Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 6

Edited By: Linda J. Sandell

Impact Factor: 2.986

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 9/72 (Orthopedics)

Online ISSN: 1554-527X

JOR Virtual Issues

Virtual Issues from the Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Published in cooperation with the Orthopaedic Research Society

Total Joint Arthroplasty

Total joint replacement is a highly successful, cost-effective surgical procedure that reduces pain and improves function for patients with end-stage arthritis. Currently, these operations are being extended to younger, more physically active patients with increased functional demands. Furthermore, as patients are living longer, the durability of joint replacement must be considered.

This special issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research compiles the best recently published manuscripts in the fields of biomechanics, biomaterials, biology and clinical science relevant to joint replacement. These manuscripts underline the fact that the technology of joint replacement is undergoing constant change (some positive and some negative). Critical analysis of these preclinical and clinical innovations will hopefully improve the longevity of this highly successful surgical procedure.

Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD, Guest Editor

Stanford University

Stanford, CA

Timothy Wright, PhD, Guest Editor

Hospital for Special Surgery

New York, NY

Linda J. Sandell, PhD, Editor in Chief

Washington University

St. Louis, MO

Total Hip Replacement

High friction moments in large hard-on-hard hip replacement bearings in conditions of poor lubrication
Bishop, NE; Hothan, A; Morlock, MM

Material Loss at the Taper Junction of Retrieved Large Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacements
Matthies, AK; Racasan, R; Bills, P; Blunt, L; Cro, S; Panagiotidou, A; Blunn, G; Skinner, J; Hart, AJ

Blockade of JNK and NFAT pathways attenuates orthopedic particle-stimulated osteoclastogenesis of human osteoclast precursors and murine calvarial osteolysis
Yamanaka, Y; Clohisy, JCF; Ito, H; Matsuno, T; Abu-Amer, Y

Increasing both CoCrMo-alloy particle size and surface irregularity induces increased macrophage inflammasome activation in vitro potentially through lysosomal destabilization mechanisms
Caicedo, MS; Samelko, L; McAllister, K; Jacobs, JJ; Hallab, NJ

Enhanced Wear and Corrosion in Modular Tapers in Total Hip Replacement Is Associated With the Contact Area and Surface Topography Panagiotidou, A; Meswania, J; Hua, J; Muirhead-Allwood, S; Hart, A; Blunn, G
Comparison of Synovial Fluid, Urine, and Serum Ion Levels in Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at a Minimum Follow-Up of 18 Years
Lass, R; Grubl, A; Kolb, A; Stelzeneder, D; Pilger, A; Kubista, B; Giurea, A; Windhager, R

Center index methodan alternative for wear measurements with radiostereometry (RSA)
Dahl, J; Figved, W; Snorrason, F; Nordsletten, L; Rohrl, SM

Does hip implant positioning affect the peak external adduction moments of the healthy knees of subjects with total hip replacements?
Foucher, KC; Wimmer, MA

Inducible Displacements of the Cup and the Femoral Head During Active Range of Motion: Dynamic RSA Studies of Cemented Total Hip Replacements
Digas, G; Johansson, PE; Karrholm, J

Characterization of Macrophage Polarizing Cytokines in the Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Replacements
Jamsen, E; Kouri, VP; Olkkonen, J; Cor, A; Goodman, SB; Konttinen, YT; Pajarinen, J

Influence of Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement on Hip Reaction Forces and Their Orientations
Weber, T; Al-Munajjed, AA; Verkerke, GJ; Dendorfer, S; Renkawitz, T

Total Knee Replacement

Mechanics of post-cam engagement during simulated dynamic activity
Fitzpatrick, CK; Clary, CW; Cyr, AJ; Maletsky, LP; Rullkoetter, PJ

Three-Dimensional Implant Position and Orientation After Total Knee Replacement Performed with Patient-Specific Instrumentation Systems
Cenni, F; Timoncini, A; Ensini, A; Tamarri, S; Belvedere, C; D'Angeli, V; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

Peri-Implant Bone Strains and Micro-Motion Following In Vivo Service: A Postmortem Retrieval Study of 22 Tibial Components from Total Knee Replacements
Mann, KA; Miller, MA; Goodheart, JR; Izant, TH; Cleary, RJ

Total Joint Replacement

The Effect of an Additional Phosphite Stabilizer on the Properties of Radiation Cross-Linked Vitamin E Blends of UHMWPE
Oral, E; Neils, A; Yabannavar, P; Muratoglu, OK

Recent Advances in Spine Research

Low back pain is one of the most costly health problems facing the world population with almost 84% prevalence and the total societal costs exceeding $100 billion per year in United States alone. Intervertebral disc degeneration is the major contributor to low back and neck pain and associated disabilities. This widespread health and financial burden emphasizes the importance of broader understanding of the disease process and possible treatment modalities. This virtual issue of the JOR addresses these needs and its publication coincides with the launch of the Spine section of the Orthopaedic Research Society that hopes to build on continuing success of the Spine Research Interest Group (RIG). The issue comprises of several recently published and highly cited articles in the JOR that represent three major themes in spine research viz. intervertebral disc biology, animal models of disc disease and tissue engineering/biomechanics of the spine. The issue also includes review articles that highlight our current thinking concerning nucleus pulposus phenotype and animal models of scoliosis, two widely debated topics in spine research. We hope that this issue will be enthusiastically received by the spine community and spark the interest of young scientists in the field of disc research.

Makarand V Risbud, Phd
Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, PA

Irving Shapiro, BDS, Phd
Jefferson University
Philadelphia, PA

James Iatridis, MD
Mount Sinai Hospital
New York, NY

James D. Kang, MD
University Of Pittsburgh School Of Medicine
Pittsburgh, PA

Linda J Sandell, PhD
Editor in Chief, Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Intervertebral Disc Biology

Defining the Phenotype of Young Healthy Nucleus Puposus Cells: Recommendations of the Spine Research Interest Group at the 2014 Annual ORS Meeting (Perspectives)
Risbud, M. V., Schoepflin, Z. R., Mwale, F., Kandel, R. A., Grad, S., Iatridis, J. C., Sakai, D. and Hoyland, J. A.

Apoptosis, senescence, and autophagy in rat nucleus pulposus cells: Implications for diabetic intervertebral disc degeneration
Jiang, L., Zhang, X., Zheng, X., Ru, A., Ni, X., Wu, Y., Tian, N., Huang, Y., Xue, E., Wang, X. and Xu, H.

Fas ligand plays an important role for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells
Yamamoto, J., Maeno, K., Takada, T., Kakutani, K., Yurube, T., Zhang, Z., Hirata, H., Kurakawa, T., Sakai, D., Mochida, J., Doita, M., Kurosaka, M. and Nishida, K.

Mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in aging-related intervertebral disc degeneration
Nasto, L. A., Robinson, A. R., Ngo, K., Clauson, C. L., Dong, Q., St. Croix, C., Sowa, G., Pola, E., Robbins, P. D., Kang, J., Niedernhofer, L. J., Wipf, P. and Vo, N. V.

Integrin-mediated interactions with extracellular matrix proteins for nucleus pulposus cells of the human intervertebral disc
Bridgen, D. T., Gilchrist, C. L., Richardson, W. J., Isaacs, R. E., Brown, C. R., Yang, K. L., Chen, J. and Setton, L. A.

Link N is Cleaved by Human Annulus Fibrosus Cells Generating a Fragment With Retained Biological Activity
Gawri, R., Ouellet, J., Önnerfjord, P., Alkhatib, B., Steffen, T., Heinegård, D., Roughley, P., Antoniou, J., Mwale, F. and Haglund, L

LIM Mineralization Protein-1 Suppresses TNF-α Induced Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Maintaining Nucleus Pulposus Extracellular Matrix Production and Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression
Liu, H., Pan, H., Yang, H., Wang, J., Zhang, K., Li, X., Wang, H., Ding, W., Li, B. and Zheng, Z.

Increased sulfatase 1 gene expression in degenerative intervertebral disc cells
Tsai, T.-T., Ho, N. Y.-J., Fang, H.-C., Lai, P.-L., Niu, C.-C., Chen, L.-H., Chen, W.-J. and Pang, J.-H. S

Animal Models

Animal Models of Scoliosis (Perspectives)
Justin D Bobyn, J.D, Little, D.G, Randolph, G., Schindeler, A.

Needle puncture injury causes acute and long-term mechanical deficiency in a mouse model of intervertebral disc degeneration
Martin, J. T., Gorth, D. J., Beattie, E. E., Harfe, B. D., Smith, L. J. and Elliott, D. M.

A Rat Tail Temporary Static Compression Model Reproduces Different Stages of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration with Decreased Notochordal Cell Phenotype
Hirata, H., Yurube, T., Kakutani, K., Maeno, K., Takada, T., Yamamoto, J., Kurakawa, T., Akisue, T., Kuroda, R., Kurosaka, M. and Nishida, K.

