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Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 33

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

VIEW

  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 146
  1. Reviews

    1. Nanoparticle-Based Manipulation of Antigen-Presenting Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

      Ronnie H. Fang, Ashley V. Kroll and Liangfang Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501284

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      Immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer treatment have been gaining significant traction in the clinic. Of the different modalities, the goal of anticancer vaccination is to train the body to detect and eliminate tumors. Here the application of nanoparticle technology towards the development of more effective vaccine formulations that address the limitations of current approaches is discussed.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Gram-Scale Aqueous Synthesis of Stable Few-Layered 1T-MoS2: Applications for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Qin Liu, Xiuling Li, Qun He, Adnan Khalil, Daobin Liu, Ting Xiang, Xiaojun Wu and Li Song

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501822

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      Gram-scale aqueous synthesis of 1T-MoS2 , highly stabilized by intercalated ammonium ions, is demonstrated. In combination with X-ray absorption spectra and atomic structure observations, the correlation between microstructure and stable metallic phase is revealed, agreeing with density functional calculations. More interestingly, highly efficient hydrogen evolution is achieved by hybridizing the 1T-MoS2 with semiconducting CdS nanorods.

  3. Communications

    1. A Comparative Study on Optical, Electrical, and Mechanical Properties of Conducting Polymer-Based Electrodes

      Seungae Lee, Jin-Yong Hong and Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501752

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      Transparent, free-standing, conducting polypyrrole (PPy) film is successfully fabricated by a simple method using the spin-coating technique. The free-standing PPy film exhibits high transparency, flexibility, electrical conductivity, and stable mechanical properties because the PPy film is composed of densely packed and highly ordered PPy nanoparticles. This approach provides feasible candidate for applications requiring flexible and conducting materials.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Mesostructured Composite Materials with Electrically Tunable Upconverting Properties

      Haridas Mundoor and Ivan I. Smalyukh

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501788

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      Nematic dispersions of upconverting nanorods with orientations mechanically coupled to the molecular ordering direction are realized. As the nematic host is electrically switched at ≈1 V, nanorods rotate to follow it, yielding tunable upconversion and polarized luminescence properties. This is explained through models of liquid crystal switching and upconversion dependence on nanorod matrices.

    2. Transient Absorption Measurements on Anisotropic Monolayer ReS2

      Qiannan Cui, Jiaqi He, Matthew Z. Bellus, Mirzojamshed Mirzokarimov, Tino Hofmann, Hsin-Ying Chiu, Matthew Antonik, Dawei He, Yongsheng Wang and Hui Zhao

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501668

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      Transient absorption measurements establish monolayer ReS2 as an anisotropic 2D semiconductor. Both the linear absorption and transient nonlinear absorption are found to be a few times higher when the light polarization is along the Re atomic chain direction. Exciton diffusion is also found to be fast when moving along the Re atomic chains.

    3. Harnessing Intracellular Biochemical Pathways for In Vitro Synthesis of Designer Tellurium Nanorods

      Ling-Hong Xiong, Ran Cui, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Jia-Wei Tu, Yun-Bo Shi and Dai-Wen Pang

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500816

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      Intracellular biochemical pathways are successfully harnessed for the in vitro synthesis of Te nanorods for the first time. The strategy is to first identify an in vivo system for the synthesis of a nanomaterial of interest, then deduce the likely underlying intracellular pathways, and finally utilize the pathways for in vitro synthesis of Te nanorods.

  5. Communications

    1. A Dispersion-Dominated Chromogenic Strategy for Colorimetric Sensing of Glutathione at the Nanomolar Level Using Gold Nanoparticles

      Yunlei Xianyu, Yangzhouyun Xie, Nuoxin Wang, Zhuo Wang and Xingyu Jiang

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500903

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      A dispersion-dominated chromogenic strategy for glutathione sensing is developed. Glutathione prevents the aggregation of arginine-modified gold nanoparticles via mercury–thiol interaction, which allows for glutathione sensing at the nanomolar level (10.9 × 10−9 m) with facile operation and naked-eye readout.

    2. Short Channel Field-Effect-Transistors with Inkjet-Printed Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

      Seonpil Jang, Bongjun Kim, Michael L. Geier, Mark C. Hersam and Ananth Dodabalapur

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501179

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      Short channel field-effect-transistors with inkjet-printed semiconducting carbon nanotubes are fabricated using a novel strategy to minimize material consumption, confining the inkjet droplet into the active channel area. This fabrication approach is compatible with roll-to-roll processing and enables the formation of high-performance short channel device arrays based on inkjet printing.

    3. Nanomanufacturing of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Materials Using Self-Assembled DNA Nanotubes

      Jungwook Choi, Haorong Chen, Feiran Li, Lingming Yang, Steve S. Kim, Rajesh R. Naik, Peide D. Ye and Jong Hyun Choi

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501431

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      2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are nanomanufactured using a generalized strategy with self-assembled DNA nanotubes. DNA nanotubes of various lengths serve as lithographic etch masks for the dry etching of TMDCs. The nanostructured TMDCs are studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This parallel approach can be used to manufacture 2D TMDC nanostructures of arbitrary geometries with molecular-scale precision.

    4. Solution-Processed Cu2O and CuO as Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

      Chuantian Zuo and Liming Ding

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501330

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      Solution-processed Cu2O and CuO are used as hole transport materials in perovskite solar cells. The cells show significantly enhanced open circuit voltage V oc, short-circuit current J sc, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with PEDOT cells. A PCE of 13.35% and good stability are achieved for Cu2O cells, making Cu2O a promising material for further application in perovskite solar cells.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Ag Nanoparticle-Grafted PAN-Nanohump Array Films with 3D High-Density Hot Spots as Flexible and Reliable SERS Substrates

      Zhongbo Li, Guowen Meng, Qing Huang, Xiaoye Hu, Xuan He, Haibin Tang, Zhiwei Wang and Fadi Li

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501505

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      Large-scale flexible films, with one side of ordered silver nanoparticle-decorated polyacrylonitrile nanohump arrays, are fabricated. High-density 3D surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active hot spots are sputtered on the films. The easy fabrication, high sensitivity, and good SERS-signal reproducibility make the hybrid structure a favorable candidate for rapid detection of trace molecules.

  7. Communications

    1. Stable and Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Titania Nanotube Arrays

      Peng Qin, Maggie Paulose, M. Ibrahim Dar, Thomas Moehl, Neha Arora, Peng Gao, Oomman K. Varghese, Michael Grätzel and Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501460

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      Highly ordered 1D TiO2 nanotube arrays are fabricated and applied as nanocontainers and electron transporting material in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The optimized device shows a power conversion efficiency of 14.8%, and improved stability under an illumination of 100 mW cm−2. This is the best result based on 1D TiO2 nanostructures so far.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Origin of Sub-Bandgap Electroluminescence in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Chaoyu Xiang, Cheng Peng, Ying Chen and Franky So

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501355

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      Sub-bandgap electroluminescence (EL) of rubrene/C60 heterojunction organic light-emitting diodes is observed at voltages below the bandgap voltage of rubrene where electron injection into the rubrene lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level is not possible. This sub-bandgap EL is attributed to the formation of charge transfer states and subsequent energy transfer to triplet states, and the resulting EL is due to triplet–triplet annihilation.

