Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 112
  1. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Centering Single Cells in Microgels via Delayed Crosslinking Supports Long-Term 3D Culture by Preventing Cell Escape

      Tom Kamperman, Sieger Henke, Claas Willem Visser, Marcel Karperien and Jeroen Leijten

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603711

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      Single-cell-laden microgels support physiological 3D culture conditions while enabling straightforward handling and high-resolution readouts of individual cells. However, state-of-the-art encapsulation strategies suffer from cell escape due to off-center cell encapsulation. Here, the first microfluidic approach that enables long-term 3D single cell culture by centering cells in microgels in a facile, modular, and widely applicable manner is presented.

  2. Communications

    1. DNA-Origami-Based Assembly of Anisotropic Plasmonic Gold Nanostructures

      Bing Liu, Chunyuan Song, Dan Zhu, Xu Wang, Mengzhen Zhao, Yanjun Yang, Yinan Zhang, Shao Su, Jiye Shi, Jie Chao, Huajie Liu, Yun Zhao, Chunhai Fan and Lianhui Wang

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603991

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      A novel strategy is developed to anisotropically functionalize gold nanorods (AuNRs) by using a DNA-origami-based precise machine, which transfers essential DNA sequence configurations to the surface of the AuNRs through an intentionally designed toehold-initiated displacement reaction. Different AuNRs products are examined via the hybridization of DNA-AuNPs displaying distinct elements of regiospecificity, generating discrete plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced Raman resonance.

    2. Layered Rare-Earth Hydroxide/Polyacrylamide Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Highly Tunable Photoluminescence

      Lianying Wu, Guangming Chen and Zhibo Li

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604070

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      Highly tunable photoluminescence (PL) nanocomposite hydrogels of layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH)/polyacrylamide are reported, prepared via a convenient and green in situ polymerization process. The nanocomposite hydrogels reveal multicolored PL phenomenon (green, yellow, orange, reddish-orange to bluish violet), long luminescence lifetime, and relatively high quantum efficiency, which are highly tunable by LRH constituent or concentration, and excitation wavelength.

    3. Cobalt Phosphide Double-Shelled Nanocages: Broadband Light-Harvesting Nanostructures for Efficient Photothermal Therapy and Self-Powered Photoelectrochemical Biosensing

      Jingqi Tian, Houjuan Zhu, Jie Chen, Xinting Zheng, Hongwei Duan, Kanyi Pu and Peng Chen

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700798

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      Cobalt phosphide double-shelled nanocages that can uniformly absorb light covering the full solar spectrum are synthesized and used for photothermal therapy as well as self-powered photoelectrochemical sensing.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Analytical-Based Methodologies for Examining the In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination (ADME) of Silver Nanoparticles

      Sesha L. A. Paluri, John D. Ryan, Nhi H. Lam, Dhriti Nepal and Ioana E. Sizemore

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603093

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      The nanokinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in cells are examined via a suite of adapted analytical-based methodologies: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for absorption, Cytoviva/Raman hyperspectral imaging for distribution, cloud point extraction(CPE)–tangential flow filtration (TFF) for the isolation of AgNPs and their Ag+ metabolites, and ICP-OES/CPE for the quantification of their ellimination.

    2. Biomass Derived N-Doped Porous Carbon Supported Single Fe Atoms as Superior Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction

      Zhengping Zhang, Xinjin Gao, Meiling Dou, Jing Ji and Feng Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604290

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      Single Fe atom electrocatalyst, derived from biomass resource of porphyra as the biocarbon source and hemin as the natural iron source, presents atomic dispersion of Fe atoms in the N-doped hierarchically porous carbon. The as-prepared electrocatalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity, durability, and methanol-tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst for oxygen reduction.

  4. Communications

    1. Advanced SERS Sensor Based on Capillarity-Assisted Preconcentration through Gold Nanoparticle-Decorated Porous Nanorods

      Longjian Xue, Wei Xie, Leonie Driessen, Katrin F. Domke, Yong Wang, Sebastian Schlücker, Stanislav N. Gorb and Martin Steinhart

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603947

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      Advanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors composed of arrays of porous block copolymer nanorods functionalized with gold nanoparticles are developed for SERS analysis of analytes contained in small pieces of tissue, liquid drops or thin liquid films. The sensor is based on capillarity-assisted preconcentration allowing fast, sensitive SERS detection.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Counteracting Blueshift Optical Absorption and Maximizing Photon Harvest in Carbon Nitride Nanosheets Photocatalyst

      Mohammad Rahman, Kenneth Davey and Shi-Zhang Qiao

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700376

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      A melem-derived narrow bandgap carbon nitride nanosheet photocatalyst with a high hydrogen evolution rate is reported. The synthesis of narrow bandgap CNNS with high quantum efficiency is of importance. A record-low bandgap of 2.45 eV comes with improved optical absorption and shows excellent charge transport dynamics. A high hydrogen evolution rate of 863 µmol h−1 with apparent quantum efficiency of 16% at 420 nm is demonstrated.

  6. Communications

    1. Self-Sealed Bionic Long Microchannels with Thin Wall and Designable Nanoholes Prepared by Line-Contact Capillary-Force Assembly

      Zhao-Xin Lao, Yan-Lei Hu, Deng Pan, Ren-Yan Wang, Chen-Chu Zhang, Jin-Cheng Ni, Bing Xu, Jia-Wen Li, Dong Wu and Jia-Ru Chu

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603957

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      A strategy to fabricate microchannels with capillary-force-driven self-assembly has been introduced. Microchannels with controllable nanoholes and almost arbitrary patterns can be prepared without any bonding or multistep processes. As-prepared microchannels, with wall thicknesses less than 1 µm, widths less than 10 µm, lengths more than 1 mm, are comparable with human capillaries.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Coordinated Membrane Fusion of Proteinosomes by Contact-Induced Hydrogel Self-Healing

      Ping Wen, Xiaoman Liu, Lei Wang, Mei Li, Yudong Huang, Xin Huang and Stephen Mann

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700467

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      Proteinosome membrane fusion: Controlled membrane fusion of proteinosome-based protocells is achieved via a hydrogel-mediated process involving dynamic covalent binding, self-healing, and membrane reconfiguration at the contact interface, with a concomitant transportation and redistribution of entrapped payloads such as DNA and dextran.

    2. Reprogrammable Assembly of Molecular Motor on Solid Surfaces via Dynamic Bonds

      Li Yu, Jian Sun, Qian Wang, Yan Guan, Le Zhou, Jingxuan Zhang, Lanying Zhang and Huai Yang

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700480

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      Dynamic disulfide bonds are introduced into the chemical structure of molecular motors and the surface of solid substrates so that molecular motors can reversibly and selectively assemble on solid surfaces regardless of their chemical compositions and microstructures, while maintaining photochemistry isomerization behavior. Due to the reversible photoinduced exchange reaction, molecular motors can be reformatted and reprogramed repeatedly on solid surfaces.

  8. Communications

    1. Selective Nucleation of GaAs on Si Nanofacets

      Ivan Prieto, Roksolana Kozak, Oliver Skibitzki, Marta D. Rossell, Thomas Schroeder, Rolf Erni and Hans von Känel

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603122

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      GaAs on Si nanoheteroepitaxy based on the novel Si nanotip wafer is presented. These structures present a curved and smooth morphology here modeled as composed of {0nm}- and {nnm}-facets. The early stage of the growth reveals a preferential nucleation on the {0nm} micro and nanofacets, which may have an impact on future electronic and photonic devices.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Lipid Flip-Flop and Pore Nucleation on Zwitterionic Bilayers are Asymmetric under Ionic Imbalance

      Jiaqi Lin, Roozbeh Dargazany and Alfredo Alexander-Katz

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603708

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      Ionic imbalance across cell membranes affects the energy barrier of lipid flip-flop, imposing a directionality on the translocation of lipids between bilayer leaflets. The asymmetry indicates that lipid accumulates at the cytoplasmic side of cell membrane under physiological conditions. The linear reduction of the energy barrier of lipid flip-flop explains the observed increase in conductance of bilayers under external voltage.

