Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 22

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 16.146

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 3/89 (Energy & Fuels); 4/139 (Chemistry Physical); 4/144 (Physics Applied); 4/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 5/260 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small


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  1. Full Papers

    1. Growth Engineering of CH3NH3PbI3 Structures for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

      M. Ibrahim Dar, Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, Neha Arora, Michael Grätzel and Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501358

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      The presence of a small amount of PbCl2 in PbI2 precursor solution not only influences the growth and properties of CH3NH3PbI3 structures, but also leads to the enhancement of power conversion efficiency to >16%.

    2. Co–Ni-Based Nanotubes/Nanosheets as Efficient Water Splitting Electrocatalysts

      Siwen Li, Yongcheng Wang, Sijia Peng, Lijuan Zhang, Abdullah M. Al-Enizi, Hui Zhang, Xuhui Sun and Gengfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501661

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      Homologous Co–Ni-based nanotube/nanosheet structures with tunable Co/Ni ratios are grown on conductive substrates with a cation-exchanging method to grow hydroxides as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts, followed by anion exchanging to obtain corresponding nitrides as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts. They exhibit low overpotentials, small Tafel slopes, and ultrahigh current densities, serving as promising, efficient, and stable electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    3. Fill Factor Losses in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 Solar Cells: Insights from Physical and Electrical Characterization of Devices and Exfoliated Films

      Kong Fai Tai, Oki Gunawan, Masaru Kuwahara, Shi Chen, Subodh Gautam Mhaisalkar, Cheng Hon Alfred Huan and David B. Mitzi

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501609

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      Fill factor (FF) losses are the second most significant barrier for Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells, after the well-known open circuit voltage deficit (VOC,def). The sources of FF losses, in particular the series resistance in full bandgap-range CZTSSe, are investigated. CZTSSe with high S/(S + Se) ratios are found to develop nonohmic back contact at the CZTSSe/Mo interface.

    4. Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphite Foam as a Self-Supported Metal-Free Electrocatalytic Electrode for Water Oxidation

      Xiaowen Yu, Miao Zhang, Ji Chen, Yingru Li and Gaoquan Shi

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501492

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      Nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphite foam (NSGF), prepared by oxidizing and doping a commercial graphite foil can be applied as a self-supported electrode without a current collector and polymeric binder for oxygen evolution reaction. Its electrocatalytic performance is superior or comparable to those of reported metal-free OER catalysts.

    5. Understanding Interface Engineering for High-Performance Fullerene/Perovskite Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Yao Liu, Monojit Bag, Lawrence A. Renna, Zachariah A. Page, Paul Kim, Todd Emrick, D. Venkataraman and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501606

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      Inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells are optimized to achieve a maximum efficiency of 15.5% by inserting fulleropyrrolidine as an interface modification layer. The interface between silver electrode and electron transport layer is carefully examined using a variety of electrical and surface potential techniques. Interface engineering is critical for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    6. Multifunctional Coatings from Scalable Single Source Precursor Chemistry in Tandem Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

      Yi-Hsuan Lai, David W. Palm and Erwin Reisner

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501668

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      Scalable multifunctional composite films are prepared from simple single source precursor chemistry using solely inexpensive materials and techniques. The films provide protection and the integration of bifunctional water splitting catalysts onto photoelectrodes, thus enabling the assembly of a low-cost photoelectrochem­ical tandem device with a benchmark performance.

  2. Communications

    1. A Front-Illuminated Nanostructured Transparent BiVO4 Photoanode for >2% Efficient Water Splitting

      Yongbo Kuang, Qingxin Jia, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Taro Yamada, Akihiko Kudo and Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501645

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      Appropriate nanostructuring and morphology control significantly improves front illumination performance and optical properties of a transparent BiVO4 photoanode, with a record high charge separation efficiency at 0.6 V versus RHE. The obtained nanoworm electrode shows similar charge separation efficiency under both front and back illumination. With the addition of a highly active NiFe bimetallic cocatalyst, solar conversion efficiency of 2.25% is achieved.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Spectroscopic Insight into Li-Ion Batteries during Operation: An Alternative Infrared Approach

      Daniel Alves Dalla Corte, Georges Caillon, Christian Jordy, Jean-Noël Chazalviel, Michel Rosso and François Ozanam

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501768

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      Infrared spectroscopy of multiple-internal-reflection geometry gives information on both surface and bulk processes at silicon thin-film electrodes, in conditions typical of Li-ion battery operation. The quantitatively assessed solid/electrolyte interphase thickness increases during lithiation and partially decreases during delithiation. The formation of a heavily lithiated phase is spectroscopically evidenced. Lithium transport is slow during the first lithiation, and faster during subsequent delithiation/lithiation cycles.

    2. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Na-Ion Batteries in Ether-Based Electrolytes: A Case Study of ZnS Nanospheres

      Dawei Su, Katja Kretschmer and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501785

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      Ether-based electrolytes can improve the overall electrochemical performance of Na-ion batteries, and ZnS nanospheres as an anode material for Na-ion batteries in ether-based electrolytes exhibit an ­improved electrochemical performance. The batteries can achieve a high specific capacity of above 1000 mA h g−1, high initial Columbic efficiency of 90%, and ­extended cycle life.

