Particle-Based Optical Sensing of Intracellular Ions at the Example of Calcium – What Are the Experimental Pitfalls?
Karsten Kantner, Sumaira Ashraf, Susana Carregal-Romero, Carolina Carrillo-Carrion, Mayeul Collot, Pablo del Pino, Wolfram Heimbrodt, Dorleta Jimenez De Aberasturi, Uwe Kaiser, Lyubov I. Kazakova, Marco Lelle, Natalia Martinez de Baroja, Jose Maria Montenegro, Moritz Nazarenus, Beatriz Pelaz, Kalina Peneva, Pilar Rivera Gil, Nadeem Sabir, Lorenz Maximilian Schneider, Lyudmila I. Shabarchina, Gleb B. Sukhorukov, Margarita Vazquez, Fang Yang and Wolfgang J. Parak
Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402110
Quantitative determination of ions in cells is crucial, but presents us with certain difficulties. The delivery and intracellular location of particle-based fluorophores as well as the local ion concentration determination need to be addressed, but yield the issue of crosstalk of the fluorescence read-out with pH, and spectral overlap.