  9. Communications

    1. Trajectory Control of Self-Propelled Micromotors Using AC Electrokinetics

      Yoshitaka Yoshizumi, Thibault Honegger, Kevin Berton, Hiroaki Suzuki and David Peyrade

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501557

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      3D control of the motion of self-powered micromotors is demonstrated using AC electrokinetics by applying an AC electric field on indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

    2. Nanocomposite of Fe2O3@C@MnO2 as an Efficient Cathode Catalyst for Rechargeable Lithium−Oxygen Batteries

      Xiaofei Hu, Fangyi Cheng, Ning Zhang, Xiaopeng Han and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501570

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      A new design and synthesis of Fe2O3@C@MnO2 nanocomposite via aerosol spray pyrolysis and electrodeposition is reported for application in rechargeable Li−O2 batteries. Owing to the superior oxygen reduction/evolution reaction bifunctional catalytic activities attributed to the combined function of Fe2O3 and MnO2 and facile charge transfer in the carbon matrix, the nanocomposite exhibits long life, large capacity, and a small overpotential in Li−O2 batteries.

  10. Full Papers

    1. A Cellular Compatible Chitosan Nanoparticle Surface for Isolation and In Situ Culture of Rare Number CTCs

      Na Sun, Jine Wang, Liya Ji, Shanni Hong, Jingjin Dong, Yahui Guo, Kunchi Zhang and Renjun Pei

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501718

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      A chitosan nanoparticle surface is first fabricated by electrospray to provide a “soft” cellular compatible interface for specific capture and further purification as well as proliferation of rare target cells through subsequent in situ culture of captured cells. The blood cells are weeded out, while multiple MCF-7 cells of high purity are obtained during the following culture.

    2. Highly Sensitive Electro-Plasmonic Switches Based on Fivefold Stellate Polyhedral Gold Nanoparticles

      Liubiao Zhong, Yueyue Jiang, Chihao Liow, Fanben Meng, Yinghui Sun, Bevita K. Chandran, Ziqiang Liang, Lin Jiang, Shuzhou Li and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501627

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      Electrically modulated plasmonic switches are obtained using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system based on a single fivefold stellate polyhedral gold nanoparticle. The electrochemical potential and incident laser irradiation are synergistically controlled to achieve high sensitivity.

  11. Communications

    1. A “Sense-and-Treat” Hydrogel Used for Treatment of Bacterial Infection on the Solid Matrix

      Zhengqing Yan, Peng Shi, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501958

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      A “sense-and-treat” hydrogel is constructed for sensing and inhibiting bacterial infection. Without bacteria, the hydrogel emits green fluorescence. With bacterial infection, the hydrogel emits red fluorescence and releases Vancomycin to kill bacteria.

    2. Sb Nanoparticles Encapsulated in a Reticular Amorphous Carbon Network for Enhanced Sodium Storage

      Min Wang, Zhenzhong Yang, Jiaqing Wang, Weihan Li, Lin Gu and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501313

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      Sb nanoparticles encapsulated in 3D reticular carbon network (denoted Sb@3D RCN) film are prepared by the electrostatic spray deposition technique followed by a heat treatment. When used as a binder-free anode for a Na-ion battery, it shows excellent long-life cyclability. The unique reticular, porous, and core–shell structure of Sb@3D RCN contributes significantly to the excellent sodium storage performance.

    3. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System

      Seung Won Shin, Kyung Soo Park, Woo Jung Shin and Soong Ho Um

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501334

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      A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved.

  12. Reviews

    1. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants

      Shun Mao, Jingbo Chang, Guihua Zhou and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500831

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      Rapid detection of water contaminants is critical for water quality monitoring and has significant impacts on human health and environmental pollution control. This review discusses recent advances in nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for the rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metal ions, phosphates, and bacteria.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Nano “Chocolate Waffle” for near-IR Responsive Drug Releasing System

      Junseok Lee, Hansoo Park and Won Jong Kim

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403228

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      A photo-thermoresponsive drug nanocarrier is easily prepared by the introduction of a thermo-sensitive medium (PCM) and an anticancer drug onto mesoporous silica-coated graphene oxide. As PCM is highly sensitive to temperature changes just above body temperature, the photothermal effect of graphene oxide induced by irradiation with NIR facilitates the rapid release of the drug with significantly increased cytotoxicity and enhanced imaging in vitro.

  14. Communications

    1. Aligned Growth of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Monolayer on Germanium

      Jun Yin, Xiaofei Liu, Wanglin Lu, Jidong Li, Yuanzhi Cao, Yao Li, Ying Xu, Xuemei Li, Jun Zhou, Chuanhong Jin and Wanlin Guo

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501439

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      A hexagonal boron nitride monolayer with aligned orientations is grown on reusable semiconducting germanium. The number of primary orientations of the h-BN domains depends on the symmetry of the underlying crystal face, and Ge (110) gives rise to only two opposite orientations. The structures and electrical properties of grain boundaries between h-BN domains with opposite orientations are also systematically analyzed.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Chemical Vapor Deposition of High-Quality and Atomically Layered ReS2

      Xuexia He, Fucai Liu, Peng Hu, Wei Fu, Xingli Wang, Qingsheng Zeng, Wu Zhao and Zheng Liu

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501488

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      ReS2 has attracted a lot of interest due to structure anisotropy and weak interlayer coupling. Atomically thin ReS2 is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The field-effect transistor based on few-layer ReS2 shows n-type behavior with a mobility of 9 cm2 V s–1 and an on/off ratio of 106. The results demonstrated here open up new ways for the larger scale application of 2D materials for anisotropic opotoelectric devices.

    2. Semiconductor Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Metal: A Direction Toward Large-Scale Fabrication of Nanowire Devices

      ATM Golam Sarwar, Santino D. Carnevale, Fan Yang, Thomas F. Kent, John J. Jamison, David W. McComb and Roberto C. Myers

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501909

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      Nanowire LEDs are integrated on metal. Optical and structural measurements reveal high-quality, vertically aligned GaN nanowires on molybdenum and titanium films. Blue to green electroluminescence is observed from InGaN quantum well active regions, while GaN active regions exhibit ultraviolet emission. These results demonstrate a pathway for large-scale fabrication of solid-state lighting and optoelectronics on metal foils or sheets.

    3. Shape-Dependent Activity of Ceria for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Xiaofeng Tong, Ting Luo, Xie Meng, Hao Wu, Junliang Li, Xuejiao Liu, Xiaona Ji, Jianqiang Wang, Chusheng Chen and Zhongliang Zhan

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501930

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      Shape-dependent activity of ceria nanocrystals for hydrogen electro-oxidation is demonstrated by comparing the anode behavior of ceria nanooctahedra, nanocubes, and nanorods that predominantly expose the (111), (100), and both (110) and (100) surfaces, respectively. Thin La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ electrolyte fuel cells produce the highest power densities on nanooctahedra at T ≥ 500 °C and on nanorods at T ≤ 450 °C.

