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Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

VIEW

  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 141
  1. Full Papers

    1. Biomechanical Strain Exacerbates Inflammation on a Progeria-on-a-Chip Model

      João Ribas, Yu Shrike Zhang, Patrícia R. Pitrez, Jeroen Leijten, Mario Miscuglio, Jeroen Rouwkema, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Xavier Nissan, Lino Ferreira and Ali Khademhosseini

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603737

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      A progeria-on-a-chip model is engineered to recapitulate the biomechanical dynamics of vascular disease and aging. The model shows an exacerbated injury response to strain and is rescued by pharmacological treatments. The progeria-on-a-chip is expected to drive the discovery of new drugs and to elucidate the role of strain in vascular aging and disease.

  2. Concepts

    1. Graphene: An Outstanding Multifunctional Coating for Conventional Materials

      Lifang Tan, Chenxiao Wang, Mengqi Zeng and Lei Fu

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603337

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      Numerous conventional materials are transformed through the integration of multiple functions on their surface when covered by a graphene coating. Importantly, their intrinsic superior properties are also retained. Here, the progress in all kinds of conventional materials is highlighted, and a general concept of graphene-X is proposed.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Boosting Bifunctional Oxygen Electrolysis for N-Doped Carbon via Bimetal Addition

      Jian Wang and Francesco Ciucci

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604103

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      Bimetal addition is found to contribute to increased pyridinic N content, much longer and more robust carbon tube, reduced metal particle size, and stronger coupling between the remained metal and carbon support. The proposed new framework, that is, bimetal-decorated, pyridinic N-dominated, large-size carbon tubes (MM′-N/C), achieves superior bifunctional oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction catalytic performance.

    2. The Impact of Protein Corona Formation on the Macrophage Cellular Uptake and Biodistribution of Spherical Nucleic Acids

      Alyssa B. Chinen, Chenxia M. Guan, Caroline H. Ko and Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603847

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      The effect of serum protein adsorption on the biological fate of Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNAs) is determined with respect to their recognition and uptake by macrophage cells and their biodistribution in mice. These properties are found to be dependent upon nucleic acid sequence, providing insight into an important parameter for the design of SNA therapeutics.

  4. Communications

    1. From Graphite to Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots

      Botong Liu, Juan Xie, Hui Ma, Xi Zhang, Yue Pan, Jiawei Lv, Huan Ge, Na Ren, Haiquan Su, Xiaoji Xie, Ling Huang and Wei Huang

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601001

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      A temperature-controlled facile one-pot solvothermal method that allows selective synthesis of either graphene oxide or graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using graphite as starting material, is reported. Variation of the reactant ratios generates differently sized GOQDs, which can be used for bioimaging or distinctive detection of Eu3+ and Tb3+ at sub-ppm level.

    2. Modest Oxygen-Defective Amorphous Manganese-Based Nanoparticle Mullite with Superior Overall Electrocatalytic Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Chao Dong, Zi-Wei Liu, Jie-Yu Liu, Wei-Chao Wang, Lan Cui, Rui-Chun Luo, Hui-Long Guo, Xue-Li Zheng, Shi-Zhang Qiao, Xi-Wen Du and Jing Yang

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603903

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      Amorphous mullite SmMn2O5δ nanoparticles with finely tuned content of oxygen vacancies and Mn valence are synthesized via a simple and versatile top-down approach. The modest oxygen-defective sample with appropriate Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio (i.e., 1.78) possesses a superior overall catalytic performance for electrochemical oxygen reduction among the highest reported for the family of Mn-based oxides and comparable to that of Pt/C.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Carbon Nanotubes Disrupt Iron Homeostasis and Induce Anemia of Inflammation through Inflammatory Pathway as a Secondary Effect Distant to Their Portal-of-Entry

      Juan Ma, Ruibin Li, Yin Liu, Guangbo Qu, Jing Liu, Wenli Guo, Haoyang Song, Xinghong Li, Yajun Liu, Tian Xia, Bing Yan and Sijin Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603830

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      Exposure of multiwall carbon nanotubes alters hepatic hepcidin-mediated systemic iron homeostasis through pro-inflammatory responses in mice, leading to limited iron availability for red blood cell formation and eventually the development of anemia of inflammation. This study opens a new path to understand the biological impacts of carbon nanotubes through their secondary or compensatory effects beyond the primary target tissues/organs.

    2. Hypersonic Poration: A New Versatile Cell Poration Method to Enhance Cellular Uptake Using a Piezoelectric Nano-Electromechanical Device

      Zhixin Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Hongxiang Zhang, Zifan Tang, Wenpeng Liu, Yao Lu, Zefang Wang, Haitao Yang, Wei Pang, Hao Zhang, Daihua Zhang and Xuexin Duan

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602962

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      A new type of chemical-free cell poration method—hypersonic poration—is developed to improve the cellular uptake, especially the nucleus uptake. The hypersound (≈GHz) is generated by a designed piezoelectric nano-electromechanical resonator, which directly induces normal/shear stress and “molecular bombardment” effects on the bilayer membranes, and creates reversible temporal nanopores, improving intracellular delivery.

    3. Ternary Chalcogenide Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Photothermal Conversion Efficiency for Photoacoustic Theranostics

      Houjuan Zhu, Zhuangchai Lai, Yuan Fang, Xu Zhen, Chaoliang Tan, Xiaoying Qi, Dan Ding, Peng Chen, Hua Zhang and Kanyi Pu

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604139

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      Ternary chalcogenide nanosheets (Ta2NiS5-P) are developed into photoacoustic theranostic nanoagents for cancer therapy, which have the highest photothermal conversion efficiency (35%) among all the reported 2D materials based on the same calculation method. Owing to its strong and featured absorption in the near-infrared region, Ta2NiS5-P enables high-contrast photoacoustic imaging and effective photothermal therapy of tumor in living mice.

  6. Communications

    1. Carbon Nanotube-Quantum Dot Nanohybrids: Coupling with Single-Particle Control in Aqueous Solution

      Antonio Attanzio, Andrei Sapelkin, Felice Gesuele, Arend van der Zande, William P. Gillin, Ming Zheng and Matteo Palma

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603042

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      A facile strategy to couple semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with single-particle control is presented. Evidence of electronic coupling at the single particle level is obtained for monovalent SWCNT-QD hybrids assembled in aqueous solution via the covalent immobilization of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals univocally at the terminal ends of individual DNA-wrapped SWCNTs.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Localized Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanowires and Fabrication of High Performance Nanosensors Based on a Single Fe2O3 Nanowire

      O. Lupan, V. Postica, N. Wolff, O. Polonskyi, V. Duppel, V. Kaidas, E. Lazari, N. Ababii, F. Faupel, L. Kienle and R. Adelung

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602868

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      The localized synthesis of iron oxide nanowire networks directly on device structures by thermal oxidation at relatively low temperatures (255 °C) is successfully reported. Nanosensors based on a single Fe2O3 nanowire with different diameters are fabricated and show excellent acetone sensing properties at room temperature.

    2. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance in Reduced Graphene Oxide/BiFeO3 Heterostructures

      Yan Ren, Feng Nan, Lu You, Yang Zhou, Yanyan Wang, Junling Wang, Xiaodong Su, Mingrong Shen and Liang Fang

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603457

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      Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/BiFeO3 composite is successfully prepared by the sol–gel method followed by the dip-coating method. The RGO can significantly suppress the recombination of the photogenerated carriers in the BiFeO3 film due to its delocalized conjugated structure and superior electrical conductivity, which lead to the enhanced incident photon-to-current efficiency and photocurrent density in the optimized RGO/BiFeO3 composite system.