Whole Body Vibration Induces Forepaw and Hind Paw Behavioral Sensitivity in the Rat
Baig, H. A., Guarino, B. B., Lipschutz, D. and Winkelstein, B. A.

Biomechanical and rheological characterization of mild intervertebral disc degeneration in a large animal model
Detiger, S. E.L., Hoogendoorn, R. J.W., van der Veen, A. J., van Royen, B. J., Helder, M. N., Koenderink, G. H. and Smit, T. H.

Intervertebral disc degeneration and ectopic bone formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice
Zhang, D., Jin, L., Reames, D. L., Shen, F. H., Shimer, A. L. and Li, X.

Biomechanics, Imaging & Tissue Engineering

Cervical Disc Deformation During Flexion-Extension in Asymptomatic Controls and Single-Level Arthrodesis Patients
Anderst, W., Donaldson, W., Lee, J. and Kang, J.

In Situ Label-Free Cell Viability Assessment of Nucleus Pulposus Tissue
Dittmar, R., van Dijk, B. G. M., van Zandvoort, M. A. M. J. and Ito, K.

Endplate Deflection Is a Defining Feature of Vertebral Fracture and Is Associated With Properties of the Underlying Trabecular Bone
Jackman, T. M., Hussein, A. I., Adams, A. M., Makhnejia, K. K. and Morgan, E. F.

Quantitative T2*(T2 Star) Relaxation Times Predict Site Specific Proteoglycan Content and Residual Mechanics of the Intervertebral Disc Throughout Degeneration
Ellingson, A. M., Nagel, T. M., Polly, D. W., Ellermann, J. and Nuckley, D. J.

Biaxial mechanics and inter-lamellar shearing of stem-cell seeded electrospun angle-ply laminates for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering
Driscoll, T. P., Nakasone, R. H., Szczesny, S. E., Elliott, D. M. and Mauck, R. L.

Influence of Biochemical Composition on Endplate Cartilage Tensile Properties in the Human Lumbar Spine
Fields, A. J., Rodriguez, D., Gary, K. N., Liebenberg, E. C. and Lotz, J. C.

Three Dimensional Mesoscale Analysis of Translamellar Cross-Bridge Morphologies in the Annulus Fibrosus using Optical Coherence Tomography
Han, S. K., Chen, C.-W., Wierwille, J., Chen, Y. and Hsieh, A. H.

Recent Research from China

Edited by: Linda J. Sandell, Editor of Journal of Orthopaedic Research, X. Edward Guo, PhD, Member-at-Large, ORS Board of Directors, and Tingting Tang, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine

We are honored to present many of the most popular articles from laboratories in China that have been published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research in the last two years. We hope you enjoy this special selection of research in the musculoskeletal field from China.

Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) promote tendon repair in a rat patellar tendon window defect model
Ming Ni, Pauline Po Yee Lui, Yun Feng Rui, Yuk Wa Lee, Yuk Wai Lee, Qi Tan, Yin Mei Wong, Siu Kai Kong, Pui Man Lau, Gang Li and Kai Ming Chan

Inhibition of β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes induces delayed fracture healing in mice
Huang, Xiaoling Zhang, Kewei Du, Fei Yang, Yu Shi, Jingang Huang, Tingting Tang, Di Chen and Kerong Dai

Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur
Yongqiang Hao, Yongcheng Ma, Xuepeng Wang, Fangchun Jin and Shengfang Ge

Hyperactivation of mTOR critically regulates abnormal osteoclastogenesis in neurofibromatosis type 1
Junrong Ma, Mi Li, Janet Hock and Xijie Yu

The role of leptin on the organization and expression of cytoskeleton elements in nucleus pulposus cells
Zheng Li, Jianxiong Shen, William Ka Kei Wu, Xin Yu, Jinqian Liang, Guixing Qiu and Jiaming Liu

Exogenous phytoestrogenic molecule icaritin incorporated into a porous scaffold for enhancing bone defect repair
Xin-Luan Wang, Xin-Hui Xie, Ge Zhang, Shi-Hui Chen, Dong Yao, Kai He, Xiao-Hong Wang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Yang Leng, Kwok-Pui Fung, Kwok-Sui Leung and Ling Qin

Alterations of ADAMTSs and TIMP-3 in human nucleus pulposus cells subjected to compressive load: Implications in the pathogenesis of human intervertebral disc degeneration
Ming Huang, Hai-Qiang Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao-Dong Yan, Meng Hao and Zhuo-Jing Luo

Efficacy of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma gel (L-PRP gel) in treating osteomyelitis in a rabbit model
Guang-Yi Li, Ji-Min Yin, Hao Ding, Wei-Tao Jia and Chang-Qing Zhang

Noggin resistance contributes to the potent osteogenic capability of BMP9 in mesenchymal stem cells
Yi Wang, Siqi Hong, Ming Li, Jiye Zhang, Yang Bi, Yun He, Xing Liu, Guoxin Nan, Yuxi Su, Gaohui Zhu, Ruidong Li, Wenwen Zhang, Jinhua Wang, Hongyu Zhang, Yuhan Kong, Wei Shui, Ningning Wu, Yunfeng He, Xian Chen, Hue H. Luu, Rex C. Haydon, Lewis L. Shi, Tong-Chuan He and Jiaqiang Qin

Negative effects of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 on endplate cartilage differentiation
Qiang Zhang, Ming Huang, Xiaolin Wang, Xiaojie Xu, Ming Ni and Yan Wang

Connexin 43 is a potential regulator in fluid shear stress-induced signal transduction in osteocytes
Xiaoting Li, Chenglin Liu, Ping Li, Shengnan Li, Zhihe Zhao, Yangxi Chen, Bo Huo and Ding Zhang

Impact of direct cell co-cultures on human adipose-derived stromal cells and nucleus pulposus cells
Zhen Sun, Zhi-Heng Liu, Xu-Hong Zhao, Lu Sun, Yu-Fei Chen, Wei-Lin Zhang, Yang Gao, Yong-Zhao Zhang, Zhong-Yuan Wan, Dino Samartzis, Hai-Qiang Wang and Zhuo-Jing Luo

Novel and recurrent mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in Chinese kindreds with multiple osteochondromas
Yuhong Wu, Xuesha Xing, Shaonian Xu, Hongwei Ma, Lihua Cao, Shusen Wang and Yang Luo

Nucleus pulposus cells expressing hBMP7 can prevent the degeneration of allogenic IVD in a canine transplantation model
Wang Chaofeng, Zhang Chao, Wang Deli, Wu Jianhong, Zhang Yan, Xu Cheng, Xin Hongkui, He Qing and Ruan Dike

Autologous uncultured bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and modified cannulated screw in repair of femoral neck fracture
Zhang Licheng, Zhang Lihai, Xu Meng, Yao Qi and Tang Peifu

The Impact of Sex Differences in Musculoskeletal Medicine

Edited by: Laura M. Bruse Gehrig, MD, and the chairs the AAOS Women’s Health Issues Advisory Board.

The Impact of Sexual Dimorphism

Musculoskeletal health is one of the areas of medicine in which differences between males and females are most striking. Although males have a higher incidence of traumatic injuries, females are disproportionately disabled by musculoskeletal conditions such as adolescent spinal deformities, ACL injuries, osteoarthritis, and osteoporotic fragility fractures. Therapeutic modalities have been based on studies of male populations or young adult male animals, or the studies do not specify the sex of the population. Understanding of these conditions as they occur throughout the human life span thus has been limited with respect to sex. Fostering research The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Women’s Health Issues Advisory Board (WHIAB) seeks to advocate, advance, and serve as a resource on sex and gender differences in musculoskeletal health and research. Since females suffer from disease in different ways than males, recognizing sex-related differences is critical to optimizing patient care. In an effort to foster the mission of the WHIAB, the Journal of Orthopaedics is featuring 10 articles which highlight research focused on sexual dimorphism in orthopaedics. Sexual dimorphism is considered a priority within the spectrum of orthopaedic research as demonstrated within these articles, including research in basic science, anatomy, biochemistry, hormonal, physiological, neuromuscular, and clinical form and function of bone and soft tissues.

Improved Healthcare Delivery

An approach tailored to the separate biologic needs of females and males through basic science and clinical research will enable healthcare providers to address each patient based on his or her individual biologic needs. Interventions, therapeutic modalities, and best future practices based on sexual dimorphism will improve healthcare delivery for all patients.

