Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 9-10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Full Papers

    1. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Novel Spherical Au Nanocluster Assemblies@Polyacrylic Acid/Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Cancer Chemotherapy

      Lu Li, Lingyu Zhang, Tingting Wang, Xiaotong Wu, Hong Ren, Chungang Wang and Zhongmin Su

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403517

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      A simple, novel, and reproducible synthetic stregety is developed to fabricate multifunctional spherical Au nanoclusters assemblies encapsulated by a polyacylic acid/CaP shell with a large-scale production. The resulting nanoparticles possess a high payload of doxorubicin as synergetic dual pH-sensitive drug delivery vehicles to employ for dual-modal computed tomography and fluorescence imaging-guided liver cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Communications

    1. Efficient, Absorption-Powered Artificial Muscles Based on Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Yarns

      Márcio Dias Lima, Mohammad W. Hussain, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Sina Naficy, Daniela Hagenasr, Julia S. Bykova, Derrick Tolly and Ray H. Baughman

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500424

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      A new type of absorption-powered artificial muscle provides high performance without needing a temperature change. These muscles, comprising coiled carbon nanotube fibers infiltrated with silicone rubber, can contract up to 50% to generate up to 1.2 kJ kg−1. The drive mechanism for actuation is the rubber swelling during exposure to a nonpolar solvent. Theoretical energy efficiency conversion can be as high as 16%.

  3. Reviews

    1. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths

      Ran Du, Qiuchen Zhao, Na Zhang and Jin Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403170

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      Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based 3D monoliths are a new kind of CNT-based macroscopic assembly featuring both the exceptional physicochemical properties of CNTs and the unique structures of aerogels, which are important for diverse practical applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of the preparation strategies and applications of CNT-based 3D monoliths. Both challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Cavity Microball Lens (CMBL) inside a PMMA Substrate for Super-Wide Angle Imaging

      Chong Zheng, Anming Hu, Kenneth D. Kihm, Qian Ma, Ruozhou Li, Tao Chen and W. W. Duley

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403419

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      A simple and innovative scheme to fabricate a completely enclosed cavity microball lens inside a polymethyl methacrylate substrate is devised using a femtosecond fiber laser at high repetition rates. The fabricated cavity microball lens turns out to be a highly transparent, crack-free structure with low internal surface roughness, allowing for its use as a high-quality optical component in super-wide angle imaging.

    2. Modulation of Interparticle Distance in Discrete Gold Nanoparticle Dimers and Trimers by DNA Single-Base Pairing

      Yoshitsugu Akiyama, Hiroto Shikagawa, Naoki Kanayama, Tohru Takarada and Mizuo Maeda

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500045

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      Spontaneous and reversible shrinkage of gold nanoparticle chains modified with double-stranded DNA is achieved in a noncrosslinking manner. Significant reductions of the interparticle distance are observed with transmission electron microscopy. When the terminal single-base mismatch exists at the outermost surface of the nanoparticle, this structural change is strongly suppressed due to the fraying motion of the unpaired nucleobases.

    3. Surface Influences on the Electrodiffusive Behavior in Mesoporous Templates

      M. Graf, J. Poppe and A. Eychmüller

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400969

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      The widely used template-guided approach towards dense arrays of 1D nanomaterials by simple electrodeposition into porous mebranes is re-investigated regarding its multiphysical background. The deposition is subject to strong diffusional control while interactions between the electrolyte and template surface cause a hindrance towards electrodiffusive flow into the pores. Difficulties of template synthesis, especially into high-aspect-ratio pores, can so be explained.

  5. Reviews

    1. Photosynthetic Proteins in Supported Lipid Bilayers: Towards a Biokleptic Approach for Energy Capture

      Lei Wang, Johannes S. Roth, Xiaojun Han and Stephen D. Evans

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403469

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      Progress towards the development of lipid bilayer-based systems for the investigation of membraneproteins is reviewed, with a particular focus on light-capturing proteins. Different methods for the formation of supported lipid bilayers are presented, and some proteins involved in light harvesting and energy transfer in bacterial membranes are discussed.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis and Structural Evolution of Nickel–Cobalt Nanoparticles Under H2 and CO2

      Sophie Carenco, Cheng-Hao Wu, Andrey Shavorskiy, Selim Alayoglu, Gabor A. Somorjai, Hendrik Bluhm and Miquel Salmeron

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402795

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      Ambient-pressure X-ray spectroscopy reveals the evolution of the Co–Ni core–shell structure during CO2 reduction reactions.

    2. Polyoxometalate-Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids as Antitumor Drugs

      Lei Fu, Hanqin Gao, Mei Yan, Shouzhu Li, Xinyu Li, Zhifei Dai and Shaoqin Liu

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500232

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      Amphiphilic organic–inorganic POM hybrids are prepared by grafting POMs with long-chain organoalkoxysilane lipids. The hybrids spontaneously assembled into vesicles that exhibit enhanced antitumor activity compared to parent POMs. Such a high antitumor activity is shown to originate from the amphiphilic property of the hybrids, endowing the hybrids with a higher affinity for cell membranes, which enables their easy uptake by the cells.

  7. Reviews

    1. A Roadmap for Controlled Production of Topological Insulator Nanostructures and Thin Films

      Yunfan Guo, Zhongfan Liu and Hailin Peng

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403426

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      Topological insulators (TIs) with insulating bulk gap and metallic surface states have attracted extensive attention. One big challenge for the study of TIs is the lack of high-quality materials with insulating bulk states. Recent progress in production of TI nanostructures is highlighted, including basic methods and specific methods to reduce bulk carriers, as well as potential applications of TI-based heterostructures.

  8. Communications

    1. Moisture Barrier Composites Made of Non-Oxidized Graphene Flakes

      Jungmo Kim, Sung Ho Song, Hyeon-Gyun Im, Gabin Yoon, Dongju Lee, Chanyong Choi, Jin Kim, Byeong-Soo Bae, Kisuk Kang and Seokwoo Jeon

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403647

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      Graphene flakes (GFs) with minimized defects and oxidation ratios are incorporated into polyethylene (PE) to enhance the moisture barrier. GFs produced involving solvothermal intercalation show extremely low oxidation rates (3.17%), and are noncovalently functionalized in situ, inducing strong hydrophobicity. The fabricated composite possesses the best moisture barrier performance reported for a polymer–graphene composite.

    2. A Highly Sensitive and Reliable Strain Sensor Using a Hierarchical 3D and Ordered Network of Carbon Nanotubes

      Jeongeun Seo, Tae Jae Lee, Chaehyun Lim, Subeom Lee, Chen Rui, Doyeon Ann, Seung-Beck Lee and Haiwon Lee

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201401812

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      A 3D network of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in poly­(dimethylsiloxane) is presented as a promising route to the fabrication of a flexible film with ordered and interconnected single-walled carbon nanotubes. This is possible using a simple transfer method of as-grown hierarchical single-walled carbon nanotubes on a Si pillar substrate. This film is used as a highly sensitive strain gauge sensor. This type of network embedded in a polymer film should be applicable to many fields involving mechanically stable and reliable strain sensors.

