Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 14.385

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/83 (Energy & Fuels); 4/136 (Physics Applied); 5/136 (Chemistry Physical); 5/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 7/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  1. Reviews

    1. Research Progress on Negative Electrodes for Practical Li-Ion Batteries: Beyond Carbonaceous Anodes

      Vanchiappan Aravindan, Yun-Sung Lee and Srinivasan Madhavi

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402225

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      Research progress on the development of three different kinds of anodes with conventional cathodes for the construction of high-performance Li-ion batteries is described. Irreversible capacity loss, huge volume variation, unstable solid electrolyte interface layer formation, and poor cycleability are the main issues for conversion and alloy type anodes, with the exception of insertion type anodes. How best to circumvent these issues while fabricating full-cell assembly is discussed and future prospects of such anodes are described.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Emissive Nanoclusters Based on Subnanometer-Sized Au38 Cores for Boosting the Performance of Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Cells

      Dong Chan Lim, Bo Yeol Seo, Sungho Nho, Dae Han Kim, Eun Mi Hong, Joo Yul Lee, Sun-Young Park, Chang-Lyoul Lee, Young Dok Kim and Shinuk Cho

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500393

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      High efficiency inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a mixture of conjugated polymers and soluble C70 derivatives are demonstrated through the incorporation of a dodecanethiol monolayer-protected Au nanoclusters (Au:SR) with sub-nanometer-sized Au38 cores. Because of effective energy transfer, based on protoplasmonic fluorescence, the highest performing solar cells fabricated with the Au:SR cluster yield a power-conversion efficiency of 9.15%.

    2. Nanowire Interconnects for Printed Large-Area Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Modules

      Fei Guo, Peter Kubis, Thomas Przybilla, Erdmann Spiecker, Andre Hollmann, Stefan Langner, Karen Forberich and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401779

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      Large-area (8 × 8 cm2) semitransparent organic photovoltaic modules using silver nanowires (AgNWs) as top electrodes are manufactured based on ultrafast laser patterning. The low-ohmic contact of the interconnects between the top AgNWs and the bottom electrodes in combination with high-precision laser beam positioning system allow the resulting modules to exhibit high electrical fill factors (FFs) of ≈63% and remarkable geometric FFs exceeding 95%.

    3. NDI-Based Small Molecule as Promising Nonfullerene Acceptor for Solution-Processed Organic Photovoltaics

      Yao Liu, Lei Zhang, Hyunbok Lee, Hsin-Wei Wang, Annikki Santala, Feng Liu, Ying Diao, Alejandro L. Briseno and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500195

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      A novel naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based small molecule (BiNDI) is developed as the nonfullerene acceptor in polymer solar cells. A highest efficiency of 2.41% is achieved, which is the best result for NDI-based small molecules.

    4. Reversible Multivalent (Monovalent, Divalent, Trivalent) Ion Insertion in Open Framework Materials

      Richard Y. Wang, Badri Shyam, Kevin H. Stone, Johanna Nelson Weker, Mauro Pasta, Hyun-Wook Lee, Michael F. Toney and Yi Cui

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401869

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      Copper hexacyanoferrate exhibits rapid and reversible insertion of a wide variety of multivalent ions. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments demonstrate the presence of a novel ion insertion mechanism that is facilitated by vacancies within the open framework crystal structure. This may allow the insertion of partially hydrated ions, which reduces electrostatic interactions between the ions and the host framework.

    5. Polymer Solar Cells with Efficiency >10% Enabled via a Facile Solution-Processed Al-Doped ZnO Electron Transporting Layer

      Lethy Krishnan Jagadamma, Mohammed Al-Senani, Abdulrahman El-Labban, Issam Gereige, Guy O. Ngongang Ndjawa, Jorge C. D. Faria, Taesoo Kim, Kui Zhao, Federico Cruciani, Dalaver H. Anjum, Martyn A. McLachlan, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500204

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      A facile and low-temperature solution-processed AZO nanocrystalline buffer layer prepared in a single step without further surface passivation is shown to function very effectively as an electron transporting/hole blocking layer for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction systems. It yields efficiency up to 10.2% (8.2%) on glass (plastic) substrates.

    6. Studies on Thermoelectric Properties of n-type Polycrystalline SnSe1-xSx by Iodine Doping

      Qian Zhang, Eyob Kebede Chere, Jingying Sun, Feng Cao, Keshab Dahal, Shuo Chen, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500360

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      For the first time, TE properties of n-type Sn chalcogenide polycrystal materials are reported. By doping with iodine, the nH changes from 2.3 × 1017 cm−3 (p-type) to 5.0 × 1015 cm−3 (n-type) then to 2.0 × 1017 cm−3 (n-type). By alloying with SnS, the lowered thermal conductivity and enhanced Seebeck coefficient contribute to a highest ZT of ≈1.0 at 773 K for SnSe0.87S0.1I0.03 polycrystals.

  3. Communications

    1. Ambient-Temperature Sodium–Sulfur Batteries with a Sodiated Nafion Membrane and a Carbon Nanofiber-Activated Carbon Composite Electrode

      Xingwen Yu and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500350

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      A sodiated Nafion membrane significantly suppresses the polysulfide shuttling and enhances sulfur utilization and cyclability of the room-temperature Na–S batteries.

  4. Progress Reports

    1. Progress Towards Commercially Viable Li–S Battery Cells

      Sigita Urbonaite, Tiphaine Poux and Petr Novák

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500118

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      A broad overview of how experimental parameters affect the performance of Li–S batteries beyond sophisticated conductive sulfur hosts is presented. The exquisite sensitivity of the Li–S system to various experimental parameters speaks to the importance of directing future research towards the entire Li–S-battery set-up, rather than just some components.