  4. Communications

    1. Noble Metals on Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Mouths: Thermal Dewetting of Minimal Pt Co-Catalyst Loading Leads to Significantly Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Generation

      Nhat Truong Nguyen, Marco Altomare, Jeong Eun Yoo, Nicola Taccardi and Patrik Schmuki

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501926

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      A technique is introduced to strongly ­reduce Pt use for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from TiO2 nanotubes. By site selectively depositing thin layers of Pt only at the “mouth” of the nanotubes, and with a subsequent thermal de­wetting step, an outstanding photocatalytic ­improvement with minimal amounts of cocatalyst is achieved.

  5. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Fiber-Shaped All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Ultrathin MnO2 Nanosheet/Carbon Fiber Cathodes for Wearable Electronics

      Neng Yu, Hong Yin, Wei Zhang, Yuan Liu, Zhiyong Tang and Ming-Qiang Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501458

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      Wearable, fiber-shaped, and all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) have been successfully constructed with a maximum operating voltage of 1.5 V using ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets and graphene on carbon fibers as positive and negative electrode, respectively. The fabricated fiber-shaped ASCs display excellent bendability and mechanical stability, and possess enough energy to power a CdS nanowire photodetector without applying any external bias voltage.

  6. Progress Reports

    1. Lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics: Status and Predictions

      Suren A. Gevorgyan, Morten V. Madsen, Bérenger Roth, Michael Corazza, Markus Hösel, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501208

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      The results of a meta-analysis of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) lifetimes are presented. These results illuminate some major bottlenecks, and reveal the current status and progress of the stability of OPVs. A generic marker is additionally introduced that allows the comparison of the lifetimes of various samples tested under different conditions.

  7. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Self-Supported, 3D Li2S-Doped Graphene Aerogel Cathodes

      Guangmin Zhou, Eunsu Paek, Gyeong S. Hwang and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501355

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      3D N- or B-doped graphene aerogel cathodes provide a highly conductive network and large surface area for Li2S coating, facilitate fast charge transfer, and immobilize effectively the polysulfide ions. This enables a low initial charge voltage barrier, high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

    2. Plasmonic Backscattering Effect in High-Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Devices

      George Kakavelakis, Ioannis Vangelidis, Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Antonios G. Kanaras, Elefterios Lidorikis, Emmanuel Stratakis and Emmanuel Kymakis

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501640

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      High efficiency organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are fabricated based a novel and universal light trapping mechanism, using gold nanorods (Au NRs) as back contact reflectors. The incorporation of Au NRs inside the back contact interfacial layer (titanium sub oxide) gives rise to a device efficiency of ≈13%, compared to the record performance of 8.25%. This is revealed to be mainly due to scattering by a combination of theoretical and experimental results.

  8. Communications

    1. High Solar Flux Concentration Water Splitting with Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Photoanodes

      Gideon Segev, Hen Dotan, Kirtiman Deo Malviya, Asaf Kay, Matthew T. Mayer, Michael Grätzel and Avner Rothschild

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500817

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      The water splitting performance of hematite photoanodes is explored under a wide range of light intensities. The photo­current scales linearly and the photovoltage scales logarithmically with the intensity, showing steeper rate than in photovoltaics, probably due to enhanced ratio between charge transfer and recombination at high intensities. Hence, light concentration serves as another handle to enhance the efficiency of hematite photoanodes.

    2. CdS Nanoparticle-Decorated Cd Nanosheets for Efficient Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Lu Shang, Bian Tong, Huijun Yu, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Chao Zhou, Yufei Zhao, Muhammad Tahir, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung and Tierui Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501241

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      CdS nanoparticle-decorated Cd nanosheets (CdS NP/Cd NSs) are successfully ­fabricated for the first time via a facile oxidation–sulfurization treatment of Cd nanosheets. Due to the high electrical conductivity and visible light reflectivity of Cd nanosheets, the obtained CdS NP/Cd NSs heterostructures show significantly enhanced activities for visible light-driven photocatalytic H2 production compared to other reference CdS photocatalysts.

    3. Reversible Na-Ion Uptake in Si Nanoparticles

      Yaolin Xu, Ellie Swaans, Shibabrata Basak, Henny W. Zandbergen, Dana M. Borsa and Fokko M. Mulder

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501436

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      Silicon nanoparticles produced by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition show reversible electrochem­ical sodium uptake at room temperature. Sodiation of silicon occurs in a two-phase equilibrium reaction; whereas desodiation involves a solid solution of Na1−xSi (0 < x < 1). Silicon nanomaterials appear as promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries for the first time.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing Cycle Stability of Lithium Iron Phosphate in Aqueous Electrolytes by Increasing Electrolyte Molarity

      Daniel Gordon, Michelle Yu Wu, Anirudh Ramanujapuram, James Benson, Jung Tae Lee, Alexandre Magasinski, Naoki Nitta, Cindy Huang and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501805

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      Systematic studies on the charge−discharge behavior of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in aqueous electrolytes reveal the beneficial impact of higher electrolyte salt concentrations on discharge capacity retention. Higher salt concentrations for either Li2SO4 or LiNO3-based electrolytes reduce the extent of undesirable side reactions of water molecules with LFP that lead to the electrochemical separation of individual particles and capacity fading.