Sex-Related Differences in Neuromuscular Control: Implications for Injury Mechanisms or Healthy Stabilisation Strategies?
Teresa E. Flaxman, Andrew J. J. Smith, and Daniel L. Benoit

Effects of ACL reconstruction surgery on muscle activity of the lower limb during a jump-cut maneuver in males and females
Margaret S. Coats-Thomas, Daniel L. Miranda, Gary J. Badger and Braden C. Fleming

Knee rotation in healthy individuals related to age and gender
Per O. Almquist, Charlotte Ekdahl, Per-Erik Isberg and Thomas Fridén

Effect of Age and Gender on Cell Proliferation and Cell Surface Characterization of Synovial Fat Pad Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Emma Fossett, Wasim S. Khan, Umile Giuseppe Longo, and Peter J. Smitham

Morphology of the Proximal Femur Differs Widely with Age and Sex: Relevance to Design and Selection of Femoral Prostheses
David S. Casper, Gregory K. Kim, Javad Parvizi, and Theresa A. Freeman

Gender and condylar differences in distal femur morphometry clarified by automated computer analyses
Kang Li, Evan Langdale, Scott Tashman, Christopher Harner and Xudong Zhang

Viscoelastic properties of human cortical bone tissue depend on gender and elastic modulus
Ziheng Wu, Timothy C. Ovaert and Glen L. Niebur

Gender Differences in Both Active and Passive Parts of the Plantar Flexors Series Elastic Component Stiffness and Geometrical Parameters of the Muscle-Tendon Complex
Alexandre Fouré , Christophe Cornu, Peter J. McNair, and Antoine Nordez

Age, sex, body anthropometry, and ACL size predict the structural properties of the human anterior cruciate ligament
Javad Hashemi, Hossein Mansouri, Naveen Chandrashekar, James R. Slauterbeck, Daniel M. Hardy and Bruce D. Beynnon

Gender differences in 3D morphology and bony impingement of human hips
Ichiro Nakahara, Masaki Takao, Takashi Sakai, Takashi Nishii, Hideki Yoshikawa and Nobuhiko Sugano

Recent Advances in Hindfoot Biomechanics

Edited by: L. Daniel Latt, MD PhD, John Ketz, MD, and Michael S. Pinzur, MD, Research Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society

On behalf of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society, we are pleased to present this virtual issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research dedicated to foot and ankle surgery.

Despite the recent explosion in biologic studies in orthopaedic surgery, biomechanical investigation continues to play a fundamental role in helping to advance the science underlying foot an ankle surgery. Nowhere in the foot is this more evident than in the hindfoot, where the mechanics of the ankle and triple joint complex determine how the rubber meets the road. For this virtual issue, we have chosen ten outstanding articles that use biomechanics to study disorders of the hindfoot and their treatment. These articles taken together represent a significant advance, using a variety of approaches, in the study of the causative factors, methods of study, and potential treatments of degenerative and traumatic disorders of the hindfoot. It is our hope that the continued collaboration of foot and ankle surgeons with basic scientists will lead to many more advances in the treatment of these disorders in the upcoming years.

Is elevated contact stress predictive of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for imprecisely reduced tibial plafond fractures?
Anderson DD, Van Hofwegen C, Marsh JL, Brown TD.

The effects of a semi-rigid ankle brace on a simulated isolated subtalar joint instability.
Choisne J, Hoch MC, Bawab S, Alexander I, Ringleb SI.

A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model.
De Mits S, Segers V, Woodburn J, Elewaut D, De Clercq D, Roosen P.

Effects of surgical correction for the treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a computational investigation.
Iaquinto JM, Wayne JS.

Alterated talar and navicular bone morphology is associated with pes planus deformity: a CT-scan study.
Peeters K, Schreuer J, Burg F, Behets C, Van Bouwel S, Dereymaeker G, Sloten JV, Jonkers I.

Effects of lateral ligament sectioning on the stability of the ankle and subtalar joint.
Ringleb SI, Dhakal A, Anderson CD, Bawab S, Paranjape R.

Kinematic changes in patients with double arthrodesis of the hindfoot for realignment of planovalgus deformity.
Schuh R, Salzberger F, Wanivenhaus AH, Funovics PT, Windhager R, Trnka HJ.

Validation of a population of patient-specific adult acquired flatfoot deformity models.
Spratley EM, Matheis EA, Hayes CW, Adelaar RS, Wayne JS.

Footprint-based estimates of arch structure are confounded by body composition in adults.
Wearing SC, Grigg NL, Lau HC, Smeathers JE.

Eversion during external rotation of the human cadaver foot produces high ankle sprains.
Wei F, Post JM, Braman JE, Meyer EG, Powell JW, Haut RC.

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Basic & Translational Research Relevant to the Warfighter Combat-trauma and Readiness Sustainment

After more than a decade at war, the collective toll of combat-related injuries on US and allied service members has been substantial. These conflicts and injuries have identified research gaps and simultaneously provided new funding opportunities, resulting in the acceleration of combat trauma-related research. Some of these findings, notably peripheral nerve injuries, wound, and major fracture management, are highlighted in this virtual issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research, co-branded with the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons. Concurrently, as the active conflicts in the Global War on Terrorism wind down, the Armed Forces are entering a transition, re-fitting, and re-focusing period, with greater emphasis on readiness and sustainment. Even at the height of combat casualty flow, more service members were lost to ready or deployable status due to sports medicine injuries and degenerative orthopaedic conditions than combat trauma. The latter portion of the current issue focuses on these topics, as management of these and related conditions is now more important than ever in terms of our ability to sustain the fighting force.

LTC Benjamin K. Potter, MD, US Army, Research Director, SOMOS
CDR Jonathan A. Forsberg, MD, US Navy
Lt Col Wade T. Gordon, MD, US Air Force

New Treatment for Peripheral Nerve Defects: Reconstruction of a 2 cm, Monkey Median Nerve Gap by Direct Lengthening of Both Nerve Stumps
Yuki Hara, Yasumasa Nishiura, Naoyuki Ochiai, Sharula, Yoshiko Nakajima, Shigeki Kubota, Saijilafu, and Hajime Mishima

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Promote Bone Healing
Chan Gao, Jan Seuntjens, Gabriel N. Kaufman, Nicolas Tran-Khanh, Alison Butler, Ailian Li, Huifen Wang, Michael D. Buschmann, Edward J. Harvey, and Janet E. Henderson

Experimental blunt chest trauma impairs fracture healing in rats
Stefan Recknagel, Ronny Bindl, Julian Kurz, Tim Wehner, Christian Ehrnthaller, Markus Werner Knöferl, Florian Gebhard, Markus Huber-Lang, Lutz Claes and Anita Ignatius

Conversion from external fixator to intramedullary nail causes a second hit and impairs fracture healing in a severe trauma model
Stefan Recknagel, Ronny Bindl, Tim Wehner, Melanie Göckelmann, Esther Wehrle, Florian Gebhard, Markus Huber-Lang, Lutz Claes and Anita Ignatius

Induction of Fracture Repair by Mesenchymal Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells or Bone Marrow
Undale, A; Fraser, D; Hefferan, T; Kopher, RA; Herrick, J; Evans, GL; Li, XD; Kakar, S; Hayes, M; Atkinson, E; Yaszemski, MJ; Kaufman, DS; Westendorf, JJ; Khosla, S

Effect of various concentrations of antibiotics on osteogenic cell viability and activity
Christopher R. Rathbone, Jessica D. Cross, Kate V. Brown, Clinton K. Murray and Joseph C. Wenke

Immediate ACL Reconstruction Prevents Microvascular Pathophysiology in the Uninjured MCL That Is Not Fully Reversed by Delayed ACL Reconstruction
Mammoto, T; Demcoe, R; Miller, D; Leonard, C; Seerattan, R; Bray, R; Salo, P

Early Effect of Hyaluronic Acid Intra-Articular Injections on Serum and Urine Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: An Open-Label Observational Prospective Study
Thierry Conrozier, Jean-Charles Balblanc, Pascal Richette, Denis Mulleman, Bernard Maillet, Yves Henrotin, Francois Rannou, Catherine Piroth, Pascal Hilliquin, Pierre Mathieu, Anne Walliser-Lohse, Isabelle Rousselot, Valerie Plattner, Jean-Francis Maillefert, Eric Vignon, Xavier Chevalier and on behalf of the Osteoarthritis Group of the French Society of Rheumatology

The Effect of rhPTH on the Healing of Tendon to Bone in a Rat Model
Carolyn M. Hettrich, Brandon S. Beamer, Asheesh Bedi, Kate Deland, Xiang-Hua Deng, Liang Ying, Joseph Lane, and Scott A. Rodeo

Bending and abrasion fatigue of common suture materials used in arthroscopic and open orthopedic surgery
Earle Savage, Christopher J. Hurren, Simon Slader, Lukman A. K. Khan, Alessandra Sutti and Richard S. Page

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Research Highlights for the Arthroscopic Surgeon

Edited by: Ilya Voloshin, MD, Alexis C. Colvin, MD, Michael J. O’Brien, MD, Members, and Jonathan B. Ticker, MD, Chair, Research Committee, Arthroscopy Association of North America

Editors’ Note:

On behalf of the Arthroscopy Association of North America, we are pleased to offer basic science research highlights we feel are relevant to the field of arthroscopy which were published in the past few years in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research. While the field of arthroscopy is quite varied, related research endeavors recently published in JOR have focused on a few areas, in particular tendon properties, the shoulder and the knee. This distribution is reflected in the articles below, all chosen from those articles with the highest-rated scores by the guest editors. We anticipate in the coming years a wider-ranging distribution of innovative research to include, for example, aspects of the hip and the elbow, if what we have seen in the recent grant applications to AANA for research funding is any measure. We greatly appreciate the invitation from the Journal and the Orthopaedic Research Society to compile this virtual issue, initially accepted by the past AANA Research Committee Chair Julie Dodds, MD. We hope that these articles are appealing to the readership, and, in some instances, are instructive to those in clinical practice.