    2. Secondary Sensitivity Control of Silver-Nanowire-Based Resistive-Type Strain Sensors by Geometric Modulation of the Elastomer Substrate

      Yunjeong Heo, Youngkyu Hwang, Hoon Sun Jung, Sung-Hoon Choa and Heung Cho Ko

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700070

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      The introduction of diverse relief structures in elastomer layers induces nonuniform strain distributions and thereby different crack densities within the silver nanowire (AgNW) sensory layer upon stretching. A change in the electrical pathways in AgNWs after cracking enables the gauge factor to be systematically modulated in the desired strain range without changing the material or coating process in the sensory layer.

    3. Multichannel Porous TiO2 Hollow Nanofibers with Rich Oxygen Vacancies and High Grain Boundary Density Enabling Superior Sodium Storage Performance

      Ying Wu, Yu Jiang, Jinan Shi, Lin Gu and Yan Yu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700129

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      A 1D, multichannel, porous binary-phase anatase-TiO2–rutile-TiO2 composite with oxygen-deficient and high grain-boundary density (a-TiO2−x/r-TiO2−x) has been fabricated via electrospinning and subsequent vacuum treatment. The introduction of numerous oxygen vacancies and the high density of grain boundaries between the anatase- and rutile-phase TiO2 are favorable for enhanced electrochemical performance with excellent long cycling stability and superior rate performance.

  10. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation to Methanol Catalyzed by Zigzag Platinum–Cobalt Nanowires

      Shuxing Bai, Qi Shao, Yonggang Feng, Lingzheng Bu and Xiaoqing Huang

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604311

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      Efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation catalyst: Zigzag Pt–Co nanowires with Pt-rich surface, abundant steps/edges, and high percentages of Pt0 atoms on surface are demonstrated as highly efficient catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol, in which the appropriate carboxylate intermediates are formed in the methanol production.

  11. Full Papers

    1. A Multifunctional Tb-MOF for Highly Discriminative Sensing of Eu3+/Dy3+ and as a Catalyst Support of Ag Nanoparticles

      Guo-Wang Xu, Ya-Pan Wu, Wen-Wen Dong, Jun Zhao, Xue-Qian Wu, Dong-Sheng Li and Qichun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602996

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      A new porous, anionic Tb-metal–organic-framework, China Three Gorges University (CTGU-1), can serve as a turn-on sensor for detection of Eu3+ and Dy3+, with different detection limits. Additionally, spontaneous in situ reduction and immobilization of ion-exchanged Ag(I) to Ag nanoparticles in the anionic framework result in an Ag@CTGU-1 composite, which can remarkably catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    2. Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanoribbon Fibers for High-Volumetric Energy Density All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Lizhi Sheng, Tong Wei, Yuan Liang, Lili Jiang, Liangti Qu and Zhuangjun Fan

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700371

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      Vertically oriented graphene nanoribbon fiber (VGR) with highly exposed surface area displays high length/volumetric specific capacitances, excellent rate capability, and outstanding cycling performance (≈96% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles). Moreover, the assembled VGR//VGR/MnO2 all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits high volumetric energy density of 5.7 mWh cm−3 and excellent cycling stability.

    3. Novel Structure for High Performance UV Photodetector Based on BiOCl/ZnO Hybrid Film

      Feng Teng, Weixin Ouyang, Yanmei Li, Lingxia Zheng and Xiaosheng Fang

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700156

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      A novel structure ultraviolet photodetector based on ZnO film has been prepared by incorporating a BiOCl nanostructure into the film, which has high responsivity and short decay time. The BiOCl nanostructure not only provides electrons to enhance the photocurrent, but also forms barriers to accelerate the attenuation process of current after the UV light is turned off.

    4. Efficiency of Cathodoluminescence Emission by Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Nanodiamonds

      Huiliang Zhang, David R. Glenn, Richard Schalek, Jeff W. Lichtman and Ronald L. Walsworth

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700543

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      The cathodoluminescence (CL) emission properties of nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy centers are investigated. Coregistered images of nanodiamonds obtained by secondary electron imaging, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and cathodoluminescence, enable precise characterization of CL intensity as a function of nanodiamond size and doping concentration, for applications in correlative microscopy.

    5. Hierarchical TiO2/SnO2 Hollow Spheres Coated with Graphitized Carbon for High-Performance Electrochemical Li-Ion Storage

      Huiqi Xie, Min Chen and Limin Wu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604283

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      Hierarchical TiO2/SnO2 hollow spheres coated with graphitized carbon (HTSO/GC-HSs) are synthesized based on a self-templated method. The as-prepared mesoporous HTSO/GC-HSs present an approximate yolk-double–shell structure, with high specific area and small nanocrystals of TiO2 and SnO2, and thus exhibit superior electrochemical reactivity and stability when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Reviews

    1. Resistive Switching Performance Improvement via Modulating Nanoscale Conductive Filament, Involving the Application of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials

      Yu Li, Shibing Long, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv and Ming Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604306

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      Ionic motion and reaction in response to electrical stimuli may lead to resistive switching effect in metal-insulator-metal nanometer devices. The various achievements of RS device performance improvement are discussed with a focus on the utilization of two-dimensional materials that show the potential for the high performance memory applications.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Stability and Tunable Photoluminescence in Perovskite CsPbX3/ZnS Quantum Dot Heterostructure

      Weiwei Chen, Jiongyue Hao, Wei Hu, Zhigang Zang, Xiaosheng Tang, Liang Fang, Tianchao Niu and Miao Zhou

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604085

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      A novel architecture made of perovskite CsPbBr3−xIx/ZnS quantum dot heterodimers is reported by material synthesis, characterization, optical measurements, and systematic first-principles calculations. It is found that CsPbBr3−xIx/ZnS heterostructures exhibit high crystal quality, enhanced photostability, and tunable electronic properties, which may provide an exciting playground for future understanding and design of perovskite based nanostructures for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  14. Reviews

    1. Recent Advances in Atomic Metal Doping of Carbon-based Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion

      Bita Bayatsarmadi, Yao Zheng, Anthony Vasileff and Shi-Zhang Qiao

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700191

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      Individual and isolated metal atoms anchored to supports exhibit high activity and superior selectivity towards a range of applications. An overview of recent advances in synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of this range of catalysts with insights into the electronic structure and spatial arrangement of individual atoms as well as their interaction with the supports is provided.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Amino-Acid-Induced Preferential Orientation of Perovskite Crystals for Enhancing Interfacial Charge Transfer and Photovoltaic Performance

      Yen-Chen Shih, Yu-Bing Lan, Chia-Shuo Li, Hsiao-Chi Hsieh, Leeyih Wang, Chih-I Wu and King-Fu Lin

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604305

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      The (110) plane of CH3NH3PbI3 crystallites adjacent to the amino-acid-modified TiO2 surface tends to align in the direciton perpendicular to the TiO2 surface. Such crystalline orientation significantly enhances charge transfer efficiency at the TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 interface and greatly improves the photovotaic performance of perovskite solar cells.

  16. Communications

    1. Trap-State Suppression and Improved Charge Transport in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Synergistic Mixed-Ligand Treatments

      Santanu Pradhan, Alexandros Stavrinadis, Shuchi Gupta, Yu Bi, Francesco Di Stasio and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700598

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      A mixed-ligand treatment for the fabrication of lead sulphide colloidal quantum dot solar cells is demonstrated. The mixed-ligand treatment facilitates the advantages of both organic (3-mercaptopropionic acid) and inorganic (zinc iodide) ligands to improve charge transport and trap passivation leading to a power conversion efficiency of 9.92% at a VOC of 0.66 V.

