Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Martin Ottmar, Deputy Editor: Carolina Novo

Impact Factor: 14.385

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/82 (Energy & Fuels); 4/136 (Physics Applied); 5/136 (Chemistry Physical); 5/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 7/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 113
  1. Communications

    1. A Self-Anchored Phosphotungstic Acid Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Achieved via One-Step Synthesis

      Shanfu Lu, Xin Xu, Jin Zhang, Sikan Peng, Dawei Liang, Haining Wang and Yan Xiang

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400842

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      An excellent hybrid proton exchange membrane (PEM) is prepared using a one-step synthesis to anchor phosphotungstic acid (HPW) into a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix. The hybrid membrane exhibits high proton conductivity and excellent stability. The impressive performance of a single cell based on the hybrid membrane, with a power density of 618 mW cm–2 at 50 °C, demonstrates promising potential for application in fuel cells.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Germanium- and Silicon-Substituted Donor–Acceptor Type Copolymers: Effect of the Bridging Heteroatom on Molecular Packing and Photovoltaic Device Performance

      Jong Soo Kim, Zhuping Fei, Sebastian Wood, David T. James, Myungsun Sim, Kilwon Cho, Martin J. Heeney and Ji-Seon Kim

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400527

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      Heavy atom substitution of silicon and germanium into poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) is investigated. The longer bond length of C-Ge results in increased polymer backbone planarity and enhanced thin film crystallinity, resulting in higher hole mobility and photovoltaic performance.

  3. Communications

    1. Interpenetrated Inorganic Hybrids for Efficiency Enhancement of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells

      Furui Tan, Shengchun Qu, Qiwei Jiang, Junpeng Liu, Zhijie Wang, Fumin Li, Gentian Yue, Shengjun Li, Chong Chen, Weifeng Zhang and Zhanguo Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400512

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      Photovoltaic performance improvement of a PbS quantum dot (QD) based hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cell is achieved by modulating the interpenetration and percolation of the two hybrid phases. The PbS QD:CdSe nanotetrapod hybrid is demonstrated to be more effective at extracting charge carriers compared to PbS:CdSe QD, which favors a 44% overall increase in conversion efficiency compared to traditional PbS QD solar cells.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Tethered Molecular Sorbents: Enabling Metal-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

      Lin Ma, Houlong Zhuang, Yingying Lu, Surya S. Moganty, Richard G. Hennig and Lynden A. Archer

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400390

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      A novel class of molecular sorbents for sulfur cathodes is developed that takes advantage of strong lithium-nitrogen and lithium-chlorine interactions to sequester lithium polysulfides in the cathode. Introduction of as little as 2 wt% of these molecules to a physical sulfur-carbon blend leads to stable long-term cycling behavior of Li-S batteries.

  5. Communications

    1. Impact of the Specific Surface Area on the Memory Effect in Li-Ion Batteries: The Case of Anatase TiO2

      Edyta Madej, Fabio La Mantia, Wolfgang Schuhmann and Edgar Ventosa

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400829

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      Until recently, the memory effect was believed to be absent in Li-ion battery materials. Here, the memory effect is clearly observed in anatase TiO2 nanoparticles when they are used as the negative electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Additionally, the memory effect strongly decreases with increasing specific surface area of the TiO2 sample.

  6. Full Papers

    1. π-Extended Narrow-Bandgap Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Oligomers for Solution-Processed Inverted Organic Solar Cells

      Woong Shin, Takuma Yasuda, Yu Hidaka, Go Watanabe, Ryota Arai, Keiro Nasu, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Wakako Murakami, Kengo Makita and Chihaya Adachi

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400879

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      Well-organized donor/acceptor bulk-heterojunction domains are spontaneously formed in a binary blend film of a π-extended benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based oligomer and a fullerene derivative. A power conversion efficiency as high as 5.9% is achieved for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells based on this nanostructured photoactive blend layer.

  7. Communications

    1. A Nanosheets-on-Channel Architecture Constructed from MoS2 and CMK-3 for High-Capacity and Long-Cycle-Life Lithium Storage

      Xin Xu, Zhaoyang Fan, Xinyao Yu, Shujiang Ding, Demei Yu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400902

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      A unique hybrid nanostructure of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on CMK-3 is designed and fabricated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. With advantages of the nanosheets-on-channel architecture, the MoS2@CMK-3 electrode is able to deliver a high discharge capacity of 934 mAh g−1 even after 150 cycles at a current density of 400 mA g−1.

    2. High Activity of Nanoporous-Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ@430L Composites for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Yucun Zhou, Ting Luo, Xianlong Du, Jianqiang Wang, Wei Yang, Chunwen Sun, Changrong Xia, Shaorong Wang and Zhongliang Zhan

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400883

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      Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ nanoparticles imbedded in macroporous 430L stainless steel demonstrate excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen electro-oxidation. This is enabled by superior redox properties of ceria catalysts and high conductivities of the supporting 430L scaffolds. Thin yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte fuel cells produce promising power densities of 0.94 W cm−2 at 800 °C and 0.55 W cm−2 at 700 °C.