  5. Reviews

    1. Recent Progress on Hole-Transporting Materials for Emerging Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Ze Yu and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500213

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      Searching for efficient hole-transporting materials (HTMs), which are essential components for achieving high efficiencies, is one of the hottest research topics in the field of organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Various HTMs being developed and applied in PSCs are summarized in detail and key issues related to developing more efficient HTMs in the future are highlighted.

  6. Full Papers

    1. The Role of Exciton Ionization Processes in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Cells

      Yunlong Zou and Russell J. Holmes

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500019

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      Bulk ionization is non-negligible in the operation of fullerene-rich bulk hetero­junctions (BHJs). In optimized BHJs based on the donor–acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride–C60 (20:80 vol%), bulk-ionization in C60 contributes ≈16% of the total photocurrent and increases the open-circuit voltage by 12% compared to an evenly mixed BHJ.

    2. Ionic Liquid Redox Catholyte for High Energy Efficiency, Low-Cost Energy Storage

      Leigang Xue, Telpriore G. Tucker and C. Austen Angell

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500271

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      Remarkable cell energy efficiency (>96%) using an ionic liquid cathode with Fe(II)/Fe(III) is reported. A trial pairing with liquid sodium anode, tested for cycling at 180 °C, yields a predictable open-circuit voltage of 3.31 V. It is fail-safe, as well as low cost. Broader energy storage applications of this liquid electrode strategy, utilizing alternative anode (Ca, Al) and cathode (Mn(II)/Mn(III) combinations, are discussed.

  7. Communications

    1. Advanced Ti-Doped Fe2O3@PEDOT Core/Shell Anode for High-Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Yinxiang Zeng, Yi Han, Yitong Zhao, Yan Zeng, Minghao Yu, Yongjiang Liu, Haolin Tang, Yexiang Tong and Xihong Lu

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402176

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      An effective strategy to significantly boost the capacitive properties of Fe2O3-based anodes by Ti doping and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is successfully demonstrated. The Ti-Fe2O3@PEDOT electrode exhibits a significant capacitance improvement and exceptionally cyclic stability. A remarkable energy density of 0.89 mWh cm−3 can be obtained for a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor device consisting of Ti-Fe2O3@PEDOT and a MnO2 anode.

  8. Full Papers

    1. A Novel Phase of Li15Si4 Synthesized under Pressure

      Zhidan Zeng, Qingfeng Zeng, Nian Liu, Artem R. Oganov, Qiaoshi Zeng, Yi Cui and Wendy L. Mao

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500214

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      A new phase of Li15Si4 (β-Li15Si4) is synthesized by compressing Li15Si4 produced in a lithium battery to above 7 GPa. β-Li15Si4 has an orthorhombic structure and can be recovered back to ambient pressure. Calculations suggest that β-Li15Si4 has larger elastic moduli and higher density than the original α-Li15Si4. As a result, the volume expansion of silicon would decrease 25% if it transformed to β-Li15Si4 instead of α-Li15Si4 during lithiation.

    2. An Advanced Na–FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

      Guosheng Li, Xiaochuan Lu, Jin Y. Kim, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Kerry D. Meinhardt, Mark H. Engelhard and Vincent L. Sprenkle

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500357

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      A remarkably reliable Na–FeCl2 ZEBRA battery for stationary energy storage is demonstrated. The removal of surface oxide layers on Fe particles is identified and attributed to polysulfide species, which are generated from sulfur-based additives through polysulfide reactions. Na–FeCl2 cells presented can be assembled at the discharge state (NaCl + Fe) without handling highly hazardous materials such as FeCl2 and metallic Na.

  9. Reviews

    1. Structural Design of Cathodes for Li-S Batteries

      Michael A. Pope and Ilhan A. Aksay

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500124

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      Lithium-sulfur batteries promise significant improvements to specific energy over traditional Li-ion batteries. Various cathode design strategies are analyzed in terms of their potential to achieve high practical specific energy, power, and cycle-life. The most promising routes to success and the most significant challenges hindering adoption of Li-S batteries are highlighted.

  10. Communications

    1. A New Graphdiyne Nanosheet/Pt Nanoparticle-Based Counter Electrode Material with Enhanced Catalytic Activity for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Hao Ren, Hui Shao, Lijuan Zhang, Dong Guo, Quan Jin, Ranbo Yu, Lei Wang, Yuliang Li, Yun Wang, Huijun Zhao and Dan Wang

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500296

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      A graphdiyne nanosheet/Pt nanoparticle composite shows outstanding catalytic activity for the reaction of I3/I redox pairs, i.e., the best among rGO/Pt nanoparticle composites, Pt nanoparticles and Pt foils, which is ascribed to enhanced electron transfer resulting from the easier chemical interaction between Pt and the triple bond of graphdiyne.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Lithium–Sulfur Cells: The Gap between the State-of-the-Art and the Requirements for High Energy Battery Cells

      Markus Hagen, Dominik Hanselmann, Katharina Ahlbrecht, Rudi Maça, Daniel Gerber and Jens Tübke

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401986

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      Li–S 18650 cell energy densities are calculated for various electrode parameters and are compared with statistical information obtained from an extensive Li–S literature study. There is a gap between the state-of-the-art Li–S research and the requirements for high energy density cells. Of all the published electrodes in the last 12 years few can deliver gravimetric energy densities above the current commercialized Li-ion benchmark.

  12. Reviews

    1. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Ruiguo Cao, Wu Xu, Dongping Lv, Jie Xiao and Ji-Guang Zhang

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402273

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      Recent development on the anode of lithium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. Various strategies used to enhance the cycling stability of anodes are analyzed, with a particular focus on how to minimize the corrosion of lithium anodes and suppressing lithium dendrite growth in the presence of polysulfides. Alternative anodes for sulfur-based rechargeable batteries are also discussed.