  8. Communications

    1. Direct Observation of Dual-Filament Switching Behaviors in Ta2O5-Based Memristors

      Chia-Fu Chang, Jui-Yuan Chen, Chun-Wei Huang, Chung-Hua Chiu, Ting-Yi Lin, Ping-Hung Yeh and Wen-Wei Wu

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603116

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      The Forming phenomenon is observed via in situ transmission electron microscopy in the Ag/Ta2O5/Pt system. The device is switched to a low-resistance state as the dual filament is connected to the electrodes. The results of energy dispersive spectrometer and electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the filament is composed by a stack of oxygen vacancies and Ag metal.

    2. Self-Assembled Fe–N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Aerogels with Single-Atom Catalyst Feature as High-Efficiency Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

      Chengzhou Zhu, Shaofang Fu, Junhua Song, Qiurong Shi, Dong Su, Mark H. Engelhard, Xiaolin Li, Dongdong Xiao, Dongsheng Li, Luis Estevez, Dan Du and Yuehe Lin

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603407

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      Self-assembled M–N-doped carbon nanotube aerogels with single-atom catalyst feature are for the first time reported through one-step hydrothermal route and subsequent facile annealing treatment. By taking advantage of the porous nanostructures, 1D nanotubes as well as single-atom catalyst feature, the resultant Fe–N-doped carbon nanotube aerogels exhibit excellent oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalytic performance even better than commercial Pt/C in alkaline solution.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Catalysis of Hydrogen Evolution Reaction from WS2(1−x)P2x Nanoribbons

      Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Fengmei Wang, Kaili Liu, Zhongzhou Cheng, Kai Xu, Zhenxing Wang, Xueying Zhan, Chao Jiang and Jun He

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603706

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      Doping by foreign atom into transition metal dichalcogenides affords the opportunity to improve the catalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution reaction. Following this concept, WS2(1− x )P2 x is synthesized via simultaneously sulfurizing and phosphorizing WO3 nanowire on carbon fiber. The as-obtained material is then directly used as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction and superior catalytic performance is demonstrated therein.

    2. Strengthened Synergistic Effect of Metallic MxPy (M = Co, Ni, and Cu) and Carbon Layer via Peapod-Like Architecture for Both Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions

      Yuanjuan Bai, Ling Fang, Haitao Xu, Xiao Gu, Huijuan Zhang and Yu Wang

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603718

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      Three kinds of metallic H-CoP/C, Ni2P/C, and Cu3P/C nanocomposites have been synthesized, which exhibits remarkable catalytic activity and stability for both the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. The superior catalytic performance of these metallic MxPy/C materials is mainly contributed to the strengthened synergistic effect between metallic MxPy and carbon layer based on the unique peapod-like architecture.

  10. Communications

    1. 3D WO3/BiVO4/Cobalt Phosphate Composites Inverse Opal Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

      Haifeng Zhang, Weiwei Zhou, Yaping Yang and Chuanwei Cheng

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603840

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      A novel 3D WO3/BiVO4/cobalt phosphate composite inverse opal is designed for photoeletrochemical (PEC) water splitting, yielding a significantly improved PEC performance.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Correlation of Controllable Aggregation with Light-Emitting Property in Polymer Blend Optoelectronic Devices

      Young-Tae Kim, Jae-Bok Seol, Young-Hoon Kim, Hyung-Joo Ahn and Chan-Gyung Park

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602874

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      It is shown that the control of nanomorphology in solution-processed emitters in organic light-emitting diodes enables cost-effective processing and highly efficient properties. The selection of solvents governs Ir(ppy)3 aggregation in the as-processed state, needles, spheres, or both. In situ heating microscopy technique reveals annealing-driven improvement in the current efficiency of the devices.

    2. Recent Advances of Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes in the Development of Chemosensors for Heavy Metal Detection

      Nan Zhang, Ruirui Qiao, Jing Su, Juan Yan, Zhiqiang Xie, Yiqun Qiao, Xichang Wang and Jian Zhong

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604293

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      Electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) have been widely applied to increase the detection sensitivity of chemosensors due to their huge advantages such as high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, low cost, and easiness of fabrication and functionalization. The preparation methods of ENM-immobilized chemosensors/receptors are classified and their applications for optical, electro, and mass detections of heavy metals are reviewed.

    3. Hierarchical Porous O-Doped g-C3N4 with Enhanced Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction Activity

      Junwei Fu, Bicheng Zhu, Chuanjia Jiang, Bei Cheng, Wei You and Jiaguo Yu

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603938

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      Metal-free g-C3N4 with layered structure has tremendous potential in photocatalytic solar-to-fuels conversion. A novel strategy is applied to design hierarchical O-doped g-C3N4 nanotubes with excellent activity for photocatalytic CO2 reduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CH3OH).

  12. Communications

    1. High Power In-Plane Micro-Supercapacitors Based on Mesoporous Polyaniline Patterned Graphene

      Zhaoyang Liu, Shaohua Liu, Renhao Dong, Sheng Yang, Hao Lu, Akimitsu Narita, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603388

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      Micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) based on mesoporous polyaniline patterned graphene are demonstrated. The synergic effect from both electron-double-layer-capacitive graphene and pseudocapacitive mesoporous-polyaniline leads to outstanding MSC device performances, in regard to excellent volumetric capacitance and rate capabilities, which further result in high power density of 600 W cm−3, suggesting opportunities for future portable and wearable power supplies in diverse applications.

  13. Full Papers

    1. SiGeSn Ternaries for Efficient Group IV Heterostructure Light Emitters

      Nils von den Driesch, Daniela Stange, Stephan Wirths, Denis Rainko, Ivan Povstugar, Aleksei Savenko, Uwe Breuer, Richard Geiger, Hans Sigg, Zoran Ikonic, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Detlev Grützmacher, Siegfried Mantl and Dan Buca

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603321

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      Group IV SiGeSn ternaries are epitaxially grown directly on Ge-buffered Si wafers. Band structure engineering by independent tuning of Si and Sn incorporation yields bandgaps in the short-wave infrared range and, with appropriate stoichiometry, ternaries near the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition. Aiming for light emitters, a GeSn/SiGeSn multiquantum well heterostructure is epitaxially formed, proving strong room temperature electroluminescence from fabricated LEDs.

    2. Amorphous Mixed-Valence Vanadium Oxide/Exfoliated Carbon Cloth Structure Shows a Record High Cycling Stability

      Yu Song, Tian-Yu Liu, Bin Yao, Tian-Yi Kou, Dong-Yang Feng, Xiao-Xia Liu and Yat Li

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201700067

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      Both the structural pulverization and chemical dissolution of vanadium oxide electrodes are simultaneously suppressed by an integrated approach without the need of protective coating. The electrode achieves an outstanding cycling stability with no capacitive decay in 100 000 charging/discharging cycles. This value sets a new record for the cycling stability of vanadium oxide for energy storage applications.

    3. Activity Trends of Binary Silver Alloy Nanocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media

      Xiaoqiang Wu, Fuyi Chen, Nan Zhang, Yimin Lei, Yachao Jin, Adnan Qaseem and Roy L. Johnston

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603387

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      The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity trends of binary silver alloy nanocatalysts are discussed, which are highly dependent on the d-band center of valence band spectrum. The results present that the upshift d-band center is beneficial for ORR and the optimal Ag50Cu50 catalyst (0.1 eV) shows high activity and durability for ORR in alkaline media, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C-20% catalyst.

