence: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References, Tables, and Figure legends. Pages should be numbered in succession, the title page being page 1. The title page should include only: the article title; the authors' names and their affiliations; the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the person to whom proofs and reprint requests should be addressed; any necessary footnotes to these items; and a running title of 5 words or less.

The page following the title page should include an abstract of up to 200 words describing the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions of the study. Authors should also supply up to five keywords . Keywords may be modified by the Editors.

In the acknowledgments, the authors must: (1) identify the sources of all funding for the study including internal sources; and (2) provide information concerning all of the authors' professional and financial affiliations that may be perceived to have biased the presentation.

Useful information for writing your manuscript is available in: Wright TM, Hayes WC, Buckwalter JA: Writing for the Journal of Orthopaedic Research. J Orthop Res 17:459-468, 1999.

Authors whose “first” language is not English should arrange for their manuscripts to be written in idiomatic English before submission. The text should also be carefully checked for errors. Please visit the following page on Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services site for language editing resources  

Supplementary Material: Authors are encouraged to submit supplementary material that could aid readers in understanding the authors' findings and where appropriate to ensure that the page limits are met. Supplementary material for articles published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research will be available in the online version of the journal. This accompanying information may include (but is not limited to) figures, tables, video clips, large sections of movies (QuickTime or mpeg), data sets, program code, and electronic graphical files. Supplementary material must be submitted at the time of peer review, although the reviewers and editors may also suggest that figures or table(s) be provided as supplementary material during the review process. Each piece of supplementary material should be referenced within the text.  Supplementary material should be numbered in order, but independently of figures in the main article, e.g. S- Figure 1 would indicate a figure that follows Figure 1 in the main text. Please note that supplementary material is NOT edited by the publisher after final acceptance by the editors, and is posted online in the format in which it is supplied.

Perspectives Invited Articles. The meetings of the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS) provide a worldwide forum for the presentation and discussion of important advances in musculoskeletal research. Critical components are spotlight and workshop sessions focused on emerging research that has the potential to change clinical practice. These sessions bring together outstanding investigators from a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Recognizing the importance of the sessions for promoting innovative musculoskeletal research, the Journal of Orthopaedic Research Editorial Advisory Board and the journal editors have decided to invite review articles based on the ORS workshops and spotlight sessions as well as other selected topics presented at the ORS meetings. The purpose of these articles is to place in perspective important research developments and directions. (See the Editors' Editorial regarding Perspectives:

The invited reviews will focus on specific topics that will be of broad interest to ORS members and all of those engaged in musculoskeletal research. The reviews will be concise, and the editors will ensure that these reviews are published as soon as possible after the meetings. Unsolicited perspective articles may be rejected without review at the discretion of the Editors.

Invited reviews will follow the directions for manuscript preparation as shown above.

The organization of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research invited reviews will be as follows:

1. Abstract; 2. An introduction explaining and defining the topic and its importance; 3. A main body of the manuscript organized according to the author's preference, but including concise summaries of the information presented at the workshop or spotlight session; 4. A conclusion section defining the important unanswered questions related to the topic and providing clear directions for future research related to the topic.

Details of Style: Acronyms and abbreviations should be avoided and when necessary should be defined the first time they are mentioned. The Editors reserve the right to adjust style to certain standards of uniformity. For matters of style, follow the Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (6th edition), published by Cambridge University Press. For reference to the sources of equipment or supplies, use a generic description to refer to the item in the body of the text, followed by the model number, vendor name, city, and state or country, enclosed in parentheses: e.g., electrohydraulic materials test system (model 1331; Instron, Canton, MA). If a trade name is used for a drug, provide the name of the generic along with the manufacturer's information. Abbreviations and units of measurement should all be in SI units. Sufficient detail should be provided that the experiments can be reproduced.

References: All publications cited in the text should be presented in a double-spaced list of references following the text of the manuscript. References should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text ; they are not to be alphabetized. The reference list should not exceed 50 papers. If your manuscript has been accepted for publication and it becomes necessary to add a reference after your article has been typeset, the reference should be placed at the end of the reference list. Do not renumber all the references and all the citations in the text to reflect the correct location of the citation. Simply cite the reference where needed in the text, but use the last number plus one in the existing reference list. References should take the following form:


1. Mackay D, Wood L, Rangan A. 2000. The treatment of isolated ulnar fractures in adults: a systematic review. Injury 31: 565–573.

Chapter in a Book

2. Richards RR, Corley FG. 1996. Fractures of the shafts of the radius and ulna. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP, Bucholz RW, et al., editors. Fractures in adults, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; p 120–134.


3. Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP, Bucholz RW, et al. 1996. Fractures in adults, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 234 p.

The titles of journals should be abbreviated as in Index Medicus. If there are four or fewer authors, they should all be listed; if there are five or more, the first three authors should be listed, followed by et al.

Tables: Type tables double-spaced on pages separate from the text. Each table must have a self-explanatory title, be numbered in order of appearance with Arabic numerals, and be cited in the text. A table should have a legend when appropriate.  Tables should only be used for data that can not be included in the written text and should not duplicate material in the text or figures. The tables should be as small as possible and should not exceed one half of a standard-sized manuscript page.

Figure Legends: Figure legends should be concise descriptions of the figures. Type figure legends double-spaced on pages separate from the text and figures. Provide one legend for each figure, and number legends in sequence. Number the legend pages consecutively with the text. For photomicrographs, indicate the stain used and include a size marker (scale bar) on the image .

Formats and Specifications for Illustrations: To ensure publication of high-quality figures, when preparing digital art, please submit figures in separate .tif or .eps file formats, with the following attributes for the output size of the file:

CMYK format for color figures

300 DPI/PPI for picture-only figure files, in grey-scale or color

600 DPI/PPI for figures containing pictures and line elements (i.e., text labels, thin lines, arrows, etc.)

1200 DPI/PPI for black and white images such as line drawings, graphs, or charts (bitmapped line art)

We recommend creating your graphics, with all fonts and scale bars included, using Photoshop or Illustrator and then uploading the figure files into Manuscript Central. File formats that are NOT acceptable are JPG/JPEG, GIF, ONG, PCX, PNG, XBM, PDFs, PowerPoint, Word, and Excel.

Creating, Sizing and Labeling Figures: Authors should prepare figures so that they can be printed in the smallest size consistent with conveying essential information. Figures should be submitted as electronic images to fit either one column (82.5 mm) or as a series of images that fill part or a full-page width (169 mm). The vertical length of an illustration cannot exceed 228 mm. Final figure size is at the discretion of the journal. All scaling, cropping, and rotating should be performed by the authors to minimize white space prior to submission.  It is essential that figures be cropped to focus only on the area of interest.  An example of this would be, if a figure is demonstrating a repair of the femoral head, it would not be appropriate to include the entire femur in the image.

Helvetica typeface is preferred for lettering of figures. To ensure clarity of presentation, all letters, numbers and symbols in the figure must be a single size, which will reduce to no less than 2 mm high (in the published figure) and be contained within the boundaries of the figure . All figures, when appropriate, must contain a scale bar (within the boundary of the figure itself) to show the final magnification.  Figures should be numbered in a consecutive series with numbers, and they should follow the order they are referenced in the text. If a figure consists of several images they should be labeled consecutively with letters eg. Figure 1a, 1b, etc. Abbreviations used in figures and legends must match exactly those used in the text. Each figure should have a title and a brief descriptive legend; results should not be repeated in the legend. The publisher reserves the right to regroup illustrations and change their size and position to utilize pages efficiently.

Please select LWZ compression (an option in the "save" process of programs such as Photoshop) when saving your figures. This is a lossless compression routine that reduces the size of your figures without compromising their quality.

Color publication charge: Color figures are published online free of charge. Color figures are published in the print version at $400 per page. Authors of review articles are not subject to a color charge. Authors are encouraged to group color illustrations onto a single page without sacrificing the clarity of the manuscript. There is no charge for color images submitted to be included in the Supplemental Material online.

Checking Graphics prior to Submission: To ensure that digital figures are suitable for print, please go to Digital Expert. This free tool will inspect and verify that the format and resolution of your figure files are correct for printing. For further guidance on preparing digital figure files, author(s) are encouraged to visit Figure files that do not conform to the required format and resolution will delay review of the manuscript, because the editorial office will return the files to you for correction before sending your manuscript to reviewers.

Cover Photos: Submission of potential cover photos is encouraged; upon submission, these should be uploaded as a supplemental figure entitled, “for consideration as a cover photo”. A minimum resolution of 300 dpi size of 8.5 × 11” is required for consideration.

Publication and Access: Supplementary material for published articles will be made available via the Journal of Orthopaedic Research Web site ( to licensed users.


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.
For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions
For authors choosing OnlineOpen:
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Proofs and Reprints

Proofs must be reviewed within 48 hours of receipt; late return may cause a delay in publication of an article. Please check text, tables, legends, and references carefully. To expedite publication, page proofs rather than galleys will be sent electronically to the author. Return proofs to:

Reprints may be purchased at