  13. Communications

    1. Anthracene-Based Medium Bandgap Conjugated Polymers for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 8% PCE Without Additive and Annealing Process

      Jae Woong Jung, Feng Liu, Thomas P. Russell and Won Ho Jo

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500065

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      A series of medium bandgap polymers based on 9,10-thienylanthracene and benzothiadiazole are synthesized. The optical, electrochemical, intermolecular, and charge transport characteristics of the polymers are tuned by the introduction of various substituents. The fluorine-substituted polymer exhibits much enhanced charge generation with reduced bimolecular recombination, thereby achieving a high power conversion efficiency exceeding 8%.

  14. Full Papers

    1. CoS NWs/Au Hybridized Networks as Efficient Counter Electrodes for Flexible Sensitized Solar Cells

      Wenxi Guo, Xiaojia Zhang, Ruomeng Yu, Miaoling Que, Zengming Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, Qilin Hua, Chunfeng Wang, Zhong Lin Wang and Caofeng Pan

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500141

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      A newly designed counter electrode consisting of a hybridized structure of Au networks and CoS nanowire arrays is presented for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. The physical and chemical properties of the hybridized electrodes are carefully investigated; 3.13% and 4.73% efficiency are obtained by utilizing these hybridized networks as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, respectively.

    2. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbons with Surface Enriched Active Sites and Enhanced Performance for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Xiangtong Meng, Chang Yu, Xuedan Song, Yang Liu, Suxia Liang, Zhiqiang Liu, Ce Hao and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500180

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      Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) with surface enriched active sites are configured via chemical unzipping of carbon nanotubes coupled with nitrogen doping process. Benefiting from fully exposed active sites and quaternary N species revealed by density functional theory, N-GNRs as counter electrode for I3 reduction delivers an efficiency of 8.57% and superb electrochemical stability, indicative of great potential alternatives to Pt.

    3. Functional Graded Germanium–Lead Chalcogenide-Based Thermoelectric Module for Renewable Energy Applications

      Eden Hazan, Ohad Ben-Yehuda, Naor Madar and Yaniv Gelbstein

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500272

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      A novel route for approaching higher technology readiness level (TRL) of a phase-separated functionally graded chalcogenide-based thermoelectric (TE) device, exhibiting a remarkable thermoelectric efficiency of up to 14%, is presented. The TE device is designed, developed, and fabricated using a finite-element multiphysics model and validated by a laboratory simulator.

    4. Morphology-Limited Free Carrier Generation in Donor/Acceptor Polymer Blend Solar Cells Composed of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and Fluorene-Based Copolymer

      Daisuke Mori, Hiroaki Benten, Hideo Ohkita and Shinzaburo Ito

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500304

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      Charge generation and recombination dynamics in donor/acceptor polymer blend solar cells composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fluorene-based copolymer (PF12TBT) are examined using transient absorption spectroscopy. Thermal annealing improves both the purity of the PF12TBT domains and the ordering of the P3HT chains. These morphological changes suppress the monomolecular recombination of charge pairs, increasing the free carrier generation efficiency up to 74%.

    5. Efficient and Stable TiO2:Pt–Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Composite Photoelectrodes for Visible Light Driven Hydrogen Evolution

      Anahita Azarpira, Michael Lublow, Alexander Steigert, Peter Bogdanoff, Dieter Greiner, Christian A. Kaufmann, Martin Krüger, Ullrich Gernert, Roel van de Krol, Anna Fischer and Thomas Schedel-Niedrig

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402148

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      Efficient, stable composite photocathodes based on device-grade chalcopyrite thin film absorbers and photoresistant TiO2 transparent conductive oxide thin layers are reported for solar-driven hydrogen evolution. Most efficient photocathodes reveal incident-photon-to-current-efficiencies of ≈80%. High, long-term, stable net photocurrent density is produced at the thermodynamic potential for H2-evolution corresponding to turn-over-number of ≈2.5 × 106, i.e., a turn-over-frequency of ≈690 hydrogen molecules per second and per active site.

    6. Efficient Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells

      Chang Liu, Kai Wang, Pengcheng Du, Chao Yi, Tianyu Meng and Xiong Gong

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402024

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      A facile route for approaching high efficiency perovskite hybrid solar cells by fabrication of a bulk heterojunction structure in which perovskite materials are blended with fullerene derivatives is reported for the first time. This addresses the two major issues of imbalanced charge transporting efficiencies and significant photocurrent hysteresis behaviors in perovskite hybrid solar cells.

  15. Communications

    1. Ionic Seebeck Effect in Conducting Polymers

      Hui Wang, Ujwala Ail, Roger Gabrielsson, Magnus Berggren and Xavier Crispin

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500044

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      Conducting polymers display an ionic thermoelectric effect in addition to the known electronic thermoelectric effect. Their Seebeck coefficient is as large as ≈200 μV K−1. This finding discloses a new possible approach to improve the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers by combining various types of charge carriers of the same sign.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Engineering Mixed Ionic Electronic Conduction in La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ Nanostructures through Fast Grain Boundary Oxygen Diffusivity

      Aruppukottai M. Saranya, Dolors Pla, Alex Morata, Andrea Cavallaro, Jesús Canales-Vázquez, John A. Kilner, Mónica Burriel and Albert Tarancón

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500377

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      An electronic conductor such as La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with excellent electronic and oxygen mass transport properties. Oxygen diffusion highways are created by promoting a high concentration of strain-induced defects in the grain boundary region. This novel strategy opens the way for synthesizing new families of artificial mixed ionic-electronic conductors by design.