    4. Progressive Design of Plasmonic Metal–Semiconductor Ensemble toward Regulated Charge Flow and Improved Vis–NIR-Driven Solar-to-Chemical Conversion

      Chuang Han, Quan Quan, Hao Ming Chen, Yugang Sun and Yi-Jun Xu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602947

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      The tunable, progressive harvesting of visible-to-near infrared light (vis–NIR, λ > 570 nm) by designing plasmonic Au nanorods (NRs) and metal (Au, Ag, or Pt) nanoparticle (NP) codecorated 1D CdS nanowire ensemble is reported. Such cooperative synergy with tunable control of interfacial interaction, morphology optimization, and cocatalyst strategy results in the distinctly boosted performance for vis–NIR-driven plasmonic photocatalysis.

    5. Controlling Nucleation and Growth of Metal Halide Perovskite Thin Films for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

      Nobuya Sakai, Zhiping Wang, Victor M. Burlakov, Jongchul Lim, David McMeekin, Sandeep Pathak and Henry J. Snaith

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602808

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      A fractional substitution of PbI2 in the mixed-halide precursor (3MAI:PbCl2) has a profound impact upon the crystallization process and on the as crystallized film morphology and electronic properties. The “structurally improved” film delivers a J–V measured power conversion efficiency of 19.1%.

    6. Cobalt Phosphide Modified Titanium Oxide Nanophotocatalysts with Significantly Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution from Water Splitting

      Xinzheng Yue, Shasha Yi, Runwei Wang, Zongtao Zhang and Shilun Qiu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603301

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      For the first time, novel CoP/TiO2 hybrid nanophotocatalyst is successfully constructed, exhibiting high separation of photoexcited charge carriers and retarding the recombination of electron–hole pairs, excellent photocatalytic H2 evolution performance, and sufficient photostability. The obtained structure as photocatalysts has advantageous factors for both the material and structure, and achieves significantly enhanced photoconversion efficiency.

    7. Controlling the Pore Size of Mesoporous Carbon Thin Films through Thermal and Solvent Annealing

      Zhengping Zhou and Guoliang Liu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603107

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      The pore size of mesoporous carbon thin films from poly(acrylonitrile-block-methyl methacrylate) (PAN-b-PMMA) block copolymer is controlled through thermal and solvent annealing. After annealing and pyrolysis, PAN-b-PMMA forms mesoporous carbon thin films with tunable pore size. The pore size and center-to-center spacing (Lo) in mesoporous carbon thin films increase with thermal annealing temperature.

    8. Specific Capture of Peptide-Receptive Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules by Antibody Micropatterns Allows for a Novel Peptide-Binding Assay in Live Cells

      Cindy Dirscherl, Raghavendra Palankar, Mihaela Delcea, Tatiana A. Kolesnikova and Sebastian Springer

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602974

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      Microcontact printing is employed to immobilize anti-class I molecule antibodies on glass surfaces in distinct geometric patterns. Upon seeding cells onto these, green fluorescent protein-tagged cell surface class I molecules are captured, resembling the antibody micropattern geometry in live cells. Interestingly, these accumulated class I molecules are physiologically functional, since they bind specifically antigenic peptides as visualized by fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Communications

    1. Light-Triggered Inactivation of Enzymes with Photothermal Nanoheaters

      Sebastian A. Thompson, Sureyya Paterson, Marwa M. M. Azab, Alastair W. Wark and Roberto de la Rica

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603195

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      A universal method for inactivating enzymes on demand is introduced, which involves irradiating nanorod-bound enzymes with near-infrared light. The subsequent generation of plasmonic heat denatures the enzymes selectively without damaging other proteins or cell membranes present in the same solution.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Aminated Graphene Oxide Impregnated with Photocatalytic Polyoxometalate for Efficient Adsorption of Dye Pollutants and Its Facile and Complete Photoregeneration

      Yiwei Liu, Fang Luo, Shumei Liu, Shuxia Liu, Xuying Lai, Xiaohui Li, Ying Lu, Yangguang Li, Changwen Hu, Zhan Shi and Zhiping Zheng

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603174

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      A photoregenerating polyoxometalate-graphene oxide nanocomposite is facilely synthesized. Excellent cationic dyes adsorption capacity and natural light regeneration ability are achieved by combining photoactive amino-functionalization graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (POMs) via constructing 3D porous network, adjusting surface charge and tuning electronic structure. This study paves a new way for the design of adsorbent and photocatalyst based on graphene and POMs.

  16. Reviews

    1. Perovskite/Carbon Composites: Applications in Oxygen Electrocatalysis

      Yinlong Zhu, Wei Zhou and Zongping Shao

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603793

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      A comprehensive review of recent developments of perovskite/carbon composites for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media is provided, aiming to offer insights into key parameters that influence the ORR/OER performance and the origin of synergistic effect associated with the interfacial interaction in the composites. The existing challenges and future perspectives are also presented.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Temperature-Related Morphological Evolution of MoS2 Domains on Graphene and Electron Transfer within Heterostructures

      Wen Wan, Linjie Zhan, Binbin Xu, Feng Zhao, Zhenwei Zhu, Yinghui Zhou, Zhilin Yang, Tienmo Shih and Weiwei Cai

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603549

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      A competing sulfur-capture principle jointly with strict epitaxial mechanism is first proposed for the initial topography evolution of MoS2 domains with Mo or S terminations on the graphene template. The electron transfer between Gr and MoS2 is also experimentally evaluated. The understanding for optimizing the experimental design to synthesize the desirable heterostructures for various applications is provided.

  18. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Highly Active Sub-Nanometer Pt@Rh Core–Shell Nanocatalyst via a Photochemical Route: Porous Titania Nanoplates as a Superior Photoactive Support

      Wen-Wen Zhan, Qi-Long Zhu, Song Dang, Zheng Liu, Mitsunori Kitta, Kazutomo Suenaga, Lan-Sun Zheng and Qiang Xu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603879

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      Sub-nanometer Pt@Rh nanoparticles highly dispersed on MIL-125-derived porous TiO2 nanoplates are successfully prepared for the first time by a photochemical route, where the porous TiO2 nanoplates with a relatively high specific surface area play a dual role as both effective photoreductant and catalyst support. The resulting Pt@Rh/p-TiO2 can be utilized as a highly active catalyst.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Coaggregation of κ-Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Produces Morphologically Distinct Amyloid Fibrils

      Jared K. Raynes, Li Day, Pauline Crepin, Mathew H. Horrocks and John A. Carver

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603591

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      Upon heating together, the milk proteins κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin coaggregate to form amyloid fibrils. Cofibrillation of proteins is a rarely observed phenomenon and suggests a generic protein aggregation mechanism as long as sequence similarity requirements are met for both proteins. The results have implications for the ultra-heat treatment of milk.

  20. Communications

    1. Soft-Template Construction of 3D Macroporous Polypyrrole Scaffolds

      Shaohua Liu, Faxing Wang, Renhao Dong, Tao Zhang, Jian Zhang, Zhikun Zheng, Yiyong Mai and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201604099

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      A bottom-up approach toward 3D hierarchical macroporous polypyrrole aerogels is demonstrated via soft template-directed synthesis and self-assembly of ultrathin polypyrrole nanosheets in solution, which present the interconnected macropores, ultrathin walls, and large specific surface areas, thereby exhibiting a high capacity, satisfactory rate capability, and excellent cycling stability for Na-ion storage.

  21. Full Papers

    1. In Situ Coupling of CoP Polyhedrons and Carbon Nanotubes as Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalyst

      Can Wu, Yijun Yang, Duo Dong, Yuhang Zhang and Jinghong Li

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602873

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      In situ coupling of cobalt phosphide polyhedrons and carbon nanotubes exhibits excellent hydrogen evolution reaction performance due to exposing of the active sites and meanwhile maintaining the superior electric conductivity.