    2. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy

      Jianqi Zhang, Yifan Zhao, Jin Fang, Liu Yuan, Benzheng Xia, Guodong Wang, Zaiyu Wang, Yajie Zhang, Wei Ma, Wei Yan, Wenming Su and Zhixiang Wei

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700388

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      To achieve commercialization of organic solar cells, high thickness tolerability must be obtained and chlorinated solvents must be replaced. This study demonstrates an active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 10.78% using o-xylene as processing solvent. Large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate-based transparent flexible substrate.

    3. Near-Infrared Photodetectors Based on MoTe2/Graphene Heterostructure with High Responsivity and Flexibility

      Wenzhi Yu, Shaojuan Li, Yupeng Zhang, Weiliang Ma, Tian Sun, Jian Yuan, Kai Fu and Qiaoliang Bao

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700268

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      A flexible MoTe2/graphene heterostructure photodetector is demonstrated for efficient near-infrared (NIR) light detection. The devices achieve a high responsivity of ≈60 A W−1 at 1064 nm. Moreover, the flexible MoTe2/graphene NIR photodetector retains a good photodetection ability after thousands of times bending test, which provides a promising platform for highly efficient, flexible, and low cost broadband NIR photodetectors.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Nanospheres Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Zhifeng Ye, Jia Yang, Bo Li, Lei Shi, Hengxing Ji, Li Song and Hangxun Xu

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700111

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      Amorphous molybdenum sulfide/carbon nanotubes (MoSx/CNTs) hybrid nanospheres are synthesized using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method as highly efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Electrochemical measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveal that the CNT network not only promotes the charge transfer in HER process but also enhances the stability of active sites in amorphous MoSx.

    2. Graphene Decorated with Uniform Ultrathin (CoP)x–(FeP)1–x Nanorods: A Robust Non-Noble-Metal Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution

      Baocang Liu, Lili Huo, Zhiqing Gao, Guolei Zhi, Geng Zhang and Jun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700092

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      Uniform ultrathin (CoP)x–(FeP)1x nanorods are successfully decorated on the surface of 2D graphene nanosheets. The as-prepared (CoP)x–(FeP)1−x–NRs/G hybrids show a large exposed surface, controllable mesoporous texture, and small mass transport resistance. They can be used as an excellent electrocatalyst for boosting hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis.

    3. Utilizing Iron's Attractive Chemical and Magnetic Properties in Microrocket Design, Extended Motion, and Unique Performance

      Emil Karshalev, Chuanrui Chen, Gregor Marolt, Aída Martín, Isaac Campos, Roxanne Castillo, Tianlong Wu and Joseph Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700035

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      “All-in-one” iron-based microrockets with efficient propulsion in acid, extended lifetime, facile magnetic guidance, heavy-cargo pickup and release, and self-assembly capability are demonstrated. Leveraging the intrinsic biocompatibility of iron with its multipurpose role in the microrocket design represents an important step toward wider in vivo use of micromotors.

  18. Reviews

    1. Emerging Prototype Sodium-Ion Full Cells with Nanostructured Electrode Materials

      Wenhao Ren, Zixuan Zhu, Qinyou An and Liqiang Mai

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604181

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      Sodium-ion full cells—a bridge between commercial batteries and electrode materials—are comprehensively summarized. Since the electrochemical performance of the full cell is tightly related with the cathode/anode, including structure, composition, and mutual matching relationship, not only is the advance of various prototype full cells reviewed herein, but also the strategies used for enhancing their electrochemical behaviors with regard to electrode modification.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Flexible Chirality in Self-Assembled N-Annulated Perylenedicarboxamides

      Julia Buendía, Joaquín Calbo, Enrique Ortí and Luis Sánchez

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603880

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      The strong tendency to bundle experienced by the supramolecular polymers of N-annulated perylenedicarboxamides 1–3 generates a highly anisotropic environment. Stirring the solution increases the circular dichroic response thus allowing the reported compound for the spectroscopic visualization of torsional flows generated in a vortex. The consequence of the aggregation-induced atropisomerism and the nondirectional H-bonded amides is the feasible intrastack stereomutation of the helical aggregates.

  20. Communications

    1. A Free-Standing and Self-Healable 2D Supramolecular Material Based on Hydrogen Bonding: A Nanowire Array with Sub-2-nm Resolution

      Ming Li, Mengyao Song, Guitai Wu, Zhenyu Tang, Yunfeng Sun, Yunbin He, Jinhua Li, Lei Li, Haoshuang Gu, Xiong Liu, Chuang Ma, Zefei Peng, Zhaoquan Ai and David J. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604077

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      Hydrogen (H)-bonding can be utilized to construct a free-standing 2D material. The H-bonding allows splitting of the material into ribbons, which can re-assemble (self-heal), similar to a zipper. Such a strategy can easily create 2D, organic, conductive nanowire arrays with sub-2-nm resolution. This material may have applications in stretchable electronics and cross-bar arrays.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Growth of Silver Nanowires from Controlled Silver Chloride Seeds and Their Application for Fluorescence Enhancement Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

      Sunwoong Bae, Hyeji Han, Jin Gook Bae, Eun Yeol Lee, Sang Hyuk Im, Do Hyun Kim and Tae Seok Seo

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603392

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      Tens of nanometer scale AgCl seeds are uniformly synthesized in a microdroplet by controlling the reagent concentration, which are used for seed-mediated growth of Ag nanowires (NWs). The transversely- and longitudinally-tuned Ag-NWs are spectroscopically monitored, and their localized surface plasmon resonance properties are utilized for fluorescence enhancement, where the enhancement factor and fluorescence lifetime are measured.

    2. Facile Access to Twisted Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Fluorogens Bearing Highly Pretwisted Donor–Acceptor Systems Together with Readily Fine-Tuned Charge-Transfer Characters

      Yanju Luo, Yan Wang, Shiqi Chen, Ning Wang, Yige Qi, Xiaogen Zhang, Minghui Yang, Yan Huang, Ming Li, Junsheng Yu, Daibing Luo and Zhiyun Lu

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604113

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      Using 4-aryloxy-1,8-naphthalimide as a molecular framework, it is demonstrated for the first time that a C[BOND]O bond could serve as the central bond to construct twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) compounds. More importantly, TICT fluorophores based on this strategy could display both highly-pretwisted ground-state geometries and readily-fine-tuned TICT strength, leading to adjustable aggregation-induced emission activity and good electroluminescence performance.

  22. Communications

    1. Templated Sub-100-nm-Thick Double-Gyroid Structure from Si-Containing Block Copolymer Thin Films

      Karim Aissou, Muhammad Mumtaz, Giuseppe Portale, Cyril Brochon, Eric Cloutet, Guillaume Fleury and Georges Hadziioannou

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603777

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      The directed self-assembly of diblock copolymer chains (poly(1,1-dimethyl silacyclobutane)-block-polystyrene, PDMSB-b-PS) into a thin-film double-gyroid structure is described. Optimization of the solvent-vapor annealing process demonstrated very large grains (over 10 µm²) with specific orientation and direction of the characteristic (211) plane, by templating sub-100-nm-thick PDMSB-b-PS films.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Gate-Controlled BP–WSe2 Heterojunction Diode for Logic Rectifiers and Logic Optoelectronics

      Dong Li, Biao Wang, Mingyuan Chen, Jun Zhou and Zengxing Zhang

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603726

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      Gate-tunable ambipolar charge carriers in black phosphorus (BP) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) enable a flexible, dynamic, and wide modulation on a BP–WSe2 heterojunction as isotype (p–p and n–n) and anisotype (p–n) diodes, which exhibit disparate rectifying and photovoltaic properties. It is demonstrated that a BP–WSe2 heterojunction diode can be developed for high-performance logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic devices.