Biomechanical Comparison of Single-Row, Double-Row, and Transosseous-Equivalent Repair Techniques after Healing in an Animal Rotator Cuff Tear Model
Ryan J. Quigley, Akash Gupta, Joo-Han Oh, Kyung-Chil Chung, Michelle H. McGarry, Ranjan Gupta, James E. Tibone, and Thay Q. Lee

Diabetes mellitus alters the mechanical properties of the native tendon in an experimental rat model
Alice J. S. Fox, Asheesh Bedi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Liang Ying, Paul E. Harris, Russell F. Warren, Scott A. Rodeo

Depth of Subchondral Perforation Influences the Outcome of Bone Marrow Stimulation Cartilage Repair
Chen, HM; Hoemann, CD; Sun, J; Chevrier, A; McKee, MD; Shive, MS; Hurtig, M; Buschmann

ACL Reconstruction Using Bone-Tendon-Bone Graft Engineered from the Semitendinosus Tendon by Injection of Recombinant BMP-2 in a Rabbit Model
Yusuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Naka, Kenji Fukunaga, Hiroaki Nakamura, Kunio Takaoka

Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) in Femoacetabular Impingement
Tallal Charles Mamisch, Micheal Sean Hillega Kain1, Bernd Bittersohl, Sebastian Apprich, Stefan Werlen, Martin Beck, Klaus Arno Siebenrock

In Vivo Strain Analysis of the Intact Supraspinatus Tendon by Ultrasound Speckles Tracking Imaging
Yang-Soo Kim1, Jung-Man Kim, Louis U Bigliani, Hye-Jin Kim, Hyun-Woo Jung

Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model
Tomofumi Nishino, Tomoo Ishii, Fei Chang, Takaji Yanai, Arata Watanabe, Takeshi Ogawa, Hajime Mishima, Kenjiro Nakai and Naoyuki Ochiai

Cumulative effects of hypercholesterolemia on tendon biomechanics in a mouse model
David P. Beason, Joseph A. Abboud, Andrew F. Kuntz, Rocco Bassora and Louis J. Soslowsky

Effects of Age and Platelet-Rich Plasma on ACL Cell Viability and Collagen Gene Expression
Mingyu Cheng, Victor M. Johnson, Martha M. Murray

Ibuprofen upregulates expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -8, -9, and -13 without affecting expressions of types I and III collagen in tendon cells
Wen-Chung Tsai, Chih-Chin Hsu, Hsiang-Ning Chang, Yu-Chun Lin, Miao-Sui Lin, Jong-Hwei S. Pang

Migration Responses of Outer and Inner Meniscus Cells to Applied Direct Current Electric Fields
Najmuddin J. Gunja, Divya Dujari, Andrew Chen, Alba Luengo, Jason V. Fong, Clark T. Hung

Editor Credits: Ilya Voloshin, MD, Alexis Colvin, MD, Michael O’Brien, MD, Members, and Jonathan B. Ticker, MD, Chair, Research Committee, Arthroscopy Association of North America

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Innovative Studies in Pediatric Orthopaedics

Co-Editors: Harry K.W. Kim, Tracy Ballock, Benjamin Alman

Pediatric orthopaedics encompasses a vast array of musculoskeletal disorders affecting different bones and joints at various stages of child development, ranging from infancy to adolescence. While the variety of orthopaedic conditions affecting the growing skeleton makes this subspecialty unique and interesting, it also makes the mastery of the conditions challenging. Some disorders that we treat, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, are relatively common while many disorders, such as congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia and skeletal dysplasias, are rare. Regardless of their prevalence, the etiology and pathophysiology of many conditions remain unclear, emphasizing the need for more basic and translational research to improve our understanding of the disorders which will lead to the development of innovative new treatments. Furthermore, more research is needed to better understand the biology of the growth plate, which is the most unique feature of the pediatric skeleton. The papers published in JOR over the last 3 years related to these topics represent efforts by clinicians and scientists from various centers to bring further insight to the mysteries of various pediatric conditions, including the growth plate. Application of new techniques in imaging, genetics, and molecular biology has brought new perspectives to some of these old pediatric conditions, as well as new ideas on how to improve the management of these conditions. We have selected 10 papers that highlight some of these innovative studies.

Is double inactivation of the Nf1 gene responsible for the development of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia associated with NF1?
Sang Min Lee, In Ho Choi, Dong Yeon Lee, Hye Ran Lee, Moon Seok Park, Won Joon Yoo, Chin Youb Chung and Tae-Joon Cho

Effects of alternative instrumentation strategies in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A biomechanical analysis.
Martin Robitaille, Carl-Éric Aubin and Hubert Labelle

Lack of association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms in MATN1, MTNR1B, TPH1, and IGF1 in a Japanese population.
Yohei Takahashi, Morio Matsumoto, Tatsuki Karasugi, Kota Watanabe, Kazuhiro Chiba, Noriaki Kawakami, Taichi Tsuji, Koki Uno, Teppei Suzuki, Manabu Ito, Hideki Sudo, Shohei Minami, Toshiaki Kotani, Katsuki Kono, Haruhisa Ya

Early-onset metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid associated with a COL10A1 frame-shift mutation and impaired trimerization of wild-type a1(X) protein chains.
Outi Mäkitie, Miki Susic and William G. Cole

Growth plate explants respond differently to in vitro static and dynamic loadings.
Kim Sergerie, Stefan Parent, Pierre-Francois Beauchemin, Irene Londoño, Florina Moldovan and Isabelle Villemure

Activation of Wnt Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling promotes growth plate column formation in vitro.
Rachel M. Randall, Yvonne Y. Shao, Lai Wang and R. Tracy Ballock

Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) in Femoacetabular Impingement.
Mamisch, TC; Kain, MSH; Bittersohl, B; Apprich, S; Werlen, S; Beck, M; Siebenrock, KA

Novel three-dimensional MRI technique for study of cartilaginous hip surfaces in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
David Pienkowski, JoAnne Resig, Vishwas Talwalkar and Chester Tylkowski

MRI-based surgical simulation of transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for femoral head osteonecrosis.
Tsuyoshi Koyama, Nobuhiko Sugano, Takashi Nishii, Hidenobu Miki, Masaki Takao, Yoshinobu Sato, Hideki Yoshikawa and Shinichi Tamura

Caffeine enhances osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow hematopoietic cells and reduces bone mineral density in growing rats.
Shing Hwa Liu, Chinliang Chen, Rong Sen Yang, Yuan Peng Yen, Ya Ting Yang and Chingmin Tsai

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Our Most Cited Articles – Thirty Years of JOR

Co-Editors: Timothy Wright, PhD, and Joseph Buckwalter, MD

In celebration of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research entering its fourth decade of publishing new information on the full spectrum of orthopaedic research, we felt it important to look back at some of the articles that our readers found most important to their own research. In this virtual issue, we have gathered ten of the most frequently cited articles from the past thirty years. The articles are an interesting anthology, not only of cutting edge research and important scientific perspectives, but also of the breadth of topics that form the foundation for the Journal. The articles span from the cell to the whole organ, from biology to biomedical engineering to orthopaedic surgery, and from tissue engineering to joint mechanics and orthopaedic implants.