  22. Communications

    1. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoscroll Foam with High Diffusion Rate and Binding Affinity for Removal of Organic Pollutants

      Qile Fang, Xufeng Zhou, Wei Deng, Yuewen Liu, Zhi Zheng and Zhaoping Liu

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603779

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      A nitrogen-doped 3D graphene foam assembled with nanoscroll structure is constructed via a facile mild-heating methodology using polar molecule of formamide as the driving regent. The as-prepared graphene nanoscroll foam exhibits promising performance in organic pollutants removal with improved adsorption rate and high binding affinity, which is thought to be a novel adsorption material.

    2. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

      Mohamed Tarek Ghoneim and Muhammad Mustafa Hussain

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601801

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      A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Specific Photothermal Ablation Therapy of Endometriosis by Targeting Delivery of Gold Nanospheres

      Xiaomeng Guo, Wei Li, Jialin Zhou, Wanqing Hou, Xue Wen, Hanbo Zhang, Fenfen Kong, Lihua Luo, Qingpo Li, Yongzhong Du and Jian You

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603270

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      The specific photothermal therapy based on EphB4 receptor targeted hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) significantly inhibits the growth of the endometriotic volume and induces the atrophy of the endometriosis with no detectable toxicity to the normal organs. The level of TNF-α and estradiol also decreased in the lesions, indicating that the treatment enabled a recovery from hormonal imbalance and inflammatory injury.

    2. Controlled Gold Nanorod Reorientation and Hexagonal Order in Micromolded Gold Nanorod@pNIPAM Microgel Chain Arrays

      Tom Wagner, Alexander Nedilko, Malte Linn, Dmitry N. Chigrin, Gero von Plessen and Alexander Böker

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603054

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      Gold nanorod@poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) hybrid microgels are assembled into periodically aligned chains, exhibiting a hexagonal structure and anisotropic optical response. The manufacturing process involves a micromolding procedure providing ordered large-scale transfer of hybrid microgels onto solid substrates. A hexagonal arrangement was found from small-angle X-ray scattering. Mechanical confinement enables global control of gold nanorod orientation causing optical anisotropy.

  24. Communications

    1. Highly Conducting Spaced TiO2 Nanotubes Enable Defined Conformal Coating with Nanocrystalline Nb2O5 and High Performance Supercapacitor Applications

      Selda Ozkan, Nhat Truong Nguyen, Imgon Hwang, Anca Mazare and Patrik Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603821

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      Establishing self-organized spacing between TiO2 nanotubes allows for highly conformal Nb2O5 deposition that can be adjusted to optimized supercapacitive behavior.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Colorimetric Detection of Hg2+ Based on the Growth of Aptamer-Coated AuNPs: The Effect of Prolonging Aptamer Strands

      Lulu Tan, Zhengbo Chen, Chi Zhang, Xiangcong Wei, Tianhong Lou and Yan Zhao

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603370

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      A versatile and sensitive colorimetric aptasensor for Hg2+ detection based on aptamer–target specific binding and target-mediated growth of aptamer-coated gold nanoparticles.

    2. Mild Binding of Protein to C2N Monolayer Reveals Its Suitable Biocompatibility

      Baoyu Li, Weifeng Li, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar and Ruhong Zhou

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603685

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      The biological effect of nitrogenated graphene (C2N) is evaluated through molecular dynamics simulations. It can effectively attract and immobilize a prototypical protein (villin headpiece HP35) without causing distortion in the protein's structural integrity. The biofriendly aspects of C2N would make it a prospective candidate in biomedical applications.

  26. Communications

    1. Cadmium-Free InP/ZnSeS/ZnS Heterostructure-Based Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with a ZnMgO Electron Transport Layer and a Brightness of Over 10 000 cd m−2

      Hung Chia Wang, Heng Zhang, Hao Yue Chen, Han Cheng Yeh, Mei Rurng Tseng, Ren Jei Chung, Shuming Chen and Ru Shi Liu

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603962

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      Cadmium-free thick-shelled InP/ZnSeS/ZnS quantum dot (QD) was synthesized using the heating-up approach. This quantum dots was used in inverted quantum dots light emitting diode (QLED) devices. The brightness of the inverted QLED device can reach a brightness of over 10 000 cd m−2, low turn-on voltage (2.2 V), and high power efficiency (4.32 lm W−1).

    2. Interference-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Single-Cell Molecular Imaging with a High Signal-to-Background Ratio

      Sisi Ma, Qiang Li, Yongmei Yin, Jie Yang and Dingbin Liu

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603340

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      An interference-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering tag is constructed to profile the expression of cancer biomarkers at the single-cell level. The Raman tags present a strong and sharp peak in the cellular Raman-silent region, significantly diminishing the background interference. Moreover, the reporters are embedded in the layered gold nanoparticles, avoiding desorption and enzymatic degradation in physiological conditions.

    3. 1D Colloidal Hetero-Nanomaterials with Programmed Semiconductor Morphology and Metal Location for Enhancing Solar Energy Conversion

      Tao-Tao Zhuang, Yan Liu, Yi Li, Meng Sun, Zi-Jun Sun, Ping-Wu Du, Jun Jiang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602629

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      A new kind of multitetrahedron sheath ternary ZnS-(CdS/Au) hetero-nanorod is prepared, in which one 1D ultrathin ZnS nanorod is integrated with segmented tetrahedron sheaths made of CdS, and more importantly, Au nanoparticles can be decorated in a targeted manner onto the vertexes and edges of CdS tetrahedron sheaths solely, for achieving performance improvement in photoelectric and photochemical conversion applications.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Superamphiphobic Bionic Proboscis for Contamination-Free Manipulation of Nano and Core–Shell Droplets

      William S. Y. Wong, Guanyu Liu and Antonio Tricoli

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603688

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      Inspired by butterflies' ability to channel minute fluid volumes and its proboscis' inherent self-cleaning properties, superamphiphobic bionic proboscises (SAPs) are made by aerosol derived superamphiphobic coatings within and around needles tips. SAPs demonstrate properties that perform beyond natural systems, circumventing age-old drawbacks. They showcase contamination-free manipulation, injection, and extraction of tiny droplets, analogous and superior to the proboscises of butterflies.

    2. Core–Shell Structure and Interaction Mechanism of γ-MnO2 Coated Sulfur for Improved Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Lubin Ni, Zhen Wu, Gangjin Zhao, Chunyu Sun, Chuanqiang Zhou, XiangXiang Gong and Guowang Diao

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603466

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      The multifunctional γ-MnO2 shell as an efficient sulfur host can prevent polysulfide shuttle via physical confinement and chemical interaction. Comprehensive analytical studies identify the new surface interaction mechanism of phase evolution from MnO2 to Mn3O4 on host surface and following surface degradation mechanism in Li-S cells. This sheds new lights on the practical application of the low-cost, high-energy, and long-life Li-S batteries.

    3. Induced Aggregation of AIE-Active Mono-Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complex into Supramolecular Branched Wires for Light-Emitting Diodes

      Subrata Maji, Parvej Alam, Gundam Sandeep Kumar, Sandip Biswas, Piyush Kanti Sarkar, Bidisa Das, Ishita Rehman, Benu Brata Das, Nikhil Ranjan Jana, Inamur Rahaman Laskar and Somobrata Acharya

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603780

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      In-plane J-aggregates of an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active Cyclo-Ir complex into branched supramolecular wires formed at air–water interface efficiently prevent intramolecular vibration and rotations of the ligands enhancing the AIE effect. A large enhancement of luminescence comparable to the solid state is obtained from the supramolecular wires, which has been utilized for the fabrication of light-emitting diodes with low threshold voltage.