    2. Growth of InN Nanowires with Uniform Diameter on Si(111) Substrates: Competition Between Migration and Desorption of In Atoms

      Fangliang Gao, Lei Wen, Zhenzhu Xu, Jinglei Han, Yuefeng Yu, Shuguang Zhang and Guoqiang Li

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603775

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      InN nanowires with a uniform aspect ratio and optimal diameter have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By carefully controlling the In atom equilibrium between the initial In droplets and the direct In flux results in straight nanowires without any tapering. A revised quasi-equilibrium model is also proposed to better understand the growth kinetics during InN nanowires growth.

    3. Color-Convertible, Unimolecular, Micelle-Based, Activatable Fluorescent Probe for Tumor-Specific Detection and Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

      Yu Huang, Feng Qiu, Dong Chen, Lingyue Shen, Shuting Xu, Dongbo Guo, Yue Su, Deyue Yan and Xinyuan Zhu

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604062

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      Color-convertible, unimolecular, micelle-based, activatable fluorescent probe for tumor-specific detection and imaging in vitro and in vivo. The probe is blue-fluorescent in normal tissue but becomes highly green-emissive when accumulated to the tumor region in vivo.

    4. Fabrication of Micropatterned Self-Oscillating Polymer Brush for Direction Control of Chemical Waves

      Kenta Homma, Tsukuru Masuda, Aya Mizutani Akimoto, Kenichi Nagase, Kazuyoshi Itoga, Teruo Okano and Ryo Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700041

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      Pentagonal patterned polymer brushes are fabricated to control spatiotemporal function on the surface. The polymer brush is prepared by surface modification of a self-oscillating polymer that exhibits autonomous conformation changes. The microlevel precision in patterning of the polymer brush via maskless photolithography allows the chemical waves to travel in one direction along the pentagonal array of this self-oscillating surface.

    5. Polyphenol-Inspired Facile Construction of Smart Assemblies for ATP- and pH-Responsive Tumor MR/Optical Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

      Xiao-Rong Song, Shi-Hua Li, Jiayong Dai, Liang Song, Guoming Huang, Ruhui Lin, Juan Li, Gang Liu and Huang-Hao Yang

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603997

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      Smart magnetic assemblies featured with adenosine-triphosphate-responsive and pH-facilitated disassembly capabilities are facilely constructed based on polyphenol-inspired self-assembly of nanoparticles. Endowed with remarkable change of the transverse relaxivity and potent “turn-on” of fluorescence after the disassembly, the assemblies are employed for effective tumor magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy.

    6. Control of Polymorph Selection in Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Crystallization by Poly(Aspartic Acid): Two Different Mechanisms

      Zhaoyong Zou, Luca Bertinetti, Yael Politi, Peter Fratzl and Wouter J. E. M. Habraken

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603100

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      Poly(aspartic acid) at low and high concentration shows opposite effects on polymorph selection from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). At low concentrations, ACC transforms into calcite and vaterite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism. At high concentrations, ACC nanospheres transform into vaterite via a pseudomorphic transformation mechanism, where vaterite nucleates on ACC surface and propagates by consuming the bulk ACC.

    7. Characterizing Physical Properties of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Liquid Phase Using Brownian Relaxation

      Kai Wu, Karl Schliep, Xiaowei Zhang, Jinming Liu, Bin Ma and Jian-Ping Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604135

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      A search-coil-based method is successfully applied to characterize intrinsic properties in superparamagnetic nanoparticles such as saturation magnetization, average hydrodynamic size, dominating relaxation process, and to distinguish between single- and multicore beads. This system and method can be used as building blocks in nanoparticle characterization devices.

    8. Multifunctional Gadolinium-Doped Mesoporous TiO2 Nanobeads: Photoluminescence, Enhanced Spin Relaxation, and Reactive Oxygen Species Photogeneration, Beneficial for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

      Roghayeh Imani, Ralf Dillert, Detlef W. Bahnemann, Meysam Pazoki, Tomaž Apih, Veno Kononenko, Neža Repar, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Gerrit Boschloo, Damjana Drobne, Tomas Edvinsson and Aleš Iglič

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700349

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      Multifunctional TiO2@xGd nanobeads (NBs) show perfect biocompatibility in the absence of light and enhanced reactive oxygen species generation under irradiation, which provides efficient cancer-cell destruction. Gadolinium doping adds the benefit of optical imaging and significantly improves magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times to the NBs, beneficial for cancer diagnosis.

    9. Synthesis of Olive-Like Nitrogen–Doped Carbon with Embedded Ge Nanoparticles for Ultrahigh Stable Lithium Battery Anodes

      Xiaomei Ma, Yongning Zhou, Min Chen and Limin Wu

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700403

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      Olive-like nitrogen-doped carbon with embedded Ge nanoparticles is synthesized and characterized. The novel structure endows high charge capacity and stable cycle performance for the anode of a lithium ion battery.

  24. Communications

    1. Surface Engineering of Spherical Metal Nanoparticles with Polymers toward Selective Asymmetric Synthesis of Nanobowls and Janus-Type Dimers

      Ben Liu, Srinivas Thanneeru, Aaron Lopes, Lei Jin, Meghan McCabe and Jie He

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700091

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      Asymmetric metal nanobowls and Janus-type metal–metal dimers via a general synthetic method utilizing surface patterning of spherical metal nanoparticles with amphiphilic polymer tethers is reported. Proof-of-concept experiments on Janus-type patched Ag/ or Au/polymer NPs are shown, including i) synthesis of Au nanobowls via a selective galvanic replacement reaction and ii) preparation of Au–Pd heterodimers and Au–Au homodimers by a seed-mediated growth method.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays Using Single-FRET-Pair Distance-Tuning

      Xue Qiu, Jiajia Guo, Zongwen Jin, Igor L. Medintz and Niko Hildebrandt

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700332

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      Time-gated photoluminescence detection of a single terbium-donor-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair to selectively quantify low nanomolar concentrations of multiple DNAs or microRNAs from a single sample with a single measurement is shown. Both molecular (Tb-to-dye) and nanoparticle (Tb-to-quantum-dot) FRET biosensing are demonstrated.

    2. 2D Film of Carbon Nanofibers Elastically Astricted MnO Microparticles: A Flexible Binder-Free Anode for Highly Reversible Lithium Ion Storage

      Ting Wang, Hangang Li, Shaojun Shi, Ting Liu, Gang Yang, Yimin Chao and Fan Yin

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604182

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      A carbon nanofiber/MnO flexible electrode for lithium-ion batteries is designed and synthesized. The carbon nanofibers play the roles of conductive channel and elastically astricting MnO particles during lithiation/delithiation.

  26. Communications

    1. Multifunctional Hybrid Nanoparticles for Traceable Drug Delivery and Intracellular Microenvironment-Controlled Multistage Drug-Release in Neurons

      Bingyang Shi, Xin Du, Jian Chen, Libing Fu, Marco Morsch, Albert Lee, Yong Liu, Nicholas Cole and Roger Chung

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603966

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      Gold-functionalized dendrimer-like silica-nanogel hybrids are successfully designed and fabricated as light-traceable and intracellular microenvironment-responsive nanocarriers for smart sulfydryl-containing drug delivery. The unique structure, large surface area, intracellular microenvironment-responsive autofluorescence, and GSH-triggered drug-release render such nanocarriers as attractive for the delivery of sulfydryl-containing drugs.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Phosphorus Enhanced Intermolecular Interactions of SnO2 and Graphene as an Ultrastable Lithium Battery Anode

      Lei Zhang, Kangning Zhao, Ruohan Yu, Mengyu Yan, Wangwang Xu, Yifan Dong, Wenhao Ren, Xu Xu, Chunjuan Tang and Liqiang Mai

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603973

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      A facile one-pot solvothermal method is developed to produce phosphorus covalently crosslinking SnO2 and graphene. In this structure, a buffer layer of phosphorus covalently “bridges” both graphene and tin oxide nanocrystals through P[BOND]C and Sn[BOND]O[BOND]P bonding, respectively. The electrode is able to accommodate the huge volume variation of tin oxide, remain excellent structure integrity, and manifests long-life, high-rate cycling.