Mesenchymal stem-cells
Arnold Caplan

Measurement of lower-extremity kinematics during level walking
MD Kadaba, HK Ramakrishnan, and ME Wootten

Biosynthetic response of cartilage explants to dynamic compression
Robert Sah, Young-Jo Kim, Joe-Yuan Doong, Alan Grodzinsky, Anna Plaas, and John Sandy

Bone regeneration by implantation of purified, culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells
Scott Bruder, Andreas Kurth, Marie Shea, Wilson Hayes, Neelam Jaiswal, and Sudha Kadiyala

Bioreactor cultivation conditions modulate the composition and mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage
G Vunjak-Novakovic, I Martin, B Obradovic, S Treppo, AJ Grodzinsky, R Langer, and LE Freed

Interaction between active and passive knee stabilizers during level walking
OD Schipplein and TP Andriacchi

Interspecies comparisons of in situ intrinsic mechanical properties of distal femoral cartilage
KA Athanasiou, MP Rosenwasser, JA Buckwalter, TI Malinin, and VC Mow

Development of an extremely wear-resistant ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for total hip replacements
Harry McKellop, Fu-wen Shen, Bin Lu, Patricia Campbell, and Ronald Salovey

Tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament
Louis Bigliani, Roger Pollock, Louis Soslowsky, Evan Flatow, Robert Pawluk, and Van Mow

Tissue ingrowth into titanium and hydroxyapatite-coated implants during stable and unstable mechanical conditions
Kjeld Søballe, Ebbe Hansen, Helle B.-Rasmussen, Peter Jørgensen, and Code Bünger

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Cutting Edge Developments in Knee Arthroplasty

Edited by: Jay Rodrigo, MD

Editor's Note:

The following articles represent the best JOR works published in the last few years in the area of knee arthroplasty. Many focus on biomechanics (Catani et al., 2011, Wong et al., 2011, Konig et al., 2010, and Thompson et al., 2011), and point out one mechanical aspect or another that can be a problem with knee replacements. Two articles looked at gait analysis and functional adaptations after knee replacement (Briem et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009) One article focused on new functional questionnaires that can lead to predictors of success or failure (Bade et al., 2012). Another looked at a new highly cross-linked polyethylene that was improved over conventional polyethylene (Popoola et al., 2010). Finally, a new direction of acquiring biological factors to aide arthroplasty was presented (Porter et al., 2009). All used the latest in scientific techniques and assays, and many presented innovative techniques not previously seen.

In-Vivo knee kinematics in rotationally unconstrained total knee arthroplasty
Fabio Catani, Claudio Belvedere, Andrea Ensini, Alessandro Feliciangeli, Sandro Giannini and Alberto Leardini

Predicting the effect of tray malalignment on risk for bone damage and implant subsidence after total knee arthroplasty
Jowene Wong, Nikolai Steklov, Shantanu Patil, Cesar Flores-Hernandez, Mark Kester, Clifford W. Colwell Jr. and Darryl D. D'Lima

Osteogenic Potential of Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA) Aspirate Collected from Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroplasty
Ryan M. Porter, Fangjun Liu, Carmencita Pilapil, Oliver B. Betz, Mark S. Vrahas, Mitchel B. Harris and Christopher H. Evans

Predicting poor physical performance after total knee arthroplasty
Michael J. Bade, Pamela Wolfe, Joseph A. Zeni, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Does high-flexion total knee arthroplasty promote early loosening of the femoral component?
Jorrit Zelle, Dennis Janssen, Jolanda Van Eijden, Maarten De Waal Malefijt and Nico Verdonschot

Proximal gait adaptations in medial knee OA
Kristin Briem and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Joint line elevation in revision TKA leads to increased patellofemoral contact forces
Christian König, Alexey Sharenkov, Georg Matziolis, William R. Taylor, Carsten Perka, Georg N. Duda and Markus O. Heller

Evaluation of predicted knee-joint muscle forces during gait using an instrumented knee implant
Hyung J. Kim, Justin W. Fernandez, Massoud Akbarshahi, Jonathan P. Walter, Benjamin J. Fregly and Marcus G. Pandy

Wear, delamination, and fatigue resistance of melt-annealed highly crosslinked UHMWPE cruciate-retaining knee inserts under activities of daily living
Oludele O. Popoola, Jian Q. Yao, Todd S. Johnson and Cheryl R. Blanchard

Biomechanical effects of total knee arthroplasty component malrotation: A computational simulation
Julie A. Thompson, Michael W. Hast, Jeffrey F. Granger, Stephen J. Piazza and Robert A. Siston

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Basic Scientific Advances in Musculoskeletal Trauma

Edited by: Todd McKinley
Chairman, Orthopaedic Trauma Association Research Committee

Editor's Note:

Please enjoy this virtual issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research dedicated to musculoskeletal trauma. This issue features ten highlighted trauma articles published in JOR in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. In these years, JOR has published over 700 original scientific manuscripts. Of these publications, 112 were directly relevant to musculoskeletal trauma. Of the 112 publications, 62 addressed fracture healing, 19 were related to articular injury, 24 were classified as basic scientific trauma manuscripts, and 7 publications dealt with soft-tissue injury.

The majority of investigators have concentrated on fracture healing. Just scanning publication titles, 28 were rodent models in contrast to only six large animal models and three human investigations. Rodent level investigations have produced invaluable knowledge regarding mechanisms of fracture healing, but there is a substantial need toward development of successful translational models and ultimately human models of fracture healing. In addition, there are potent opportunities for soft-tissue injury research and basic scientific investigations into systemic effects of musculoskeletal trauma. There was an order of magnitude difference in publication numbers of these two topics combined compared to fracture healing investigations.

Fortunately, the future of musculoskeletal trauma research is bright. The Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) continues to fund nearly $600K annually for research to its members. In addition, the OTA and the Orthopaedic Research Society are working together to sponsor a grant writing workshop at this year’s OTA Annual meeting. Congratulations to the selected investigators in this issue, and congratulations to all investigators performing musculoskeletal trauma research.

Open blunt crush injury of different severity determines nature and extent of local tissue regeneration and repair
Ioannis Stratos, Johannes Graff, Robert Rotter, Thomas Mittlmeier and Brigitte Vollmar

Effects of 1 to 3 years' treatment with alendronate on mechanical properties of the femoral shaft in a canine model: Implications for subtrochanteric femoral fracture risk
David B. Burr, Tamim Diab, Andrew Koivunemi, Mark Koivunemi and Matthew R. Allen

Experimental blunt chest trauma impairs fracture healing in rats
Stefan Recknagel, Ronny Bindl, Julian Kurz, Tim Wehner, Christian Ehrnthaller, Markus Werner Knöferl, Florian Gebhard, Markus Huber-Lang, Lutz Claes and Anita Ignatius

Robot-assisted fracture reduction using three-dimensional intraoperative fracture visualization: An experimental study on human cadaver femora
Markus Oszwald, Ralf Westphal, Jan Bredow, Afshin Calafi, Tobias Hufner, Friedrich Wahl, Christian Krettek and Thomas Gosling

Cartilage viability and catabolism in the intact porcine knee following transarticular impact loading with and without articular fracture
Jonathon D. Backus, Bridgette D. Furman, Troy Swimmer, Collin L. Kent, Amy L. McNulty, Louis E. DeFrate, Farshid Guilak and Steven A. Olson

Acute repair of chondrocytes in the rabbit tibiofemoral joint following blunt impact using P188 surfactant and a preliminary investigation of its long-term efficacy
Daniel I. Isaac, Nurit Golenberg and Roger C. Haut

Endothelial progenitor cells promote fracture healing in a segmental bone defect model
Kivanc Atesok, Ru Li, Duncan J. Stewart and Emil H. Schemitsch

Enhanced healing of goat femur-defect using BMP7 gene-modified BMSCs and load-bearing tissue-engineered bone
Lian Zhu, Dai Chuanchang, Liu Wei, Cao Yilin and Dong Jiasheng

Mechanical stimulation alters tissue differentiation and molecular expression during bone healing
Kristy T. Salisbury Palomares, Ryan E. Gleason, Zachary D. Mason, Dennis M. Cullinane, Thomas A. Einhorn, Louis C. Gerstenfeld and Elise F. Morgan

VEGF serum concentrations in patients with long bone fractures: A comparison between impaired and normal fracture healing
Kambiz Sarahrudi, Anita Thomas, Tomas Braunsteiner, Harald Wolf, Vilmos Vécsei and Seyedhossein Aharinejad

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Neoplastic Denouements

Edited by: R. Lor Randall, MD, FACS, Chair, Research Committee, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society

Editor's Note:

On behalf of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society and in particular, our Research Committee, we are delighted to present this month’s Virtual Journal of Orthopaedic Research. While we reviewed many worthy articles from academic centers from around the world, the final denouement includes these ten. In fact, some articles initially chosen had been previously selected for other Virtual Issues and so are not presented here. Eight of the articles represent leading edge research in sarcomas biology while one is concerned with breast cancer and another with desmoids. From the role of cellular signal transduction (EGF, NG2, Stat3) affecting neoplastic motility, aggressivity and metastasis to epigenetic modification (HDAC status) and transcriptional repression (TLE1), novel, potentially targetable sites for drug therapy are on the horizon. Understanding the role of the malignant cell’s management of the extracelluar matrix (RECK) in onco-progression also has clinical relevance as does gaining a better appreciation of apoptosis in oncogenesis. Of course, new sarcoma models are continually being developed to gain further clinical insight. With these concepts in mind, we chose to select a broad array of mechanistic papers. We hope that whatever your area of interest, you will find these virtual reprints engaging and worthy of your intellectual revisitation. Finally, I would like to thank my co-reviewers Michelle Ghert MD and Brian Brigman, MD for their fastidious efforts to excogitate this consortium of papers.