  8. Full Papers

    1. The Crucial Influence of Fullerene Phases on Photogeneration in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Andreas Zusan, Koen Vandewal, Benedikt Allendorf, Nis Hauke Hansen, Jens Pflaum, Alberto Salleo, Vladimir Dyakonov and Carsten Deibel

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400922

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      Increasing the fullerene loading significantly lowers the field dependence of free charge carrier generation of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the polymer pBTTT-C16. The charge transfer splitting is driven by the presence of pure fullerene domains that are identified as the main prerequisite for a highly efficient, field-independent charge carrier photogeneration.

  9. Communications

    1. Layered P2/O3 Intergrowth Cathode: Toward High Power Na-Ion Batteries

      Eungje Lee, Jun Lu, Yang Ren, Xiangyi Luo, Xiaoyi Zhang, Jianguo Wen, Dean Miller, Aaron DeWahl, Stephen Hackney, Baris Key, Donghan Kim, Michael D. Slater and Christopher S. Johnson

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400458

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      Novel layered P2/O3 intergrowth Na1-xLix­Ni0.5Mn0.5O2 cathodes show high-rate performance for sodium-ion batteries. The good electrochemical properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of an intergrowth structure that results from the direct incorporation of Li in the matrix. This finding highlights the importance of multiphase intergrowths with orientation relationships that can attain performance for future optimized sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Shortened Alkyl Chains on Solution-Processable Small Molecules with Oxo-Alkylated Nitrile End-Capped Acceptors for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

      Dan Deng, Yajie Zhang, Liu Yuan, Chang He, Kun Lu and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400538

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      A new end-capped acceptor, oxo-alkylated nitrile, is used to synthesize solution-processable small molecules for organic solar cells. Alkyl chain shortening affects the self-assembly and crystallinity of the active materials, and a device efficiency of 5.6% is achieved.

    2. Double Columnar Structure with a Nanogradient Composite for Increased Oxygen Diffusivity and Reduction Activity

      Young-Wan Ju, Junji Hyodo, Atsushi Inoishi, Shintaro Ida, Tetsuya Tohei, Yeong-Gi So, Yuichi Ikuhara and Tatsumi Ishihara

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400783

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      A double columnar functional interlayer (DCFL) consisting of Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ (SDC) and Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ (SSC) is fabricated between a La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3−δ (LSGM) electrolyte film and a SSC cathode film using pulsed laser deposition. The DCFL has improved power generating properties in a solid oxide fuel cell, with improved electric conductivity and oxygen diffusivity in the cathode.

    3. Morphology Related Photodegradation of Low-Band-Gap Polymer Blends

      Xiao Wang, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Hans-Georg Mack, Hamed Azimi, Christoph J. Brabec, Alfred J. Meixner and Dai Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400497

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      Morphology related photodegradation of low band-gap polymer blends are studied by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The observed Stern-Volmer type of kinetics indicate that only a small number of photo-oxidized monomer units act as quenchers of the C-PCPDTBT polymer luminescence. Both permanent and temporary photodegradation processes are observed.

    4. Reduced Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanowires as Efficient Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts and Supercapacitor Electrodes

      Yongcheng Wang, Tong Zhou, Kun Jiang, Peimei Da, Zheng Peng, Jing Tang, Biao Kong, Wen-Bin Cai, Zhongqin Yang and Gengfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400696

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      A facile NaBH4 reduction method is reported to create oxygen vacancies on the surface of mesoporous Co3O4 nanowires and these are used as efficient water oxidation catalysts and high performance supercapacitor electrodes. The reduced Co3O4 nanowires exhibit substantially enhanced electrochemical performance compared to the pristine Co3O4 nanowires. Calculations show that oxygen vacancies create new defect states located in the band gaps of Co3O4, leading to the substantially enhanced electrochemical performance.

    5. Donor-Acceptor Interfacial Interactions Dominate Device Performance in Hybrid P3HT-ZnO Nanowire-Array Solar Cells

      Luisa Whittaker-Brooks, William E. McClain, Jeffrey Schwartz and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400585

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      The adsorption of interfacial molecular layers provides a way to improve device performance. Arylphosphonate-modified ZnO nanowire array-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid photovoltaics are fabricated, and inverted solar cells made with these treated interfaces exhibit power conversion efficiencies as high as 2.1%. This is due to improvements in the short-circuit current density, which can be attributed to surface passivation of ZnO and enhanced wettability from P3HT.

    6. Batch-to-Batch Variation of Polymeric Photovoltaic Materials: its Origin and Impacts on Charge Carrier Transport and Device Performances

      Harrison Ka Hin Lee, Zhao Li, Iordania Constantinou, Franky So, Sai Wing Tsang and Shu Kong So

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400768

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      Batch-to-batch variation of the photovoltaic performance of devices based on commercial samples of the polymer poly[N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5- (4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) is reported, with efficiency ranging from 5.7% to 2.5%. As revealed by gel permeation chromatography, bimodal distributions are observed in the molecular weight. Charge transport data suggest that low molecular weight components increase the average hopping distance, resulting in lower mobility and poorer photovoltaic performance.