  17. Reviews

    1. Carbonyls: Powerful Organic Materials for Secondary Batteries

      Bernhard Häupler, Andreas Wild and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402034

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      Organic carbonyl materials are versatile redox-active structures offering new possibilities as active electrode materials in rechargeable batteries that conventional inorganic compounds cannot provide. Recent developments in the field of organic carbonyl compounds as active electrode materials in secondary batteries is critically reviewed and the cell performance of the particular compounds is evaluated and compared.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Development of Highly Stable and Mass Transfer-Enhanced Cathode Catalysts: Support-Free Electrospun Intermetallic FePt Nanotubes for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

      Jaehyuk Lee, Ji Mun Yoo, Youngjin Ye, Yeongdong Mun, Seonggyu Lee, Ok-Hee Kim, Hee-Woo Rhee, Hyung Ik Lee, Yung-Eun Sung and Jinwoo Lee

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402093

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      Support-free intermetallic FePt nanotubes (fct-FePt NTs) are fabricated by a facile electrospinning process. Under US DOE reference test conditions, fct-FePt NTs show higher performance than commercial Pt/C; they also show excellent durability after an accelerated durability test at a potential of 1.4 V, at which carbon corrosion occurs.

  19. Progress Reports

    1. Recent Advances in Lithium Sulfide Cathode Materials and Their Use in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

      Yoonkook Son, Jung-Soo Lee, Yeonguk Son, Ji-Hyun Jang and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500110

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      Lithium sulfide cathode materials play a significant role in overcoming the shortcomings of conventional lithium sulfur batteries. Accordingly, it is essential to understand the characteristics and methods of application of lithium sulfide. A comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of the activation process of lithium sulfide and various efforts for improvements is provided.

  20. Communications

    1. High Performance Organic Solar Cells Based on a Twisted Bay-Substituted Tetraphenyl Functionalized Perylenediimide Electron Acceptor

      Yunhao Cai, Lijun Huo, Xiaobo Sun, Donghui Wei, Mingsheng Tang and Yanming Sun

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500032

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      A twisted bay-substituted tetraphenyl functionalized perylenediimide monomer (TP-PDI) is synthesized. A high power conversion efficiency of 4.1% is achieved for organic solar cells incorporated a combination of TP-PDI electron acceptor and PTB7-Th electron donor, indicating that chemical modification of PDI monomers is a useful way of designing high-performance non-fullerene electron acceptors.

    2. A Nanostructured Architecture for Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Yucun Zhou, Hao Wu, Ting Luo, Jianqiang Wang, Yixiang Shi, Changrong Xia, Shaorong Wang and Zhongliang Zhan

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500375

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      A nanostructured architecture is proposed for reduced-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, featuring thin scandium-stabilized zirconia electrolytes sandwiched between two porous 430L metallic layers. Impregnating nanoscale catalysts into the porous 430L scaffolds—Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9/Ni at the anodes and SmBa0.5Sr0.5Co2O5 at the cathodes—yields encouraging power densities of 1.02 W cm−2 at 600 °C and 0.6 W cm−2 at 550 °C.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Beyond Langevin Recombination: How Equilibrium Between Free Carriers and Charge Transfer States Determines the Open-Circuit Voltage of Organic Solar Cells

      Timothy M. Burke, Sean Sweetnam, Koen Vandewal and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500123

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      Low open-circuit voltages are one of the primary factors limiting organic photovoltaic efficiencies. This work presents a comprehensive framework for understanding and improving the voltage of organic solar cells. It explains why qVoc is almost always 0.5–0.7 eV below the apparent CT state energy and provides an experimental method to quantify the voltage loss due to energetic disorder.

  22. Communications

    1. Direct Observation of the Redistribution of Sulfur and Polysufides in Li–S Batteries During the First Cycle by In Situ X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy

      Xiqian Yu, Huilin Pan, Yongning Zhou, Paul Northrup, Jie Xiao, Seongmin Bak, Mingzhao Liu, Kyung-Wan Nam, Deyang Qu, Jun Liu, Tianpin Wu and Xiao-Qing Yang

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500072

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      A novel in situ X-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique is reported to investigate the Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling. The evolution of morphology changes of the electrode is monitored in real time using the X-ray fluorescence images, while the changes of the sulfur chemical state are characterized simultaneously using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra.

  23. Full Papers

    1. A Tale of Two Sites: On Defining the Carrier Concentration in Garnet-Based Ionic Conductors for Advanced Li Batteries

      Travis Thompson, Asma Sharafi, Michelle D. Johannes, Ashfia Huq, Jan L. Allen, Jeff Wolfenstine and Jeff Sakamoto

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500096

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      The bulk ionic conductivity is correlated to the Li site distribution for a series of cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 compositions stabilized by supervalent substitution with Ta. The ionic conductivity maximizes at the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transformation because this represents the maximum in octahedrally coordinated Li and minimum in tetrahedrally coordinated Li site occupancies. Li-ion conducting garnets can enable several beyond Li-ion technologies.

    2. Sequential Processing for Organic Photovoltaics: Design Rules for Morphology Control by Tailored Semi-Orthogonal Solvent Blends

      Jordan C. Aguirre, Steven A. Hawks, Amy S. Ferreira, Patrick Yee, Selvam Subramaniyan, Samson A. Jenekhe, Sarah H. Tolbert and Benjamin J. Schwartz

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402020

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      Sequential processing of polymers and fullerenes offers a new way to control the morphology of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics. The fullerene casting solvent must properly swell but not dissolve the polymer underlayer. A set of simple design rules is presented for finding the appropriate fullerene-casting solvent blend to optimize BHJ formation and thus photovoltaic performance with any conjugated polymer.

  24. Communications

    1. Sputtered NiOx Films for Stabilization of p+n-InP Photoanodes for Solar-Driven Water Oxidation

      Ke Sun, Yanjin Kuang, Erik Verlage, Bruce S. Brunschwig, Charles W. Tu and Nathan S. Lewis

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402276

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      A photoanode protection strategy using a multifunctional NiOx coating is presented. The transparency/antireflectivity, low electrochromism, conduction of holes, corrosion protection, and active electrocatalysis for water-oxidation half-reaction are described.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Impact of Nanoscale Elemental Distribution in High-Performance Kesterite Solar Cells

      Kasra Sardashti, Richard Haight, Tayfun Gokmen, Wei Wang, Liang-Yi Chang, David B. Mitzi and Andrew C. Kummel

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402180

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      The effect of top surface and grain boundary composition, measured by Auger nanoprobe microscopy, on the performance of polycrystalline copper–zinc–tin–sulfide/selenide (CZTSSe) solar cells is demonstrated. Using photo­voltaic device simulation, an approach to overcome the bulk defects and further improve the efficiency of the solar cells is proposed.