    2. Elucidating the Sole Contribution from Electromagnetic Near-Fields in Plasmon-Enhanced Cu2O Photocathodes

      Joseph S. DuChene, Benjamin P. Williams, Aaron C. Johnston-Peck, Jingjing Qiu, Mathieu Gomes, Maxime Amilhau, Donald Bejleri, Jiena Weng, Dong Su, Fengwei Huo, Eric A. Stach and Wei David Wei

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501250

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      Cu2O photocathodes are augmented with Au@SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles to exclusively evaluate the electromagnetic near-field enhancement mechanism in a p-type photocathode. Direct correlation between theory and experiment unambiguously demonstrates the sole influence of plasmonic near-fields on the light-harvesting efficiency of a semiconductor photoelectrode, and elucidates general design rules for the rational construction of plasmonic photocatalysts.

    3. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Fully Enclosed Rolling Spherical Structure for Harvesting Low-Frequency Water Wave Energy

      Xiaofeng Wang, Simiao Niu, Yajiang Yin, Fang Yi, Zheng You and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501467

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      A freestanding-structured, fully enclosed triboelectric nanogenerator is designed with unique advantages in for harvesting wave energy. When resonated with water waves, such a triboelectric nanogenerator can light up 70 LEDs instantaneously. Integrated with electric double-layer supercapacitors, such a system can power a digital thermometer in a duty cycle of 26.5%, showing its potential application in harvesting blue energy.

    4. Constructing a AZO/TiO2 Core/Shell Nanocone Array with Uniformly Dispersed Au NPs for Enhancing Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

      Yan Mi, Liaoyong Wen, Rui Xu, Zhijie Wang, Dawei Cao, Yaoguo Fang and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501496

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      Construction of core/shell nanocones with optimal structure and composition can maximize solar light utilization. A well-defined regular array of AZO/TiO2 core/shell nanocones with uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticles (NPs) is successfully realized. By tuning each parameter of the photoelectrode, the photoconversion approaches 0.73% at 0.21 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, which is one of the highest values with the lowest applied bias ever reported in Au/TiO2 photoelectrochemical composites.

    5. Correlation Between Microstructure and Na Storage Behavior in Hard Carbon

      Biao Zhang, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu, Christel Laberty, Cathie Vix-Guterl and Jean-Marie Tarascon

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501588

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      A correlation between the microstructure and Na-ion storage behavior in hard carbon materials is established. A single low voltage plateau is observed in the carbon materials annealed at above 2000 °C. It is demonstrated via the assembly of a full cell the benefit of such single low voltage plateau for enhancing the energy density of Na-ion batteries.

    6. Organic Salts as a Route to Energy Level Control in Low Bandgap, High Open-Circuit Voltage Organic and Transparent Solar Cells that Approach the Excitonic Voltage Limit

      John Suddard-Bangsund, Christopher J. Traverse, Margaret Young, Tyler J. Patrick, Yimu Zhao and Richard R. Lunt

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501659

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      Organic salt photovoltaics with open-circuit voltages approaching the excitonic limit are demonstrated. Anion exchange is shown to enhance energy level alignment and nearly double the exciton diffusion length. Anion alloying enables a design strategy for fine energy level tuning to simultaneously optimize open-circuit voltage and photocurrent in new organic salt systems for multijunction and transparent phovoltaics with deeper near-infrared response.

    7. Low-Cost Hollow Mesoporous Polymer Spheres and All-Solid-State Lithium, Sodium Batteries

      Weidong Zhou, Hongcai Gao and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501802

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      A novel strategy for synthesis of hollow mesoporous organic polymer (HMOP) spheres using aqueous “micelles” as template is reported, in which the traditionally employed hard template and etching reagents are avoided. The HMOP−poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) membrane is demonstrated to work as the separator/electrolyte in the all-solid-state lithium/sodium batteries and improved electrochemical performance is achieved, owing to the scavenging effect of HMOP particles.

    8. Performance Enhancement of Polymer-Free Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells via Transfer Matrix Modeling

      Moritz Pfohl, Konstantin Glaser, Jens Ludwig, Daniel D. Tune, Simone Dehm, Christian Kayser, Alexander Colsmann, Ralph Krupke and Benjamin S. Flavel

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501345

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      Surfactant-stabilized (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are integrated into solar cells. It is shown that by tailoring the layer stack through transfer matrix calculations it is possible to generate a photocurrent from the SWCNT transitions of either S11, S22, or a combination of both.

  10. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Band Gap Dependence on Cation Disorder in ZnSnN2 Solar Absorber

      Tim D. Veal, Nathaniel Feldberg, Nicholas F. Quackenbush, Wojciech M. Linhart, David O. Scanlon, Louis F. J. Piper and Steven M. Durbin

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501462

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      The band gap of earth-abundant ZnSnN2 can be tuned between 1 and 2 eV by varying the growth conditions and resulting cation disorder. The optical absorption edges and carrier densities fall between model curves for cation-ordered orthorhombic and disordered wurtzite ZnSnN2. Hard X-ray photo­emission spectra suggest different degrees of cation disorder from comparison with hybrid DFT-calculated densities of states.