NG2 expression predicts the metastasis formation in soft-tissue sarcoma patients
Maria Serena Benassi, Laura Pazzaglia, Antonella Chiechi, Marco Alberghini, Amalia Conti, Sabrina Cattaruzza, Bruna

Desmoid cell motility is induced in vitro by rhEGF
David E. Joyner, Sylvia H. Trang, Timothy A. Damron, Albert J. Aboulafia, Judd E. Cummings and R. Lor Randall

Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway in osteosarcoma cells and overexpression of phosphorylated-Stat3 correlates with poor prognosis
Keinosuke Ryu, Edwin Choy, Cao Yang, Michiro Susa, Francis J. Hornicek, Henry Mankin and Zhenfeng Duan

Expression of matrix metalloproteinase regulator, RECK, and its clinical significance in osteosarcoma
Jianda Xu, Sujia Wu and Xin Shi

Quantifying Intra-Osseous Growth of Osteosarcoma in a Murine Model with Radiographic Analysis
Cole, HA; Ichikawa, J; Colvin, DC; O'Rear, L; Schoenecker, JG

The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat selectively sensitizes fibrosarcoma cells to chemotherapy
Erik R. Sampson, Vinit Amin, Edward M. Schwarz, Regis J. O'Keefe and Randy N. Rosier

Ionizing radiation enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis through up-regulations of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) in human osteosarcoma cells
Takeshi Hori, Takashi Kondo, Masahiko Kanamori, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Ryohei Ogawa, Qing-Li Zhao, Kanwal Ahmed, Taketoshi Yasuda, Shoji Seki, Kayo Suzuki and Tomoatsu Kimura

The role of TLE1 in synovial sarcoma
Sung Wook Seo, Hyewon Lee, Hyun-Il Lee and Han-Soo Kim

Primary Tumor Dependent Inhibition of Tumor Growth, Angio-Genesis, and Perfusion of Secondary Breast Cancer in Bone
Schaefer, C; Schroeder, M; Fuhrhop, I; Viezens, L; Otten, J; Fiedler, W; Ther, WR; Hansen-Algenstaedt, N

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Current Research in Spine

Edited by Kamal N Ibrahim, MD, FRCS(C), MA President-Elect, Scoliosis Research Society

Editor's Note:

Orthopedic Research Society generously offered orthopedic subspecialty societies the opportunity to develop, free of charge, a special virtual issue of Journal of Orthopedic Research (JOR) for each specific society. The issue will include selected, specialty related, articles that were published in JOR over previous three years and will be distributed virtually to all members of that society. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) accepted, appreciatively, the offer. This issue is the result of this effort. The reviewers are SRS members. They are Kal Kebaish , Virginie LaFage, Mark Lorenz, and myself.

We selected research articles with clinical or basic science research applications which would help to explain the pathology, which we face as spine surgeons. We also wanted the selection to cover the wide spectrum of age and pathology of spine care.

We selected three articles related to scoliosis, three for intervertebral disc degeneration, one article related to the end plate response to tethering, one article for enhancement of fusion, and two articles related to complications.

We hope you will find this issue of value to you in your clinical practice and basic science knowledge.

We appreciate all the help we have received from the staff of Orthopedic Research Society.

Finally, I would like to thank my co-reviewers for their dedication to review many articles to reach this selection, which we trust you will be happy with as well.

Human intervertebral disc internal strain in compression: The effect of disc region, loading position, and degeneration
Grace D. O’Connell, Edward J. Vresilovic, Dawn M. Elliott

Micro-computed tomography evaluation of vertebral end-plate trabecular bone changes in a porcine asymmetric vertebral tether
Jean-Michel Laffosse, Thierry Odent, Franck Accadbled, Thibault Cachon, Charles Kinkpe, Eric Viguier, Jérôme Sales de Gauzy, Pascal Swider

Influence of Age-Related Degeneration on Regenerative Potential of Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells
Shu-Hua Yang, Chen-Chiang Lin, Ming-Hsiao Hu, Tiffany Ting-Fang Shih, Yuan-Hui Sun, Feng-Huei Lin

Effects of Alternative Instrumentation Strategies in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Biomechanical Analysis
Martin Robitaille, Carl-E´ric Aubin, Hubert Labelle

Enhancement of posterolateral lumbar spine fusion using low-dose rhBMP-2 and cultured marrow stromal cells
Tsai-Sheng Fu, Wen-Jer Chen, Lih-Huei Chen, Song-Shu Lin, Shih-Jung Liu and Steve W.N. Ueng

Resection of glial scar following spinal cord injury
Alexandre Rasouli, Nitin Bhatia, Paul Dinh, Kim Cahill, Sourabh Suryadevara, Ranjan Gupta

Beneficial Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Human Degenerated Intervertebral Disk Cells Via Suppression of IL-1_ and p38 MAPK Signal
Chi-Chien Niu, Li-Jen Yuan, Lih-Huei Chen, Song-Shu Lin, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Jen-Chung Liao, Po-Liang Lai, Wen-Jer Chen

Prophylaxis of infection and effects on osseointegration using a tobramycin-periapatite coating on titanium implants—An experimental study in the rabbit
Dirk Jan F. Moojen, H. Charles Vogely, André Fleer, Peter G.J. Nikkels, Paul A. Higham, Abraham J. Verbout, René M. Castelein, Wouter J.A. Dhert

A novel locus for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on chromosome 12p
Cathleen L. Raggio, Philip F. Giampietro, Seth Dobrin, Chengfeng Zhao, Donna Dorshorst, Nader Ghebranious, James L. Weber, Robert D. Blank

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Cutting Edge Issues in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Edited by Charles M. Davis III MD, PhD, Brian McGrory MD, and Lowry Barnes MD

Total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty are among the most effective surgical procedures. Patients can expect superior pain relief, improved function and excellent durability. These excellent results are due in large part to past and present research efforts. Questions remain to be answered however including arthritis diagnosis, prevention and management of infection, prevention of instability, biomechanics, and optimization of the bearing surface among others. Only through the continuing research efforts of many dedicated individuals can the orthopaedic community continue to improve joint arthroplasty and reduce or prevent complications. In this virtual issue, we have selected 10 outstanding manuscripts, which will contribute to the understanding of joint arthroplasty and are of interest to the orthopaedic community.

Prophylaxis of infection and effects on osseointegration using a tobramycin-periapatite coating on titanium implants—An experimental study in the rabbit
Dirk Jan F. Moojen, H. Charles Vogely, André Fleer, Peter G.J. Nikkels, Paul A. Higham, Abraham J. Verbout, René M. Castelein and Wouter J.A. Dhert

Wear, delamination, and fatigue resistance of melt-annealed highly crosslinked UHMWPE cruciate-retaining knee inserts under activities of daily living
Oludele O. Popoola, Jian Q. Yao, Todd S. Johnson and Cheryl R. Blanchard

Inhibition of ectopic bone formation by a selective retinoic acid receptor a-agonist: A new therapy for heterotopic ossification?
Kengo Shimono, Tiffany N. Morrison, Wei-en Tung, Roshantha A. Chandraratna, Julie A. Williams, Masahiro Iwamoto and Maurizio Pacifici

The effects of impingement and dysplasia on stress distributions in the hip joint during sitting and walking: A finite element analysis
Salman Chegini, Martin Beck and Stephen J. Ferguson

Fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted to osteonecrosis of femoral head
Zuoqin Yan, Donghua Hang, Changan Guo and Zhengrong Chen

In vitro investigation of friction under edge-loading conditions for ceramic-on-ceramic total hip prosthesis
Elhadi Sariali, Todd Stewart, Zhongming Jin and John Fisher

Wear mechanisms in metal-on-metal bearings: The importance of tribochemical reaction layers
Markus A. Wimmer, Alfons Fischer, Robin Büscher, Robin Pourzal, Christoph Sprecher, Roland Hauert and Joshua J. Jacobs

Changes of femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density 6 years after treatment with alendronate following total hip arthroplasty
Mohammad Arabmotlagh, Mathias Pilz, Jörg Warzecha and Michael Rauschmann

Validation of a new method for determination of cup orientation in THA
Simon D. Steppacher, Moritz Tannast, Guoyan Zheng, Xuan Zhang, Jens Kowal, Suzanne E. Anderson, Klaus A. Siebenrock and Stephen B. Murphy

Baseline articular contact stress levels predict incident symptomatic knee osteoarthritis development in the MOST cohort
Neil A. Segal, Donald D. Anderson, Krishna S. Iyer, Jennifer Baker, James C. Torner, John A. Lynch, David T. Felson, Cora E. Lewis and Thomas D. Brown

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Advances in Distraction Osteogenesis

Edited by Reggie Hamdy, M.D., Robert Rozbruch, M.D. and Sanjeev Sabharwal, M.D.