  16. Communications

    1. BN-Enabled Epitaxy of Pb1–xSnxSe Nanoplates on SiO2/Si for High-Performance Mid-Infrared Detection

      Qisheng Wang, Yao Wen, Fengrui Yao, Yun Huang, Zhenxing Wang, Molin Li, Xueying Zhan, Kai Xu, Fengmei Wang, Feng Wang, Jie Li, Kaihui Liu, Chao Jiang, Fengqi Liu and Jun He

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201502049

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      By designing a few-layer boron nitried (BN) buffer layer, topological crystalline insulator Pb1–xSnxSe nanoplates are directly grown on SiO2/Si, which shows high compatibility with current Si-based integrated circuit technology. Back-gated field-effect transistors of Pb1–xSnxSe nanoplates exhibit a room-temperature carrier mobility of 0.73–4.90 cm2 V−1 s−1, comparable to layered materials and molecular crystals, and high-efficiency mid-IR detection (1.9–2.0 μm).

  17. Full Papers

    1. Tunable Polarity Behavior and Self-Driven Photoswitching in p-WSe2/n-WS2 Heterojunctions

      Nengjie Huo, Juehan Yang, Le Huang, Zhongming Wei, Shu-Shen Li, Su-Huai Wei and Jingbo Li

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501206

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      Van der Waals p–n heterojunctions consisting of WSe2 and WS2 layers exhibit a tunable polarity transition along a route of n-“anti-bipolar”–p-ambipolar behaviors, owing to the successive work of conducting channels in the systems. Type-II band alignment and built-in potential also facilitate efficient electron–hole separation, thus enabling significant photovoltaic effect and much enhanced self-driven photoswitching response.

    2. Ultrasound-Propelled Nanocups for Drug Delivery

      James J. Kwan, Rachel Myers, Christian M. Coviello, Susan M. Graham, Apurva R. Shah, Eleanor Stride, Robert C. Carlisle and Constantin C. Coussios

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501322

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      A novel gas-stabilizing nanocup is reported, capable of self-propelling under ultrasound exposure as well as enhancing the delivery and penetration distance of a coadministered therapeutic agent. The nanocup nucleates and sustains cavitation activity for several minutes in vivo, a process which can be mapped non-invasively in real time.

  18. Communications

    1. Biodegradable DNA-Brush Block Copolymer Spherical Nucleic Acids Enable Transfection Agent-Free Intracellular Gene Regulation

      Chuan Zhang, Liangliang Hao, Colin M. Calabrese, Yu Zhou, Chung Hang J. Choi, Hang Xing and Chad A. Mirkin

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501573

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      By grafting multiple DNA strands onto one terminus of a polyester chain, a DNA-brush block copolymer that can assemble into micelle structure is constructed. These micelle spherical nucleic acids have a density of nucleic acids that is substantively higher than linear DNA block copolymer structures, which makes them effective cellular transfection and intracellular gene regulation agents.

    2. Stiffness-Independent Highly Efficient On-Chip Extraction of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Microcapsules from Oil Emulsion into Aqueous Solution by Dielectrophoresis

      Haishui Huang, Mingrui Sun, Tyler Heisler-Taylor, Asimina Kiourti, John Volakis, Gregory Lafyatis and Xiaoming He

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501388

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      A dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based method achieves highly efficient on-chip extraction of cell-laden microcapsules of any stiffness from oil into aqueous solution. The hydrogel microcapsules can be extracted into the aqueous solution by DEP and interfacial tension forces with no trapped oil, while the encapsulated cells are free from electrical damage due to the Faraday cage effect.

    3. A Compact DNA Cube with Side Length 10 nm

      Max B. Scheible, Luvena L. Ong, Johannes B. Woehrstein, Ralf Jungmann, Peng Yin and Friedrich C. Simmel

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501370

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      A small and compact DNA cube with zeptoliter volume is constructed by means of a generalized DNA brick concept using short synthetic oligonucleotides with varying lengths. By mimicking design principles from the DNA origami technique, the DNA cube offers higher stability and assembly yields compared to other approaches. Its potential application as nanoscale fluorescent probe is demonstrated using super-resolution imaging.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Flexible Transparent Films Based on Nanocomposite Networks of Polyaniline and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Gas Sensing

      Pengbo Wan, Xuemei Wen, Chaozheng Sun, Bevita K. Chandran, Han Zhang, Xiaoming Sun and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501772

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      A flexible, transparent, chemical gas sensor is assembled from a transparent conducting film of carbon nanotube (CNT) networks coated with hierarchically nanostructured PANI nanorods. This novel gas sensor exhibits high performance and portability with excellent transparency, and reliable flexibility with no significant variation in its performance after 500 bending/extending cycles.

  20. Reviews

    1. Engineering Gyroid-Structured Functional Materials via Templates Discovered in Nature and in the Lab

      Liping Wu, Wang Zhang and Di Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500812

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      The gyroid structure serves as a novel inspiration for functional materials design with its distinct symmetry, 3D interconnected networks, and inherent chiral helices. This review documents the state-of-the-art achievements in the applications of gyroid-structured functional materials into optical areas, efficient mass and electron transport, as well as catalysis areas.

    2. Effects of Variations in Ligand Density on Cell Signaling

      Tushar Satav, Jurriaan Huskens and Pascal Jonkheijm

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500747

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      Ligand density variation technology has recently been developed and its implication on cell signaling pathways has been investigated. This review summarizes recent progress in surface fabrication techniques for tuning the ligand density, and discusses the effect of ligand density variation on the morphological and biochemical properties of cells.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Rupturing C60 Molecules into Graphene-Oxide-like Quantum Dots: Structure, Photoluminescence, and Catalytic Application

      Guanxiong Chen, Zhiwen Zhuo, Kun Ni, Na Yeon Kim, Yuan Zhao, Zongwei Chen, Bin Xiang, Lihua Yang, Qun Zhang, Zonghoon Lee, Xiaojun Wu, Rodney S. Ruoff and Yanwu Zhu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501611

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      Graphene-oxide-like quantum dots are synthesized on a large scale (≈25% yield) by oxidizing C60 molecules with a modified Hummers' method. As-prepared quantum dots are highly soluble in water, consist of carbon rings other than hexagons and present a strong photoluminescence. They have also demonstrated a remarkable catalytic activity when being used to oxidize benzyl alcohol.

  22. Concepts

    1. Transient Absorption: A New Modality for Microscopic Imaging of Nanomaterials in Living Cells

      Tao Chen and Yanyi Huang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500814

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      Transient absorption microscopy offers a new modality to image nanoscale materials. With properly configured setup, interactions between nanomaterials and living cells can be studied with high spatial and time resolution.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Bioinspired Nano-Prodrug with Enhanced Tumor Targeting and Increased Therapeutic Efficiency

      Wei-Hai Chen, Qi Lei, Cai-Xia Yang, Hui-Zhen Jia, Guo-Feng Luo, Xiao-Yong Wang, Gang Liu, Si-Xue Cheng and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500920

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      Cancer-targeted bioinspired nano-prodrug: A bioinspired nano-prodrug BiNp shows significant tumor-targeting ability and enhances the specific uptake of cancer cells. The nano-prodrug BiNp with integrated programmed functions exhibits remarkable inhibition of tumor and achieves a maximized therapeutic efficiency with a minimized side effect.