  11. Communications

    1. Strongly Coupled Bi2S3@CNT Hybrids for Robust Lithium Storage

      Jiangfeng Ni, Yang Zhao, Tingting Liu, Honghe Zheng, Lijun Gao, Chenglin Yan and Liang Li

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400798

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      A strongly coupled Bi2S3@CNT hybrid is fabricated and exhibits a stable Li-storage capacity, retaining 405 mAh g−1 over 100 cycles at a rate of 1 A g−1. More importantly, the hybrid demonstrates robust rate capability, delivering 429 and 376 mAh g–1 at high rates of 2 and 5 A g–1, thereby suggesting its great potential for advanced rechargeable battery applications.

    2. Thin HfxZr1-xO2 Films: A New Lead-Free System for Electrostatic Supercapacitors with Large Energy Storage Density and Robust Thermal Stability

      Min Hyuk Park, Han Joon Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Taehwan Moon, Keum Do Kim and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400610

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      The promising energy storage properties of new lead-free antiferroelectric Hf x Zr1-x O2 (x = 0.1–0.4) films with high energy storage density are reported. The energy storage density of the Hf0.3Zr0.7O2 capacitor does not decrease with the increase in temperature up to 175 °C, and it decreases by only ≈4.5% after field cycling 109 times.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Polarization Orientation, Piezoelectricity, and Energy Harvesting Performance of Ferroelectric PVDF-TrFE Nanotubes Synthesized by Nanoconfinement

      Venkateswarlu Bhavanasi, Damar Yoga Kusuma and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400723

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      PVDF-TrFE nanotubes are synthesized by melt wetting of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The synthesized nanotubes show improved piezoelectric coefficients and reduced coercive fields compared to the films counterpart. The nanotubes polarization direction is at an inclination to the long axis. The energy harvesting performance of these nanotubes is superior to the film's counterpart, with a maximum output voltage of 4.8 V and a power output of 2.2 μW cm-2 in response to the compression pressure of 0.075 MPa.

  13. Communications

    1. A Repeatable Epitaxial Lift-Off Process from a Single GaAs Substrate for Low-Cost and High-Efficiency III-V Solar Cells

      Wonjung Choi, Chang Zoo Kim, Chang Su Kim, Wooseok Heo, Taiha Joo, Seung Yoon Ryu, Hogyoung Kim, Hongjoon Kim, Ho Kwan Kang and Sungjin Jo

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400589

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      The effects of epitaxial materials and solar cell design on the performance of solar cells grown by the multilayer approach are investigated. The novel solar cell structure with a p-on-n type configuration suggested exhibits improved uniformity in the photovoltaic performance because of the suppression of Zn diffusion. This approach provides routes to achieve further improvements and acts as a guideline for the commercialization of the multilayer technique.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Interface Design to Improve the Performance and Stability of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Conventional Solar Cells

      Jie Min, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Tayebeh Ameri, Yongfang Li and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400816

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      Small molecule organic solar cells with conventional structure using ZnO and an amine group functionalized fullerene complex (DMAPA-C60) as the cathode buffer layers are demonstrated. The DMAPA-C60/Ag device shows remarkably high performance and air-stability compared to the ZnO/Al device.

  15. Communications

    1. In Situ Sulfur Reduction and Intercalation of Graphite Oxides for Li-S Battery Cathodes

      Shiyou Zheng, Yang Wen, Yujie Zhu, Zhuo Han, Jing Wang, Junhe Yang and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400482

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      Sulfur intercalated expanded graphite for Li-S battery cathodes is synthesized by in situ one-step sulfur reduction and intercalation of graphite oxide (GO). The unique structural reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/S nanocomposite cathodes exhibit high capacity, super rate capability, and long cycle stability. The exceptional electrochemical properties of the RGO/S composites plus their simple fabrication make this class of materials attrac­tive for further investigation in Li-S batteries applications.

    2. Optimization of the Output Efficiency of GaN Nanowire Piezoelectric Nanogenerators by Tuning the Free Carrier Concentration

      Chao-Hung Wang, Wei-Shun Liao, Zong-Hong Lin, Nai-Jen Ku, Yi-Chang Li, Yen-Chih Chen, Zhong-Lin Wang and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400392

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      Carrier concentration in a piezoelectric semiconductor greatly affects alternating current (AC) piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) because of the carrier screening effect on the piezoelectric potential. The output performance of a series of NGs is investigated by tuning the Si dopant concentration in GaN nanowires. The results show a strong carrier screening effect that degrades output performance for high doping concentrations but results in high output power for low doping concentrations.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Structural and Chemical Evolution of the Layered Li-Excess LixMnO3 as a Function of Li Content from First-Principles Calculations

      Eunseok Lee and Kristin A. Persson

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400498

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      The electrochemical activity, phase transformation, and oxygen stability of LixMnO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) as a function of the Li content are investigated using ab initio calculations and statistical mechanics approaches. In particular, the mechanism of Mn migration from the Mn-layer to the Li-layer and the follow-up process for the formation of spinel-nucleus is intensively studied.

    2. Improving Cathodes with a Polymer Interlayer in Reversed Organic Solar Cells

      Zheng Tang, Wolfgang Tress, Qinye Bao, Mohammad J. Jafari, Jonas Bergqvist, Thomas Ederth, Mats R. Andersson and Olle Inganäs

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400643

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      The universal possibility of improving photovoltaic performance of reversed solar cells by modifying the cathode interface with a conjugated polymer interlayer is demonstrated. Systematic investigations are performed for a comprehensive understanding of the effect of the interlayer modification on solar cell performance.