    2. 1D Building Blocks-Intermingled Heteronanomats as a Platform Architecture For High-Performance Ultrahigh-Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

      Ju-Myung Kim, Chang-Hoon Park, Qinglin Wu and Sang-Young Lee

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501594

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      The cathode active particles-embedded polyacrylonitrile nanofibers/multiwalled carbon nanotubes heteronanomat cathode (HM cathode) is demonstrated as an effective and versatile electrode platform to address the long-standing challenges of conventional cathodes. The HM cathode is fabricated via the simultaneous electrospraying and electrospinning process. The material/structure uniqueness of the HM cathode enables substantial improvements in the rate capability, cycling performance and, most notably, areal capacity far beyond those accessible with conventional cathode technologies.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Uniformity and Area Scaling in Carbon Nanotube–Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Enabled by Solvent Additives

      Tejas A. Shastry, Sarah C. Clark, Andrew J. E. Rowberg, Kyle A. Luck, Kan-Sheng Chen, Tobin J. Marks and Mark C. Hersam

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501466

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      Solvent additives enable large-area carbon nanotube solar cells by reducing spatial inhomogeneities within the carbon nanotube–fullerene active layer. These additives also reveal the impact of carbon nanotube chiral distribution on performance and enable the fabrication of large-area carbon nanotube solar cells with power conversion efficiencies comparable to small-area cells.

    2. Transparent Cuprous Oxide Photocathode Enabling a Stacked Tandem Cell for Unbiased Water Splitting

      Paula Dias, Marcel Schreier, S. David Tilley, Jingshan Luo, João Azevedo, Luísa Andrade, Dongqin Bi, Anders Hagfeldt, Adélio Mendes, Michael Grätzel and Matthew T. Mayer

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501537

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      Transparent gold substrates enable photocathodes based on electrodeposited cuprous oxide, which drive efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution while also exhibiting semitransparency to sub-bandgap photons. This enables construction of an optical tandem, demonstrated here by coupling the photocathode above a perovskite photovoltaic, capable of performing complete sunlight-driven water splitting.

    3. Charge Photogeneration in Organic Photovoltaics: Role of Hot versus Cold Charge-Transfer Excitons

      Bhoj R. Gautam, Robert Younts, Wentao Li, Liang Yan, Evgeny Danilov, Erik Klump, Iordania Constantinou, Franky So, Wei You, Harald Ade and Kenan Gundogdu

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501032

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      Ultrafast spectroscopy unravels the role of excess excitation energy on charge separation in organic photovoltaic solar cells. Comparison of the polaron and charge-transfer (CT) state populations after selective excitation of the high-energy polymer states and lowest energy CT states shows that excess exciton energy is not necessary for the effective generation of charges.

    4. In Situ TEM Observation of Electrochemical Lithiation of Sulfur Confined within Inner Cylindrical Pores of Carbon Nanotubes

      Hyea Kim, Jung Tae Lee, Alexandre Magasinski, Kejie Zhao, Yang Liu and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501306

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      The first in situ observation of the lithiation of sulfur (S) confined within a carbon nanotube (CNT) using a transmission electron ­microscope is reported. The lithiation reaction front is flat and propagates along the axis of the S-in-CNT reactor. The ­Experimental findings and electron density of states calculations suggest that the (Li2S)/S interfacial region is electrically conductive.

  12. Communications

    1. Ion Migration and the Role of Preconditioning Cycles in the Stabilization of the JV Characteristics of Inverted Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

      Michele De Bastiani, Giorgio Dell'Erba, Marina Gandini, Valerio D'Innocenzo, Stefanie Neutzner, Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada, Giulia Grancini, Maddalena Binda, Mirko Prato, James M. Ball, Mario Caironi and Annamaria Petrozza

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501453

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      Charge extracting layers play a key role in the elimination of hysteresis from J–V characteristics of inverted hybrid perovskite solar cells. Methanofullerene electron extracting layers stabilize short-circuit photocurrent from the very first J–V scan, while preconditioning cycles are needed to stabilize the open-circuit voltage owing to interaction between migrating iodide ions and the charge extraction layer.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Lyophilized 3D Lithium Vanadium Phosphate/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes for Super Stable Lithium Ion Batteries

      Ranjusha Rajagopalan, Lei Zhang, Shi Xue Dou and Huakun Liu

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501760

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      The methodology employed here utilizes lithium vanadium phosphate/reduced graphene oxide to generate a 3D porous architecture, which not only facilitates efficient mass transport between the electrolyte and the electrode but also acts as a stress dissipater resulting in prolonged cycle life up to 10 000 cycles at 20 C rate.

  14. Communications

    1. The Application of Redox Targeting Principles to the Design of Rechargeable Li–S Flow Batteries

      Jingfa Li, Liuqing Yang, Shiliu Yang and Jim Yang Lee

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501808

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      Redox targeting concept is applied to address some key challenges in the operation of rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries—the limited conductivity of the sulfur electrode without the use of conductivity additive; and the meddlesome volume expansion in S to Li2S transformation that degrades the electrical integration of the sulfur electrode with the current collector.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Cathodic Oxygen Reduction and Power Production of Microbial Fuel Cell Based on Noble-Metal-Free Electrocatalyst Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks

      Shijie You, Xiaobo Gong, Wei Wang, Dianpeng Qi, Xiuheng Wang, Xiaodong Chen and Nanqi Ren

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501497

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      Metal-organic-framework-derived electrocatalyst (cobalt and N-doped carbon, CoNC), prepared by direct pyrolysis of ZIF-67, exhibits excellent activity, selectivity, and stability for oxygen reduction in pH-neutral media. The CoNC with large surface area, high ratio of micropores and uniform pore size, and abundant Co–Nx active sites in carbon matrix enables 40% higher power density than Pt/C catalyst in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The CoNC provides a new promising cathodic catalyst for more effective recovery of electric energy from organic wastewater and biomass materials in MFC.