    4. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Anisotropic Swelling of Silicon in Si–Void@SiO x Nanowire Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Qian Liu, Zhe Cui, Rujia Zou, Jianhua Zhang, Kaibing Xu and Junqing Hu

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603754

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      The Si–void@SiOx nanowire anode is designed by a simple synthetic and environmentally friendly process, and in situ investigation of lithiated Si–void@SiOx nanowire is performed inside a transmission electron microscope. Si–void@SiOx nanowire electrodes exhibit improved lithium storage properties including the high specific capacity and high rate capability.

    5. Chiral-Selective Formation of 1D Polymers Based on Ullmann-Type Coupling: The Role of the Metallic Substrate

      Tuan Anh Pham, Bay V. Tran, Manh-Thuong Nguyen and Meike Stöhr

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603675

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      The role of metallic substrates on the chiral-selective formation of 1D polymers based on Ullmann-type coupling is demonstrated for the first time. Upon annealing at 200 °C, an achiral covalently linked polymer of 6,12-dibromochrysene is formed on Au(111), while a chiral Cu-coordinated polymer is spontaneously formed after deposition of the molecules on Cu(111) held at room temperature.

  28. Reviews

    1. Hybrid AFM for Nanoscale Physicochemical Characterization: Recent Development and Emerging Applications

      Wanyi Fu and Wen Zhang

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603525

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      Hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM) combines AFM with spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (IR), Raman and confocal. Hybrid AFM techniques can achieve nanoscale physicochemical characterization of material surfaces with high spatial resolutions. Recent developments and applications of hybrid AFM are summarized with a focus on AFM-IR and AFM-Raman and their existing drawbacks and limitations.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Simultaneous Synthesis of WO3−x Quantum Dots and Bundle-Like Nanowires Using a One-Pot Template-Free Solvothermal Strategy and Their Versatile Applications

      Yao Wang, Xiaoxia Wang, Yuanhong Xu, Tao Chen, Mengli Liu, Fushuang Niu, Shuang Wei and Jingquan Liu

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603689

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      The WO3−x nanostructures including fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) and bundle-like nanowires are synthesized by one-pot template/surfactant-free solvothermal method. The generation mechanism for these two WO3−x nanostructures are systematically studied and proposed. The WO3−x QDs have been successfully applied in efficient fluorescent staining and specific ferric ion detection. Moreover, the nanowires can be utilized as effective dielectric materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    2. Design of a Molecular Hybrid of Dual Peptide Inhibitors Coupled on AuNPs for Enhanced Inhibition of Amyloid β-Protein Aggregation and Cytotoxicity

      Neng Xiong, Yanjiao Zhao, Xiaoyan Dong, Jie Zheng and Yan Sun

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601666

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      A novel strategy of designing nanosized inhibitors against Aβ aggregation is presented by using hybrid peptide inhibitors coupled onto gold nanoparticles. The branched dual-inhibitor conjugate inhibits Aβ fibrillation and cytotoxicity significantly at extremely low concentrations. It suggests that the structural characters of the conjugate promote its synergetic interactions with Aβ, leading to strong inhibitions on Aβ oligomerization and fibrillation.

  30. Communications

    1. Co9S8/MoS2 Yolk–Shell Spheres for Advanced Li/Na Storage

      Hongbo Geng, Jun Yang, Zhengfei Dai, Yu Zhang, Yun Zheng, Hong Yu, Huanwen Wang, Zhongzhen Luo, Yuanyuan Guo, Yufei Zhang, Haosen Fan, Xinglong Wu, Junwei Zheng, Yonggang Yang, Qingyu Yan and Hongwei Gu

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603490

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      Uniform sized Co9S8/MoS2 yolk–shell spheres with an average diameter of about 500 nm have been synthesized by a facile route. When evaluated as anodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, these Co9S8/MoS2 yolk–shell spheres show high specific capacities, excellent rate capabilities, and good cycling stability.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Cooperative Strategies for Enhancing Performance of Photothermal Therapy (PTT) Agent: Optimizing Its Photothermal Conversion and Cell Internalization Ability

      Baoji Du, Chongbo Ma, Guanyu Ding, Xu Han, Dan Li, Erkang Wang and Jin Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603275

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      The performance of the photothermal agent can be enhanced by optimizing the cell internalization ability (CIA) and photothermal conversion ability (PCA), which was demonstrated by comparing the hybrids of graphene oxide and gold nanostar (GGN) protected by bovine serum albumin (BSA) (GGNB), the reduced GGNB (rGGNB), FA-coupled rGGNB (rGGNB-FA), mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropan (DOTAP) with rGGNB (rGGNB&DOTAP) or rGGNB-FA (rGGNB-FA&DOTAP).

    2. Tetrahedral DNA Nanostructure: A Potential Promoter for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration via Regulating Chondrocyte Phenotype and Proliferation

      Xiaoru Shao, Shiyu Lin, Qiang Peng, Sirong Shi, Xueqin Wei, Tao Zhang and Yunfeng Lin

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602770

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      Tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) have been considered as a promising material in biomedical fields. Here, an insight into the chondrocyte cellular response to TDNs is provided. It is demonstrated that the regulation of cell phenotype is related with making adjustments of microtubules and downregulating the Notch signaling pathway. This discovery provides a novel approach for cartilage regeneration.

  32. Communications

    1. Wet Chemical Synthesis of Silica Nanosheets via Ethyl Acetate-Mediated Hydrolysis of Silica Precursors and Their Applications

      Xiaoxiao Wang, Jing Xu, Qilong Wang, Aiqun Xu, Yusheng Zhai, Jirong Luo, Yong Jiang, Nongyue He and Zhifei Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603369

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      Freestanding and transferable silica nanosheets with thicknesses of ≈5–7 nm are prepared via ethyl acetate-mediated hydrolysis of silica precursors in aqueous solution. The resulting silica nanosheets have shown many potential applications. For example, they can be used as the support film on the finer mesh grids for transmission electron microscopy imaging and as the precursor for the synthesis of silicon nanosheets.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Anisotropic Spectroscopy and Electrical Properties of 2D ReS2(1–x)Se2x Alloys with Distorted 1T Structure

      Wen Wen, Yiming Zhu, Xuelu Liu, Hung-Pin Hsu, Zhen Fei, Yanfeng Chen, Xinsheng Wang, Mei Zhang, Kuan-Hung Lin, Fei-Sheng Huang, Yi-Ping Wang, Ying-Sheng Huang, Ching-Hwa Ho, Ping-Heng Tan, Chuanhong Jin and Liming Xie

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603788

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      2D rhenium dichalcogenides alloys are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrical transport measurement. Composition-dependent Raman anisotropy revealed by angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Anisotropic electrical transport is observed in all ReS2(1− x )Se2 x alloys with maximum mobility along b axis.

  34. Communications

    1. Molecular Luminescence of White Carbon

      Jun Xiao, Jiling Li and Guowei Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603495

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      Four-color emission modulated by the molecular chain length from white carbon (carbyne crystals) is observed. It is also established that a carbyne molecule with four carbon atoms is the basic unit or building block to construct carbyne crystals, where the chain length of the carbyne molecule in the synthesized carbyne crystals follows the rule of 4n (n = 1, 2, 3, …).

  35. Full Papers

    1. Sensitive Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Using Stability-Limited Few-Layer Black Phosphorus as an Electron Donor and a Reservoir

      Jian Peng, Youqun Lai, Yuanyuan Chen, Jun Xu, Liping Sun and Jian Weng

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603589

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      Instability of black phosphorus is an advantage for biomolecule detection. Here, black phosphorus is used as an electron donor and a reservoir due to its easy oxidation to enhance the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles. The black phosphorus-assisted Au nanoparticles are utilized for label-free colorimetric detection of biomarkers with high sensitivity.