The field of limb lengthening and deformity correction is growing in popularity worldwide. In this virtual issue, as members of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (LLRS), we have selected what we believe are the 10 most significant articles that have been published in the JOR from January, 2009 to July, 2011. The hallmark of our specialty is distraction osteogenesis (DO)—the formation of new bone using gradual and controlled distraction following an osteotomy. The clinical impact of DO is reflected by the numerous applications of this unique technique, including limb lengthening, deformity correction, replacement of bone loss secondary to trauma, infection and resection of tumors, and repair of non-union.

Researchers are seeking innovative means of enhancing new bone formation along with the ideal material that can rapidly bridge bone defects with minimal morbidity. Innovative techniques are being developed to evaluate the mechanical strength of newly formed bone in the distraction gap. Methods to evaluate the changes in muscles secondary to DO and the potential means of preserving the integrity of muscles continue to be the focus of many investigators. The optimal rigidity and timing of dynamization of external fixators, specifically the impact of these biomechanical factors on the quality of new bone formation is being examined. These ten articles reflect a wide spectrum of research that is ongoing in the field of limb lengthening and reconstruction, and more importantly demonstrate the need for further research in this area.

Effect of cell-based VEGF gene therapy on healing of a segmental bone defect
Ru Li, Duncan J. Stewart, Herbert P. von Schroeder, Erin S. Mackinnon and Emil H. Schemitsch

Early dynamization by reduced fixation stiffness does not improve fracture healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model
Lutz Claes, Robert Blakytny, Melanie Göckelmann, Marcus Schoen, Anita Ignatius and Bettina Willie

The Effects of botulinum toxin A on muscle histology during distraction osteogenesis
Ronke Olabisi, Connie S. Chamberlain, Sarah Petr, Samuel Steiner, Daniel Consigny, Thomas M. Best, Ray Vanderby Jr., Ed Schultz and Kenneth J. Noonan

Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis
Fritz Thorey, Jens Bruenger, Henning Windhagen and Frank Witte

Novel application of HA-TCP biomaterials in distraction osteogenesis shortened the lengthening time and promoted bone consolidation
Yan Wang, Ming Ni, Pei-Fu Tang and Gang Li

The proximal hip joint capsule and the zona orbicularis contribute to hip joint stability in distraction
Hiroshi Ito, Yongnam Song, Derek P. Lindsey, Marc R. Safran and Nicholas J. Giori

Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model
Tomofumi Nishino, Tomoo Ishii, Fei Chang, Takaji Yanai, Arata Watanabe, Takeshi Ogawa, Hajime Mishima, Kenjiro Nakai and Naoyuki Ochiai

An injectable composite material containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 shortens the period of distraction osteogenesis in vivo
Yoshitaka Eguchi, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Yoshifumi Naka, Hiroaki Nakamura and Kunio Takaoka

Callus patterns in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail
Nasir Muzaffar, Arifa Hafeez, Hitesh Modi and Hae-Ryong Song

Local application of VEGF compensates callus deficiency after acute soft tissue trauma—results using a limb-shortening distraction procedure in rabbit tibia
Sabine Ochman, Sönke Frey, Michael J. Raschke, Jehan N. Deventer and Rainer H. Meffert

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Musculoskeletal Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering

Edited by Henry J. Donahue, Ph.D.

The goal of musculoskeletal regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is to restore cells, tissues and structures lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, and aging. The urgent need for advances in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine is emphasized by our expanding aged population and the increasing number of military veterans returning with extremity injuries. The rapidly expanding field of regenerative medicine is truly interdisciplinary involving close collaboration between cell and molecular biologists, material scientists, engineers and clinical scientists. Optimal musculoskeletal regeneration protocols most often include stem cells, innovative biomaterials and a mechanically dynamic environment. The collection of excellent articles in this virtual issue of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research focuses on several aspects of bone, cartilage and tendon regeneration and represent just a sampling of the advances in this field that have been recently published in the journal. Several articles focus on the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells including those isolated from adipose tissue. Other articles focus on novel cell and scaffold composites some of which include growth factors. Also included are examinations of telomerase activity in chondrocyte biology and the novel use of cell sheets to regenerate bone. Finally, the importance of biophysical signals, including electromagnetic fields and fluid flow induced shear stress, to regeneration is considered. Taken together these articles provide a timely background on current issues relevant to musculoskeletal regeneration.

Cross-Linking Affects Cellular Condensation and Chondrogenesis in Type II Collagen-GAG Scaffolds Seeded with Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Vickers, Scott M.; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Spector, Myron

Repair of Large Osteochondral Defects in Rabbits Using Porous Hydroxyapatite/Collagen (HAp/Col) and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2)
Maehara, Hidetsugu; Sotome, Shinichi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Torigoe, Ichiro; Kawasaki, Yuichi; Sugata, Yumi; Yuasa, Masato; Hirano, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Masanori; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okawa, Atsushi

Engineering Scaffold-Free Bone Tissue Using Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Sheets
Ma, Dongyang; Ren, Liling; Liu, Yanpu; Chen, Fulin; Zhang, Junrui; Xue, Zhenxun; Mao, Tianqiu

Influence of the Growth Factors PDGF-BB, TGF-beta 1 and bFGF on the Replicative Aging of Human Articular Chondrocytes during In Vitro Expansion
Brandl, Anita; Angele, Peter; Roll, Christina; Prantl, Lucas; Kujat, Richard; Kinner, Bernd

Enhanced Healing of Goat Femur-Defect Using BMP7 Gene-Modified BMSCs and Load-Bearing Tissue-Engineered Bone
Lian Zhu; Dai Chuanchang; Liu Wei; Cao Yilin; Dong Jiasheng

Porous Tantalum and Poly-epsilon-Caprolactone Biocomposites for Osteochondral Defect Repair: Preliminary Studies in Rabbits
Mrosek, Eike H.; Schagemann, Jan C.; Chung, Hsi-Wei; Fitzsimmons, James S.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Mardones, Rodrigo M.; O'Driscoll, Shawn W.; Reinholz, Gregory G.

Skeletal Repair in Rabbits Using a Novel Biomimetic Composite Based on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated in Collagen I Gel with PLGA-beta-TCP Scaffold
Hao, Wei; Pang, Long; Jiang, Ming; Lv, Rong; Xiong, Zhuo; Hu, Yun-Yu

Repairing Large Bone Fractures with Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
Lin, Hsin-Yi; Lu, Ko-Hsien

Multilayer Tendon Slices Seeded with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: A Novel Composite for Tendon Engineering
Omae, Hiromichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Sun, Yu Long; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

From Streaming Potentials to Shear Stress: 25 Years of Bone Cell Mechanotransduction
Riddle, Ryan C.; Donahue, Henry J.

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Can We Improve Fracture Treatment?

Edited by Joseph Buckwalter, M.D.

Healing of bone fractures is one of nature’s most remarkable achievements. In most instances a bone fracture initiates a healing response that stabilizes the fracture fragments and then progressively restores the bone’s normal structure and function. Unfortunately, despite this impressive natural process, fractures cause significant problems for many patients. Slow or delayed healing of fractures causes significant pain, disability, and economic loss. In some instances, despite optimal current treatment, fractures fail to heal or heal leaving a deformity of the bone causing prolonged disability and, in some instances, permanent impairment. Despite advances in mechanical stabilization of fractures, use of the most successful current fracture fixation devices may not restore normal bone structure and function. Complications of fracture stabilization include mechanical failure of the fixation devices and delayed or nonunions. Fractures that include segmental losses of the skeleton present daunting clinical problems. In many instances, segmental bone loss is extremely difficult to repair or reconstruct and may lead to amputation. Recent research published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research approaches each of these challenging clinical problems. The articles selected for this virtual issue of the Journal provide new insights into the process of fracture healing: insights that have the potential to improve the predictability of fracture healing and prevent delayed or nonunions. Other studies included in this selection deal with the problems of optimal mechanical fixation of fractures and innovative investigations of the reconstruction of segmental defects of the skeleton. Taken together, these articles show that considerable potential exists for improvements in fracture treatment.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 2, 5, and 6 in Combination Stimulate Osteoblasts but Not Osteoclasts In Vitro
Wutzl, Arno; Rauner, Martina; Seemann, Rudolf; Millesi, Werner; Krepler, Petra; Pietschmann, Peter; Ewers, Rolf

Fracture Healing in Mice under Controlled Rigid and Flexible Conditions Using an Adjustable External Fixator
Roentgen, Viktoria; Blakytny, Robert; Matthys, Romano; Landauer, Mario; Wehner, Tim; Goeckelmann, Melanie; Jermendy, Philipp; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Promote Fracture Healing in a Segmental Bone Defect Model
Atesok, Kivanc; Li, Ru; Stewart, Duncan J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

Inhibition of STAT1 Accelerates Bone Fracture Healing
Tajima, Kosuke; Takaishi, Hironari; Takito, Jiro; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Ota, Norikazu; Kosaki, Naoto; Matsumoto, Morio; Ikegami, Hiroyasu; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Okada, Yasunori; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

Effect of Fracture Gap on Stability of Compression Plate Fixation: A Finite Element Study
Oh, Jong-Keon; Sahu, Dipit; Ahn, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jae; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Hwang, Jin-Ho; Jung, Duk-Young; Perren, Stephan M.; Oh, Chang-Wug

Mechanical Stimulation Alters Tissue Differentiation and Molecular Expression during Bone Healing
Palomares, Kristy T. Salisbury; Gleason, Ryan E.; Mason, Zachary D.; Cullinane, Dennis M.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.; Morgan, Elise F.