    2. Drastic Layer-Number-Dependent Activity Enhancement in Photocatalytic H2 Evolution over nMoS2/CdS (n ≥ 1) Under Visible Light

      Kun Chang, Mu Li, Tao Wang, Shuxin Ouyang, Peng Li, Lequan Liu and Jinhua Ye

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402279

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      The single-layer MoS2 is shown to exhibit high co-catalytic activity for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Single-layer-MoS2/CdS with 2.0 wt% of co-catalyst exhibits the highest H2 generation rate, corresponding to an apparent quantum efficiency of 30.2% in Na2S–Na2SO3 and 38.4% in lactic acid solution at 420 nm.

  26. Communications

    1. Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx–Au–TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

      Zhongcheng Yuan, Zhongwei Wu, Sai Bai, Zhouhui Xia, Weidong Xu, Tao Song, Haihua Wu, Luhai Xu, Junjie Si, Yizheng Jin and Baoquan Sun

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500038

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      A unique sandwiched structure of TiOx/Au-NPs/TiOx is used to improve the charge transport properties of a TiOx film via plasmonic-mediated hot carrier injection at the metal-semiconductor Schottky junction. The injected carrier helps to fill trap states and to further decrease the Fermi level of TiOx. The combined effects dramatically enhance the perovskite solar cell performance, with a power conversion efficiency of 16.2%.

    2. Novel Large-Scale Synthesis of a C/S Nanocomposite with Mixed Conducting Networks through a Spray Drying Approach for Li–S Batteries

      Jie Ma, Zheng Fang, Yong Yan, Zhenzhong Yang, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Zhaoxiang Wang and Xuejie Huang

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500046

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      A woolball-like nanocomposite of commercial carbon/sulfur microspheres with sulfur content over 81 wt% is successfully fabricated using a new one-step spray drying approach. The designed polyporous electrodes with a sulfur loading of 2.5 mg cm−2 exhibit excellent Li storage performance. This facile and cost-effective process of fabricating the carbon/sulfur nanocomposite shows great promise for large-scale application in practical lithium–sulfur batteries.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Ultrathin YSZ Coating on Pt Cathode for High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity

      Ikwhang Chang, Sanghoon Ji, Joonho Park, Min Hwan Lee and Suk Won Cha

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402251

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      Porous metal-based catalysts are prone to agglomeration during operation at elevated temperatures. An ultrathin oxide layer is presented that is coated on metal catalysts using an atomic layer deposition technique, which suppresses the agglomeration process significantly while enhancing electrocatalytic activities. The scheme is demonstrated for cathodes of micro solid oxide fuel cells operating at 500 °C, but it should be generically applicable to other electrochemical catalysis with metal-based electrodes.

    2. AuPd–MnOx/MOF–Graphene: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid at Room Temperature

      Jun-Min Yan, Zhi-Li Wang, Ling Gu, Si-Jia Li, Hong-Li Wang, Wei-Tao Zheng and Qing Jiang

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500107

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      AuPd–MnOx/ZIF-8–rGO composites are synthesized using a facile wet-chemical method and show good catalytic performance for formic acid dehydrogenation at room temperature. The excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the electronically enriched Pd surface, the strong metal–support interaction, as well as the ultrafine and high distribution of the AuPd–MnOx nanocomposite on the unique ZIF-8–rGO bi-supportZIF-8–rGO.

  28. Communications

    1. A Reconfigurable Rectified Flexible Energy Harvester via Solid-State Single Crystal Grown PMN–PZT

      Geon-Tae Hwang, Joonseok Yang, Seong Ho Yang, Ho-Yong Lee, Minbok Lee, Dae Yong Park, Jae Hyun Han, Seung Jun Lee, Chang Kyu Jeong, Jaeha Kim, Kwi-Il Park and Keon Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500051

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      A single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZT) energy harvester is demonstrated by solid-state crystal growth and an optimized delamination process. The flexible harvester generates an output voltage of 100 V and a current of 20 µA. The advanced reconfigurable rectifying circuit enhanced conversion efficiency of the PMN-PZT harvester is compared to conventional rectifier. Finally, a self-powered military boot is fabricated using the harvester as a demonstration of use in operating consumer electronics.

    2. Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by Using Amorphous Ni–Co Double Hydroxides Nanocages

      Jianwei Nai, Huajie Yin, Tingting You, Lirong Zheng, Jing Zhang, Pengxi Wang, Zhao Jin, Yu Tian, Juzhe Liu, Zhiyong Tang and Lin Guo

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401880

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      Ni–Co amorphous double hydroxides nanomaterials with hollow structure and tunable Ni/Co molar ratio are synthesized via a template method. The amorphous NiCo2.7(OH)x nanocages demonstrate high surface reactivity, comparable catalytic activity, and excellent stability for efficient water oxidation. Density functional theory simulations suggest that the component-dependent electrocatalytic activities are connected to the binding energies of oxygen radical on diverse hydroxides.

    3. Rh-Ni-B Nanoparticles as Highly Efficient Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Hydrous Hydrazine

      Jun Wang, Wang Li, Yuren Wen, Lin Gu and Yu Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401879

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      RhNiB nanoparticles with sodium hydroxide dependent boron content are highly efficient catalysts for the decomposition of hydrous hydrazine at room temperature including 100% H2 selectivity and exceptionally high catalytic kinetics, which is derived from the synergistic effect of boron doping and alkali promotion. These encouraging results will promote the practical application of hydrous hydrazine for chemical hydrogen storage.