    3. A Novel Surface Treatment Method and New Insight into Discharge Voltage Deterioration for High-Performance 0.4Li2MnO3–0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials

      Pilgun Oh, Minseong Ko, Seungjun Myeong, Youngsik Kim and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400631

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      With new insight into capacity fade mechanisms in Li-rich materials, a novel surface modification method that consists of a reduced graphene oxide coating and chemical activation leads to improvement of its intrinsic problems. These include the initial Coulombic efficiency and discharge voltage decay.

    4. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Aluminum and Zirconium Oxides for Surface Passivation of TiO2 in High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

      Maria Vasilopoulou, Dimitra G. Georgiadou, Anastasia Soultati, Nikos Boukos, Spyros Gardelis, Leonidas C. Palilis, Mihalis Fakis, Georgios Skoulatakis, Stella Kennou, Martha Botzakaki, Stavroula Georga, Christoforos A. Krontiras, Florian Auras, Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Thomas Bein, Theodoros A. Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Davazoglou and Panagiotis Argitis

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400214

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      Effective passivation of trap states present at the surface of TiO2 films used as cathode interlayers in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is obtained by applying thin Al2O3 or ZrO2 coatings using atomic layer deposition. OPV devices with the passivated TiO2 interlayers exhibit a significant enhancement of more than 30% in power conversion efficiencies compared to reference devices.

    5. Overcoming Efficiency Limitations of SnS-Based Solar Cells

      Prasert Sinsermsuksakul, Leizhi Sun, Sang Woon Lee, Helen Hejin Park, Sang Bok Kim, Chuanxi Yang and Roy G. Gordon

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400496

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      Solar cells are made by vapor deposition of Earth-abundant materials, i.e., p-type tin monosulfide (SnS) absorber layers with surfaces passivated by tin dioxide (SnO2) covered by n-type nitrogen-doped zinc oxysulfide (Zn(O,S):N) buffer layers. The cells show energy conversion efficiencies over 4.4%, which is more than twice as large as the highest efficiency obtained previously by solar cells using SnS absorber layers.

    6. Extremely High Yield Conversion from Low-Cost Sand to High-Capacity Si Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

      Jung-Keun Yoo, Jongsoon Kim, Min-Jae Choi, Young-Uk Park, Jihyun Hong, Kwang Min Baek, Kisuk Kang and Yeon Sik Jung

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400622

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      The use of sand as a nearly infinite and extremely low-cost source for the fabrication of nanostructured Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated using a facile magnesiothermic reduction. The adoption of mild vacuum conditions during the reduction allows for an unprecedentedly high conversion yield. The excellent cycle stability of the hierarchical Si nanostructure suggests that this synthesis strategy from ultralow cost sand particles provides outstanding cost-effectiveness and scalability for commercialization of Si electrodes for energy-storage applications.

  17. Research News

    1. Carbon: The Ultimate Electrode Choice for Widely Distributed Polymer Solar Cells

      Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Bérenger Roth, Morten V. Madsen, Markus Hösel, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400732

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      The requirements for low environmental impact of widely distributed organic electronics in consumer products are likely to become strict. As mass-produced, low-cost organic electronics enter everyday life so does the waste from them. The challenges with end-of-life management must be addressed through careful design, and carbon-based electrodes are central to these developments.

  18. Communications

    1. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Indacenodithiophene-Quinoxaline Copolymers by Side-Chain Modulation

      Dongfeng Dang, Weichao Chen, Scott Himmelberger, Qiang Tao, Angelica Lundin, Renqiang Yang, Weiguo Zhu, Alberto Salleo, Christian Müller and Ergang Wang

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400680

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      Two pairs of indacenodithiophene (IDT) and quinoxaline-based copolymers with meta- or para-hexyl-phenyl side chains on the IDT unit are synthesized. The meta-substituted polymers offer better solubility, higher molecular weight for both fluorinated and non-fluorinated copolymers, and a superior photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency of 7.8%. The side-chain design strategy presented is an efficient way to produce high performance conjugated polymers for organic electronics.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Probing Charge Recombination Dynamics in Organic Photovoltaic Devices under Open-Circuit Conditions

      Lindsay C. C. Elliott, James I. Basham, Kurt P. Pernstich, Pragya R. Shrestha, Lee J. Richter, Dean M. DeLongchamp and David J. Gundlach

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400356

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      Large perturbation transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to gain insights into recombination in organic photovoltaic devices. The combination of these two simple optoelectronic techniques enables characterization of recombination order as well as mobile and trapped charge evolution over a large range of carrier densities.

    2. Metal-Oxide-Free Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: the Influence of Organic Charge Transport Layers

      Olga Malinkiewicz, Cristina Roldán-Carmona, Alejandra Soriano, Enrico Bandiello, Luis Camacho, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin and Henk J. Bolink

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400345

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      An efficient thin-film photovoltaic device based on a hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite is developed using a simple device architecture (an n-type oxide that is scaffold-free) coupled with an easy, room- temperature fabrication process using low-cost materials. The importance of the organic hole and electron blocking layers is demonstrated, including the effect on the current density and open-circuit voltage.