    2. Coil-Type Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrical Cables

      Zenan Yu, Julian Moore, Jean Calderon, Lei Zhai and Jayan Thomas

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501802

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      A novel coil-type asymmetric supercapacitor electrical cable (CASEC) is developed. CASECs show superb supercapacitive performance and excellent mechanical stability, which might be attributed to the nanostructured design of electrodes and the asymmetric and coiled configuration of devices. Moreover, CASECs exhibit dual capability that can store energy and transmit electricity simultaneously.

    3. Transient State Machine Enabled from the Colliding and Coalescence of a Swarm of Autonomously Running Liquid Metal Motors

      Lei Sheng, Zhizhu He, Youyou Yao and Jing Liu

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501364

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      A new conceptual liquid metal machine, the transient state machine, is demonstrated to work as either a single robot, separate moving elements, or spontaneously running motors swarm. The transient state can be reversible such that the discrete droplet machines injected from a source can combine back again to its original state. The colliding, bouncing, or adhesion phenomena involved are disclosed.

    4. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virions in Complex Matrices Based on Combined Magnetic Capture and Quantum Dot Labeling

      Min Wu, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Gang Chen, Cong-Ying Wen, Ling-Ling Wu, Jiao Hu, Chao-Chao Xiong, Jian-Jun Chen and Dai-Wen Pang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403746

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      A rapid, one-step detection strategy for avian influenza A(H7N9) virions simultaneously uses magnetic nanospheres and quantum dots. This strategy shows a high efficiency, good specificity, excellent quantitative capacity, and strong anti-interference ability. It demonstrates a flexibility for use with different fluorescence detection methods, including fluorescence spectrometry, microscope assays, and handheld UV lamps, possessing great application potential in point-of-care detection.

  24. Communications

    1. Facile Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles Embedded in an Ultrathin Hollow Graphene Nanoshell with Robust Catalytic Performance

      Hongyang Liu, Jia Wang, Zhenbao Feng, Yangming Lin, Liyun Zhang and Dangsheng Su

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500635

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      Au nanoparticles (NPs) uniformly embedded into an ultrathin hollow graphene nanoshell (Au@HGN) are synthesized using a facile template-based procedure. The obtained Au@HGN catalyst exhibits robust and stable catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, compared with that of traditional Au/TiO2 and previously reported Au- and Ag-based catalysts.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology

      Stuart Ibsen, Avery Sonnenberg, Carolyn Schutt, Rajesh Mukthavaram, Yasan Yeh, Inanc Ortac, Sareh Manouchehri, Santosh Kesari, Sadik Esener and Michael J. Heller

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500892

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      Drug delivery nanoparticles are recovered from undiluted plasma through the creation of a dielectrophoresis separation force. This force is based on innate differences in the dielectric properties between the nanoparticles and the plasma. Nanoparticles in plasma are pulled down to electrodes using an alternating electric field. A wash then removes the bulk plasma and the purified nanoparticles are recovered.

    2. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Banavoth Murali, Abdulrahman El Labban, Jessica Eid, Erkki Alarousu, Dong Shi, Qiang Zhang, Xixiang Zhang, Osman M. Bakr and Omar F. Mohammed

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500924

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      An approach to fabricate a high-efficiency bulk heterojunction solar cell by engineering the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency sputtering is demonstrated. Active layers from poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester show a power conversion efficiency of 6.9%, exceeding those obtained in the literature with sol–gel, layer-by-layer, and sputtering processed ETLs.

    3. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

      Jianfeng Huang, Yihan Zhu, Changxu Liu, Yunfeng Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Mohamed Nejib Hedhili, Andrea Fratalocchi and Yu Han

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501220

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      A facile yet effective and versatile seeded growth strategy is developed that enables the epitaxial deposition of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on presynthesized AuNRs. The resulting AuNR@AuAg exhibits strong, stable, and tunable surface plasmon resonances, implying many plasmon-mediated applications in corrosive environments.

    4. A Robust and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Graphene Foam for Efficient Oil and Organic Solvent Recovery

      Haiguang Zhu, Dongyun Chen, Wei An, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He and Jianmei Lu

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501004

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      A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic foam is successfully fabricated by coating graphene onto a melamine foam skeleton via thermal reduction of graphene oxide. It exhibits a high adsorption capacity (up to 140 times) and remarkable recyclability (e.g., >50 times) for different kinds of oils and organic solvents. More importantly, the as-fabricated foam can be employed for oil/water separation, and the separation efficiency can reach up to 99.98%.

    5. 3D Mesoporous Graphene: CVD Self-Assembly on Porous Oxide Templates and Applications in High-Stable Li-S Batteries

      Jia-Le Shi, Cheng Tang, Hong-Jie Peng, Lin Zhu, Xin-Bing Cheng, Jia-Qi Huang, Wancheng Zhu and Qiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501467

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      Porous graphene frameworks (PGFs) are fabricated on hierarchically mesoporous oxide templates with small pores induced by Kirkendall diffusion and large pores attributed to evaporation of a deliberately introduced volatile metal. A high specific surface area of 1448 m2 g−1 and large mesopore volume of 2.40 cm3 g−1 are attained for PGFs serving as reservoirs of ions or active materials in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    6. A Hierarchical Z-Scheme CdS–WO3 Photocatalyst with Enhanced CO2 Reduction Activity

      Jian Jin, Jiaguo Yu, Daipeng Guo, Can Cui and Wingkei Ho

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500926

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      A highly efficient direct CdS–WO3 Z-scheme photocatalyst, CdS nano­particles in situ grown on a hierarchical WO3 hollow sphere surface, is designed and fabricated for photocatalytic CO2 reduction to CH4. The enhanced CO2 reduction activity is observed due to the formation of a CdS–WO3 Z-scheme photocatalytic system.

    7. Cysteine–Ag Cluster Hydrogel Confirmed by Experimental and Numerical Studies

      Yanyan Cui, Yaling Wang and Lina Zhao

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501245

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      A native Cys-Ag3 cluster hydrogel is confirmed by both experimental and theoretical studies. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds and Ag–S coordination bonds promote Cys-Ag3-Cys monomer self-assembly into a single-strand [Cys-Ag3-Cys]n multimer with a left-handed helix conformation. These multimers entangle to form a hydorgel network in situ. The hydrogel presents lysosome-targeting properties via fluorescence imaging, and biocompatibility.

  26. Communications

    1. Fluidic-Based Ion Memristors and Ionic Latches

      Gongchen Sun, Zdenek Slouka and Hsueh-Chia Chang

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501229

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      The formation of a nanoscale anodic silicon oxide layer on silicon electrodes in an aqueous environment leads to fluidic-based ionic memristive devices and ionic latches for large integrated fluidic ion logic circuitry, which can enable massively multiplexed smart biosensor arrays and complex active chemical circuits.