    4. Electropolymerized Conjugated Microporous Poly(zinc-porphyrin) Films as Potential Electrode Materials in Supercapacitors

      Huanhuan Zhang, Yunan Zhang, Cheng Gu and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402175

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      A film-state conjugated microporous polymer constructed with zinc porphyrin cores and dimeric carbazole linkages is fabricated by electropolymerization. With its rich micropores and excellent reversible redox processes, the novel conjugated microporous polymer film is fabricated into a supercapacitor that demonstrates high capacitance up to 142 F g−1 and good capacitance retention at high current densities.

    5. Interconnected Nanorods–Nanoflakes Li2Co2(MoO4)3 Framework Structure with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties for Supercapacitors

      Kalele Mulonda Hercule, Qiulong Wei, Owusu Kwadwo Asare, Longbing Qu, Aamir Minhas Khan, Mengyu Yan, Chunhui Du, Wei Chen and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500060

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      Using a controllable hydrothermal method, a Li2Co2(MoO4)3 NASICON-type material is successfully synthesized under mild conditions. The open 3D framework structure and the interconnected nanorods–nanoflakes morphology allow small-sized ions to easily inter­calate/deintercalate without structure destruction and enhance the ion transport kinetics at the electrode–electrolyte interface, resulting in improved electrochemical performances. This electroactive material is promising for asymmetric supercapacitors.

  29. Full Papers

    1. High Energy Density Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes

      Dongping Lv, Jianming Zheng, Qiuyan Li, Xi Xie, Seth Ferrara, Zimin Nie, Layla B. Mehdi, Nigel D. Browning, Ji-Guang Zhang, Gordon L. Graff, Jun Liu and Jie Xiao

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402290

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      A facile and effective approach is proposed to integrate commercial carbon nanoparticles into microsized secondary ones for application as high loading sulfur cathodes, targeting use in high energy density Li–S batteries. Uniform electrodes with high loading of 2–8 mg cm−2 sulfur are successfully achieved.

    2. Multiphase Nanostructure of a Quinary Metal Oxide Electrocatalyst Reveals a New Direction for OER Electrocatalyst Design

      Joel A. Haber, Eitan Anzenburg, Junko Yano, Christian Kisielowski and John M. Gregoire

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402307

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      The unique electrochemical behavior of the Ni0.3Fe0.07Co0.2Ce0.43Oxoxygen ­evolution electrocatalyst motivates ­detailed structural characterization to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanism. Atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging using inline holography techniques reveals a nanostructure in which transition metal oxide alloys form atomically sharp boundaries with ceria nanocrystals. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm this unprecedented observation of a multiphase, nanostructured oxygen evolution electrocatalyst.

  30. Communications

    1. Roles of Fullerene-Based Interlayers in Enhancing the Performance of Organometal Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Po-Wei Liang, Chu-Chen Chueh, Spencer T. Williams and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402321

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      Roles of fullerene-based interlayers in enhancing the performance of organometal perovskite thin-film solar cells are elucidated. By studying various fullerenes, a clear correlation between the electron mobility of fullerenes and the resulting performance of derived devices is determined. The metallic characteristics of the bilayer perovskite/fullerene field-effect transistor indicates an effective charge redistribution occurring at the corresponding interface. A conventional perovskite thin-film solar cell derived from the C60 electron-transporting layer (ETL) affords a high power conversion efficiency of 15.4%.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Nanoconfined Carbon-Coated Na3V2(PO4)3 Particles in Mesoporous Carbon Enabling Ultralong Cycle Life for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yu Jiang, Zhenzhong Yang, Weihan Li, Linchao Zeng, Fusen Pan, Min Wang, Xiang Wei, Guantai Hu, Lin Gu and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402104

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      Nanoconfined carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 particles in mesoporous carbon are prepared using a simple nanocasting technique. The optimum design of the core–shell nanostructures with double carbon coating permits fast kinetics for both transported Na+ ions and electrons, enabling excellent rate capability of the Na3V2(PO4)3 electrode.

  32. Communications

    1. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) as a Solvent Additive for Organic Hole Transport Materials and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Erik Gabrielsson, Majid Safdari, Ming Cheng, Yong Hua, Haining Tian, James M. Gardner, Lars Kloo and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402340

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      A low-cost, chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), is used as an effective additive for the triarylamine-based organic hole-transport material, Spiro-OMeTAD, which is successfully applied in highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. A record power conversion efficiency of 7.7% is obtained by using the donor (D)-π-acceptor (A)-dye, LEG4, in combination with the new method of TeCA-doping of the hole-transporting material, Spiro-OMeTAD.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Ni3+-Induced Formation of Active NiOOH on the Spinel Ni–Co Oxide Surface for Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Hsin-Yi Wang, Ying-Ya Hsu, Rong Chen, Ting-Shan Chan, Hao Ming Chen and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500091

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      A new hierarchical Ni–Co oxide nanostructure composed of small secondary nanosheets grown on primary nanosheet arrays is synthesized via a topotactic transformation of Ni–Co layered double hydroxide (LDH). The Ni3+-rich surface benefits the formation of NiOOH, acting as the main active site for effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER).