    2. Mesoporous Germanium Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery with Exceptional Cycling Stability in Wide Temperature Range

      Sinho Choi, Yoon-Gyo Cho, Jieun Kim, Nam-Soon Choi, Hyun-Kon Song, Guoxiu Wang and Soojin Park

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603045

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      Newly developed porous germanium (Ge) anode materials prepared by a metallothermic reduction reaction for high performance lithium-ion batteries in a wide temperature range are demonstrated. Mesoporous Ge anodes with high surface area exhibit high specific capacities and highly stable cycling performances at various temperatures. Furthermore, full cells with the Ge anode exhibit an excellent cyclability at low temperature.

    3. Scaffolding of Enzymes on Virus Nanoarrays: Effects of Confinement and Virus Organization on Biocatalysis

      Anisha N. Patel, Agnès Anne, Arnaud Chovin, Christophe Demaille, Eric Grelet, Thierry Michon and Cécilia Taofifenua

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603163

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      Glucose oxidase scaffolded virus nanoarrays with tunable catalytic properties are directly organized onto electrode supports using immunodecoration for assembly. Structural and catalytic characterization reveals the effect of enzyme confinement on kinetic activity as a function of virus organization. Enhanced catalysis for glucose oxidase is found for randomly oriented GOx-fd nanoarrays compared to aligned nanoarrays and reference nonscaffolded enzyme molecules.

    4. Cleanable Air Filter Transferring Moisture and Effectively Capturing PM2.5

      Xinglei Zhao, Yuyao Li, Ting Hua, Pan Jiang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu and Bin Ding

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603306

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      A cleanable air filter transferring moisture and effectively capturing PM2.5 is fabricated via electrospinning using superhydrophilic polyacrylonitrile fibers containing abundant hydroxyl and hydrophobic polyvinylidenene fluoride fibers. The resultant air filter with a hydrophobic to superhydrophilic gradient structure has the feature of a high PM2.5 purification efficiency, low air resistance, an important moisture-vapor transmission rate, and an easy-to-clean property.

    5. Design and Analysis of Localized DNA Hybridization Chain Reactions

      Hieu Bui, Vincent Miao, Sudhanshu Garg, Reem Mokhtar, Tianqi Song and John Reif

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602983

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      Localized DNA hybridization chain reactions have been experimentally demonstrated to have six times speed-up over nonlocalized DNA reactions. With the goal of increasing the reaction rates, a surface-bound method by tethering metastable DNA hairpins to a long DNA track has been shown to influence the reaction rate via thermal equilibrium gel data and real-time fluorescence kinetic studies.

    6. Single Upconversion Nanoparticle–Bacterium Cotrapping for Single-Bacterium Labeling and Analysis

      Hongbao Xin, Yuchao Li, Dekang Xu, Yueli Zhang, Chia-Hung Chen and Baojun Li

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603418

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      Single-bacterium labeling and analysis are realized by optical connecting of single upconversion nanoparticles and bacteria using an optical cotrapping method. The labeled single bacterium can be moved to designated locations in 3D for further analysis, and the signal from the labeled single bacterium can be detected in real time for single-bacteria analysis.

    7. Continuous Films of Self-Assembled Graphene Quantum Dots for n-Type Doping of Graphene by UV-Triggered Charge Transfer

      Myung Jin Park, Yuna Kim, Youngsoo Kim and Byung Hee Hong

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603142

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      A closely packed continuous film of graphene quantum dots (GQDF) is demonstrated for utilization in mixed dimensional heterostructures. In a hetero-stacked graphene/GQDF/SiO2 device, the GQDF plays a role not only as a buffer layer that isolates the CVD graphene from undesired p-doping of SiO2 substrate but also as a photoactive layer.

    8. Layer Dependence and Light Tuning Surface Potential of 2D MoS2 on Various Substrates

      Feng Li, Junjie Qi, Minxuan Xu, Jiankun Xiao, Yuliang Xu, Xiankun Zhang, Shuo Liu and Yue Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603103

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      The surface potential of two dimensional MoS2 is systematically investigated by a KPFM at ambient atmosphere. The surface potential of MoS2 is decrease with the increase of thickness. The surface potential of monolayer MoS2 is strongly dependent on its adherent substrates. UV irradiation can also modulate the surface potential of the monolayer MoS2.

    9. 3D Probed Lipid Dynamics in Small Unilamellar Vesicles

      Meng-Hsuan Chao, Yen-Ting Lin, Namasivayam Dhenadhayalan, Hsin-Lung Lee, Hsin-Yen Lee and King-Chuen Lin

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603408

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      Single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy developed herein overcomes the resolution barrier of optical microscopy to look into lipid dynamics. The fluorescence trajectories and subsequent autocorrelation of lipid-like tracer in the membrane bilayers are obtained at a single molecule level.

  36. Communications

    1. Test-Paper-Like Photonic Crystal Viscometer

      Yuqi Zhang, Qianqian Fu and Jianping Ge

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603351

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      A test-paper-like photonic crystal (PC) viscometer is fabricated based on the positive correlation between viscosity and the infiltration time for viscous liquid to entirely soak the PC film. It can be broadly used in different occasions to quickly determine the viscosity for many liquids, considering its portable and disposable characteristics and the requirement of little samples.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Optimal Reactivity and Improved Self-Healing Capability of Structurally Dynamic Polymers Grafted on Janus Nanoparticles Governed by Chain Stiffness and Spatial Organization

      Guoxi Xu, Zihan Huang, Pengyu Chen, Tianqi Cui, Xinghua Zhang, Bing Miao and Li-Tang Yan

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603155

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      A joint computational-theoretical framework and experimental discussion are proposed to identify that semiflexible dynamic polymers possess the optimal reactivity and self-healing ability and to reveal the detailed molecular mechanism. The findings highlight the molecular engineering of polymer architecture and intrinsic property as a versatile strategy in control over the structural responses and functionalities of emerging materials with optimized self-healing capabilities.

  38. Communications

    1. Highly Ordered Nanoring Arrays Formed by Templated Si-Containing Triblock Terpolymer Thin Films

      Karim Aissou, Muhammad Mumtaz, Pierre Marcasuzaa, Cyril Brochon, Eric Cloutet, Guillaume Fleury and Georges Hadziioannou

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603184

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      Laterally ordered nanorings with a periodicity of 38 nm are produced from the directed self-assembly of poly(1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films on topographically patterned substrates. Such nanoscale arrays with vertically oriented rings are highly desired in technological applications including memory using magnetic recording, metamaterial, waveguide, etc.

    2. 3D Porous Nanoarchitectures Derived from SnS/S-Doped Graphene Hybrid Nanosheets for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors

      Chunyan Liu, Shulin Zhao, Yanan Lu, Yingxue Chang, Dongdong Xu, Qi Wang, Zhihui Dai, Jianchun Bao and Min Han

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603494

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      3D porous nanoarchitectures derived from SnS/S-doped graphene hybrid nanosheets are successfully prepared by controllable thermal conversion of oleylamine-capped mixed-phase SnS2-SnS nanodisks precursors, and employed as electroactive material to fabricate flexible, symmetric, all-solid-state supercapacitors. The fabricated solid devices exhibit very high areal specific capacitance (2.98 mF cm−2), good cycling stability (99% for 10 000 cycles), excellent flexibility, and desirable mechanical stability.

    3. Self-Supported 3D PdCu Alloy Nanosheets as a Bifunctional Catalyst for Electrochemical Reforming of Ethanol

      Xiaojing Zhao, Lei Dai, Qing Qin, Fei Pei, Chengyi Hu and Nanfeng Zheng

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602970

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      3D PdCu alloy nanosheets exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction and ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline media. Simultaneous hydrogen and acetate production via a solar-powered cell for ethanol reforming has been fabricated using the nanosheets as bifunctional electrocatalysts. The device is promising for the production of both hydrogen and value-added chemicals using renewable energy.