  27. Full Papers

    1. A Self-Assembled DNA Origami-Gold Nanorod Complex for Cancer Theranostics

      Qiao Jiang, Yuefeng Shi, Qian Zhang, Na Li, Pengfei Zhan, Linlin Song, Luru Dai, Jie Tian, Yang Du, Zhen Cheng and Baoquan Ding

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501266

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      To integrate photothermal ablation with effective drug delivery for improved cancer therapy, a dual-functional nanotheranostics is constructed by assembling gold nanorods (GNR) on a DNA origami (DO) platform. Compared to GNRs, improved photoluminescence-imaging and photothermolysis are accomplished for DO-GNR against tumor cells and tumor bearing mice. The hybrid nanostructures provide a promising candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    2. Molecular Hemocompatibility of Graphene Oxide and Its Implication for Antithrombotic Applications

      Kenry, Kian Ping Loh and Chwee Teck Lim

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500841

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      Graphene oxide (GO) possesses a high loading capacity for albumin and it adsorbs well on the surface of GO. GO does not disrupt the overall secondary structure and conformational stability of albumin. Albumin-functionalized GO (albumin–GO) possesses enhanced antithrombotic property and may potentially be used as an antithrombotic coating material of blood-contacting biomedical devices under dynamic flow.

    3. MgZnO Nanocrystals: Mechanism for Dopant-Stimulated Self-Assembly

      Xiaoming Li, Yanli Liu, Jizhong Song, Jiayue Xu and Haibo Zeng

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501550

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      Alloying-facilitated self-assembly of MgZnO nanocrysals (NCs) is observed, which transform from monodispersed NCs to nanoflowers, and then to nanobouquet with the increase of alloying concentration. A mechanism related to alloying concentration-dependent surface grafting is proposed. This work paves the way for additional studies that can shed light on the effect of the dopants on the growth behavior and dimensionalities of the final oxide nanostructures.

  28. Communications

    1. Tackling Cell Transplantation Anoikis: An Injectable, Shape Memory Cryogel Microcarrier Platform Material for Stem Cell and Neuronal Cell Growth

      Ben Newland, Petra B. Welzel, Heike Newland, Claudia Renneberg, Petr Kolar, Mikhail Tsurkan, Anne Rosser, Uwe Freudenberg and Carsten Werner

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500898

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      Highly macroporous semisynthetic cryogel microcarriers can be synthesized for culturing stem cells and neuronal type cells. Growth factors loaded to heparin-containing microcarriers show near zero-order release kinetics and cell-loaded microcarriers can be injected through a fine gauge cannula without negative effect on the cells. These carriers can be applied for cell transplantation applications.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Differences in the Toxicological Potential of 2D versus Aggregated Molybdenum Disulfide in the Lung

      Xiang Wang, Nikhita D. Mansukhani, Linda M. Guiney, Zhaoxia Ji, Chong Hyun Chang, Meiying Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Tze-Bin Song, Bingbing Sun, Ruibin Li, Tian Xia, Mark C. Hersam and André E. Nel

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500906

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      The pulmonary hazard potential of three forms of MoS2—aggregated (Agg-MoS2), lithiation-exfoliated (Lit-MoS2), and Pluronic F87 dispersed MoS2 (PF87-MoS2)—is studied. Although Agg-MoS2 induces profibrogenic responses in vitro and acute lung inflammation in vivo, Lit- and PF87-MoS2 have no such effect. These data suggest that exfoliation attenuates Agg-MoS2’s toxicity, which is important toward its industrial and biological applications.

    2. Carbon Nanotube–CoF2 Multifunctional Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries: Effect of Electrolyte on Cycle Stability

      Xinran Wang, Wentian Gu, Jung Tae Lee, Naoki Nitta, Jim Benson, Alexandre Magasinski, Mark W. Schauer and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501139

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      The flexible architecture of a CoF2/carbon nanotube composite fabric is synthesized with remarkable combination of excellent mechanical properties, high electrochemical stability, and long-term lifespan as a conversion-type cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    3. Peptide-like Polymers Exerting Effective Glioma-Targeted siRNA Delivery and Release for Therapeutic Application

      Sai An, Dongsheng He, Ernst Wagner and Chen Jiang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501167

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      Peptide-like polymer/small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexes with disulfide bond crosslinking show a compact spherical appearance, a stable circulation in blood, and rapid siRNA release under high glutathione (GSH) concentration in glioma cells. For polyetherimide (PEI)/siRNA complexes, the compact spherical appearance is both stable in blood and glioma cells, which greatly decreases the release of siRNA for efficient therapeutic applications.

  30. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Conductive-AFM Patterning of Organic Semiconductors

      Benjamin P. Brown, Loren Picco, Mervyn J. Miles and Charl F. J. Faul

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501779

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      Using a conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) redox-writing technique, it is shown that it is possible to locally, and reversibly, pattern conducting, and nonconducting features on the surface of a low molecular weight aniline-based organic (semi)-conductor thin film using a commercial c-AFM. It is shown that application of a voltage between the tip and sample causes localized redox reactions at the surface without damage.

    2. An Aqueous Single Reactor Arc Discharge Process for the Synthesis of Graphene Nanospheres

      Sejung Kim, Youngjun Song, Tsukasa Takahashi, Taeseok Oh and Michael J. Heller

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501022

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      Using an aqueous single reactor arc discharge process with oil-in-water emulsions allows production of 2D multilayered graphenes (MLGs and 3D graphene-based crumpled/sphere-like particles with low levels of defects). The confinement forces to create 3D particles from 2D MLGs are estimated to be 2.5 μN for crumpled particles and 70 μN for spherical hollow particles.

    3. Surface Conductive Graphene-Wrapped Micromotors Exhibiting Enhanced Motion

      Xing Ma, Jaideep Katuri, Yongfei Zeng, Yanli Zhao and Samuel Sanchez

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501223

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      Surface-conductive Janus spherical motors are fabricated by wrapping silica particles with reduced graphene oxide capped with a thin Pt layer. These motors exhibit a 100% enhanced velocity as compared to standard SiO2–Pt motors. Furthermore, the versatility of graphene may open up possibilities for a diverse range of applications from active drug delivery systems to water remediation.

    4. 2D MoS2 PDMS Nanocomposites for NO2 Separation

      Kyle J. Berean, Jian Zhen Ou, Torben Daeneke, Benjamin J. Carey, Emily P. Nguyen, Yichao Wang, Salvy P. Russo, Richard B. Kaner and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501129

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      At a relatively low loading concentration (≈0.02 wt%) of 2D MoS 2 flakes in PDMS, the composite membrane is able to almost completely block the permeation of NO2 gas molecules at ppm levels. This major reduction is ascribed to the strong physisorption of NO2 gas molecules onto the 2D MoS2 flake basal planes.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Evidence of Microporous Carbon Nanosheets Showing Fast Kinetics in both Gas Phase and Liquid Phase Environments

      Zhen-Yu Jin, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Qiang Sun and An-Hui Lu

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501692

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      Microporous carbon nanosheets and spheres with similar porous structures, specific surface areas, and amorphous features are prepared using the same precursors. Characterizations and application studies indicate that the microporous carbon nanosheets exhibit improve kinetics in gas phase separation, liquid phase enrichment, and energy storage devices, due to their shorter diffusion paths and larger exposed geometrical area derived from the nanosheet structure.