    3. High Performance Na0.5[Ni0.23Fe0.13Mn0.63]O2 Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Ivana Hasa, Daniel Buchholz, Stefano Passerini, Bruno Scrosati and Jusef Hassoun

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400083

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      A Na0.5[Ni0.23Fe0.13Mn0.63]O2, P2-type electrode is synthesized by co-precipitation, annealing, and water-rinsing and it is characterized in sodium cell. The electrode shows an enhanced cycling response and delivers a capacity as high as 200 mAh g−1. The P2-type, layered material is proposed as a suitable cathode for sodium batteries.

    4. Design of a New Energy-Harvesting Electrochromic Window Based on an Organic Polymeric Dye, a Cobalt Couple, and PProDOT-Me2

      Eri Amasawa, Naoki Sasagawa, Mutsumi Kimura and Minoru Taya

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400379

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      A new design of an energy-harvesting electrochromic window (EH-ECW) that exhibits high photovoltaic efficiency, actively tunable transmittance change, and durable cyclic stability is presented. By combining an organic electrochromic window and a dye-sensitized solar cell, a cobalt redox couple and a light-colored, yet efficient, organic polymeric dye are used to contribute to optical properties and cyclic stability.

  20. Communications

    1. High-Performance Inverted Organic Photovoltaics with Over 1-μm Thick Active Layers

      Xiaowen Hu, Chao Yi, Ming Wang, Chih-Hao Hsu, Shengjian Liu, Kai Zhang, Chengmei Zhong, Fei Huang, Xiong Gong and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400378

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      An efficiency of 8.62% is observed from inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) composed of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer with a thickness of 280 nm. Remarkably, an efficiency of 7.24% can be obtained using OPVs with a BHJ thickness of 1000 nm. Such high efficiencies from thick BHJ composite films are attributed to the high hole mobility and ordered molecular structure of the electron-donor polymer.

    2. An Organic Pigment as a High-Performance Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Wei Luo, Marshall Allen, Vadivukarasi Raju and Xiulei Ji

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400554

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      Commercial 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylicacid-dianhydride (PTCDA) without modification shows promising performance as a cathode for sodium-ion batteries. It exhibits a high reversible capacity of 145 mAh g−1, a rate capability of 91 mAh g−1 at 1000 mA g−1, and a stable cycle life. When discharged to 0.01 V, 15 sodium ions can be incorporated into a PTCDA, exhibiting an extremely high capacity of 1017 mAh g−1.

    3. Surface Generation of a Cobalt-Derived Water Oxidation Electrocatalyst Developed in a Neutral HCO3/CO2 System

      Khurram Saleem Joya, Kazuhiro Takanabe and Huub J. M. de Groot

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400252

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      Neutral HCO3/CO2 is a new electrolyte system for in situ generation of robust and efficient Co-derived (Co-Ci) water oxidation electrocatalysts. The Co-Ci/indium tin oxide system shows a remarkable 2.0 mA cm–2 oxygen evolution current density that is sustained for several hours. 7.5 nmol of electroactive species per cm2 generates about 109 μmol of O2 at a rate of 0.51 per mol of catalyst per second.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Hierarchical Carbon Decorated Li3V2(PO4)3 as a Bicontinuous Cathode with High-Rate Capability and Broad Temperature Adaptability

      Yanzhu Luo, Xu Xu, Yuxiang Zhang, Yuqiang Pi, Yunlong Zhao, Xiaocong Tian, Qinyou An, Qiulong Wei and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400107

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      A 3D hierarchical carbon decorated Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode material provides continuous electron conduction, rapid ion transport, and a buffered protective carbon shell of the active material particles. It delivers desirable discharge capacity and can be cycled for 4000 times with minimal capacity loss at a high rate. The excellent temperature adaptability also indicates its superiority in practical applications.

    2. Predicting the JV Curve in Organic Photovoltaics Using Impedance Spectroscopy

      James I. Basham, Thomas N. Jackson and David J. Gundlach

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400499

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      Impedance spectroscopy is used to study recombination in poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) solar cells. A shift from trap-mediated to bimolecular recombination is observed, in addition to the observation of evidence of geminate recombination under certain processing conditions. Mobility is seen to increase with illumination intensity. The current–voltage curve is reconstructed from the measured recombination rate.

    3. High-Surface-Area Porous Platinum Electrodes for Enhanced Charge Transfer

      Yelin Hu, Aswani Yella, Stefan Guldin, Marcel Schreier, Francesco Stellacci, Michael Grätzel and Morgan Stefik

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400510

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      High surface area platinum electrodes enhance the catalysis of a range of electrolytes, but pure platinum nanostructures are too expensive to be practical. A new material-efficient “host–guest” architecture uses an ultrathin layer of platinum deposited upon an electrically conductive scaffold of niobium-doped tin oxide (NTO). The electrode enables dye-sensitized solar cells with 11.26% power conversion efficiency and improved fill factors.

  22. Communications

    1. An Organic “Donor-Free” Dye with Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Solid-State Sensitized Solar Cells

      Antonio Abate, Miquel Planells, Derek J. Hollman, Samuel D. Stranks, Annamaria Petrozza, Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada, Yana Vaynzof, Sandeep K. Pathak, Neil Robertson and Henry J. Snaith

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400166

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      Organic dyes for solid-state sensitized solar cells are commonly prepared by combining an electron-withdrawing group (acceptor, A) on one side of a conjugated π-spacer and one or more electron-donating groups (donor, D) on the other side. Here, it is shown that without an electron donor group a significantly higher open-circuit voltage is achieved, while maintaining the short-circuit current.