    2. Targeting Ideal Dual-Absorber Tandem Water Splitting Using Perovskite Photovoltaics and CuInxGa1-xSe2 Photocathodes

      Jingshan Luo, Zhen Li, Shiro Nishiwaki, Marcel Schreier, Matthew T. Mayer, Peter Cendula, Yong Hui Lee, Kunwu Fu, Anyuan Cao, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Yaroslav E. Romanyuk, Stephan Buecheler, S. David Tilley, Lydia Helena Wong, Ayodhya N. Tiwari and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501520

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      An ideal dual-absorber tandem solar water splitting device consists of a top absorber of around 1.7 eV bandgap paired above a 1.0 eV bandgap bottom absorber. A high-performance CuInxGa1-xSe2 photocathode accomplishes the latter requirement, allowing exploration of bandgap variation of perovskite top absorbers toward targeting the ideal tandem performance.

    3. Transition from Diffusion-Controlled Intercalation into Extrinsically Pseudocapacitive Charge Storage of MoS2 by Nanoscale Heterostructuring

      Qasim Mahmood, Sul Ki Park, Kideok D. Kwon, Sung-Jin Chang, Jin-Yong Hong, Guozhen Shen, Young Mee Jung, Tae Jung Park, Sung Woon Khang, Woo Sik Kim, Jing Kong and Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501115

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      The extrinsic surface charge-storage behavior of 2D RGO/MoS2 hybrids translated from diffusion-controlled intercalation mechanism is demonstrated. The 2D RGO/MoS2 hybrids exhibit a 1T phase of MoS2 at the interface interacting with the RGO sheets, where the Faradaic charge-transfer process is facilitated by the strong interplay between the redox-active MoS2 and electrically conductive RGO sheets.

    4. Mixed Valence Tin Oxides as Novel van der Waals Materials: Theoretical Predictions and Potential Applications

      Junjie Wang, Naoto Umezawa and Hideo Hosono

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501190

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      Mixed valence tin oxides, SnxOy(0.5 < x/y < 1), are identified as novel van der Waals photofunctional materials for solar energy conversion application from the state-of-the-art ab initio evolutionary crystal structure prediction method. A multilayer stack of light absorbers of different wave lengths, β-SnO/Sn5O6/α-Sn3O4, is proposed as a high-quality heterostructure promising for an efficient multijunction solar cell.

    5. Fine-Tuning the Sn Content in CZTSSe Thin Films to Achieve 10.8% Solar Cell Efficiency from Spray-Deposited Water–Ethanol-Based Colloidal Inks

      Gerardo Larramona, Sergiu Levcenko, Stéphane Bourdais, Alain Jacob, Christophe Choné, Bruno Delatouche, Camille Moisan, Justus Just, Thomas Unold and Gilles Dennler

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501404

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      Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1–x)4 thin film solar cells are fabricated with a fast and low-cost procedure using an aqueous Cu-Zn-Sn-S colloidal ink deposited by nonpyrolitic spray, followed by annealing/selenization steps. The fine tuning of the Sn amount in the ink is a strong leverage to increase the cell efficiency to ≈11% thanks to the decrease of the density of mid-gap defects.

    6. Tunable Internal and Surface Structures of the Bifunctional Oxygen Perovskite Catalysts

      Jae-Il Jung, Seungkyu Park, Min-Gyu Kim and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501560

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      Perovskite oxide ceramics is an attractive candidate of bifunctional electrocatalyst for the rechargeable metal-air batteries. This study introduces the dynamic defect chemistry and internal/structure changes when perovskite oxide ceramics is subject to the heat-treatment in argon atmosphere, and its subsequent effect on the electrochemical performances of the bifunctional perovskite catalyst is substantially described.

    7. Following the Morphology Formation In Situ in Printed Active Layers for Organic Solar Cells

      Stephan Pröller, Feng Liu, Chenhui Zhu, Cheng Wang, Thomas P. Russell, Alexander Hexemer, Peter Müller-Buschbaum and Eva M. Herzig

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501580

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      The structure formation in printed active layers for applications in organic solar cells is monitored using in situ grazing incidence wide and small angle X-ray scattering. The measurements show the process of polymer crystallization and the crystallization-driven fullerene aggregation on the respective length scales. The structure evolution is divided in five characteristic stages.

    8. Binary Indium–Zinc Oxide Photoanodes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Andreas Kunzmann, Melanie Stanzel, Wolfgang Peukert, Rubén D. Costa and Dirk M. Guldi

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501075

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      This work demonstrates efficient indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) based dye-sensitized solar cells by means of enhancing charge transport processes and reducing recombination rates. Here, low amounts of indium reduce charge transport and increase electron recombination resistances, leading to an enhanced charge collection efficiency up to 83%. Finally, IZO electrodes are exploited for electron cascade photoanode architectures, yielding to efficiencies of 5.77%.