  32. Reviews

    1. Metal–Organic Framework-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery and Molecular Imaging

      Wen Cai, Cheng-Chao Chu, Gang Liu and Yì-Xiáng J. Wáng

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500802

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      Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) are reviewed with a focus on the synthesis strategies and drug delivery, molecular imaging, and theranostic applications. The future challenges and opportunities of NMOFs in the context of translational medical research are systematically discussed.

  33. Full Papers

    1. pH-Responsive Isoniazid-Loaded Nanoparticles Markedly Improve Tuberculosis Treatment in Mice

      Angela A. Hwang, Bai-Yu Lee, Daniel L. Clemens, Barbara Jane Dillon, Jeffrey I. Zink and Marcus A. Horwitz

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500937

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      Depiction of novel pH-sensitive MSNCHOINHPEI-PEG system 1) phagocytosed by a macrophage into the acidic endolysosome whereupon 2) INH is released with the cleavage of the hydrazone bond holding the cargo to the surface of the MSN inside the acidic vacuole; and (3 and 4) INH diffuses to and is delivered into the M. tuberculosis, thereby killing the bacterium.

  34. Communications

    1. Manipulating Oil Droplets by Superamphiphobic Nozzle

      Lei Wu, Zhichao Dong, Ning Li, Fengyu Li, Lei Jiang and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501021

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      A superamphiphobic nozzle is prepared to manipulate tiny oil droplet. This nozzle can manipulate tiny oil droplets of varied volumes with high accuracy and reduced liquid retention due to the superantiwetting property. Accordingly, various inks with low surface tension can be printed at picoliter scale, and high-resolution 3D structures are achieved, which will be of significance for the development of liquid transportation and ink-jet printing devices.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Formation of Helically Structured Chitin/CaCO3 Hybrids through an Approach Inspired by the Biomineralization Processes of Crustacean Cuticles

      Shunichi Matsumura, Satoshi Kajiyama, Tatsuya Nishimura and Takashi Kato

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501083

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      Chitin/CaCO3 helical hybrids are developed inspired by the ordered structures of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. The hybrids are obtained through biomineralization-inspired crystallization processes on the liquid-crystalline chitin templates. For the formation of hybrids, CaCO3 is initially incorporated into the chitin templates in the form of amorphous phase and it crystallizes to calcite.

    2. A Thermodynamics Model for the Emergence of a Stripe-like Binary SAM on a Nanoparticle Surface

      Xinwei Ge, Pu Chun Ke, Thomas P. Davis and Feng Ding

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501049

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      Free energy of different ligand distribution states on a nanoparticle surface as a function of temperature. Due to differences in relative potential energies, a binary self-assembled monolayer system can be categorized into three different types based on available equilibrium states from low to high temperatures.

  36. Communications

    1. Surface Transfer Doping-Induced, High-Performance Graphene/Silicon Schottky Junction-Based, Self-Powered Photodetector

      Du Xiang, Cheng Han, Zehua Hu, Bo Lei, Yiyang Liu, Li Wang, Wen Ping Hu and Wei Chen

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501298

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      A remarkable performance enhancement of Gr/Si junction-based self-powered photodetectors is demonstrated via surface modification with a MoO3 thin film. The external quantum efficiency of the Gr/Si device is significantly enhanced up to ≈80% by almost four times in the visible light region, which can be attributed to the increased Schottky barrier height and the reduced series resistance of Gr/Si device after MoO3 modification.

    2. A pH-Responsive Drug-Delivery Platform Based on Glycol Chitosan–Coated Liposomes

      Lesan Yan, Samuel H. Crayton, Jayesh P. Thawani, Ahmad Amirshaghaghi, Andrew Tsourkas and Zhiliang Cheng

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501412

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      pH-responsive liposomes are prepared by conjugating glycol chitosan (GC) to the outer lipid membrane. This functionalization allows the liposomes to transition from a negative charge at physiologic pH to a positive charge in the acidic extracellular tumor microenvironment. Upon obtaining a positive charge, the GC-liposomes loaded with doxorubicin exhibited enhanced cellular uptake and improved anticancer efficacy.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Scanning MWCNT-Nanopipette and Probe Microscopy: Li Patterning and Transport Studies

      Jonathan M. Larson, Satyaveda C. Bharath, William G. Cullen and Janice E. Reutt-Robey

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500999

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      Scanning nanopipette and probe microscopy, based on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) affixed to the apex of an atomic force microscope cantilever, is described and applied to lithium films atop (7×7)-Si(111). Attograms of lithium are controllably transported via the MWCNT and scan-probe measurement capabilities are unaffected. Lithium surface diffusion on (7×7)-Si(111) anode is measured and modeling quantifies the diffusion coefficient.

    2. Cl-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays on 3D Graphene Foam with Highly Efficient Field Emission and Photocatalytic Properties

      Dali Shao, Jian Gao, Guoqing Xin, Yiping Wang, Lu Li, Jian Shi, Jie Lian, Nikhil Koratkar and Shayla Sawyer

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501411

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      Chlorine-doped ZnO nanowire arrays are grown on a 3D, highly conductive graphene foam network. Doping by chlorine dramatically improves the field-emission and photocatalytic properties of these materials. This opens the door to the use of such hybrid (doped) materials in a variety of applications including flat panel displays, optoelectronics, photocatalysis, energy-storage devices, and sensors.

  38. Reviews

    1. Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents

      James Rieffel, Upendra Chitgupi and Jonathan F. Lovell

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500735

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      Biomedical contrast agents that are applicable to multiple imaging modalities, like the ones shown here, are increasingly being reported in preclinical studies. Here, recent progress in the development of higher-order multimodal imaging nanoparticles is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes and demonstrations of their utility in three or more imaging modalities.

    2. Low-Dimensional Topological Crystalline Insulators

      Qisheng Wang, Feng Wang, Jie Li, Zhenxing Wang, Xueying Zhan and Jun He

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501381

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      Low-dimensional topological crystalline insulators, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, are considered an excellent platform for observing surface state transport. This paper thoroughly reviews the recent achievements of controllable synthesis and topological surface transport of low-dimensional topological crystalline insulators (TCIs). Possible future directions for low-dimensional TCIs are also suggested.

  39. Full Papers

    1. Layer-by-Layer Approach to (2+1)D Photonic Crystal Superlattice with Enhanced Crystalline Integrity

      Lijing Zhang, Zhuo Xiong, Liang Shan, Lu Zheng, Tongbo Wei and Qingfeng Yan

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501026

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      (2+1)D photonic crystal superlattices with enhanced crystalline integrity are fabricated by a layer-by-layer stacking technique, which can precisely control the thickness of constituent colloidal photonic crystals in a single-layer level and realize the flexible control of structure and stop band position of superlattice. Its application in enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-LED is demonstrated.

    2. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components

      Guimei Yu, Rui Yan, Chuan Zhang, Chengde Mao and Wen Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500531

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      A method of single-particle cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of biomass/metal hybrid nanoparticles is established. An adaptive masking method is developed to selectively mask pixels from metal components. The orientation and centers of individual nanoparticles are then determined using the remaining pixels after masking. By applying these parameters to corresponding unmasked nanoparticles, a final 3D model of hybrid nanoparticles is obtained.