  23. Full Papers

    1. ITO Breakers: Highly Transparent Conducting Polymer/Metal/Dielectric (P/M/D) Films for Organic Solar Cells

      Juyoung Ham and Jong-Lam Lee

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400539

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      Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells with high power conversion efficiency (≈7.7%) are fabricated using a polymer/metal/dielectric (PMD) electrode. Using a polymer layer makes it possible to show high transmittance that is insensitive to the film thickness, in addition to well-ordered nanopatterns on a PMD electrode, leading to enhancement in the photocurrent density by 17%, compared to a typical device based on an ITO electrode.

    2. Efficiency Improvement of Solution-Processed Dithienopyrrole-Based A-D-A Oligothiophene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells by Solvent Vapor Annealing

      Cordula D. Wessendorf, Gisela L. Schulz, Amaresh Mishra, Prasenjit Kar, Ibrahim Ata, Martin Weidelener, Marta Urdanpilleta, Jonas Hanisch, Elena Mena-Osteritz, Mika Lindén, Erik Ahlswede and Peter Bäuerle

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400266

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      Solution-processed dithienopyrrole-based oligomer solar cells are fabricated and the influence of solvent vapor annealing (SVA) on the morphology and performance are investigated. It is found that the most soluble oligomer improves most during SVA. A clear color change is observed and the power conversion efficiency is enhanced from 1.1% to 6.1% as a result of an increase in short-circuit current density and fill factor.

    3. Direct Imaging of Cl- and Cu-Induced Short-Circuit Efficiency Changes in CdTe Solar Cells

      Jonathan D. Poplawsky, Naba R. Paudel, Chen Li, Chad M. Parish, Donovan Leonard, Yanfa Yan and Stephen J. Pennycook

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400454

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      The microscopic short-circuit efficiencies of CdTe solar cells with and without CdCl2 and Cu diffusion treatments are imaged using electron-beam-induced current techniques. The changes in the electronic properties of the device layers, interfaces, and grain boundaries are identified. The results indicate that the two treatments improve the current collection properties of the device independently; both are very important for a high efficiency device.

  24. Communications

    1. Solution Deposition-Conversion for Planar Heterojunction Mixed Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Pablo Docampo, Fabian Hanusch, Samuel D. Stranks, Markus Döblinger, Johann M. Feckl, Martin Ehrensperger, Norma K. Minar, Michael B. Johnston, Henry J. Snaith and Thomas Bein

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400355

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      Solution-deposited-converted perovskite solar cells are studied by converting PbI2 planar films into the phase pure, mixed-halide perovskite (H3CNH3)PbI3-xClx. These solar cells exhibit very high photovoltaic performance and close to unity internal incident photon-to-electron conversion.

    2. Work-Function-Tunable Chlorinated Graphene Oxide as an Anode Interface Layer in High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

      Dong Yang, Lingyu Zhou, Wei Yu, Jian Zhang and Can Li

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400591

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      Chlorinated graphene oxides (Cl-GO), which have good optical transmission, high work functions, and excellent hole-extraction abilities, are demonstrated as anode interface materials. High-efficiency polymer solar cells based on different materials are fabricated. The improvement of the power conversion efficiency is much higher when the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the polymers is closely aligned with the work function of the Cl-GO.

  25. Full Papers

    1. All-Inkjet-Printed, All-Air-Processed Solar Cells

      Sungjune Jung, Antony Sou, Kulbinder Banger, Doo-Hyun Ko, Philip C. Y. Chow, Christopher R. McNeill and Henning Sirringhaus

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400432

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      All-inkjet-printed, all-air-processed organic solar cells with an average power conversion efficiency of 2% are demonstrated for the first time. Highly efficient printed solar cells (≈5%) with a simple three-layer structure, whose cathodes are the only non-printed layer made by evaporation, are also reported. The in-depth study on poly[N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)]:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC70BM) layers demonstrates that the inkjet-printed blend layer exhibits nanoscale structure and excited state dynamics that are similar to spin-coated layers.

  26. Communications

    1. Molybdenum Sulfide Supported on Crumpled Graphene Balls for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production

      Alexander J. Smith, Yung-Huang Chang, Kalyan Raidongia, Tzu-Yin Chen, Lain-Jong Li and Jiaxing Huang

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400398

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      MoSx is grown on crumpled graphene particles supported on carbon cloth substrates for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Modifying carbon cloth with crumpled graphene allows for higher loading levels of MoSx and thus significantly enhances its electrocatalytic activity. Measurements yield a current density of –220 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 0.3 V (before iR correction) for the crumpled-graphene-modified carbon cloth.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Redox Targeting of Anatase TiO2 for Redox Flow Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Feng Pan, Jing Yang, Qizhao Huang, Xingzhu Wang, Hui Huang and Qing Wang

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400567

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      Reversible chemical lithiation/delithiation of anatase TiO2 are achieved with a pair of redox targeting reactions. TiO2 and its lithiated form Li x TiO2 can be reversibly reduced and oxidized by CoCp* 2 and CoCp2 +, respectively, which accompany Li+ insertion and extraction, without attaching the TiO2 onto the electrode. Such reactions enable the fabrication of redox flow lithium-ion batteries (RFLBs) with ultrahigh energy density.