  16. Communications

    1. Na3PSe4: A Novel Chalcogenide Solid Electrolyte with High Ionic Conductivity

      Long Zhang, Kun Yang, Jianli Mi, Lei Lu, Linran Zhao, Limin Wang, Yueming Li and Hong Zeng

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501294

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      A new Na3PSe4 compound has been synthesized and exhibits a large cell parameter of 7.3094 Å, thereby providing 3D channels that are optimal for Na ion diffusion. Na3PSe4 has the highest ionic conductivity reported for chalcogenides so far, with a value of over 1 mS cm−1 at room temperature and a low activation energy of 0.21 eV.

  17. Progress Reports

    1. Photo-Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage Systems

      Daniel Schmidt, Martin D. Hager and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500369

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      Recent developments in the investigation of solar rechargeable electric energy storage systems are reviewed. Details of operation and performance are provided for organic hybrid devices of different solar cell types (e.g., dye sensitized solar cells or bulk heterojunction solar cell) and several energy storage systems (e.g., supercapacitors, redox flow batteries or metal air batteries).

  18. Communications

    1. Degenerating Plasmonic Modes to Enhance the Performance of Surface Plasmon Resonance for Application in Solar Energy Conversion

      Zhibing Zhan, Fabian Grote, Zhijie Wang, Rui Xu and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501654

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      This work proposes a new approach to enhance surface plasmon resonance (SPR) performance by degenerating the quadrupole and dipole SPR modes of highly ordered Ag nanoparticle arrays. The degenerate reason is confirmed to originate from the variation of refractive index in different wavelengths. The degenerate plasmonic modes strengthen SPR, which improves the photocurrent and photocatalytic activity in this incorporated system.

  19. Progress Reports

    1. Nickel-Rich and Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes: Progress and Perspectives

      Arumugam Manthiram, James C. Knight, Seung-Taek Myung, Seung-Min Oh and Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501010

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      Ni-rich layered oxides and Li-rich layered oxides are part of a new generation of high-capacity Li-ion battery cathodes currently under development. The current state of research on these two families of materials, some of the obstacles to further implementation, and some future areas of exploration are outlined.

  20. Reviews

    1. A Review of Phosphide-Based Materials for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Peng Xiao, Wei Chen and Xin Wang

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500985

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      Recent development of phosphides as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is reviewed. Through a comprehensive survey of various synthesis methods, perspective on the benefits and drawbacks of these methods are provided, and the origins of their high activities and the challenges they face are discussed.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Safety-Reinforced Poly(Propylene Carbonate)-Based All-Solid-State Polymer Electrolyte for Ambient-Temperature Solid Polymer Lithium Batteries

      Jianjun Zhang, Jianghui Zhao, Liping Yue, Qingfu Wang, Jingchao Chai, Zhihong Liu, Xinhong Zhou, Hong Li, Yuguo Guo, Guanglei Cui and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501082

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      Safety-reinforced poly(propylene carbonate)-based solid polymer electrolyte is developed for ambient-temperature solid lithium batteries with improved reliability. Such solid polymer electrolyte displays comprehensive properties in high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, excellent mechanical strength, superior rate performance, and longer cycling stability at 20 °C. Furthermore, the LiFePO4/Li battery is able to operate even at harsh conditions.

    2. High-Energy, High-Rate, Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: Synergetic Effect of Hollow TiO2-Webbed Carbon Nanotubes and a Dual Functional Carbon-Paper Interlayer

      Jang-Yeon Hwang, Hee Min Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, Joo-Hyeong Lee, Ali Abouimrane, Mohammad Ahmed Khaleel, Ilias Belharouak, Arumugam Manthiram and Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501480

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      A high-capacity, high-rate sulfur cathode has been developed by encapsulating elemental sulfur into the pores of hollow-mesoporous TiO2 particles that are connected via carbon nanotubes. A lithium-sulfur cell consisting of such a nanocomposite cathode along with a dual functional carbon-paper interlayer between the sulfur cathode and the separator exhibits high-capacities at rates as high as 5C-rate with good cycle life.

  22. Essays

    1. Development of Active Organic and Polymeric Materials for Batteries and Solar Cells: Introduction to Essential Characterization Techniques

      Christian Friebe and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500858

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      With regard to a changing worldwide energy distribution policy towards renewable systems, more and more research is focused on solar-based energy conversion and related energy-storage technologies. Basic techniques for the characterization and development of solar cells and battery devices that are based on organic and polymeric active materials are discussed.

  23. Full Papers

    1. CuSbSe2 as a Potential Photovoltaic Absorber Material: Studies from Theory to Experiment

      Ding-Jiang Xue, Bo Yang, Zhen-Kun Yuan, Gang Wang, Xinsheng Liu, Ying Zhou, Long Hu, Daocheng Pan, Shiyou Chen and Jiang Tang

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501203

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      Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations on CuSbSe2, combined with the preliminary efficiency of 1.32%, demonstrate that this material could be used as the absorber layer for cost-effective and environmentally friendly thin-film solar cells, due to its benign defect properties, attractive material, optical and electrical properties, as well as low-toxic, low-cost, and earth-abundant constituents.