    3. Double Redox-Responsive Release of Encoded and Encapsulated Molecules from Patchy Nanocapsules

      Yi Zhao, Rüdiger Berger, Katharina Landfester and Daniel Crespy

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402521

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      Redox-responsive nanocapsules with surface regularities are presented. Two functional molecules are loaded in the nanocapsules. One molecule is chemically encoded in the capsule shell via a disulfide bond while the other one is physically entrapped in the capsule core. External reducing trigger can induce cascade release of the two payloads.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-Based Donor–Acceptor Polymers for Selective Dispersion of Large-Diameter Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

      Ting Lei, Ying-Chih Lai, Guosong Hong, Huiliang Wang, Pascal Hayoz, R. Thomas Weitz, Changxin Chen, Hongjie Dai and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403761

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      Select larger tubes: Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based donor–acceptor polymers are used for the selective dispersion of s-SWCNTs. Through systematically alkyl side chain engineering (branched vs linear side chains), we can modulate the polymer-SWCNT interactions and achieved high-yield and high-selectivity dispersion of s-SWCNTs with diameters mainly around 1.5 nm and some over 1.6 nm.

  10. Concepts

    1. Lighten the Olympia of the Flatland: Probing and Manipulating the Photonic Properties of 2D Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

      Kai-Ge Zhou and Hao-Li Zhang

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403385

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      2D transition-metal dichalcogenides have colorful photonic properties. In this concept article, recent progress in characterizing the photonic properties of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides and two types of their hybrids—van der Waals heterostructures and 2D alloys—are highlighted. The 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides and their hybrids are expected to become key elements in optical communications, computing, and optoelectronics.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Cytotoxicity of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles on Planktonic and Biofilm Encapsulated Gram-Positive Staphylococci

      Sunil Kumar Boda, Janine Broda, Frank Schiefer, Josefine Weber-Heynemann, Mareike Hoss, Ulrich Simon, Bikramjit Basu and Willi Jahnen-Dechent

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403014

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      Ultrasmall phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 0.8 and 1.4 nm diameter are found strongly bacteriotoxic in planktonic and biofilm Staphylococci. A favorable toxicity profile in bacteria versus eukaryotic cells suggests, e.g., grafting of ultrasmall AuNPs onto implant surfaces to reduce implant infection and biofilm formation.

  12. Communications

    1. Fine Tuning the Emission Properties of Nanoemitters in Multilayered Structures by Deterministic Control of their Local Photonic Environment

      Alberto Jiménez-Solano, Juan Francisco Galisteo-López and Hernán Míguez

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402898

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      Deterministic control on the dynamics of organic nanoemitters is achieved through precise control of its photonic environment. Resonators are fabricated by a combination of spin- and dip-coating techniques, which allows placement of the emitters at different positions within the sample, thus acting as a probe of the local density of states.

    2. Graphene Oxide as a Multifunctional Platform for Raman and Fluorescence Imaging of Cells

      Zhenyu Zhang, Qinghai Liu, Dongliang Gao, Da Luo, Yang Niu, Juan Yang and Yan Li

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403459

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      Fluorescence and Raman bimodal imaging and Raman multifrequency imaging of Hela cells are carried out with the help of two kinds of graphene oxide-based hybrids. As a multifunctional platform, graphene oxide acts as not only a Raman probe, but also as a substrate for Raman and fluorescent probes to load on.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Oscillatory Dynamics and In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging Performance of Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Coated Microbubbles

      Adam J. Dixon, Song Hu, Alexander L. Klibanov and John A. Hossack

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403398

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      Microbubbles with gold nanorods on their surface exhibit different behavior when exposed to low and high pulsed laser energy. In response to low energy excitation, the microbubble undergoes nanometer radial oscillations, while in response to higher laser energies, vapor nanobubble formation on the microbubble surface drives rapid microscale expansion. These agents provide contrast enhancement for both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in vivo.

  14. Reviews

    1. Facet-Dependent Optical Properties Revealed through Investigation of Polyhedral Au–Cu2O and Bimetallic Core–Shell Nanocrystals

      Michael H. Huang, Sourav Rej and Chun-Ya Chiu

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403542

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      Through the synthesis of Au–Cu2O core–shell cubes, cuboctahedra, octahedra, and rhombic dodecahedra with different sizes from the same polyhedral gold cores, facet-dependent optical properties of these particles are discovered. Bimetallic Au–Ag and Au–Pd core–shell nanocrystals do not show such optical behavior.

    2. Dynamic In-Situ Experimentation on Nanomaterials at the Atomic Scale

      Tao Xu and Litao Sun

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403236

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      The development of in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques enables its capabilities to be extended beyond structural characterization to high-precision nanofabrication and property measurements. Based on the idea of setting up a nanolab inside the TEM, approaches for designing in-situ experiments and corresponding examples are demonstrated. These techniques introduce new possibilities for elucidating structure–property–function relationships at the atomic scale.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Ultrahigh Responsivity in Graphene–ZnO Nanorod Hybrid UV Photodetector

      Vinh Quang Dang, Tran Quang Trung, Do-Il Kim, Le Thai Duy, Byeong-Ung Hwang, Doo-Won Lee, Bo-Yeong Kim, Le Duc Toan and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403625

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      The novelity of the UV phototransistor for UV detection is the combination of ZnO nanostructure for the UV absorption and Gr channel for charge transport to obtain excellent selectivity, ultrahigh responsivity, photoconductive gain, and low noise. The shift of Dirac point under UV light illumination gives clearer explanation on the responsive mechanism and carrier transport property of Gr and capability of phototransistor detecting both photocurrent and photovoltage.

    2. Label-Free Tracking of Single Organelle Transportation in Cells with Nanometer Precision Using a Plasmonic Imaging Technique

      Yunze Yang, Hui Yu, Xiaonan Shan, Wei Wang, Xianwei Liu, Shaopeng Wang and Nongjian Tao

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403016

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      Plasmonic imaging and tracking provides a fast label-free method for studying intracellular dynamics. Nanometer tracking accuracy and millisecond temporal resolution are achieved. Three-dimensional tracking of a moving organelle allows structural mapping of microtubules with high precision.

    3. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device

      Chih-Tao Chien, Pritesh Hiralal, Di-Yan Wang, I-Sheng Huang, Chia-Chun Chen, Chun-Wei Chen and Gehan A. J. Amaratunga

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403383

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      Simultaneous energy harvesting (organic photovoltaic cell) and energy storing (supercapacitor) functionalities are integrated onto a single substrate by using graphene in different forms and qualities. Organic photovoltaic cells provide ≈5 V open-circuit output to charge the supercapacitor (≈2.5 mF cm−2 capacitance), results in a self-powered system used to drive RGB light emitting diode.

  16. Communications

    1. Fabrication of Ultrathin Bi2S3 Nanosheets for High-Performance, Flexible, Visible–NIR Photodetectors

      Guihuan Chen, Yongqiang Yu, Kun Zheng, Tao Ding, Wenliang Wang, Yang Jiang and Qing Yang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403508

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      Ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets with thicknesses down to 2.2 nm are fabricated. The resultant ultrathin Bi2S3-based photoconductor shows high sensitivity to visible–near infrared light from 405 to 780 nm with a high external photoresponsivity up to 4.4 A W−1, high detectivity of ≈1011 Jones, relatively fast response time of ≈10 μs, and high flexibility and durability.

    2. Ultrahigh Photogain Nanoscale Hybrid Photodetectors

      Yuanwei Lin and Xuefeng Guo

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403724

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      A class of ultrasensitive nanoscale hybrid photodetectors formed from carbon electrode-molecule junctions using P3HT:PCBM as photoresponsive semiconductors are demonstrated. The unique device architecture, tunability of nanoscale channel lengths and the optimized contact nature of semiconductor/electrode interfaces led to ultrahigh photogains of 1000 with graphene nanoelectrodes and 1 000 000 with single-walled carbon nanotube nanoelectrodes.