    2. Quantified Binding Scale of Competing Ligands at the Surface of Gold Nanoparticles: The Role of Entropy and Intermolecular Forces

      Claire Goldmann, François Ribot, Leonardo F. Peiretti, Paola Quaino, Frederik Tielens, Clément Sanchez, Corinne Chanéac and David Portehault

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604028

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      Quantitative assessment by NMR of the surface composition of gold nanoparticles capped by competing thiol ligands unravels the relationship between the compositions of the ligand shell and the reaction medium. The combination with DFT calculations unveils the role of intermolecular forces and entropy on the stability of mixed ligand shells, toward further control of multifunctionality in hybrid nanoparticles.

    3. Integrated Design of MnO2@Carbon Hollow Nanoboxes to Synergistically Encapsulate Polysulfides for Empowering Lithium Sulfur Batteries

      Sarish Rehman, Tianyu Tang, Zeeshan Ali, Xiaoxiao Huang and Yanglong Hou

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700087

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      A rational nanostructure of hollow carbon nanoboxes filled with birnessite-type manganese oxide nanosheets (MnO2@HCB) has been fabricated to overcome the obstacles of low sulfur loading, poor conductivity, and redox shuttle of lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs) via effective physical confinement and chemical interaction to enhance the electrochemical performance of LSBs.

  28. Communications

    1. GaP/GaNP Heterojunctions for Efficient Solar-Driven Water Oxidation

      Alireza Kargar, Supanee Sukrittanon, Chang Zhou, Yun Goo Ro, Xiaoqing Pan, Shadi A. Dayeh, Charles W. Tu and Sungho Jin

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603574

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      An n-GaP/i-GaNP/p +-GaP thin film heterojunction is synthesized for efficient solar-driven water oxidation. The TiO2/Ni-coated n-GaP/i-GaNP/p+-GaP photoanode provides a high performance in 1 m KOH solution with an onset potential of ≈0.4 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), a photocurrent of 7.26 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V versus RHE, and a broad absorption spectrum up to ≈620 nm.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Simulated Sunlight-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy for Melanoma Skin Cancer by Titanium-Dioxide-Nanoparticle–Gold-Nanocluster–Graphene Heterogeneous Nanocomposites

      Yan Cheng, Yun Chang, Yanlin Feng, Ning Liu, Xiujuan Sun, Yuqing Feng, Xi Li and Haiyuan Zhang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603935

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      TiO2-nanoparticle (NP)–Au-nanocluster (NC)–graphene (TAG) nanocomposites are designed for sunlight-triggered photodynamic therapy for melanoma skin cancer. With simulated sunlight radiation, the narrow band gap of Au NCs, the excellent electronic property of graphene, and staggered energy bands between Au NCs, TiO2 NPs, and graphene can efficiently utilize sunlight and prompt electron–hole separation, producing abundant radicals to damage cells and inhibit tumor growth.

  30. Communications

    1. Subcellular-Scale Drug Transport via Ultrasound-Degradable Mesoporous Nanosilicon to Bypass Cancer Drug Resistance

      Bin Kang, Ming-Bo Zheng, Pei Song, Ai-Ping Chen, Ji-Wu Wei, Jing-Juan Xu, Yi Shi and Hong-Yuan Chen

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604228

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      Ultrasound-controlled subcellular drug delivery is achieved with ultrasound-degradable mesoporous nanosilicon as a drug payload platform. This drug delivery strategy significantly amplifies therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo by altering drug distribution within cells and increasing drug accumulation within the nucleus where their targets of action reside.

    2. Flexible Nonvolatile Transistor Memory with Solution-Processed Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

      Richard Hahnkee Kim, Jinseong Lee, Kang Lib Kim, Suk Man Cho, Dong Ha Kim and Cheolmin Park

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603971

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      Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)/polymer composite films are employed to a flexible top-gate floating-gate organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory as all-in-one floating/tunneling layers. Charge-trapping and detrapping properties of the composite films as a function of TMD nanosheets are systematically examined. Flexible memory properties are rarely altered after bending events over 500 times at a bending radius of 4.0 mm.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Insights into the Influence of Work Functions of Cathodes on Efficiencies of Perovskite Solar Cells

      Shizhong Yue, Shudi Lu, Kuankuan Ren, Kong Liu, Muhammad Azam, Dawei Cao, Zhijie Wang, Yong Lei, Shengchun Qu and Zhanguo Wang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700007

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      A systematic investigation on the impact of the work function of the cathode on the performance of inverted structure perovskite solar cells is provided. Lowering the work function of the cathode largely improves performance, including promoting the separation and conduction of charge carriers and even increasing the generation rate of excitons.

    2. A Smart Responsive Dual Aptamers-Targeted Bubble-Generating Nanosystem for Cancer Triplex Therapy and Ultrasound Imaging

      Feifei Zhao, Jie Zhou, Xiangjie Su, Yuhui Wang, Xiaosa Yan, Shaona Jia and Bin Du

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603990

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      A multifunctional nanosystem as a theranostic agent in chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, biotherapy, and ultrasound imaging is achieved. The aptamers S2.2 and AS1411 are used in dual targeting to accurately deliver aptamers-targeted docetaxel (DTX) to tumor cells. The generated CO2 bubbles under 808 nm laser irradiation show strong ultrasonic signals for ultrasound imaging and facilitate DTX release.

    3. Rotating-Electric-Field-Induced Carbon-Nanotube-Based Nanomotor in Water: A Molecular Dynamics Study

      Md. Mushfiqur Rahman, Mokter Mahmud Chowdhury and Md. Kawsar Alam

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603978

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      Carbon nanotubes suspended in water can be rotated with the aid of electric-field-induced water dipole orientations. Based on this phenomenon, a novel nanomotor configuration has been developed. The proposed nanomotor is capable of rotating gear-based complex structures as well as molecular scale loads with a precise angle.

    4. Aluminum-Ion-Intercalation Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Capacitance and Highly Enhanced Cycling Stability: Power Supply for Flexible Electrochromic Devices

      Kerui Li, Yuanlong Shao, Shiyi Liu, Qinghong Zhang, Hongzhi Wang, Yaogang Li and Richard B. Kaner

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700380

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      A highly efficient Al-ion intercalation into W18O49 nanowires is demonstrated for electrochemical energy storage. A freestanding composite film with a hierarchically porous structure is prepared by vacuum-filtration of a uniformly mixed dispersion containing W18O49 nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes, which exhibits ultrahigh areal capacitance and highly enhanced cycling stability.

    5. Ultrasensitive Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen and Thrombin Based on Gold-Upconversion Nanoparticle Assembled Pyramids

      Tiantian Hao, Xiaoling Wu, Liguang Xu, Liqiang Liu, Wei Ma, Hua Kuang and Chuanlai Xu

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603944

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      Au-upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) pyramids have been fabricated for the simultaneous detection of prostate-specific antigen and thrombin with satisfactory results. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal has been enhanced, while UCNPs fluorescence has been quenched as the successful assembly of the Au-UCNP pyramid. The nanopyramids can be applied to ultrasensitive, quantitative detection of disease biomarker targets for clinical diagnosis.