  34. Communications

    1. Leaf Vein-Inspired Nanochanneled Graphene Film for Highly Efficient Micro-Supercapacitors

      Jian Chang, Subash Adhikari, Tae Hoon Lee, Bing Li, Fei Yao, Duy Tho Pham, Viet Thong Le and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500003

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      Inspired by natural vein-textured leaves, a 2D nanochanneled graph­ene film with high packing density and efficient ion transport pathways is proposed to facilitate high rate capabilities while maintaining high energy density. The 2D nanochannels serve as pathways for efficient ion diffusion parallel to the graphene planes in all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode geometry.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

      Eva Bundgaard, Francesco Livi, Ole Hagemann, Jon E. Carlé, Martin Helgesen, Ilona M. Heckler, Natalia K. Zawacka, Dechan Angmo, Thue T. Larsen-Olsen, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Bérenger Roth, Morten V. Madsen, Mats R. Andersson, Mikkel Jørgensen, Roar R. Søndergaard and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402186

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      A screening of 104 polymer materials for use in roll-coated polymer solar cells is reported. By synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic performances of 104 polymers it is demonstrated that finding suitable materials for large scale roll-to-roll fabricated polymer solar cells is an enormous challenge. The study shows that 13 polymers out of 104 outperform poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and are suitable for further development.

    2. The Critical Choice of PEDOT:PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll-to-Roll Processed OPVs

      Bérenger Roth, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Michael Corazza, Roar R. Søndergaard, Suren A. Gevorgyan, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401912

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      Long term stability testing following the international summit on organic photovoltaic stability protocols is used for evaluation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythio­phene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) based roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules. The influence of the choice of additives on the operational lifetime for the devices is analyzed according to the observed failure modes and predictions of the operational window are made.

    3. From Water Oxidation to Reduction: Homologous Ni–Co Based Nanowires as Complementary Water Splitting Electrocatalysts

      Zheng Peng, Dingsi Jia, Abdullah M. Al-Enizi, Ahmed A. Elzatahry and Gengfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402031

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      A homologous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo 2 O 4 ) and nickel cobalt sulfide (Ni 0.33 Co 0.67 S 2 ) all-nanowire-based system is developed, in which NiCo2O4 nanowires are first hydrothermally synthesized, followed by sulfurization to form Ni0.33Co0.67S2 nanowires. These NiCo2O4 and Ni0.33Co0.67S2 nanowires are excellent oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts, respectively, and the all-nanowire-based water splitting electrolyzer exhibits low onset potentials, high current densities, and long-stability.

  36. Communications

    1. Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Batteries Using High Transference Number Electrolytes

      Yingying Lu, Mukul Tikekar, Ritesh Mohanty, Kenville Hendrickson, Lin Ma and Lynden A. Archer

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402073

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      An electrolyte with high lithium transference number (t Li+) is predicted by theory to retard lithium dendrite formation and growth in rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Lithiated perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membranes (Li-PEM) are synthesized to study the effects of t Li+ on Li dendrite growth in an ideally single-ion conductive electrolyte system. Consistent with theory, a more than 40-fold improvement in cell lifetime is found.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Nanoflake-Assembled Hierarchical Na3V2(PO4)3/C Microflowers: Superior Li Storage Performance and Insertion/Extraction Mechanism

      Qinyou An, Fangyu Xiong, Qiulong Wei, Jinzhi Sheng, Liang He, Dongling Ma, Yan Yao and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401963

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      Nanoflake-assembled hierarchical Na3V2­(PO4)3/C microflowers are successfully synthesized using a facile method. As electrodes for hybrid lithium ion batteries, they display high capacity, excellent rate performance, and remarkable cycling stability. In addition, the insertion/extraction mechanism of Na3V2(PO4)3/C as the electrode in hybrid lithium ion batteries is investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction.

    2. Making Ends Meet: Flow Synthesis as the Answer to Reproducible High-Performance Conjugated Polymers on the Scale that Roll-to-Roll Processing Demands

      Martin Helgesen, Jon E. Carlé, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen, Eva Bundgaard and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401996

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      Upscaling polymer solar cell fabrication using roll-to-roll processing requires conjugated polymer materials on a comparable scale. A simple home built reactor is described for daily production of >100 g, which is enough to supply a large scale roll-to-roll processing machine and manufacture of flexible modules free from vacuum, silver, and indium.

  38. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

      Joseph W. Rumer, Raja S. Ashraf, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Zhenggang Huang, Iain Meager, Christian B. Nielsen, Bob C. Schroeder, Michael L. Chabinyc and Iain McCulloch

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401426

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      A bis-azide-based small molecule cross­linker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a non­invasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%.

  39. Full Papers

    1. Dual-Confined Flexible Sulfur Cathodes Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Double-Shelled Hollow Carbon Spheres and Wrapped with Graphene for Li–S Batteries

      Guangmin Zhou, Yubao Zhao and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402263

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      A dual-confined flexible cathode is designed by encapsulating sulfur in nitrogen-doped double-shelled hollow carbon spheres followed by graphene wrapping for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries. Sulfur/polysulfides are immobilized in the cathode through the physical confinement by the hollow sphere and graphene wrapping and chemical binding between the hetero-nitrogen atoms and lithium polysulfides, enabling a high specific capacity and sustainable cycling stability.

    2. A Composite Gel–Polymer/Glass–Fiber Electrolyte for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Hongcai Gao, Bingkun Guo, Jie Song, Kyusung Park and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402235

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      An integrated approach is developed to prepare a composite gel–polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) for use in sodium ion batteries. The mechanical properties of the gel–polymer electrolyte are reinforced by a glass–fiber paper, and the surface properties are tuned by a polydopamine coating. When tested in a sodium-ion battery with Na2MnFe(CN)6 as cathode, the rate capability, cycling performance, and coulombic efficiency are significantly improved.

  40. Communications

    1. Ultratransparent Polymer/Semitransparent Silver Grid Hybrid Electrodes for Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells

      Yong Hyun Kim, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401822

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      A hybrid ultratransparent poly(3,4-ethyl­enedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulf­onate) (PEDOT:PSS)/metal grid thin-film is demonstrated as a transparent electrode for organic solar cells. The transmittance of the PEDOT:PSS thin-films on glass reaches values as high as 91.5%, a nearly 100% transmittance ratio. The device with the hybrid electrode shows an efficiency of 2.8%, which is comparable to that of an indium tin oxide based reference device.