  24. Communications

    1. Monolithic Perovskite-CIGS Tandem Solar Cells via In Situ Band Gap Engineering

      Teodor Todorov, Talia Gershon, Oki Gunawan, Yun Seog Lee, Charles Sturdevant, Liang-Yi Chang and Supratik Guha

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500799

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      In situ control of perovskite absorber properties enables a record-efficiency two-terminal monolithic perovskite-CIGS tandem thin-film solar cell.

    2. An Alternative Strategy to Adjust the Recombination Mechanism of Organic Photovoltaics by Implementing Ternary Compounds

      Nicola Gasparini, Michael Salvador, Stefanie Fladischer, Athanasios Katsouras, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Erdmann Spiecker, Christos L. Chochos, Christoph J. Brabec and Tayebeh Ameri

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501527

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      Trap-assisted recombination is one of the main loss mechanisms in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Our results suggest that introducing a near infrared (NIR) polymer into the 2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ):[6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) host system suppresses trap-assisted recombination in the binary blend, leading to a significant improvement of ≈60% in power conversion efficiency for ternary organic solar cells at low light intensity.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Solar Rechargeable Batteries Based on Lead–Organohalide Electrolyte

      Qiong Wang, Hongjun Chen, Eric McFarland and Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501418

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      The use of the lead–organohalide as an electrolyte in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) device transforms a standard DSC into a dual-function solar battery device. Under illumination, the iodide redox couple works as hole scavenges, while the lead species are involved in the redox reactions which have the function of reversible charge storage and release.

    2. On the Localized Nature of the Structural Transformations of Li2MnO3 Following Electrochemical Cycling

      Patrick J. Phillips, Javier Bareño, Yan Li, Daniel P. Abraham and Robert F. Klie

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501252

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      The localized structural and electronic transformations of Li2MnO3 following electrochemical cycling are presented in detail and at the atomic scale through scanning transmission electron microscopy-based microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Transformations are shown to exist in the bulk and at the surface, resulting in regions with defect spinel-LixMn4/3O4, spinel-Mn3O4, and rock-salt MnO symmetry.

    3. A Smooth CH3NH3PbI3 Film via a New Approach for Forming the PbI2 Nanostructure Together with Strategically High CH3NH3I Concentration for High Efficient Planar-Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Hong Zhang, Jian Mao, Hexiang He, Di Zhang, Hugh L. Zhu, Fengxian Xie, Kam Sing Wong, Michael Grätzel and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501354

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      A new approach for forming the PbI2 nanostructure and high CH3NH3I concentration are used to form high-quality, smooth and PbI2 residue-free, perovskite films with better photovoltaic performance. PbI2 residue in perovskite film is demonstrated to have a negative effect on the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells.

    4. Radical Cation–Anion Coupling-Induced Work Function Tunability in Anionic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes

      Jong-Hoon Lee, Byoung Hoon Lee, Song Yi Jeong, Sae Byeol Park, Geunjin Kim, Seoung Ho Lee and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501292

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      The work function tunability of p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) is found to be strongly dependent on the degree of coupling between the radical cation on the conjugated backbone and the anion on the side chain, which can be controlled by the ionization energy of pristine CPEs. These results promise versatile interface engineering in organic electronics with substantially enhanced device efficiencies and lifetimes.

    5. Influence of Processing Parameters and Molecular Weight on the Morphology and Properties of High-Performance PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM Organic Solar Cells

      Wei Ma, Guofang Yang, Kui Jiang, Joshua H. Carpenter, Yang Wu, Xiangyi Meng, Terry McAfee, Jingbo Zhao, Chenhui Zhu, Cheng Wang, Harald Ade and He Yan

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501400

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      The morphology features of organic solar cells based on a high-efficiency polymer that yields an efficiency >10% are investigated. The molecular orientation relative to the substrate and donor/acceptor interface, domain purity, and multilength scale phase separation are all sensitive to the spin-rate and temperature in the solution. The molecular weight is critical for the temperature dependence aggregation in solution, which impacts the structure in the film.

  26. Communications

    1. Nanoimaging of Open-Circuit Voltage in Photovoltaic Devices

      Elizabeth M. Tennyson, Joseph L. Garrett, Jesse A. Frantz, Jason D. Myers, Robel Y. Bekele, Jasbinder S. Sanghera, Jeremy N. Munday and Marina S. Leite

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501142

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      A novel imaging platform to determine the open-circuit voltage of solar cells with nanoscale spatial resolution is presented. Here is shown how a variant of illuminated Kelvin probe force microscopy can be implemented to quantify local variations in the voltage of different solar cells. The new metrology can be applied to any optoelectronic device, and works in ambient environment.

  27. Reviews

    1. Programmable Nanocarbon-Based Architectures for Flexible Supercapacitors

      Zhiqiang Niu, Lili Liu, Li Zhang, Weiya Zhou, Xiaodong Chen and Sishen Xie

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500677

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      Recent developments in the programmable assembly of flexible electrodes. The progress reported will guide further developments in the assembly of flexible nanocarbon architectures and the design of SC devices. Future development and prospects in this area are also analyzed.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels

      Se-Woong Baek, Jong Hun Kim, Juhoon Kang, Hyunsoo Lee, Jeong Young Park and Jung-Yong Lee

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501393

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      Metal nanoparticles improve the performance of organic solar cells by enhancing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and stability of the devices. An IQE level of approximately 100% is achieved by embedding the AgNPs in an electron-transporting layer in organic solar cells with an inverted structure. The AgNPs in the polyethylenimine-ethoxylated (PEIE) layer facilitates charge carrier generation and transport and improves the stability of the organic solar cells.