  17. Full Papers

    1. In Situ Electrochemical Synthesis and Deposition of Discotic Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene Molecules on Electrodes: Self-Assembled Structure, Redox Properties, and Application for Supercapacitor

      Leiqiang Qin, Yunan Zhang, Xiaoyan Wu, Li Nian, Zengqi Xie, Linlin Liu and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403734

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      Discotic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene self-assemblies are deposited onto electrodes directly by synchronous in situ electrochemical synthesis and deposition. The obtained hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene fibrous aggregates entangle to form porous films, which are redox active and show excellent specific capacitances of 155 F g−1 with long cycle lifetimes and a good rate capability.

    2. Microcapsules for Enhanced Cargo Retention and Diversity

      Maximilian A. Zieringer, Nick J. Carroll, Alireza Abbaspourrad, Stephan A. Koehler and David A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403175

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      Perfluoropolyether microcapsules with a high core–shell ratio are produced using double emulsion drops as templates. This microfluidic approach enables the encapsulation of aqueous and organic cargos with precise control over the capsule size and composition. The shell material provides a highly efficient diffusion barrier even for ionic encapsulants.

  18. Reviews

    1. Rational Design of Metal Nanoframes for Catalysis and Plasmonics

      Zhicheng Fang, Youcheng Wang, Chenxuan Liu, Sheng Chen, Wei Sang, Chao Wang and Jie Zeng

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402799

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      Recent progress regarding metal nanoframes with open spatial structures is reviewed. Focusing on synthetic strategies involving galvanic replacement reaction, oxidative etching, the Kirkendall effect, electrodreposition, template-assisted growth, and one-pot synthesis, this review offers fundamental insights into the fabrication of metal nanoframes as well as their applications in catalysis and plasmonics.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Thermal AND Gate Using a Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon

      Souvik Pal and Ishwar K. Puri

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303888

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      A monolayer graphene nanoribbon can be used as a thermal AND gate, which allows the performance of Boolean AND operations with phonons. It consists of two thermal diodes that rectify phonon transport through asymmetric boundary scattering. This effect is strong only at the nanoscale and at temperatures much lower than room temperature.

    2. Factors Ruling the Uptake of Silica Nanoparticles by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Agglomeration Versus Dispersions, Absence Versus Presence of Serum Proteins

      Federico Catalano, Lisa Accomasso, Gabriele Alberto, Clara Gallina, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna, Claudia Giachino and Gianmario Martra

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400698

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      The absence of serum proteins in the culture media increases the uptake rate of dye-doped silica nanoparticles by mesenchymal stem cells. As a consequence, and because of the dispersing action of proteins, bare and large agglomerates of nanoparticles enter the cells more quickly than smaller agglomerates coated with a protein corona.

  20. Communications

    1. Dynamics of Gold Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanostructures Driven by van der Waals and Electrostatic Interactions

      Alessandro La Torre, Maria del Carmen Gimenez-Lopez, Michael W. Fay, Carlos Herreros Lucas, Paul D. Brown and Andrei N. Khlobystov

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402807

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      Transmission electron microscopy studies on the assembly and growth of gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes supported on few-layer graphene and amorphous carbon reveal a competition between van der Waals forces and electrostatic interactions, enabling controlled positioning and sizing of adsorbed nanoparticles at the nanochannels formed between the carbon nanotube and the few-layer graph­ene surface.

    2. Underwater Thermoresponsive Surface with Switchable Oil-Wettability between Superoleophobicity and Superoleophilicity

      Hongliang Liu, Xiqi Zhang, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403190

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      An underwater thermoresponsive surface that can switch between superoleophobicity and superoleophilicity is fabricated with a combination of mixed brushes, containing thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and underwater oleophilic heptadecafluorodecyltrimethoxysilane, and nanostructured silicon nanowire arrays. Temperature-induced underwater adhesion switching between low-adhesive superoleophobicity and high-adhesive superoleophobicity is achieved on a pure poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-modified nanostructured silicon nanowire array.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells Through a Homogeneous High-Quality Organolead Iodide Layer

      Kai Wang, Chang Liu, Pengcheng Du, Hao-Li Zhang and Xiong Gong

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403399

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      Fabricating high-quality perovskite thin films via low-temperature solution processing is a challenge to realizing high-efficiency perovskite hybrid solar cells (pero-HSCs). An approach is reported to realize high-quality methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite thin films via using strong-polar ethanol solution, which eventually gives rise to an over 40% augment in efficiency of pero-HSCs.

    2. A SERS-Assisted 3D Barcode Chip for High-Throughput Biosensing

      Lei Wu, Zhuyuan Wang, Kequan Fan, Shenfei Zong and Yiping Cui

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403474

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      A surface-enhanced Raman scattering-assisted 3D barcode chip is developed for high-throughput biosensing. The 3D barcode stores all the detection results for multiplex bioanalysis, including the sample sequence number and the concentration of different targets in each sample. This platform provides a rapid, sensitive, and automated tool for future biomedical applications.

    3. Facile Synthesis of Ultrasmall CoS2 Nanoparticles within Thin N-Doped Porous Carbon Shell for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Qingfei Wang, Ruqiang Zou, Wei Xia, Jin Ma, Bin Qiu, Asif Mahmood, Ruo Zhao, Yangyuchen Yang, Dingguo Xia and Qiang Xu

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403579

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      A strategy to firmly trap ultrasmall CoS2 nanoparticles within thin N-rich porous carbon shells employs a facile, in-situ, nano metal–organic framework-derived carbonization and postsulfured approach. Such ideal nanostructures give the C/CoS2 composite excellent lithium storage properties and negligible loss of capacity at high charge/discharge rates.

    4. A Metal-Free, Free-Standing, Macroporous Graphene@g-C3N4 Composite Air Electrode for High-Energy Lithium Oxygen Batteries

      Wen-Bin Luo, Shu-Lei Chou, Jia-Zhao Wang, Yu-Chun Zhai and Hua-Kun Liu

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403535

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      A binder-free G@CN electrocatalyst electrode with a free-standing macroporous structure exhibits excellent capacity because of the enormous density of deposition sites for reaction products. The macroporous structured graphene framework is used as an electrocatalyst support with high electronic conductivity. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are successfully integrated into a composite to catalyze the chemical reaction with high energy.

  22. Reviews

    1. Interfaces in Perovskite Solar Cells

      Jiangjian Shi, Xin Xu, Dongmei Li and Qingbo Meng

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403534

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      Interfaces in perovskite solar cells are reviewed and discussed as an approach to understand the origin of the remarkable performance in this semiconductor photovoltaic device, in which the interfacial atomic and electronic structures, charge dynamics, and interface engineering are included. This review shows the importance of the interfaces and brings a better understanding to the workings of this cell.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Ultrafast Tracking of a Single Live Virion During the Invagination of a Cell Membrane

      Yangang Pan, Shaowen Wang, Yuping Shan, Dinglin Zhang, Jing Gao, Min Zhang, Shuheng Liu, Mingjun Cai, Haijiao Xu, Guohui Li, Qiwei Qin and Hongda Wang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403491

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      Force tracing based on atomic force microscopy is developed to quickly (up to the microsecond level) track the endocytosis of a single live virion (Singapore grouper iridovirus, SGIV) through the apical membrane of a host cell.