Ex Vivo Analysis of Rotational Stiffness of Different Osteosynthesis Techniques in Mouse Femur Fracture
Histing, Tina; Holstein, Joerg H.; Garcia, Patric; Matthys, Romano; Kristen, Alexander; Claes, Lutz; Menger, Michael D.; Pohlemann, Tim

Altered Relative Expression of BMPs and BMP Inhibitors in Cartilaginous Areas of Human Fractures Progressing towards Nonunion
Kwong, Francois N. K.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Freemont, Anthony J.; Evans, Christopher H.

Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration Accelerates Callus Formation, Mineralization, and Fracture Healing in Rats
Leung, Kwok Sui; Shi, Hong Fei; Cheung, Wing Hoi; Qin, Ling; Ng, Wai Kin; Tam, Kam Fai; Tang, Ning

Effect of Cell-Based VEGF Gene Therapy on Healing of a Segmental Bone Defect
Li, Ru; Stewart, Duncan J.; von Schroeder, Herbert P.; Mackinnon, Erin S.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

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Computer-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery

Edited by Tim Wright, Ph.D.

The integration of computers into surgery, like into most other aspects of our daily lives, has had a profound impact. The confluence of digital imaging with technologies for spatial tracking and robotics has improved pre-operative planning, made possible less invasive surgery and has the potential to reduce technical errors in the operating room and provide objective measures for assessing outcomes. While adoption of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery has been hampered by technological and financial issues, research and development efforts have continued in an effort to further improve its effectiveness. In the past few years, the Journal of Orthopaedic Research has been privileged to publish several outstanding articles that span the gamut of applications of computer technology into orthopaedic surgery, including hip and knee arthroplasty, measurements of knee stability, and fracture reduction. The compendium of articles in this virtual issue of the Journal is intended for the broad musculoskeletal community interested in the latest research in this expanding field, as well as for clinicians and scientists working in computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery, who want access to the Journal’s articles in a compiled fashion.

Precise Landmarking in Computer Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty Is Critical to Final Alignment
Brin, Yaron S.; Livshetz, Isaac; Antoniou, John; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Zukor, David J.

Experimental Validation of a Pinless Femoral Reference Array for Computer-Assisted Hip Arthroplasty
Renkawitz, Tobias; Wegner, Melanie; Gneiting, Sabine; Haimerl, Martin; Sendtner, Ernst; Kalteis, Thomas; Grifka, Joachim

The Influence of Sequential Debridement in Total Knee Arthroplasty on the Flexion Axis of the Knee Using Computer-Aided Navigation
Morishige, Mark; McQueen, David A.; Chong, Alexander; Ballard, Gregory P.; Cooke, Francis W.

Pivot-Shift Test: Analysis and Quantification of Knee Laxity Parameters Using a Navigation System
Lopomo, Nicola; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Bignozzi, Simone; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

Knee Stability Before and After Total and Unicondylar Knee Replacement: In Vivo Kinematic Evaluation Utilizing Navigation
Casino, Daniela; Martelli, Sandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Lopomo, Nicola; Iacono, Francesco; Bignozzi, Simone; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

Accuracy of Navigated Surgery of the Pelvis after Surface Matching with an a-Mode Ultrasound Probe
Oszwald, M.; Citak, M.; Kendoff, D.; Kowal, J.; Amstutz, C.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nolte, L. P.; Krettek, C.; Huefner, T.

Navigated lower limb axis measurements: Influence of mechanical weight-bearing simulation
Kendoff, Daniel; Board, Timothy N.; Citak, Musa; Gardner, Michael J.; Hankemeier, Stefan; Ostermeier, Sven; Krettek, Christian; Hüfner, Tobias

Robot-Assisted Fracture Reduction using Three-Dimensional Intraoperative Fracture Visualization: An Experimental Study on Human Cadaver Femora
Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; Bredow, Jan; Calafi, Afshin; Hüfner, Tobias; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gosling, Thomas

Virtual 3D Planning of Acetabular Fracture Reduction
Citak, Musa; Gardner, Michael J.; Kendoff, Daniel; Tarte, Ségolène; Krettek, Christian; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Hüfner, Tobias

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Advances in Understanding of Joint Function

Edited by Joseph Buckwalter, M.D.

Osteoarthritis, the degenerative disorder characterized by loss of synovial joint structure and function, causes pain and disability for more middle aged and older individuals than any other disease. Current treatments do not cure the disease, and little evidence exists to suggest that current interventions prevent progression. Making significant advances in treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis will require progress in understanding the biologic changes in synovial joints that lead to osteoarthritis and how mechanical forces initiate and cause progression of the disease. The Journal of Orthopaedic Research articles selected for this virtual issue present new observations concerning progression of osteoarthritis and treatment of articular cartilage defects, an automated objective system for evaluating cartilage degeneration, and investigations that provide insight into the roles of mechanical forces in the development and progression of synovial joint degeneration. Other included articles explore the complex relationships between muscle function and joint function, relationships that may be important in improving prevention and treatment. This compendium is intended for clinicians and scientists interested in osteoarthritis and the potential for new approaches in the study and treatment of this disease.

Intra-Articular Injections of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Retard Progression of Existing Cartilage Degeneration
Hayashi, Masaya; Muneta, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toru; Ju, Young-Jin; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

Intraarticular Gene Transfer of Thrombospondin-1 Suppresses the Disease Progression of Experimental Osteoarthritis
Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Shen, Po-Chuan; Shiau, Ai-Li; Jou, I-Ming; Lee, Che-Hsin; Wang, Chrong-Reen; Teo, Min-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

Injectable Gellan Gum Hydrogels with Autologous Cells for the Treatment of Rabbit Articular Cartilage Defects
Oliveira, Joao T.; Gardel, Leandro S.; Rada, Tommaso; Martins, Luis; Gomes, Manuela E.; Reis, Rui L.

Lack of Quadriceps Dysfunction in Women with Early Knee Osteoarthritis
Thomas, Abbey C.; Sowers, MaryFran; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.

Repair of Large Osteochondral Defects in Rabbits Using Porous Hydroxyapatite/Collagen (HAp/Col) and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2)
Maehara, Hidetsugu; Sotome, Shinichi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Torigoe, Ichiro; Kawasaki, Yuichi; Sugata, Yumi; Yuasa, Masato; Hirano, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Masanori; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okawa, Atsushi

Hyaluronic Acid Modulates Gene Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF), Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Human Fibroblast-Like Synovial Cells from Advanced-Stage Osteoarthritis In Vitro
Lee, Yu-Tsang; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Haw-Chang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Young, Tai-Horng

Baseline Articular Contact Stress Levels Predict Incident Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Development in the MOST Cohort
Segal, Neil A.; Anderson, Donald D.; Iyer, Krishna S.; Baker, Jennifer; Torner, James C.; Lynch, John A.; Felson, David T.; Lewis, Cora E.; Brown, Thomas D.

Automated Objective Scoring of Histologically Apparent Cartilage Degeneration Using a Custom Image Analysis Program
Moussavi-Harami, S. Farshid; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Martin, James A.; Hillis, Stephen L.; Brown, Thomas D.

Adaptive Patterns of Movement during Stair Climbing in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Asay, Jessica L.; Muendermann, Annegret; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscle Control in Athletic Males and Females
Krishnan, Chandramouli; Huston, Kellen; Amendola, Annunziato; Williams, Glenn N.

Biomechanical Changes at the Hip, Knee, and Ankle Joints during Gait are Associated with Knee Osteoarthritis Severity
Astephen, Janie L.; Deluzio, Kevin J.; Caldwell, Graham E.; Dunbar, Michael J.

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