    6. Binding S0.6Se0.4 in 1D Carbon Nanofiber with C[BOND]S Bonding for High-Performance Flexible Li–S Batteries and Na–S Batteries

      Yu Yao, Linchao Zeng, Shuhe Hu, Yu Jiang, Beibei Yuan and Yan Yu

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603513

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      A flexible S0.6Se0.4@carbon nanofibers (CNFs) electrode is prepared by coheating S0.6Se0.4 powder with electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber papers. The S0.6Se0.4@CNFs show excellent electrochemical performance for Li–S batteries and room temperature Na–S batteries, which attributes to the chemical bonding between Se and S, the chemical bonding between S0.6Se0.4 and CNFs matrix, and the 3D CNFs network.

    7. Formation of a Surficial Bifunctional Nanolayer on Nb2O5 for Ultrastable Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery

      Jun Young Cheong, Chanhoon Kim, Ji-Won Jung, Ki Ro Yoon, Su-Ho Cho, Doo-Young Youn, Hye-Yeon Jang and Il-Doo Kim

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603610

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      A surficial bifunctional nanolayer is adopted on Nb2O5 microparticles by a simple nitridation process, where it results in higher ionic transport and further prevents the pulverizaton of Nb2O5. Upon decoration of Ag nanoparticles, electric conductivity of Nb2O5 is further improved, resulting in ultralong cycle retention at high current density (3000 mA g−1).

  32. Communications

    1. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy to Compare Natural versus Artificial Antibody–Antigen Interaction

      Congzhou Wang, Rong Hu, Jeremiah J. Morrissey, Evan D. Kharasch and Srikanth Singamaneni

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604255

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      Using atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy, the binding affinity of an artificial antibody to an antigen (hemoglobin) is found to be weaker than that of a natural antibody. The fine difference in the molecular interactions manifests into a significant difference in the bioanalytical parameters of biosensors based on these recognition elements.

    2. Insulin-Responsive Glucagon Delivery for Prevention of Hypoglycemia

      Jicheng Yu, Yuqi Zhang, Wujin Sun, Anna R. Kahkoska, Jinqiang Wang, John B. Buse and Zhen Gu

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603028

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      An insulin-responsive glucagon delivery device based on a microneedle-array patch is developed for prevention of hypoglycemia. Utilizing hyperinsulinemia as a dangerous signal, this “smart glucagon patch” with a novel trigger mechanism can release glucagon to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during diabetes management, which would profoundly improve the health as well as the quality of life of diabetic patients.

    3. A Phase-Separation Route to Synthesize Porous CNTs with Excellent Stability for Na+ Storage

      Zhi Chen, Taihong Wang, Ming Zhang and Guozhong Cao

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604045

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      Porous carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are obtained by removing MoO2 nanoparticles from MoO2@C core@shell nanofibers which are synthesized by phase-segregation via a single-needle electrospinning method. As anodes for sodium-ion batteries, the porous CNT electrode displays excellent rate performance and cycling stability, which exhibites 110 mA h g−1 after 1200 cycles at 5 A g−1.

  33. Reviews

    1. Flexible Sensing Electronics for Wearable/Attachable Health Monitoring

      Xuewen Wang, Zheng Liu and Ting Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602790

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      Flexible sensing electronics play crucial roles in wearable health monitoring systems, which is considered to be a convenient and effective way for disease diagnoses and health assessments. The advances of flexible sensing electronics and related nanomaterials in healthcare are summarized.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Highly Stretchable Superhydrophobic Composite Coating Based on Self-Adaptive Deformation of Hierarchical Structures

      Xin Hu, Changyu Tang, Zhoukun He, Hong Shao, Keqin Xu, Jun Mei and Woon-Ming Lau

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602353

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      A highly stretchable superhydrophobic surface is prepared by a facile spray coating of a carbon black/polybutadiene elastomeric composite on a rubber substrate. The hierarchical structures of the resulted composite coating exhibit a self-adaptive deformation behavior and enable the surface to maintain a superhydrophobic property (water contact angle ≈170° and sliding angle <4°) at a stretching strain of up to 1000%.

  35. Communications

    1. Preparation of Superhydrophilic and Underwater Superoleophobic Nanofiber-Based Meshes from Waste Glass for Multifunctional Oil/Water Separation

      Qinglang Ma, Hongfei Cheng, Yifu Yu, Ying Huang, Qipeng Lu, Shikui Han, Junze Chen, Rong Wang, Anthony G. Fane and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700391

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      Superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic meshes are prepared using waste glass as starting material through a sustainable route. The as-prepared meshes show highly efficient performance in selective oil/water separation. Importantly, the meshes also show excellent resistance against many harsh environments, as well as the multifunctional water remediation capability, making them highly promising toward practical applications.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Biohybrid Microtube Swimmers Driven by Single Captured Bacteria

      Morgan M. Stanton, Byung-Wook Park, Albert Miguel-López, Xing Ma, Metin Sitti and Samuel Sánchez

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603679

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      For a new biohybrid microswimmer design, single swimming E. coli bacteria are captured inside polydopamine modified microtubes. Bacteria flagella drive the microtube through liquid media and demonstrate directional swimming that can be terminated with a chemically activated switch. Swimming behavior is investigated to understand its feasibility for potential future biomedical applications.

  37. Communications

    1. Monolithic and Flexible ZnS/SnO2 Ultraviolet Photodetectors with Lateral Graphene Electrodes

      Cheng Zhang, Yunchao Xie, Heng Deng, Travis Tumlin, Chi Zhang, Jheng-Wun Su, Ping Yu and Jian Lin

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604197

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      Monolithic UV photodetectors, composed of heterogeneous ZnS/SnO2 nanoparticles as sensing materials and in situ grown laser-induced graphene (LIG) as lateral electrodes, are fabricated by a laser direct writing method. The devices show great optoelectronic performance resulting from the intrinsic properties of ZnS/SnO2 nanoparticles and excellent mechanical flexibility caused by the ultrathin nature of LIG and ZnS/SnO2 as well as their robust interfaces.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Graphene–Mesoporous Si Nanocomposite as a Compliant Substrate for Heteroepitaxy

      Abderrahim Rahim Boucherif, Abderraouf Boucherif, Gitanjali Kolhatkar, Andreas Ruediger and Richard Arès

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603269

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      A graphene–porous silicon nanocomposite is proposed for a novel concept of tunable compliant substrate for epitaxy, which extends the range of available lattice constants for epitaxial semiconductor alloys. Remarkable properties are demonstrated experimentally: thermal stability up to 900 °C, lattice tuning of at least 0.9% mismatch, and compliance under stress. A theoretical model is proposed to define the compliant substrate design rules.

    2. Memristive Devices with Highly Repeatable Analog States Boosted by Graphene Quantum Dots

      Changhong Wang, Wei He, Yi Tong, Yishu Zhang, Kejie Huang, Li Song, Shuai Zhong, Rajasekaran Ganeshkumar and Rong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603435

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      By virtue of graphene quantum dots as nano oxygen-reservoirs, repeatable analog resistance states of memristive devices are attained with nearly 85% reduction in variations, indicating highly controllable synaptic weight changes. In addition, switching voltages are reduced by 40% and their distributions are also narrowed by 84%. This work demonstrates controllable artificial synapses, equipping neural networks with accurate and efficient learning capability.

    3. Engineering Bimetallic Ag–Cu Nanoalloys for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Catalysts: A Guideline for Designing Ag-Based Electrocatalysts with Activity Comparable to Pt/C-20%

      Xiaoqiang Wu, Fuyi Chen, Nan Zhang, Adnan Qaseem and Roy L. Johnston

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603876

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      A platform guideline for designing Ag–Cu electrocatalysts is reported. The screened Ag–Cu electrocatalysts exhibit not only high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, but also superior stability. The ORR performance and working mechanism is investigated, and the application in zinc–air batteries is demonstrated, promising great potential for portable electronic devices.