    3. Ultrasmall Nanoplatforms as Calcium-Responsive Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Albert Moussaron, Sandip Vibhute, Andrea Bianchi, Serhat Gündüz, Shady Kotb, Lucie Sancey, Vincent Motto-Ros, Silvia Rizzitelli, Yannick Crémillieux, Francois Lux, Nikos K. Logothetis, Olivier Tillement and Goran Angelovski

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500312

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      Calcium-responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are grafted onto ultrasmall and rigid platforms. The resulting nanosized contrast agent remains sensitive to calcium as confirmed with relaxometric titrations. When administered in mice, it accumulates in the renal pelvis and parenchyma, enhancing the MRI contrast upon addition of calcium chloride.

  40. Communications

    1. Magnetic Field-Enhanced Photothermal Ablation of Tumor Sentinel Lymph Nodes to Inhibit Cancer Metastasis

      Chao Liang, Xuejiao Song, Qian Chen, Teng Liu, Guosheng Song, Rui Peng and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501197

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      A magnetic-targeting-enhanced cancer sentinel lymph node metastasis treatment strategy is developed using gold-shelled iron oxide nanoclusters with polyethylene glycol coatings as the magnetic-responsive photothermal agent. Compared with the treatment only acting on primary tumors, this treatment strategy by ablating both primary tumors and sentinel lymph nodes can remarkably inhibit lymphatic cancer metastasis and offer greatly improved animal survival.

    2. Controlling the Visible Electromagnetic Resonances of Si/SiO2 Dielectric Core–Shell Nanoparticles by Thermal Oxidation

      Yuta Tsuchimoto, Taka-aki Yano, Masaki Hada, Kazutaka G. Nakamura, Tomohiro Hayashi and Masahiko Hara

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500884

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      The visible electromagnetic resonances of Si/SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are controlled by thermal oxidation. The core–shell nanoparticles comprising silicon and silicon dioxide are fabricated through laser ablation and thermal oxidation. The resonant wavelengths of magnetic and electric dipoles excited in the particles are experimentally demonstrated to be controlled in the visible region by the variation of the core diameter, through thermal oxidation.

  41. Full Papers

    1. Giant Thermal Rectification from Polyethylene Nanofiber Thermal Diodes

      Teng Zhang and Tengfei Luo

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501127

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      The realization of phononic computing is held hostage by the lack of high performance thermal devices. Here it is shown through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that unprecedented thermal rectification factors (as large as 1.20) can be achieved utilizing the phase-dependent thermal conductivity of polyethylene nanofibers.

    2. Electrostatic Limit of Detection of Nanowire-Based Sensors

      Alex Henning, Michel Molotskii, Nandhini Swaminathan, Yonathan Vaknin, Andrey Godkin, Gil Shalev and Yossi Rosenwaks

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500566

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      Scanning gate microscopy is used in combination with an analytical model to determine the electrostatic limit of detection of nanowire-based chemical sensors. An electrostatic limit of detection of a single elementary charge is determined for an electrostatically formed nanowire with tunable diameter. The employed method provides a standard way to evaluate field-effect transistor based chemical sensors.

    3. Synthesis of Metal/Bimetal Nanowires and Their Applications as Flexible Transparent Electrodes

      Xiao Wang, Ranran Wang, Liangjing Shi and Jing Sun

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501314

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      A variety of metal/bimetallic nanowires with high aspect ratios are synthesized through one facial method for the first time. Transparent films fabricated with these nanowires show excellent optical–electrical property, good stability, and flexibility, which make them promising candidates for transparent conductive components.

    4. Microfluidic Design of Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microcylinders with Multicompartments

      Jae Young Sim, Gun Ho Lee and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501325

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      Photonic microcylinders with distinct compartments are designed by photo­polymerizing stratified laminar flow of multiple photocurable suspensions formed in cylindrical microfluidic channel. Silica particles in the suspension are ordered to develop structural colors and barium ferrite particles are aligned to render microcylinders magnetoresponsive. The structural color of the photonic microcylinders can be switched by aligning their faces along the magnetic field.

  42. Communications

    1. Piezoelectric-Enhanced Oriented Cobalt Coordinated Peptide Monolayer with Rectification Behavior

      Xinxin Wang, Wen Jiang, Qiang Zheng, Ling Yan, Yiming Jin, Changbao Han, Jie Zhuang, Hong Liu and Zhou Li

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500857

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      A metal-coordinated α-helical peptide monolayer shows exceptional vectorial electron transfer. It also displays rectification behavior whereby an alternating current signal is successfully turned into a direct current signal by the mono­layer acting as an electric rectifier. The monolayer can simply be fabricated the piezoelectric field generated from an in-situ nanogenerator, which opens up a wide range of applications.

    2. Highly Ordered Arrays of Femtoliter Surface Droplets

      Lei Bao, Amgad R. Rezk, Leslie Y. Yeo and Xuehua Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501105

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      Highly ordered arrays of attoliter to femtoliter droplets are created on substrates pre-patterned with smooth circular microdomains. The morphology and volume of the droplets are governed by the droplet growth dynamics during the solvent exchange. These tunable droplet arrays can be potentially exploited for the fabrication of nanolens arrays for photon manipulation, among other applications.

    3. Microengineered CH3NH3PbI3 Nanowire/Graphene Phototransistor for Low-Intensity Light Detection at Room Temperature

      Massimo Spina, Mario Lehmann, Bálint Náfrádi, Laurent Bernard, Eric Bonvin, Richard Gaál, Arnaud Magrez, László Forró and Endre Horváth

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501257

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      The first hybrid phototransistors are reported where the performance of a network of photoactive CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires is enhanced by CVD-grown monolayer graphene. These devices show responsivities as high as ≈2.6 × 106 A W−1 in the visible range, showing potential as room-temperature single-electron detectors.

  43. Full Papers

    1. Ultra-light Hierarchical Graphene Electrode for Binder-Free Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

      Zicheng Zuo, Tae Young Kim, Iskandar Kholmanov, Huifeng Li, Harry Chou and Yuliang Li

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501434

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      An ultra-light hierarchical graphene electrode is prepared via a new and environmental-friendly activation method. It has a specific surface area up to 835 m2 g−1 and a powder conductivity of 400 S m−1. As binder-free electrode, it delivers a robust and high specific capacitance in supercapacitors and a capacity in lithium-ion anodes with a very high charge/discharge rate.

    2. High-Performance Flexible Organic Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

      Ji Hyung Jung, Sunghwan Kim, Hyeonjung Kim, Jongnam Park and Joon Hak Oh

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501382

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      Novel organic nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices functionalized with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NPs) exhibit excellent electrical memory properties owing to the superb charge trap capability of CoFe2O4 NPs and the insulating nature of the oleate layer acting as an alternative tunneling dielectric layer. Flexible NFGM devices fabricated on plastic substrates show outstanding mechanical and electrical stability.