    2. Taking Temperature Processing Out of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Fabrication: Fully Laser-Manufactured Devices

      Girolamo Mincuzzi, Luigi Vesce, Malte Schulz-Ruthenberg, Elmar Gehlen, Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo and Thomas M. Brown

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400421

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      Conventional high temperature procedures for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) fabrication are replaced with counter-electrode platinization, TiO2 sintering, and device sealing, and, additionally, TiO2 patterning, all carried out by innovative laser-based processing. This opens up a new scenario for DSC technology, i.e., that of a laser-based manufacturing line that has advantages in automation, embedded energy, scalability, low substrate deformation, and ease of processing.

    3. Improved Bulk Materials with Thermoelectric Figure-of-Merit Greater than 1: Tl10–xSnxTe6 and Tl10–xPbxTe6

      Quansheng Guo, Abdeljalil Assoud and Holger Kleinke

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400348

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      By optimizing the Tl:Sn and Tl:Pb ratio and the density, the thermoelectric performance of Tl4SnTe3 and Tl4PbTe3 is vastly improved to culminate in high figure-of-merit values of the bulk materials beyond zT = 1.

    4. Electron Collection as a Limit to Polymer:PCBM Solar Cell Efficiency: Effect of Blend Microstructure on Carrier Mobility and Device Performance in PTB7:PCBM

      Samuel Foster, Florent Deledalle, Akiko Mitani, Toshio Kimura, Ki-Beom Kim, Takayuki Okachi, Thomas Kirchartz, Jun Oguma, Kunihito Miyake, James R. Durrant, Shuji Doi and Jenny Nelson

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400311

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      Low electron mobility is identified as the primary reason for the poor thickness dependence of poly[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl] (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBM) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices relative to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):PCBM. A thickness dependence in PTB7:PCBM comparable to that in P3HT:PCBM is achieved using an increased fullerene loading, demonstrating the considerable efficiency gains available through improving connectivity in the fullerene phase.

    5. Hybrid Heterojunction and Solid-State Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

      Xiao Li, Xiaobei Zang, Xinming Li, Miao Zhu, Qiao Chen, Kunlin Wang, Minlin Zhong, Jinquan Wei, Dehai Wu and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400224

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      A hybrid heterojunction and photoelectrochemical solid-state solar cell based on graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) and silicon is designed and fabricated. The solid electrolyte acts as an anti-reflection layer, chemical modification carrier, and photoelectrochemical channel to comprehensively improve the photovoltaic performance. Solar cell models are constructed to confirm the hybrid working mechanism in which the heterojunction and photoelectrochemical effect function synergistically.

  28. Communications

    1. A Stable and Efficient Hematite Photoanode in a Neutral Electrolyte for Solar Water Splitting: Towards Stability Engineering

      Jae Young Kim, Ji-Wook Jang, Duck Hyun Youn, Ganesan Magesh and Jae Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400476

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      A stable and efficient hematite photoanode that works for solar water splitting, even in a neutral electrolyte, is developed by surface modification with phosphate ions. By preventing performance and stability degradation in a neutral electrolyte, the current method provides an effective path to the stability engineering of photoelectrodes to employ any electrolyte of choice.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides

      Xi Chen, Steven N. Girard, Fei Meng, Edgar Lara-Curzio, Song Jin, John B. Goodenough, Jianshi Zhou and Li Shi

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400452

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      The lattice thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides (HMS) is primarily suppressed by rhenium substitution to approach the calculated minimum lattice thermal conductivity value. This leads to improved thermoelectric performance in the Re-substituted HMS as compared to pure HMS.

  30. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency Inverted Polymer Photovoltaics via Spectrally Tuned Absorption Enhancement

      Stephen Loser, Brent Valle, Kyle A. Luck, Charles K. Song, Gabriel Ogien, Mark C. Hersam, Kenneth D. Singer and Tobin J. Marks

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301938

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      The trade-off between light absorption and exciton diffusion length must be addressed before widespread deployment of organic photovoltaics can be realized. Here, optical transfer matrix modeling is used in inverted, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics, employing a poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethyl­hexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophene­diyl]] (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM) active layer to spectrally sculpt absorption enhancement by tuning the layer thicknesses of both the photoactive layer and the ZnO interfacial layer (IFL).

  31. Full Papers

    1. Petaled Molybdenum Disulfide Surfaces: Facile Synthesis of a Superior Cathode for QDSSCs

      Shane T. Finn and Janet E. Macdonald

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400495

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      Petaled MoS2 electrodes are inexpensive and highly active cathodes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). MoS2 petals are preferentially grown from Mo foil to expose catalytic crystallite edge sites in a simple hydrothermal synthesis. Achieving higher efficiency versus Pt cathodes in polysulfide QDSSCs, petaled MoS2 is a promising candidate for commercial solar cells and other catalytic applications such as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER).