    2. Superior Intratumoral Penetration of Paclitaxel Nanodots Strengthens Tumor Restriction and Metastasis Prevention

      Dezhi Ni, Hui Ding, Shan Liu, Hua Yue, Yali Bao, Zhenhua Wang, Zhiguo Su, Wei Wei and Guanghui Ma

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403632

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      Paclitaxel drug nanodots of ultranano size (≈10 nm) exhibit superior intratumoral penetrating ability than their large counterpart nanoparticles (≈70 nm) with the assistance of tumor-penetrating peptide. In this case, nanodots can efficiently eliminate cancer stem cells, remarkable restriction on tumor progress and metastasis is thus achieved.

  24. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Trimagnetic Multishell MnFe2O4@CoFe2O4@NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles

      Véronica Gavrilov-Isaac, Sophie Neveu, Vincent Dupuis, Dario Taverna, Alexandre Gloter and Valérie Cabuil

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402845

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      The synthesis and characterization of original ferrite multishell magnetic nanoparticles made of a soft core (manganese ferrite) covered with two successive shells, a hard one (cobalt ferrite) and then a soft one (nickel ferrite), are described. The results demonstrate the modulation of the coercivity when new magnetic shells are added.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Factors Influencing the Growth of Pt Nanowires via Chemical Self-Assembly and their Fuel Cell Performance

      Hui Meng, Yunfeng Zhan, Dongrong Zeng, Xiaoxue Zhang, Guoqing Zhang and Frédéric Jaouen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402904

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      The factors determining the morphology of platinum nanomaterials obtained from the reduction of Pt salts by formic acid are studied. Both the oxidation state of Pt in the precursor salt and the pH value are critical factors for the formation of Pt nanowires. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction on Pt nanowires is considerably higher than that on two commercial Pt/C catalysts based on cubo-octahedral Pt nanoparticles.

    2. Microwave Enabled One-Pot, One-Step Fabrication and Nitrogen Doping of Holey Graphene Oxide for Catalytic Applications

      Mehulkumar Patel, Wenchun Feng, Keerthi Savaram, M. Reza Khoshi, Ruiming Huang, Jing Sun, Emann Rabie, Carol Flach, Richard Mendelsohn, Eric Garfunkel and Huixin He

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403402

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      A fast, one-step approach, assisted by microwave heating, for controllable fabrication of holey graphene oxide (HGO) sheets is developed directly from graphite powder. These HGO sheets can be simultaneously reduced and doped with heteroatom (N) by microwave heating in a short time at low temperature. These N-doped holey reduced graphene oxide sheets show enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction due to efficient mass transport and increased catalytic centers.

  26. Communications

    1. Phosphonium Halides as Both Processing Additives and Interfacial Modifiers for High Performance Planar-Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

      Chen Sun, Qifan Xue, Zhicheng Hu, Ziming Chen, Fei Huang, Hin-Lap Yip and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403344

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      Organic halide salts are successfully incorporated in perovskite-based planar-heterojunction solar cells as both the processing additive and interfacial modifier to improve the morphology of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the charge collecting property of the cathode. As a result, perovskite solar cells exhibit a significant improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 10% of the reference device to 13% of the modified devices.

    2. Vertical Nanowire Electrode Arrays as Novel Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensors

      Babak Nasr, Gursharan Chana, Ting Ting Lee, Thanh Nguyen, Chathurika Abeyrathne, Giovanna M. D'Abaco, Mirella Dottori and Efstratios Skafidas

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403540

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      A new method for the fabrication of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on vertical nanowires (VNWs) is proposed. The VNWs are functionalized to detect antibodies against a major astrocytic structural protein component, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). It is revealed that the interaction of GFAP-antibody with functionalized VNWs leads to a clear change in device conductance and the corresponding capacitance.

    3. A Dendrite-Free Lithium Metal Battery Model Based on Nanoporous Polymer/Ceramic Composite Electrolytes and High-Energy Electrodes

      Zhengyuan Tu, Yingying Lu and Lynden Archer

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403568

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      Nanoporous polymer/ceramic composite electrolytes that suppress dendrite growth in full-cell, high-energy secondary lithium metal batteries are reported. The battery cathode design used in the study is energetically balanced with the metallic lithium anode. The results reported show that such batteries can stably operate for over 1000 h without signs of short circuit.

  27. Reviews

    1. Aptamers and Their Applications in Nanomedicine

      Hongguang Sun and Youli Zu

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403073

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      Aptamers and nanomedicine are outstanding technologies widely developed for various biomedical applications. To construct ‘active targeting’ nanomedicine to further improve their applicability, aptamers can be used as targeting molecules, drug carriers, or ON/OFF switches. This review focuses on the applications of aptamers in developing different nanomedicines, especially in aptamer-targeted nanoimaging agents, therapeutic nanomedicines, and theranostics.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Capillarity Guided Patterning of Microliquids

      Myeongwoo Kang, Woohyun Park, Sangcheol Na, Sang-Min Paik, Hyunjae Lee, Jae Woo Park, Ho-Young Kim and Noo Li Jeon

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403596

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      Liquid patterns, including hydrogel and cell suspension, are spontaneously formed inside micropost arrays by a simple liquid draining motion. This method takes advantage of the surface tension of the liquid and can be performed within 5 s, without special equipment or precise flow control.

  29. Communications

    1. Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency of Pt Nanoparticles Supported on 3D Ordered Macro-/Mesoporous Ce0.6Zr0.3Y0.1O2 for Methane Combustion

      Hamidreza Arandiyan, Hongxing Dai, Kemeng Ji, Hongyu Sun, Yanyan Zhao and Junhua Li

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402951

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      Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles supported on high-surface-area 3D ordered macroporous (3DOM) Ce0.6Zr0.3Y0.1O2 (CZY) are synthesized via a bubbling cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide/P123-assisted reduction route. The 1.1 wt% Pt/3DOM CZY catalyst shows supercatalytic activity for methane combustion, which is attributed to a higher oxygen adspecies amount, larger surface area, better low-temperature reducibility, and unique nanovoid-walled 3DOM structure.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Fluorescence Quenching Nanoprobes Dedicated to In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging and High-Efficient Tumor Therapy in Deep-Seated Tissue

      Huan Qin, Ting Zhou, Sihua Yang and Da Xing

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403395

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      Fluorescence quenching nanoprobes are composed of fluorescent dyes and graphene oxide via π–π stacking interactions, in which graphene oxide serves as a base material for loading dyes and quenching dye fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, with the one purpose of maximum of photoacoustic efficiency. Potential applications of the fluorescence quenching nanoprobes in biomedicine are demonstrated.

    2. Doping GaP Core–Shell Nanowire pn-Junctions: A Study by Off-Axis Electron Holography

      Sadegh Yazdi, Alexander Berg, Magnus T. Borgström, Takeshi Kasama, Marco Beleggia, Lars Samuelson and Jakob B. Wagner

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403361

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      Using off-axis electron holography to investigate the doping process in GaP coreshell nanowire pn-junctions reveals that triethyltin is the most efficient precursor among triethyltin, ditertiarybutylselenide and silane for n-type doping of the shell and that the concentration of p-type dopants is higher in the region of core grown parasitically by vapor–solid mechanism due to unintentional carbon doping from trimethylgallium precursor.