    4. Rattle-Structured Upconversion Nanoparticles for Near-IR-Induced Suppression of Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Aggregation

      Sukeun Kuk, Byung Il Lee, Joon Seok Lee and Chan Beum Park

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603139

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      Rose bengal (RB)-loaded upconverting nanocomposites are synthesized as a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive inhibitor of Aβ aggregation. Rattle-structured, organosilica shell (ROS) is deposited on NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals (UCNPs) for high loading efficiency and disaggregation of RB. RB/UCNP@ROS successfully inhibits Aβ self-assembly under NIR irradiation by generating 1O2. Furthermore, photoexcited RB/UCNP@ROS is effective in suppressing Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    5. Identifying the Collective Length in VO2 Metal–Insulator Transitions

      Takeaki Yajima, Tomonori Nishimura and Akira Toriumi

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603113

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      The “collective length” in VO2 metal–insulator transitions is identified by controlling nanoscale dopant distribution in thin films. The crossover from the local transition to the collective transition is observed, which originated from the increased instability of the metal–insulator domain boundary. This instability renders the transition collective within the “collective length,” which will enable to design collective electronic devices.

  39. Full Papers

    1. High-Throughput, Protein-Targeted Biomolecular Detection Using Frequency-Domain Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy

      Richard J. Murdock, Shawn A. Putnam, Soumen Das, Ankur Gupta, Elyse D. Z. Chase and Sudipta Seal

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602862

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      Analyte detectionis critical to a broad range of technologies. An effective magneto-optical technique based on the Faraday rotation principle is reported—with complementary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies—to quantify the binding of bovine serum albumin proteins to antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The diagnostic technique also opens new avenues for both controlling and quantifying the number of active binding sites.

  40. Communications

    1. Suppressing Self-Discharge and Shuttle Effect of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries with V2O5-Decorated Carbon Nanofiber Interlayer

      Ming Liu, Qing Li, Xianying Qin, Gemeng Liang, Wenjie Han, Dong Zhou, Yan-Bing He, Baohua Li and Feiyu Kang

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602539

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      V2O5 decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are prepared and used as a multifunctional interlayer for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery. V2O5 anchored on CNFs can not only suppress the shuttle effect of polysulfide by the strong adsorption and redox reaction, but also work as a high-potential dam to restrain the self-discharge behavior in battery. As a result, the Li–S batteries with a high capacity and long cycling life can be stored and rested for a long time without obvious capacity fading.

  41. Full Papers

    1. Inhibiting Solid Tumor Growth In Vivo by Non-Tumor-Penetrating Nanomedicine

      Shixian Lv, Zhaohui Tang, Wantong Song, Dawei Zhang, Mingqiang Li, Huaiyu Liu, Jianjun Cheng, Wu Zhong and Xuesi Chen

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201600954

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      The inhibition of solid tumors by co-delivery of vascular disrupting agents (VDA) and cytotoxic drugs is presented. VDA could destroy tumor vessels and inhibit interior tumor cells by cutting off nutritional supply, cytotoxic drugs kill the residual cells at tumor exterior regions, and synergistically achieving high anti-tumor efficacy with no need to get nanomedicine to reach each cancer cells.

  42. Communications

    1. Stretchable Fiber Supercapacitors with High Volumetric Performance Based on Buckled MnO2/Oxidized Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes

      Mingyang Li, Mei Zu, Jinshan Yu, Haifeng Cheng and Qingwen Li

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602994

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      A stretchable fiber supercapacitor (SC) based on buckled MnO2/oxidized carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrode is fabricated by a simple prestraining-then-buckling method. The prepared stretchable fiber SC has a specific volumetric capacitance up to 409.4 F cm−3, which is 33 times of the pristine CNT fiber based SC, and shows the outstanding stability and repeatability in performance as stretchable SC.

    2. Body-Centered Tetragonal C16: A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetallic Carbon Composed of Tetrarings

      Yong Cheng, Xing Feng, Xiaoting Cao, Bin Wen, Qian Wang, Yoshiyuki Kawazoe and Puru Jena

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602894

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      The present work not only predicts the existence of 3D topological semimetallic carbon allotropes composed of tetrarings, but also provides a likely crystalline structure for the unknown phase produced in the detonation soot.

  43. Full Papers

    1. Edge States and Topological Phase Transitions in Chains of Dielectric Nanoparticles

      Sergey Kruk, Alexey Slobozhanyuk, Denitza Denkova, Alexander Poddubny, Ivan Kravchenko, Andrey Miroshnichenko, Dragomir Neshev and Yuri Kivshar

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603190

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      Topologically protected edge states of light are demonstrated in zigzag chains of resonant silicon nanodisks. Near field scans reveal the topological transition from the linear to the zigzag chain, accompanied by formation of both electric and magnetic dipole modes localized at the zigzag chain edges. These results pave the way for nanoscale all-dielectric photonic circuitry immune to defects.

  44. Reviews

    1. Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Cancer Nanotheranostics

      Yongjiu Chen, Yakun Wu, Bingbing Sun, Sijin Liu and Huiyu Liu

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603446

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      Nanotheranostic agents have emerged as a robust driving force for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. Of them, 2DNMs have shown great potentials in cancer nanotheranostics due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. In the current review, the state-of-the-art facets of 2DNMs are recapitulated for their targeted bio-imaging, selective cancer cell obliteration, tailored phototherapy and customized drug delivery.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Constructing Post-Permeation Method to Fabricate Polymer/Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells with PCE Exceeding 6%

      Xiaohang Du, Qingsen Zeng, Gan Jin, Fangyuan Liu, Tianjiao Ji, Yuanyuan Yue, Yi Yang, Hao Zhang and Bai Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603771

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      Polymer/nanocrystals hybrid solar cells are made by post-permeation method. By this method, kinds of polymers can be applied regardless of the intermiscibility with the nanoparticles. The inorganic nanocrystal layer and the polymer layer can be treated under their optimized annealing temperatures, respectively. A high power conversion efficiency of 6.36% in polymer/nanocrystals hybrid solar cells is achieved.

  46. Communications

    1. Self-Templated Synthesis of Co- and N-Doped Carbon Microtubes Composed of Hollow Nanospheres and Nanotubes for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Sung Hoon Ahn and Arumugam Manthiram

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603437

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      A facile, self-templated strategy for the synthesis of Co- and N-doped carbon microtubular structures composed of nanoscale hollow spheres and nanotubes is proposed. Cobalt oxalate microtubes serve simultaneously as the solid cobalt precursor for the in situ conversion reaction to metal-organic framework and self-templates for the 1D tubular structure.

  47. Full Papers

    1. MOF-Derived Hollow Cage NixCo3−xO4 and Their Synergy with Graphene for Outstanding Supercapacitors

      Anjali Jayakumar, Rajini P. Antony, Ronghua Wang and Jong-Min Lee

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly optimized nickel cobalt mixed oxide has been derived from zeolite imidazole framworks. A composite of nickel cobalt mixed oxide/graphene 3D-hydrogel enhances the electrochemical performance by virtue of a continuous and porous graphene conductive network.

  48. Communications

    1. Sulfur-Immobilized, Activated Porous Carbon Nanotube Composite Based Cathodes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Jun Seop Lee, Jaemoon Jun, Jyongsik Jang and Arumugam Manthiram

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602984

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Activated highly porous carbon nanotubes are synthesized with a facile dual-nozzle co-electrospinning and a redox process to apply the framework of sulfur-immobilized composite as a high-performance cathode in lithium–sulfur batteries.