    4. Assembly and Transport of Microscopic Cargos via Reconfigurable Photoactivated Magnetic Microdockers

      Fernando Martinez-Pedrero, Helena Massana-Cid and Pietro Tierno

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603449

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      Anisotropic hematite microdockers attach to microcargos via a light induced chemical reaction, and transport the cargos upon application of time dependent magnetic fields. The transportation of colloidal clusters due to collective rotation of magnetic inclusions and the selective manipulation of the microdockers via proper magnetic fields are investigated. These artificial micromachines can be used in harvest applications in targeted drug delivery and lab on a chip technology.

    5. Bent Polytypic ZnSe and CdSe Nanowires Probed by Photoluminescence

      Yejin Kim, Hyung Soon Im, Kidong Park, Jundong Kim, Jae-Pyoung Ahn, Seung Jo Yoo, Jin-Gyu Kim and Jeunghee Park

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603695

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      Semiconductor nanowires often contain stacking faults owing to the presence of coexisting phases. The authors investigate how stacking faults affect the optical properties of ZnSe and CdSe nanowires by producing polytypic zinc blende–wurtzite structures. Photoluminescence spectra are collected for individual nanowires with various bending strains (0–2%), showing that the polytypic structures greatly decrease the bandgap of the bent nanowires.

  39. Communications

    1. Various and Tunable Transport Properties of WSe2 Transistor Formed by Metal Contacts

      Chunsen Liu, Xiao Yan, Enze Zhang, Xiongfei Song, Qingqing Sun, Shijin Ding, Wenzhong Bao, Faxian Xiu, Peng Zhou and David Wei Zhang

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604319

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      A WSe2 transistor which can be gate-modulated to exhibit three operation modes is built which uses different work function metals to form drain and source: tunneling mode with negative differential resistance, transition mode with second electrons tunneling phenomenon, and diode mode with rectifying characteristics. The results demonstrate that WSe2 can be tuned to exhibit rich electrical properties.

  40. Full Papers

    1. Immobilization of Pt Nanoparticles via Rapid and Reusable Electropolymerization of Dopamine on TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Reversible SERS Substrates and Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensors

      Jingsheng Cai, Jianying Huang, Mingzheng Ge, James Iocozzia, Zhiqun Lin, Ke-Qin Zhang and Yuekun Lai

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604240

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      A green mussel-inspired electropolymerization strategy with a rapid in situ polydopamine-reduced uniform nanoparticle decorating process to construct multifunctional Pt@TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) is described. Experimental results demonstrate the promising application of such multifunctional Pt@TiO2 NTAs for self-cleaning surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for the photochemical detection of tracing organic molecules and nonenzymic photo-electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose.

  41. Communications

    1. White-Emissive Self-Assembled Organic Microcrystals

      Zhi Zhou Li, Feng Liang, Ming Peng Zhuo, Ying Li Shi, Xue Dong Wang and Liang Sheng Liao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604110

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      Self-assembled white-emissive organic microcrystals are achieved by doping the acceptor molecules of 1,2:8,9-dibenzopentacene into the donor molecules of 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene, whose absorbed optical energy transfers to the acceptor through the Förster resonance energy transfer.

    2. Ferromagnetic–Antiferromagnetic Coupling by Distortion of Fe/Mn Oxygen Octahedrons in (BiFeO3)m(La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)n Superlattices

      Jie Xiong, Tianyu Lei, Junwei Chu, Chao Yang, Jiake Wei, Mujin Zhuo, Eun-Mi Choi, Bowan Tao, Wanli Zhang, Yongqiang Wang and Yanrong Li

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700107

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      The ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and BiFeO3 (BFO) in [(LSMO)n/(BFO)n]60/n (n = 1, 2, 5, 10) superlattices on SrTiO3 substrate is investigated. The work indicates that the FM/AFM coupling in the BFO/LSMO interface is an obstacle for enhancing the magnetic properties of BFO.

  42. Full Papers

    1. One-Step In Situ Growth of Iron–Nickel Sulfide Nanosheets on FeNi Alloy Foils: High-Performance and Self-Supported Electrodes for Water Oxidation

      Cheng-Zong Yuan, Zhong-Ti Sun, Yi-Fan Jiang, Zheng-Kun Yang, Nan Jiang, Zhi-Wei Zhao, Umair Yaqub Qazi, Wen-Hua Zhang and An-Wu Xu

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604161

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      Self-supported oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrodes consisting of iron–nickel sulfide nanosheets on FeNi foils are synthesized by a one-step in situ synthetic method, where the FeNi foil works as the sources of Fe, Ni, and the current collectors, simultaneously. The as-made integrated electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity and long term stability toward water oxidation in alkaline conditions and provides an attractive alternate to noble metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the origin of the enhanced OER activity is uncovered using density functional theory calculations in this work.

    2. Microfluidic-Nanofiber Hybrid Array for Screening of Cellular Microenvironments

      Ken-ichiro Kamei, Yasumasa Mashimo, Momoko Yoshioka, Yumie Tokunaga, Christopher Fockenberg, Shiho Terada, Yoshie Koyama, Minako Nakajima, Teiko Shibata-Seki, Li Liu, Toshihiro Akaike, Eiry Kobatake, Siew-Eng How, Motonari Uesugi and Yong Chen

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603104

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      Cellular microenvironment screening: A platform integrated with a microfluidic and nanofiber array is developed to identify the optimal cellular microenvironment for obtaining targeted cell functions. In combination with high-content analysis, an optimum environment for self-renewing human embryonic stem cells is identified and its mechanistic aspects are elucidated.

    3. Aligned Growth of Millimeter-Size Hexagonal Boron Nitride Single-Crystal Domains on Epitaxial Nickel Thin Film

      Junhua Meng, Xingwang Zhang, Ye Wang, Zhigang Yin, Heng Liu, Jing Xia, Haolin Wang, Jingbi You, Peng Jin, Denggui Wang and Xiang-Min Meng

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604179

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      The aligned growth of 0.6 mm single-crystal hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) domains is realized on epitaxial Ni(111)/sapphire by ion beam sputtering deposition. The formation of large-size h-BN domains results mainly from the reduced Ni-grain boundaries and the improved crystallinity of the Ni film. In addition, the h-BN domains show well-aligned orientation and excellent dielectric properties.

    4. Exploring Protein–Nanoparticle Interactions with Coarse-Grained Protein Folding Models

      Shuai Wei, Logan S. Ahlstrom and Charles L. Brooks III

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603748

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      The authors successfullybuild a general model to describe the interactions between protein residues and the nanoparticle (NP). Curvature and hydrophobic effects are accurately captured by this model so that predictions of protein behavior in various protein–NP systems are feasible. Therefore, it is expected that this model will play an important role in NP-biosensor design.

    5. Facile Synthesis of γ-In2Se3 Nanoflowers toward High Performance Self-Powered Broadband γ-In2Se3/Si Heterojunction Photodiode

      Shuo Chen, Xuemei Liu, Xvsheng Qiao, Xia Wan, Khurram Shehzad, Xianghua Zhang, Yang Xu and Xianping Fan

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604033

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      An effective colloidal process involving the hot-injection method is used for the high-quality synthesis of γ-In2Se3 nanoflowers. Then, an efficient γ-In2Se3/Si heterojunction photodetector is fabricated, which is selfpowered and shows a broadband spectral response with high responsivity and detectivity. The excellent results open up a new and feasible scenario for the development of innovative optoelectronic device applications.

    6. Wavelength-Tunable Electroluminescent Light Sources from Individual Ga-Doped ZnO Microwires

      Mingming Jiang, Gaohang He, Hongyu Chen, Zhenzhong Zhang, Lingxia Zheng, Chongxin Shan, Dezhen Shen and Xiaosheng Fang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604034

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      Electrically driven wavelength-tunable light emission from biased individual Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) microwires is demonstrated. This kind of electroluminescence (EL) device possess excellent performance in color stability, tunability of EL wavelengths, and light-emitting diodes characteristics. Consequently, individual ZnO:Ga microwires, which can be analogous to incandescent sources, offer unique possibilities for future EL lighting sources.