  31. Communications

    1. Tailoring the Electronic Properties of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Metal–Semiconductor Nanocomposites for High Performance Photodetectors

      F. Pelayo García de Arquer, Tania Lasanta, María Bernechea and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403359

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      Metallic nanoparticles tailor the electronic properties of PbS colloidal quantum dots in a post-synthetic, all solution-processable approach. The Fermi level of the resulting nanocomposites can be tuned from p- to n-type due to remote charge transfer and electron trap state passivation. This concurrently reduces dark current, improves time response, and increases sensitivity in PbS photoconductors, yielding an over-two-fold increase in detectivity.

    2. Fluorescence Retrieval of CdSe Quantum Dots by Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Aggregates of Reverse Micelles

      Swee Kuan Yen and Subramanian Tamil Selvan

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402723

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      Life is restored to inactive (dead) quantum dots by means of the encapsulation into supramolecular aggregates of spherical nonionic Igepal micelles.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Monolithic Graphene Trees as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries with High C-Rates

      Seung Yol Jeong, Sunhye Yang, Sooyeon Jeong, Ick Jun Kim, Hee Jin Jeong, Joong Tark Han, Kang-Jun Baeg and Geon-Woong Lee

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403085

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      Monolithically structured reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is introduced as an anode material for lithium ion batteries with high rate capacities. The monolithic graphene structures are achieved by a mixture of highly conductive rGO paste and the water-soluble polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose with freeze drying. As a consequence, ultrafast charge/discharge rates that remain stable over multiple cycles are obtained.

  33. Communications

    1. Biphasic Synthesis of Large-Pore and Well-Dispersed Benzene Bridged Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Intracellular Protein Delivery

      Yannan Yang, Yuting Niu, Jun Zhang, Anand Kumar Meka, Hongwei Zhang, Chun Xu, Chun Xiang Cynthia Lin, Meihua Yu and Chengzhong Yu

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402779

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      Large pore (4.6–7.6 nm) and well-dispersed benzene bridged mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles with uniform particle size of ≈50 nm are prepared via a biphasic approach. They can be directly used as nanocarriers without surface modification for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Design, Properties, and In Vivo Behavior of Super­paramagnetic Persistent Luminescence Nanohybrids

      Eliott Teston, Yoann Lalatonne, Dan Elgrabli, Gwennhael Autret, Laurence Motte, Florence Gazeau, Daniel Scherman, Olivier Clément, Cyrille Richard and Thomas Maldiney

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403071

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      The conception of an innovative multimodal probe based on the association of persistent luminescence and iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a mesoporous silica architecture is described. It is specifically designed to allow magnetic attraction, highly sensitive, optical, in vivo, real-time imaging and high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

  35. Communications

    1. Shape-Dependent Targeting of Injured Blood Vessels by Peptide Amphiphile Supramolecular Nanostructures

      Tyson J. Moyer, Hussein A. Kassam, Edward S. M. Bahnson, Courtney E. Morgan, Faifan Tantakitti, Teng L. Chew, Melina R. Kibbe and Samuel I. Stupp

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403429

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      Targeting of vascular intervention by systemically delivered supramolecular nanofibers after balloon angioplasty is described. Tracking of self-assembling peptide amphiphiles using fluorescence shows selective binding to the site of vascular intervention. Cylindrical nanostructures are observed to target the site of arterial injury, while spherical nanostructures with an equivalent diameter display no binding.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Au Nanoparticles onto Thermosensitive Magnetic Core-Shell Microgels for Thermally Tunable and Magnetically Recyclable Catalysis

      Guoqiang Liu, Daoai Wang, Feng Zhou and Weimin Liu

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403305

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      A novel nanocomposite Fe3O4@PND@Au is fabricated by the self-assembly of negatively charged Au nanoparticles onto positively charged Fe3O4@PND microgels. It is capable of serving as a smart nanoreactor for magnetically recyclable and thermally tunable catalysis. Notably, the mode of tuning the aggregation or dispersion of Au nanoparticles using a thermosensitive carrier offers a novel strategy to adjust and control the catalytic activity.

  37. Communications

    1. Hydrophilic–Hydrophobic Patterned Molecularly Imprinted Photonic Crystal Sensors for High-Sensitive Colorimetric Detection of Tetracycline

      Jue Hou, Huacheng Zhang, Qiang Yang, Mingzhu Li, Lei Jiang and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403640

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      A hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterned molecularly imprinted (MIP) photonic crystal (PC) sensor is fabricated for highly sensitive tetracycline detection. The relationship between the tetracycline concentration, its corresponding color of the sensor, and the diameter of MIP-PC dot is found using a fan-shaped color card. This work provides a new strategy to design the sensors with tunable detection ranges for practical applications.

  38. Full Papers

    1. DNA-Directed Assembly of Capture Tools for Constitutional Studies of Large Protein Complexes

      Rebecca Meyer, Alex Faesen, Katrin Vogel, Sadasivam Jeganathan, Andrea Musacchio and Christof M. Niemeyer

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403544

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      Structural DNA nanotechnology can provide tools for the analysis of large supramolecular protein complexes, such as the spindle apparatus. Because DNA scaffolds enable precise control of stoichiometry and spatial arrangement of proteins, such nanostructures can be used to mimic the early stage of kinetochore assembly.

  39. Communications

    1. Encapsulation of Mono- or Bimetal Nanoparticles Inside Metal–Organic Frameworks via In situ Incorporation of Metal Precursors

      Liyu Chen, Xiaodong Chen, Hongli Liu and Yingwei Li

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403599

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      A facile, in situ metal precursor incorporation strategy is established for good control over the location and composition of metal nanoparticles within metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). This one-step metal precursor incorporation route is successfully applied to the fabrication of ultrafine Pd, Ni, and PdNi alloys to be selectively encapsulated inside the pores of MOFs, achieving superior catalytic activity and stability in the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene.

    2. Electrokinetic Preconcentration of Small Molecules Within Volumetric Electromagnetic Hotspots in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

      Moonseong Park, Young-Jae Oh, Sang-Gil Park, Seung-Bum Yang and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402942

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      The on-chip integration of a preconcentration chamber for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is shown. Small molecules are preconcentrated using 3D volumetric electromagnetic hotspots. The experimental results demonstrate an enhancement of the SERS signals of over two orders of magnitude, which allows the fingerprinting of neurotransmitter molecules at the nanomolar level and furthers the selective detection of oppositely charged molecules. This on-chip integration will provide new directions for ultrasensitive SERS applications.

    3. Carbon-Coated Germanium Nanowires on Carbon Nanofibers as Self-Supported Electrodes for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Weihan Li, Minsi Li, Zhenzhong Yang, Jun Xu, Xiongwu Zhong, Jiaqing Wang, Linchao Zeng, Xiaowu Liu, Yu Jiang, Xiang Wei, Lin Gu and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403533

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      A hybrid structure with carbon-coated germanium nanowires grown on the surface of carbon nanofibers is fabricated using an in situ vapor–liquid–solid process. It is used as a self-supported and flexible anode for Li-ion batteries.

  40. Full Papers

    1. Single-Cell Detection of mRNA Expression Using Nanofountain-Probe Electroporated Molecular Beacons

      Juan P. Giraldo-Vela, Wonmo Kang, Rebecca L. McNaughton, Xuemei Zhang, Brian M. Wile, Andrew Tsourkas, Gang Bao and Horacio D. Espinosa

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201401137

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      Individual cells within a population are probed for mRNA expression by localized electroporation using a nanofountain probe electroporation system. DNA-based and RNA-based molecular beacons are delivered to bind to the mRNA of interest. A unique feature demonstrated is that the nanofountain probe electroporation method allows for the same cell to be probed over time.