    2. Lithium Polyacrylate (LiPAA) as an Advanced Binder and a Passivating Agent for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries

      Nicholas P. W. Pieczonka, Valentina Borgel, Baruch Ziv, Nicole Leifer, Vadim Dargel, Doron Aurbach, Jung-Hyun Kim, Zhongyi Liu, Xiaosong Huang, Sergey A. Krachkovskiy, Gillian R. Goward, Ion Halalay, Bob R. Powell and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501008

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      Multiple positive functions of lithium polyacrylate (LiPAA) binder are found for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. The LiPAA binder acts as a stable cathode–electrolyte solution interphase (CEI) and provides extra Li ions, which significantly improves electrochemical performance. Compared with traditional polyvinylidene fluoride binder, LiPAA offers better adhesion, lower cost, and clear environmental advantages.

  29. Communications

    1. Sulfur Atoms Bridging Few-Layered MoS2 with S-Doped Graphene Enable Highly Robust Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Xiaolei Wang, Ge Li, Min Ho Seo, Fathy M. Hassan, Md Ariful Hoque and Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501106

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      Sulfur atoms covalently bonded to graphene and efficiently bridging few-layered MoS2 and graphene enable MoS2/SG composite with excellent Li+storage capacity and remarkably long cycling stability are reported. Such composite materials hold great promise in next-generation rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Combinatorial Search for High-Activity Hydrogen Catalysts Based on Transition-Metal-Embedded Graphitic Carbons

      Woon Ih Choi, Brandon C. Wood, Eric Schwegler and Tadashi Ogitsu

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501423

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      A new class of hydrogen catalysts and their mechanistic reaction pathway are proposed using high-throughput computational screening. Ten promising materials are identified from a combinatorial candidate pool of 300 transition-metal-embedded graphitic carbons using descriptor-based assessments of stability and activity. The identified catalysts feature a Kubas-type coordination on the active sites that lead to improved kinetics for hydrogen evolution.

    2. Microstructural and Electronic Origins of Open-Circuit Voltage Tuning in Organic Solar Cells Based on Ternary Blends

      Sonya A. Mollinger, Koen Vandewal and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501335

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      The open-circuit voltage evolution and charge transfer state interfaces in ternary organic photovoltaic blends are investigated using several model systems. The changes in subgap spectra from energetic disorder and increased population of higher energy states are analyzed and the lowest charge transfer state distribution is observed to shift due to local aggregation and delocalization effects.

    3. Thieno, Furo, and Selenopheno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione Copolymers: Air-Processed Polymer Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiency up to 7.1%

      Ahmed Najari, Serge Beaupré, Nicolas Allard, Mariane Ouattara, Jean-Rémi Pouliot, Patrick Charest, Simon Besner, Martin Simoneau and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501213

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      A series of conjugated polymers based on thieno, furo, and selenopheno[3,4-c]-pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD, FPD, SePD) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The impacts of both the heteroatom and the side chain of [3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione unit on the electro-optical properties have been investigated. Two new materials based on SePD led to air-processed polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency up to 7.1%.

  31. Communications

    1. Highly Nitridated Graphene–Li2S Cathodes with Stable Modulated Cycles

      Yongcai Qiu, Genlan Rong, Jie Yang, Guizhu Li, Shuo Ma, Xinliang Wang, Zhenghui Pan, Yuan Hou, Meinan Liu, Fangmin Ye, Wanfei Li, Zhi Wei Seh, Xinyong Tao, Hongbin Yao, Nian Liu, Rufan Zhang, Guangmin Zhou, Jiaping Wang, Shoushan Fan, Yi Cui and Yuegang Zhang

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501369

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      Ultralong cycle-life and stable Li2S-C/Li cells can be achieved by using highly nitridated graphene and controlling both recharge capacity and voltage.

    2. Superlattice Crystals–Mimic, Flexible/Functional Ceramic Membranes: Beyond Polymeric Battery Separators

      Jeong-Hoon Kim, Jung-Hwan Kim, Ju-Myung Kim, Young-Gi Lee and Sang-Young Lee

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500954

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      The superlattice crystals–mimic, flexible/functional ceramic membrane is presented as a new ceramic-driven material/architecture opportunity for next-generation high-performance battery separators. The structural uniqueness/Mn2+-chelating ability of the ceramic membrane (comprising the close-packed, thiol groups–containing silica particles spatially besieged by the polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyacrylonitrile nanofiber skeleton) enables unprecedented improvement in the membrane properties and, more notably, the high-temperature cyclability far beyond those accessible with conventional polymeric separators.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Analysis of Thermal Diodes Enabled by Junctions of Phase Change Materials

      Anton L. Cottrill and Michael S. Strano

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500921

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      Phase change materials can be used to construct thermal diodes. It is shown mathematically that the interface of such materials with a phase invariant material can function as a thermal diode. Criteria are derived analytically for the choice of thermal conductivity of the invariant phase to maximize the thermal rectification, and the model is applied to experimental systems in the literature.


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