  49. Full Papers

    1. Inkjet-Printed Lithium–Sulfur Microcathodes for All-Printed, Integrated Nanomanufacturing

      Craig A. Milroy, Seonpil Jang, Toshihiko Fujimori, Ananth Dodabalapur and Arumugam Manthiram

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603786

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sulfur-infused single-wall carbon nanotubes are adopted as an integrated active-material/current collector for inkjet-printed lithium–sulfur cathodes on a flexible aluminum foil substrate. The printed electrodes provide a capacity of 700–800 mAh g−1 S over 100 cycles at a C/2 rate, while cyclic voltammetry and UV–visible analysis indicate that the discharge mechanism does not include the formation of soluble polysulfides.

  50. Reviews

    1. All Inorganic Halide Perovskites Nanosystem: Synthesis, Structural Features, Optical Properties and Optoelectronic Applications

      Xiaoming Li, Fei Cao, Dejian Yu, Jun Chen, Zhiguo Sun, Yalong Shen, Ying Zhu, Lin Wang, Yi Wei, Ye Wu and Haibo Zeng

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603996

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All inorganic halide perovskite nanosystems are expected to be promising materials for next generation lighting, display, and many other applications. Within two years, lots of interesting results have been observed. The synthesis and progresses on optoelectronic devices and optical applications, such as LEDs, photodetectors, solar cells, and lasing, are summarized. Future directions, challenges and possible applications are also put forward.

  51. Full Papers

    1. Single Nucleobase Identification Using Biophysical Signatures from Nanoelectronic Quantum Tunneling

      Lee E. Korshoj, Sepideh Afsari, Sajida Khan, Anushree Chatterjee and Prashant Nagpal

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Probing the molecular orbitals of chemically distinct DNA nucleobases offers a path for facile sequence identification, but molecular entropy makes such identification difficult. Here, theoretical models for quantum charge tunneling are combined with transition voltage spectroscopy to obtain nine biophysical parameters that can be measured with scanning tunneling spectroscopy. These parameters dramatically improve nucleobase identification.

    2. A Fast and Efficient Replacement of CTAB with MUA on the Surface of Gold Nanorods Assisted by a Water-Immiscible Ionic Liquid

      Linjia Su, Song Hu, Li Zhang, Zhuoran Wang, Weiping Gao, Jing Yuan and Minghua Liu

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602809

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      Ligand exchange of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with mercaptoundecanoic acid on gold nanorod surface can be successfully achieved with the assistance of a water-immiscible ionic liquid, [BMIM][Tf2N]. Such ionic liquid-assisted ligand exchange is rapid and highly efficient, which is able to reverse the surface charge, enhance the colloidial stability, and improve the biocompatibility of GNRs for its potential biological applications.

    3. Lateral Magnetically Modulated Multilayers by Combining Ion Implantation and Lithography

      Enric Menéndez, Hiwa Modarresi, Claire Petermann, Josep Nogués, Neus Domingo, Haoliang Liu, Brian J. Kirby, Amir Syed Mohd, Zahir Salhi, Earl Babcock, Stefan Mattauch, Chris Van Haesendonck, André Vantomme and Kristiaan Temst

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603465

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      Ion implantation through lithographed masks is shown to be an advantageous method to prepare laterally modulated multilayers. Lateral patterns consisting of alternating Co (1.6 µm wide) and Co-CoO (2.4 µm wide) lines were prepared by oxygen ion implantation into a prelithographed Au-sandwiched Co thin film. The compositional and magnetic in-plane modulation results in a highly tunable magnetoresistance, envisaging potential uses in spintronics.

    4. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms

      Yanlong Tai and Gilles Lubineau

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603486

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Typical demonstrations of human-finger electronics based on opposite humidity/resistance responses of carbon nanofilms are presented: i) a humidity-insensitive multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO) hybrid conductive films; ii) an MWCNT/rGO pattern for gesture recognition; iii) the MWCNT/rGO/MWCNT or rGO/MWCNT/rGO patterns for 3D noncontact sensing, which will be complementary to existing 3D touch technology.

    5. Optimization of Microporous Carbon Structures for Lithium–Sulfur Battery Applications in Carbonate-Based Electrolyte

      Lei Hu, Yue Lu, Xiaona Li, Jianwen Liang, Tao Huang, Yongchun Zhu and Yitai Qian

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603533

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microporous carbon with a 3D structure has been prepared by the immediate carbonization of alkali complexes. It is vital to develop a simple and efficient approach to tailor precisely microporous structure of carbon host for better accommodation of sulfur in carbonate-based electrolyte.

    6. Efficacy Dependence of Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Upconversion Nanoparticles: Subcellular Positioning and Irradiation Productivity

      Dexin Chen, Ran Tao, Ke Tao, Biqiong Chen, Seok Ki Choi, Qing Tian, Yawen Xu, Guangdong Zhou and Kang Sun

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel nanoplatforms for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are developed, featuring with a thin coating layer minimizing energy transfer distance, controllable photosensitizer payload, and capability of surface modification for organelle targeting. Targeting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing nanoplatform to mitochondria is found more effective than optimizing ROS production for improving PDT efficacy. The findings may provide a novel strategy for designing nanomedicine for PDT.

    7. A Controlled Design of Ripple-Like Polyamide-6 Nanofiber/Nets Membrane for High-Efficiency Air Filter

      Shichao Zhang, Hui Liu, Fenglei Zuo, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu and Bin Ding

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A ripple-like polyamide-6 nanofiber/nets membrane filter composed of 2D nanonets (≈20 nm) and scaffold framework is fabricated via combining electrospinning/netting technique with the receiving substrate design. By virtue of its small pore size and stable cavity structure, the filter can filtrate ultrafine airborne particles with high removal efficiency of 99.996%, low air resistance of 95 Pa, using physical sieving manner.

  52. Communications

    1. TiL4-Coordinated Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots as an Efficient Contrast Agent for In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Cancer

      Zhengbo Sun, Yuetao Zhao, Zhibin Li, Haodong Cui, Yayan Zhou, Weihao Li, Wei Tao, Han Zhang, Huaiyu Wang, Paul K. Chu and Xue-Feng Yu

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602896

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Black phosphorus quantum dots coordinated with a sulfonic ester of the titanium ligand are prepared and exhibit enhanced stability. In vitro and in vivo photoacoustic imaging applications demonstrate that the quantum dots can efficiently accumulate inside the tumor producing tumor profiles with high spatial resolution, demonstrating their potential as an efficient agent for photoacoustic imaging.

  53. Full Papers

    1. Fluorescence Enhancement on Large Area Self-Assembled Plasmonic-3D Photonic Crystals

      Guojian Chen, Dongzhu Wang, Wei Hong, Lu Sun, Yongxiang Zhu and Xudong Chen

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201602612

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Plasmonic-3D photonic crystals are synthesized by silver sputtering deposition on top of hydrophobic 3D photonic crystals and exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance induced by 3D photonic stop band. Such large area hybrid structures present nearly two orders of fluorescence enhancement with a wide range of effective distance, providing numerous possibilities for “photon management” applications.

  54. Communications

    1. Flexible Micro-Supercapacitor Based on Graphene with 3D Structure

      Lu Zhang, Derek DeArmond, Noe T. Alvarez, Rachit Malik, Nicholas Oslin, Colin McConnell, Paa Kwasi Adusei, Yu-Yun Hsieh and Vesselin Shanov

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201603114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flexible micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) are constructed by 3D graphene from chemical vapor deposition. Without using any binder or metal current collector, the as-prepared 3D graphene MSC exhibits good flexibility, excellent cyclic life, and high areal capacitance of 1.5 mF cm−2 at a scan rate of 10 V s−1. The electrochemical performance is further improved by oxygen plasma functionalization.

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