  41. Communications

    1. Precise Manipulation and Patterning of Protein Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography Using Surface Acoustic Waves

      Feng Guo, Weijie Zhou, Peng Li, Zhangming Mao, Neela H. Yennawar, Jarrod B. French and Tony Jun Huang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403262

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      The increasing flux and decreasing beam size at X-ray sources has made data collection using crystals commonplace, necessitating automation of crystal manipulation and harvesting. An acoustic-based device for manipulating and patterning micrometer sized crystals is developed here. This robust, biocompatible and easy-to-implement technology will increase throughput, lower sample requirements and make data collection possible for previously intractable samples.

    2. Microfluidic Single-Cell Analysis with Affinity Beads

      Michael Werner, Raghavendra Palankar, Loïc Arm, Ruud Hovius and Horst Vogel

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402650

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      A micrometer-sized affinity bead (red) is (i) taken up into a cell by phagocytosis, (ii) photochemically released from phagosomes, (iii) optically trapped by the cell, and (iv) isolated by cell lysis for subsequent analysis of captured intracellular analyte (green).

  42. Full Papers

    1. Tailored Crumpling and Unfolding of Spray-Dried Pristine Graphene and Graphene Oxide Sheets

      Dorsa Parviz, Shane D. Metzler, Sriya Das, Fahmida Irin and Micah J. Green

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403466

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      The morphological transition of 2D graphene nanosheets to 3D crumpled particles is achieved via a scalable spray-drying technique. In-situ microscopy shows that factors such as nanosheet elasticity and surface chemistry affect the crumpling process, such that the crumpling mechanism differs between pristine graphene and graphene oxide. Unfolding of crumpled graphene upon rewetting depends on nanosheet–solvent interactions.

  43. Communications

    1. Facet-Dependent Stripping Behavior of Cu2O Microcrystals Toward Lead Ions: A Rational Design for the Determination of Lead Ions

      Zhong-Gang Liu, Yu-Feng Sun, Wen-Kai Chen, Yuan Kong, Zhen Jin, Xing Chen, Xiao Zheng, Jin-Huai Liu, Xing-Jiu Huang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402146

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      Facet-dependent stripping behavior in the determination of Pb(II): Well-defined Cu2O microcrystals with different structures show facet-dependent electrochemical behaviors toward heavy metal ions. This provides an important insight into the understanding the efficiency of facet-dependent properties of microcrystals on electroanalytical performance for the rational design of electrochemical analytical techniques for efficient detection of heavy metal ions.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Capture and Simple Quantification of Circulating Tumor Cells Using Quantum Dots and Magnetic Beads

      Hyegeun Min, Seong-Min Jo and Hak-Sung Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403126

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      The use of anti-EpCAM-QDs and anti-IgG-MBs enables efficient capture and simple quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Anti-EpCAM-QDs target the CTCs, followed by their isolation using anti-IgG-MBs. The number of captured CTCs can be readily quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity.

    2. Cytotoxicity of BSA-Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

      Liyun Dong, Mulin Li, Song Zhang, Jun Li, Guanxin Shen, Yating Tu, Jintao Zhu and Juan Tao

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403481

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      Bovine serum albumin-stabilized Au nanoclusters induce decline of cell viabilities on different cells to varied degrees in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species might be one of the important reasons for the toxicity of bovine serum albumin-Au nanoclusters. Au nanoclusters with concentrations of 5 nM and 20 nM significantly inhibit tumor growth, providing a new avenue for the design of an anti-cancer drug system.

  45. Communications

    1. Three-Dimensional Interconnected Vanadium Pentoxide Nanonetwork Cathode for High-Rate Long-Life Lithium Batteries

      Qinyou An, Qiulong Wei, Pengfei Zhang, Jinzhi Sheng, Kalele Mulonda Hercule, Fan Lv, Qinqin Wang, Xiujuan Wei and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403358

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      Three-dimensional interconnected vanadium pentoxide nanonetworks as cathodes for rechargable lithium batteries are successfully synthesized via a quick gelation followed by annealing. The interconnected structure ensures the electron transport of each unit. And their inner porous structure buffer the volume change over long-term repeated lithium ion insertion/extraction cycles, leading to the high-rate long-life cycling performance.

  46. Full Papers

    1. Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Photodetection in Few Layer MoS2 Phototransistors with Au Nanostructure Arrays

      Jinshui Miao, Weida Hu, Youliang Jing, Wenjin Luo, Lei Liao, Anlian Pan, Shiwei Wu, Jingxin Cheng, Xiaoshuang Chen and Wei Lu

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403422

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      This paper offers an avenue to improve the photocurrent response of MoS2-based phototransistors by coupling few-layer MoS2 with Au plasmonic nanostructure arrays. After depositing 4 nm thick Au nanoparticles, a doubled increase in the photocurrent is observed. Moreover, the photocurrent response of few-layer MoS2 phototransistors exhibits a threefold enhancement with periodic Au nanoarrays.

    2. Single-Component TiO2 Tubular Microengines with Motion Controlled by Light-Induced Bubbles

      Fangzhi Mou, Yan Li, Chuanrui Chen, Wei Li, Yixia Yin, Huiru Ma and Jianguo Guan

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403372

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      Single-component TiO2 tubes can be at-will bubble-propelled as the photocatalytically generated O2 molecules selectively nucleate and grow into bubbles only on the inner surface of the tube. The motion state and speed of them are modulated reversibly, swiftly, and wirelessly by regulating the UV irradiation.

  47. Communications

    1. Nanocrystals of Uranium Oxide: Controlled Synthesis and Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Hydrogen Evolution by Ce Doping

      Shi Hu, Haoyi Li, Huiling Liu, Peilei He and Xun Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403245

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      A preliminary study of the growth of 0D, 1D, and 2D nanostructures of uranium oxides with feature sizes from several nanometers down to 1 nm are presented. Cerium is successfully doped into these oxides and its influence on the growth dynamics and electrochemical performance investigated.

  48. Full Papers

    1. Dual-pH Sensitive Charge-Reversal Polypeptide Micelles for Tumor-Triggered Targeting Uptake and Nuclear Drug Delivery

      Shi-Song Han, Ze-Yong Li, Jing-Yi Zhu, Kai Han, Zheng-Yang Zeng, Wei Hong, Wen-Xin Li, Hui-Zhen Jia, Yun Liu, Ren-Xi Zhuo and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402865

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      A dual-amidating strategy for lysine-rich polypeptide micelles is designed to facilitate tumor targeting and nuclear drug delivery via a dual-pH sensitive stepwise hydrolysis. In a mildly acidic tumor microenvironment, cellular uptake is enhanced by a charge-reversal process. In the more acidic endo/lysosome, a nulcear localization Tat peptide is further reactivated to promote drug delivery into cell nuclei.

    2. One-Pot Synthesis of Multifunctional Au@Graphene Oxide Nanocolloid Core@Shell Nanoparticles for Raman Bioimaging, Photothermal, and Photodynamic Therapy

      Young-Kwan Kim, Hee-Kyung Na, Seongchan Kim, Hongje Jang, Sung-Jin Chang and Dal-Hee Min

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402269

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      Au@graphene oxide nanocolloid core@shell nanoparticles are prepared using graphene oxide nanocolloids as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Au@graphene oxide nanoparticles show multifunctionality such as surface plasmon resonance, Raman scattering, photothermal conversion, and an affinity for hydrophobic photosensitizers. After functionalization, these nanoparticles are successfully harnessed for Raman bioimaging and combinational therapy.