    7. ACPI Conjugated Gold Nanorods as Nanoplatform for Dual Image Guided Activatable Photodynamic and Photothermal Combined Therapy In Vivo

      Wen-Xiu Qiu, Li-Han Liu, Shi-Ying Li, Qi Lei, Guo-Feng Luo and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603956

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      The nanoplatform GNR-ACPP-PpIX (designated as GNR-ACPI) is developed for dual image guided activatable photodynamic therapy with combined photothermal therapy. Under controllable laser irradiation, the generated destructive reactive oxygen species/heat lead to remarkable tumor cell killing with reduced side effects.

    8. High Rate, Long Lifespan LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Zhongxue Chen, Fei Xu, Shunan Cao, Zhengfeng Li, Hanxi Yang, Xinping Ai and Yuliang Cao

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603148

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      LiV3O8 nanorods with controlled size with a high discharge capacity of 275.8 mAh g−1 and excellent capacity retention of 80.5% after 500 cycles at 1 C are demonstrated. They also exhibit a high rate capability up to ≈21 C, possibly serving as alternative cathode materials for high-power and long-life lithium ion batteries.

  43. Communications

    1. Epitaxial Growth of Ternary Topological Insulator Bi2Te2Se 2D Crystals on Mica

      Yujing Liu, Min Tang, Mengmeng Meng, Mingzhan Wang, Jinxiong Wu, Jianbo Yin, Yubing Zhou, Yunfan Guo, Congwei Tan, Wenhui Dang, Shaoyun Huang, H. Q. Xu, Yong Wang and Hailin Peng

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603572

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      2D crystals of ternary topological insulator Bi2Te2Se with aligned orientation and high crystalline quality are obtained by van der Waals epitaxy method on mica substrate. High carrier mobility and pronounced weak antilocalization feature at low temperature are clearly observed. A comparatively larger dephasing length of 537 nm indicates the satisfied single-crystalline quality.

    2. Hybrid Nanoscopy of Hybrid Nanomaterials

      Patricia Bondia, Rocío Jurado, Santiago Casado, José M. Domínguez-Vera, Natividad Gálvez and Cristina Flors

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603784

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      Correlative atomic force microscopy and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offer complementary insight into fluorescent hybrid nanofibrils. Combined information about the topography and number of filaments that compose a fibril as well as the emissive properties and nanoscale spatial distribution of attached fluorophores is obtained. This technique offers great potential to improve the design and characterization of multifunctional nanomaterials.

    3. Epitaxial Growth of Oriented Metalloporphyrin Network Thin Film for Improved Selectivity of Volatile Organic Compounds

      De-Jing Li, Zhi-Gang Gu, Ismail Vohra, Yao Kang, Yong-Sheng Zhu and Jian Zhang

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604035

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      A new oriented and homogenous cobalt-metalloporphyrin network thin film by liquid phase epitaxial method is prepared. The thickness of the obtained thin films can be well controlled and their photocurrent property also can be tuned. The present [110]-oriented PIZA-1 thin film has much higher selectivity of benzene over others than that of powder PIZA-1, which can be used as sensor of volatile organic compounds.

  44. Reviews

    1. Microfluidic Synthesis of Nanohybrids

      Junmei Wang and Yujun Song

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604084

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      Microfluidic systems exhibit many advantages due to their unique characteristics of narrow channels, variable length, controllable numbers of channels and multiple integrations. Different types of nanohybrids are synthesized in these microfluidic systems. Their morphologies, compositions and properties are conveniently tunable by these unique synthesis systems.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Hierarchical Fullerene Assembly: Seeded Coprecipitation and Electric Field Directed Assembly

      Angela C. Stelson, Sonny J. Penterman and Chekesha M. Liddell Watson

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603509

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      Cosolvent precipitation of fullerenes into monodisperse colloids is achieved using nanoparticles to seed growth. The colloids are assembled under electric fields into hierarchical films ordered from nanoscale to macroscale.

    2. Enhancement of Exciton Emission from Multilayer MoS2 at High Temperatures: Intervalley Transfer versus Interlayer Decoupling

      Yuanzheng Li, Haiyang Xu, Weizhen Liu, Guochun Yang, Jia Shi, Zheng Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Zhongqiang Wang, Qingxin Tang and Yichun Liu

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700157

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      For indirect-bandgap multilayer MoS2 it is very important to further improve the luminescence efficiency and to gain a deeper understanding of the carrier dynamics. Herein, an experimental observation of high-temperature exciton emission from multilayer MoS2 is reported. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal that a new model involving the intervalley transfer of thermally activated carriers is proposed to well explain this anomalous luminescence behavior.

    3. Multishelled NixCo3–xO4 Hollow Microspheres Derived from Bimetal–Organic Frameworks as Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Lan-Lan Wu, Zhuo Wang, Yan Long, Jian Li, Yu Liu, Qi-Shun Wang, Xiao Wang, Shu-Yan Song, Xiaogang Liu and Hong-Jie Zhang

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604270

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      In virtue of the heterogeneous contraction process induced by nonequilibrium heat treatment, Ni x Co3− x O4 multishelled hollow microspheres originating from bimetal–organic frameworks are successfully achieved for high-performance lithium-ion batteries as anode materials. This presented strategy paves the way for a broad range of practical applications of metal–organic framework-derived materials with multishelled hollow structures.

    4. Fluorescent Imaging-Guided Chemotherapy-and-Photodynamic Dual Therapy with Nanoscale Porphyrin Metal–Organic Framework

      Wei Liu, Yong-Mei Wang, Yu-Hao Li, Shi-Jiao Cai, Xue-Bo Yin, Xi-Wen He and Yu-Kui Zhang

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603459

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      Biocompatible nanoporphyrin metal–organic framework (NPMOF) built from a porphyrin and Zr exhibits excellent drug adsorption, photodynamic therapy efficiency, and fluorescent imaging property. The integrity of these capabilities into a single platform makes NPMOF advantageous to offer fluorescent imaging-guided chemotherapy-and-photodynamic dual-therapy. This fresh model makes cancer treating more efficient and safe.

    5. Investigation of Horseradish Peroxidase Kinetics in an “Organelle-Like” Environment

      Patric Baumann, Mariana Spulber, Ozana Fischer, Anja Car and Wolfgang Meier

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603943

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      Artificial nanoreactors based on polymeric vesicles with reconstituted channel proteins (outer membrane protein F) and coencapsulated enzymes horseradish peroxidase allow for the first time the determination of the Michaelis–Menten constant (K m) measured for an enzyme in an “organelle-like” environment. The confined space and crowded milieu have strong influence on enzyme-substrate affinity.

    6. Reaction-Diffusion-Mediated Photolithography for Designing Pseudo-3D Microstructures

      Ju Hyeon Kim, Kwanghwi Je, Tae Soup Shim and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603516

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      Reaction-diffusion-mediated photolithography is developed to create pseudo-3D microstructures. When rate of oxygen-inhibition reaction is comparable to that of oxygen diffusion, the growth pathway is altered, which enables the formation of cone-shaped microstructures. This technique is highly controllable and reproducible for a wide range of dimensions and materials, potentially serving as a novel means to produce microstructures with unique structural features.

    7. The Influence of Block Ionomer Microstructure on Polyplex Properties: Can Simulations Help to Understand Differences in Transfection Efficiency?

      Philipp Heller, Jiajia Zhou, Benjamin Weber, Dominika Hobernik, Matthias Bros, Friederike Schmid and Matthias Barz

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603694

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      Combining molecular dynamics simulation with physicochemical and biological characterization, this work aims to provide a first rational for the influence of block ionomer microstructure on polyplex properties, e.g., size, shape, and transfection efficiency.


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