  41. Full Papers

    1. An Ion-Exchange Promoted Phase Transition in a Li-Excess Layered Cathode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

      Jianqing Zhao, Ruiming Huang, Wenpei Gao, Jian-Min Zuo, Xiao Feng Zhang, Scott T. Misture, Yuan Chen, Jenny V. Lockard, Boliang Zhang, Shengmin Guo, Mohammad Reza Khoshi, Kerry Dooley, Huixin He and Ying Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401937

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      A Li-excess layered Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is completely converted to a Li4Mn5O12-type spinel product via ex situ ion exchanges and a post-annealing process. This sheds light on the fundamental understanding of phase transitions within Li-excess layered oxides and provides a novel route for tailoring electrochemical performance of Li-excess layered cathode materials for high-capacity lithium ion batteries.

    2. A Temporary Barrier Effect of the Alloy Layer During Selenization: Tailoring the Thickness of MoSe2 for Efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells

      Jianjun Li, Yi Zhang, Wei Zhao, Dahyun Nam, Hyeonsik Cheong, Li Wu, Zhiqiang Zhou and Yun Sun

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402178

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      The formation of interfacial MoSe2 in Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cells can be tailored by an advanced annealing process without an additional barrier layer, reducing the series resistance of the CZTSe solar cell to a low level. A CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 8.7% is fabricated.

  42. Communications

    1. Disordered Lithium-Rich Oxyfluoride as a Stable Host for Enhanced Li+ Intercalation Storage

      Ruiyong Chen, Shuhua Ren, Michael Knapp, Di Wang, Raiker Witter, Maximilian Fichtner and Horst Hahn

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401814

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      A new intercalation compound Li2VO2F with disordered rock-salt structure enables up to ≈1.8 Li+ storage (420 mAh g−1) at ≈2.5 V with a lattice volume change of only ≈3%. A high capacity of 300 mAh g−1 at 1C rate is observed. At –10 °C, Li2VO2F can deliver a reversible capacity of 280 mAh g−1 at ≈2.4 V.

  43. Full Papers

    1. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

      Florian A. Y. N. Schröder, Jacqueline M. Cole, Paul G. Waddell and Scott McKechnie

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401728

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      The possibility to transform a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, by a molecular engineering approach into new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell is explored. The conceptual idea involves adding an “anchoring” group to the parent laser dyes, rendering them dye-sensitized solar cell-active, while maintaining key property attributes that are particularly attractive to dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

  44. Communications

    1. Nanostructured Conjugated Ladder Polymers for Stable and Fast Lithium Storage Anodes with High-Capacity

      Jiansheng Wu, Xianhong Rui, Chengyuan Wang, Wen-Bo Pei, Raymond Lau, Qingyu Yan and Qichun Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402189

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      N anoparticles of n-type conjugated ladder polymer poly(benzobisimidazobenzo­phenanthroline) (BBL) and its analogue (SBBL) are prepared through a reprecipitation method. The ladder polymers are tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. They exhibit high capacity, good rate performance, and excellent cycle life, especially at high temperature of 50 °C.

    2. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confining Sulfur in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Weidong Zhou, Chongmin Wang, Qinglin Zhang, Héctor D. Abruña, Yang He, Jiangwei Wang, Scott X. Mao and Xingcheng Xiao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401752

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      Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

    3. Identifying the Optimum Morphology in High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

      Guijun Li, Kwong Lung Ching, Jacob Y. L. Ho, Man Wong and Hoi-Sing Kwok

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401775

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      The study of the perovskite solar cells provides insight into the optimum morphology. A bilayer structure is required for efficient solar cells, and one with a high efficiencies of up to 15.2% and an open-circuit voltage (Voc) up to 1110 mV is demonstrated. Furthermore, the 80% high yield also paves the way for the possibility of mass production in the future.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Clare Dyer-Smith, Ian A. Howard, Clément Cabanetos, Abdulrahman El Labban, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Frédéric Laquai

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401778

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      The polymer side chain pattern determines the efficiency of PBDTTPD:phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells because it changes the yield of free charges and the nongeminate recombination dynamics, as demonstrated by broadband transient pump–probe spectroscopy. Tuning of the side chains leads to a doubling of the power conversion efficiency from 4% up to 8%.

  46. Communications

    1. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium–Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

      Dong Zheng, Deyu Qu, Xiao-Qing Yang, Xiqian Yu, Hung-Sui Lee and Deyang Qu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401888

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      The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solutions can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li–S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  47. Full Papers

    1. Dithienogermole-Containing Small-Molecule Solar Cells with 7.3% Efficiency: In-Depth Study on the Effects of Heteroatom Substitution of Si with Ge

      Mijin Moon, Bright Walker, Junghoon Lee, Song Yi Park, Hyungju Ahn, Taehyo Kim, Tack Ho Lee, Jungwoo Heo, Jung Hwa Seo, Tae Joo Shin, Jin Young Kim and Changduk Yang

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402044

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      A series of solution-processed small-molecules based on dithienogermole (DTGe) units is synthesized and fully optimized with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3%. This is a record for germanium (Ge)-based small molecules in devices and the PCE value reported is, for the first time, certified for this class of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  48. Communications

    1. Radical or Not Radical: Revisiting Lithium–Sulfur Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Electrolytes

      Marine Cuisinier, Connor Hart, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Arnd Garsuch and Linda F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401801

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      Tracking down trisulfur radical in lithium–sulfur batteries is reported. In nonaqueous electrolytes, dissociation of polysulfide dianions to radicals, and particularly trisulfur S3·−, is believed to play a key role in the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. While S3·− exists in only minor concentration in glymes, exacerbated dissociation in donor solvents allows full utilization of both sulfur and lithium sulfide.

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