  49. Communications

    1. Graphene Foam Developed with a Novel Two-Step Technique for Low and High Strains and Pressure-Sensing Applications

      Yarjan Abdul Samad, Yuanqing Li, Andreas Schiffer, Saeed M. Alhassan and Kin Liao

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403532

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      Freestanding, mechanically stable, and highly electrically conductive graphene foam (GF) is formed with a two-step facile, adaptable, and scalable technique. This work also demonstrates the formation of graphene foam with tunable densities and its use as strain/pressure sensor for both high and low strains and pressures.

    2. A Facile Solvothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

      Frances Ooi, Joseph S. DuChene, Jingjing Qiu, Jeremy O. Graham, Mark H. Engelhard, Guixin Cao, Zheng Gai and Wei David Wei

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201401954

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      Anisotropic Fe3O4 octahedrons are obtained via a simple solvothermal synthesis with appropriate sizes for various technological applications. A complete suite of materials characterization methods confirms the magnetite phase for these structures, which exhibit substantial saturation magnetization and intriguing morphologies for a wide range of applications.

  50. Full Papers

    1. Ultrahigh Capacity Due to Multi-Electron Conversion Reaction in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped MoO2 Porous Nanobelts

      Wei Tang, Cheng Xin Peng, Chang Tai Nai, Jie Su, Yan Peng Liu, M. V. Venkatashamy Reddy, Ming Lin and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403018

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      Reduced graphene-oxide sheet-wrapped MoO2 porous nanobelts are fabricated and applied as the anode material in a lithium ion battery. The composite affords an unprecedented, full-scale, multi-electron conversion reaction, giving a high capacity, ultrafast rate capability, and cycle stability.

  51. Communications

    1. Correlation between Membrane Partitioning and Functional Activity in a Single Lipid Vesicle Assay Establishes Design Guidelines for Antiviral Peptides

      Joshua A. Jackman, Rathi Saravanan, Yibang Zhang, Seyed R. Tabaei and Nam-Joon Cho

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403638

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      The nanometer-scale discrimination of virus-rupturing peptides is tested using lipid membrane platforms. In combination with single-vesicle analysis of peptide-induced vesicle rupture, a correlation between membrane partitioning and biologically relevant activities is established. Taken together, the findings support that the degree of rupture activity should be balanced by membrane curvature-selectivity for optimal therapeutic properties of antiviral peptides.

  52. Full Papers

    1. Real-Time Analysis of Magnetic Hyperthermia Experiments on Living Cells under a Confocal Microscope

      Vincent Connord, Pascal Clerc, Nicolas Hallali, Darine El Hajj Diab, Daniel Fourmy, Véronique Gigoux and Julian Carrey

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402669

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      A miniaturized electromagnet makes possible the generation of a high-frequency magnetic field under a confocal microscope. Several physical and biological events occurring in cells containing magnetic nanoparticles and submitted to such a field are observed and quantified in real-time: cell damages, reactive oxygen species production, lysosome permeabilization, and nanoparticles self-assembling.

    2. Multifunctional Assembly of Micrometer-Sized Colloids for Cell Sorting

      Chenyao Nie, Bing Wang, Jiangyan Zhang, Yongqiang Cheng, Fengting Lv, Libing Liu and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402970

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      A bottom-up approach for constructing self-assembled micrometer-sized magnetic colloids is developed. The colloids possess multifunctionality, including magnetic, optical, and biological activities. Biotinylated oligo (p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives are designed to mediate the self-assembly of streptavidin-modified magnetic beads. The colloidal assembly reveals better performance in cell isolation by amplified magnetic response in comparison to monodisperse colloids.

  53. Communications

    1. Supramolecular Nanosubstrate-Mediated Delivery for Reprogramming and Transdifferentiation of Mammalian Cells

      Shuang Hou, Jin-sil Choi, Kuan-Ju Chen, Yang Zhang, Jinliang Peng, Mitch A. Garcia, Jue-Hua Yu, Kaushali Thakore-Shah, Tracy Ro, Jie-Fu Chen, Parham Peyda, Guoping Fan, April D. Pyle, Hao Wang and Hsian-Rong Tseng

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402602

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      Supramolecular nanosubstrate-mediated delivery (SNSMD) leverages the power of molecular self-assembly and a nanostructured substrate platform for the low toxicity, highly efficient co-delivery of biological factors encapsulated in a nanovector. Human fibroblasts are successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stems and transdifferentiated into induced neuronal-like cells.

    2. Site-Selective Nucleation and Controlled Growth of Gold Nanostructures in Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanotubulars

      Kun Zhou, Jianting Zhang and Qiangbin Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201401512

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      Site-selective biomineralization of Au nanostructures in the interior channel of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is achieved by mutating threonine 103 in TMV to cysteine (T103C-TMV) to introduce the strong coordination interaction between the arrayed sulfhydryl ligands and gold species. By finely tuning the reaction conditions, Au nanoparticle chains and Au nanorods are successfully and exclusively synthesized inside the T103C-TMV nanotubes.

  54. Full Papers

    1. Photopatterning of Cross-Linkable Epoxide-Functionalized Block Copolymers and Dual-Tone Nanostructure Development for Fabrication Across the Nano- and Microscales

      Chunlin He and Mark P. Stoykovich

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403364

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      An epoxide-functionalized poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) block copolymer system is shown to be capable of self-assembling into nanostructures and subsequently cross-linking in response to heat or light. Positive- and negative-tone photopatterning using a dual-tone nanostructure development process is achieved, enabling such materials to be applied for lithographic applications across multiple length scales.

    2. Magnetoresponsive Virus-Mimetic Nanocapsules with Dual Heat-Triggered Sequential-Infected Multiple Drug-Delivery Approach for Combinatorial Tumor Therapy

      Jen-Hung Fang, Yun-Ting Lee, Wen-Hsuan Chiang and Shang-Hsiu Hu

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402969

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      Core–shell magnetoresponsive virus-mimetic nanocapsules supported on one single component of protein and iron oxide nanoparticles can subsequentially deliver energy and drugs. Magnetically guided chemo/thermal therapy includes a burst-like release of multiple drugs and sequential infections, remotely achieved by an external magnetic field, all contributing to cell kill.

    3. A General Strategy toward Carbon Cloth-Based Hierarchical Films Constructed by Porous Nanosheets for Superior Photocatalytic Activity

      Linlin Li, Shengjie Peng, Na Wang, Madhavi Srinivasan, Subodh G. Mhaisalkar, Qingyu Yan and Seeram Ramakrishna

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403582

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      3D ZnIn2S4/CdIn2S4 hierarchical structures on carbon cloth with superior photocatalytic activity are obtained by a facile hydrothermal process, which can be extended to produce diverse sulfide and oxide films.

  55. Communications

    1. Direct Printing of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Planar or Highly Curved Surfaces with High Resolutions Using Electrohydrodynamics

      Byeong Wan An, Kukjoo Kim, Mijung Kim, So-Yun Kim, Seung-Hyun Hur and Jang-Ung Park

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403131

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      Electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is de­monstrated to form complex geometric devices with high resolution (line width ≈ 5 mm). Both planar and highly curved surfaces (radius of curvature ≈ 60 mm) can be used as substrates. Demonstrations of counterfeit coin recognition using RGO patterns and all-printed RGO transistors suggest substantial promise for applications in security and electronics.