    3. Transmutation of Personal Glucose Meters into Portable and Highly Sensitive Microbial Pathogen Detection Platform

      Zhenzhen Wang, Zhaowei Chen, Nan Gao, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500944

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      Portable, low-cost, and widely available personal glucose meters are used to realize the highly sensitive detection of microbial pathogens using glucoamylase—quaternized magnetic nanoparticle conjugates. This strategy not only allows the sensitive detection of pathogens in real samples but also can inhibit the growth of bacteria, thus facilitating further applications in the clinic or even in the home.

    4. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Pd-Based Nanorings as Catalysts for Hydrogenation with High Activity and Stability

      Yi Li, Wenxing Wang, Kaiyang Xia, Wenjun Zhang, Yingying Jiang, Yuewu Zeng, Hui Zhang, Chuanhong Jin, Ze Zhang and Deren Yang

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500769

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      Ultrathin Pd-based nanorings with a hollow interior are generated by selective epitaxial growth of Pd atoms on the periphery of Pd nanosheets in combination with oxidative etching. The Pd nanorings exhibit substantially enhanced activity and stability toward the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol compared to the Pd nanosheets and commercial Pd black.

    5. Condiment-Derived 3D Architecture Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

      Wenjing Qian, Jingyue Zhu, Ye Zhang, Xiao Wu and Feng Yan

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500859

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      The one-step synthesis of porous carbon nanoflakes possessing a 3D texture is achieved by the thermal treatment of sodium glutamate with sodium chloride, and employed for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials.

    6. Magnetic Force Microscopy in Liquids

      Pablo Ares, Miriam Jaafar, Adriana Gil, Julio Gómez-Herrero and Agustina Asenjo

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500874

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      Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in liquids is presented. Magnetic contrast in different media is studied and optimized for liquids. MFM is successfully applied to the study of magnetite nanoparticles. The ability of measuring magnetic nanostructures along with the well-known capabilities of atomic force microscopy in liquids suggests new strategies in the characterization of relevant systems in fields such as nanomedicine, biology, or nanocatalysis.

    7. Self-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Coated with Cobalt–Nickel Hydroxide by One-Step Electrochemical Deposition toward Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors

      Fabian Grote, Zi-You Yu, Jin-Long Wang, Shu-Hong Yu and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501037

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      Self-stacked reduced graphene oxide nanosheets coated with cobalt–nickel hydroxide: the implementation of optical functions into supercapacitors is an innovative approach to make energy storage devices smarter. Here, a one-step electrochemical deposition technique is introduced that can synthesize self-stacked reduced graphene oxide nanosheets coated with cobalt–nickel hydroxide. The material exhibits electrochromic and charge storage properties.

    8. Zinc-Dithizone Complex Engineered Upconverting Nanosensors for the Detection of Hypochlorite in Living Cells

      Qingsong Mei, Wei Deng, Wuerzha Yisibashaer, Huarong Jing, Guoqing Du, Ming Wu, Bing Nan Li and Yong Zhang

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501130

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      A novel coordination complex is engineered into an upconverting nanosensor for the selective and sensitive determination of hypochlorite in aqueous solutions and living cells. The sensitivity of the sensor is related to the gradual and selective breaking of the Zn–S–C bond in the Zn(DZ)3 complex.

    9. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of FeMoO4 Nanocubes as an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Electrochemical Performance

      Zhicheng Ju, En Zhang, Yulong Zhao, Zheng Xing, Quanchao Zhuang, Yinghuai Qiang and Yitai Qian

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501294

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      Monodisperse FeMoO4 nanocubes are prepared, and the morphology of the product is shown to be largely controlled by the experimental parameters. Furthermore, the FeMoO4 nanocubes exhibit high reversible capacities and remarkable rate performances, which indicate that the FeMoO4 nanocubes are promising materials for high-power lithium-ion battery applications.

    10. Regulating Current Rectification and Nanoparticle Transport Through a Salt Gradient in Bipolar Nanopores

      Chih-Yuan Lin, Li-Hsien Yeh, Jyh-Ping Hsu and Shiojenn Tseng

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501210

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      Tuning of nanoparticle transport is demonstrated by applying a salt gradient to a nanopore having a bipolar inner surface and neutral outer surface. The nanopore is capable of simultaneously enhancing nanoparticle capture efficiency and reducing its translocation velocity, thereby raising the sensing performance and resolution.

    11. 2D-GaS as a Photocatalyst for Water Splitting to Produce H2

      Summayya Kouser, Anagha Thannikoth, Uttam Gupta, Umesh V. Waghmare and C. N. R. Rao

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201501077

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      Using first-principles calculations, it is shown that 2D-GaS (thickness < 5.5 nm) possesses an electronic structure with valence and conduction bands that straddle the redox potentials of hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions, which is ideal for efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting in the presence of visible light.

  44. Reviews

    1. Plasmofluidics: Merging Light and Fluids at the Micro-/Nanoscale

      Mingsong Wang, Chenglong Zhao, Xiaoyu Miao, Yanhui Zhao, Joseph Rufo, Yan Jun Liu, Tony Jun Huang and Yuebing Zheng

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500970

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      The most recent advances in the emerging field of plasmofluidics, which seeks the synergistic integration of plasmonics and micro/nanofluidics in devices and applications in order to enhance performance, are discussed in this review.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo

      Rebecca Klippstein, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Riham I. El-Gogary, Jie Bai, Falisa Mustafa, Noelia Rubio, Sukhvinder Bansal, Wafa T. Al-Jamal and Khuloud T. Al-Jamal

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201403799

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      An oil-cored nanocapsule (NC) containing a high dose of curcumin is prepared. The NC delivers curcumin to colon cancer (CT26) in vitro, and reaches solid tumor after intravenous injection in mouse models, as shown by optical imaging and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The presence of the drug in the tumor is confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Apoptosis of proliferating cells is confirmed by TUNEL staining.

  46. Communications

    1. Quantum Optical Signature of Plasmonically Coupled Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

      Feng Wang, Niladri S. Karan, Hue Minh Nguyen, Benjamin D. Mangum, Yagnaseni Ghosh, Chris J. Sheehan, Jennifer A. Hollingsworth and Han Htoon

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500823

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      Small clusters of two to three silica-coated nanocrystals coupled to plasmonic gap-bar antennas can exhibit photon antibunching, a characteristic of single quantum emitters. Through a detailed analysis of their photoluminescence emissions characteristics, it is shown that the observed photon antibunching is the evidence of coupled quantum dot formation resulting from the plasmonic enhancement of dipole–dipole interaction.

  47. Full Papers

    1. Fabrication of Supported AuPt Alloy Nanocrystals with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Formic Acid Oxidation through Conversion Chemistry of Layer-Deposited Pt2+ on Au Nanocrystals

      Seong Hyeon Kim, Hwakyeung Jeong, Jongwon Kim and In Su Lee

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201500947

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel synthetic strategy for electrocatalytic AuPt alloy nanocrystals is devised through the finding that a Pt2+-monolayer is spontaneously deposited on in-situ generated Au nanocrystals and can be thermally converted into AuPt alloy nano­crystals during nanosilica-confined transformation. This method is extended into a surfactant-free protocol for AuPt/Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide triple-junction nanocomposites with improved activity and durability in electrocatalysis of formic acid oxidation.

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