  56. Full Papers

    1. Highly Sensitive and Selective Field-Effect-Transistor NonEnzyme Dopamine Sensors Based on Pt/Conducting Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles

      Jun Seop Lee, Jungkyun Oh, Sung Gun Kim and Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403263

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      A Pt particle-decorated, 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-based nonenzymatic FET sensor is fabricated for highly sensitive and selective dopamine detection with a long lifetime.

    2. Selective Capture and Quick Detection of Targeting Cells with SERS-Coding Microsphere Suspension Chip

      Dian Li, Yuting Zhang, Ruimin Li, Jia Guo, Changchun Wang and Chuanbing Tang

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402531

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      Introducing magnetic composite microspheres and surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-coding microsphere suspension chip system for sensitively detecting circulating tumor cells is developed. In this system, the model circulating tumor cells are selectively captured due to the rapid magnetic response and specific recognition of folate-modified magnetic composite microspheres. After the captured cells are recovered, Raman spectra is used to detect them.

    3. Nano-to-Microdesign of Marimo-Like Carbon Nanotubes Supported Frameworks via In-spaced Polymerization for High Performance Silicon Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

      Yao-Hui Huang, Qi Bao, Bing-Hong Chen and Jenq-Gong Duh

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402952

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      Marimo-like carbon nanotubes/Si composite fabricated through self-assembly process and in-spaced polymerization exhibit remarkable high capacity and long cycling performance (916 mAh g–1 for 200 cycles) as superior anode in lithium-ion batteries. With expedient spatial arrangement and construction, this study delivers a new concept of modification in Si anode with one-dimensional conductive materials.

    4. Anionic Lipid, pH-Sensitive Liposome-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids for Gene Delivery – Quantitative Research of the Mechanism

      Baoji Du, Li Tian, Xiaoxiao Gu, Dan Li, Erkang Wang and Jin Wang

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402470

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      First, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB)/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) protected gold nanoparticles DODAB/DOPE (1:1)-AuNPs are synthesized, which possess high gene delivery efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of its higher transfection efficiency is investigated by comparing with DODAB-AuNPs. DODAB/DOPE (1:1)-AuNPs will be a new alternative as a gene vector for biomedical applications.

    5. Ultrasmall Cu2-xS Nanodots for Highly Efficient Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy

      Juan Mou, Pei Li, Chengbo Liu, Huixiong Xu, Liang Song, Jin Wang, Kun Zhang, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi and Hangrong Chen

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403249

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      Monodisperse, ultrasmall Cu2−xS nanodots (u-Cu2−xS NDs) with strong NIR absorption and conversion are constructed for deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal therapy. The contrast imaging capacity and photothermal therapy performance are comfirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Systematic in vivo toxicity evaluations up to 3 months and metabolic pathway investigation demonstrate the excellent hemo/histocompatibility and high biosafety of u-Cu2−xS NDs for clinical translation.

    6. Stabilizing MoS2 Nanosheets through SnO2 Nanocrystal Decoration for High-Performance Gas Sensing in Air

      Shumao Cui, Zhenhai Wen, Xingkang Huang, Jingbo Chang and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402923

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      The stability of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets in air can be significantly enhanced by SnO2 nanocrystal decoration. The SnO2 nanocrystals act as strong p-type dopants for molybdenum disulfide, leading to a change of the molybdenum disulfide nanosheets from n-type to p-type behavior. The nanohybrids exhibit high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and repeatability to NO2 under a practical dry air environment.

  57. Communications

    1. Few-Layer MoS2–Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate

      Hee Sung Lee, Jae Min Shin, Pyo Jin Jeon, Junyeong Lee, Jin Sung Kim, Hyun Chul Hwang, Eunyoung Park, Woojin Yoon, Sang-Yong Ju and Seongil Im

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402950

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      Few-layer MoS2–organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel.

    2. High-Performance Graphene-Based Hole Conductor-Free Perovskite Solar Cells: Schottky Junction Enhanced Hole Extraction and Electron Blocking

      Keyou Yan, Zhanhua Wei, Jinkai Li, Haining Chen, Ya Yi, Xiaoli Zheng, Xia Long, Zilong Wang, Jiannong Wang, Jianbin Xu and Shihe Yang

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403348

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      Multilayered graphene and single-layered graphene are assembled onto perovskite films in the form of Schottky junctions and ohmic contacts, respectively, for the production of a graphene-based hole transporting material-free perovskite solar cell. Multilayered graphene extracts charge selectively and efficiently, delivering a higher efficiency of 11.5% than single-layered graphene (6.7%).

    3. A Stable, Reusable, and Highly Active Photosynthetic Bioreactor by Bio-Interfacing an Individual Cyanobacterium with a Mesoporous Bilayer Nanoshell

      Nan Jiang, Xiao-Yu Yang, Zhao Deng, Li Wang, Zhi-Yi Hu, Ge Tian, Guo-Liang Ying, Ling Shen, Ming-Xi Zhang and Bao-Lian Su

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402381

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      An individual cyanobacterium cell is interfaced with a nanoporous biohybrid layer within a mesoporous silica layer. The bio-interface acts as an egg membrane for cell protection and growth of outer shell. The resulting bilayer shell provides efficient functions to create a single cell photosynthetic bioreactor with high stability, reusability, and activity.

  58. Full Papers

    1. Concentration-Controlled Reversible Phase Transitions in Self-Assembled Monolayers on HOPG Surfaces

      Xueli Shen, Xiaodong Wei, Pengli Tan, Yingguo Yu, Biao Yang, Zhongmiao Gong, Haiming Zhang, Haiping Lin, Youyong Li, Qing Li, Yongshu Xie and Lifeng Chi

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402645

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      Rational control of molecular ordering is essential for supramolecular chemistry and nanoscience. Here, three distinct phases are observed in the liquid–solid interface and they can be transformed by modifying the solute concentration. In situ diluting and concentrating experiments show that the observed phase transitions are thermodynamically driven, and of high controllability and reversibility.

  59. Communications

    1. Alpha-Synuclein Amyloid Oligomers Act as Multivalent Nanoparticles to Cause Hemifusion in Negatively Charged Vesicles

      Anja N. D. Stefanovic, Mireille M. A. E. Claessens, Christian Blum and Vinod Subramaniam

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402674

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      Multivalent membrane binding sites on the α-synuclein oligomer result in clustering of vesicles and hemifusion of negatively charged model membranes. These multivalent, biological nanoparticles are reminiscent of inorganic nanoparticles in their interactions with membranes. Alpha-synuclein oligomers induce lipid exchange efficiently, with fewer than 10 oligomers/vesicle required to complete hemifusion. No full fusion or vesicle content mixing is observed.

  60. Full Papers

    1. Plasmonic Ag@Oxide Nanoprisms for Enhanced Performance of Organic Solar Cells

      Peng Du, Pengtao Jing, Di Li, Yinghui Cao, Zhenyu Liu and Zaicheng Sun

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402757

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      Ag@oxide core/shell nanoprisms are sucessfully embedded into the active layer of organic solar cells. The plasmonic effect of Ag nanoprisms enhances the photogenerated excitons of the active layer. The oxide shell effectively depresses the recombination of photo­generated electrons and holes. An improved performance is obtained for the solar cell device.