    2. Darwin at High Temperature: Advancing Solar Cell Material Design Using Defect Kinetics Simulations and Evolutionary Optimization

      David P. Fenning, Jasmin Hofstetter, Ashley E. Morishige, Douglas M. Powell, Annika Zuschlag, Giso Hahn and Tonio Buonassisi

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400459

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      A simulation-based framework for process optimization is presented for solar cell materials. A process simulator describing the kinetics of performance-limiting defects is driven by a genetic algorithm, identifying process conditions that maximize performance for given raw-material specifications. In this example, the detrimental impact of iron impurities on silicon-based solar cell performance is minimized.

    3. Citrate-Assisted Growth of NiCo2O4 Nanosheets on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage

      Guoxin Gao, Hao Bin Wu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400422

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      NiCo2O4 nanosheets are directly grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a simple low-temperature solution method with the assistance of trisodium citrate followed by a subsequent thermal annealing process in air. The obtained unique rGO/NiCo2O4 hybrid structure manifests high specific capacity, good cycling stability, and remarkable rate performance when evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  32. Communications

    1. A Twisted Dimeric Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptor for Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Yuze Lin, Jiayu Wang, Shuixing Dai, Yongfang Li, Daoben Zhu and Xiaowei Zhan

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400420

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      A novel solution-processable twisted dimeric perylene diimide (IDT-2PDI) with a bulky fused-ring indacenodithiophene as a bridge is developed as an electron acceptor for organic solar cells (OSCs). Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):IDT-2PDI based OSCs have power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.61% with a high fill factor of 0.668, and benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-2DPP):IDT-2PDI based OSCs exhibit a promising PCE of 3.12%.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Mesoporous TiO2-Sn/C Core-Shell Nanowire Arrays as High-Performance 3D Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

      Jin-Yun Liao and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400403

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      Self-supported TiO2-Sn/C core-shell nanowire array 3D anodes exhibiting superior electrochemical performance are developed using a facile hydrothermal process, followed by a heat treatment process. With this unique nanowire array structure, the aligned TiO2 nano­wires with a self-supported array structure leads to high physical stability, resulting in long cycling stability. The carbon shell suppresses cracking of Sn and improves the conductivity of the electrode, thus contributing to high-rate cyclability.

    2. The Configurational Space of Rocksalt-Type Oxides for High-Capacity Lithium Battery Electrodes

      Alexander Urban, Jinhyuk Lee and Gerbrand Ceder

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400478

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      A simple model based on percolation theory can explain the relationship between structure, composition, and specific capacity of rocksalt-type lithium battery electrodes. Numerical percolation simulations therefore allow identification of concrete design guidelines regarding the crystal structure, the lithium content, and the degree of cation disorder for the development of novel high-capacity electrode materials.

    3. Contact Doping with Sub-Monolayers of Strong Polyelectrolytes for Organic Photovoltaics

      Gopal K. Mor, David Jones, Thinh P. Le, Zhengrong Shang, Patrick J. Weathers, Megumi K. B. Woltermann, Kiarash Vakhshouri, Bryan P. Williams, Sarah A. Tohran, Tomonori Saito, Rafael Verduzco, Alberto Salleo, Michael A. Hickner and Enrique D. Gomez

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400439

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      Contact doping of organic photovoltaics with strong polyelectrolytes to enhance charge extraction is demonstrated. The degree of sulfonation in poly(phenylsulfones) at the anodic interface is critical to minimize contact barriers. Doping of polythiophenes localized at the electrode thins the barriers for charge extraction in organic photovoltaics.

    4. Graphitization as a Universal Tool to Tailor the Potential-Dependent Capacitance of Carbon Supercapacitors

      Daniel Weingarth, Marco Zeiger, Nicolas Jäckel, Mesut Aslan, Guang Feng and Volker Presser

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400316

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      Graphitization can be used as a tool to tailor the voltage-dependent capacitance of carbon supercapacitors. This principle is based on the unique phenomenon of electrochemical doping overcoming the severe capacitance limitation of carbons at low voltages, which is a result of the low charge carrier density.

    5. Optimum Carrier Concentration in n-Type PbTe Thermoelectrics

      Yanzhong Pei, Zachary M. Gibbs, Benjamin Balke, Wolfgang G. Zeier and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400486

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      Optimum carrier concentration (n*) in thermoelectric n-PbTe is found to be dependent on both temperature (T) and density of state effective mass (m*) through n* ∼ (m*T)1.5. The validity of this model is confirmed in materials with and without band structure modification by doping, enabling a general guiding principle for designing thermoelectrics throughout the working temperature range.

    6. Sulfur-Impregnated, Sandwich-Type, Hybrid Carbon Nanosheets with Hierarchical Porous Structure for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Xi'an Chen, Zhubing Xiao, Xutao Ning, Zheng Liu, Zhi Yang, Chao Zou, Shun Wang, Xiaohua Chen, Ying Chen and Shaoming Huang

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301988

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      Sandwich-type hybrid carbon nanosheets (SCNMM) consisting of graphene and a micro/mesoporous carbon layer are fabricated via a double template method using graphene oxide as the shape-directing agent and SiO2 nanoparticles as the mesoporous guide. The as-prepared SCNMM encapsulating the sulfur (S@SCNMM) is used as the cathode material in a Li-S cell and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, including high capacity, good cycling stability, and good rate capability.

    7. New O2/P2-type Li-Excess Layered Manganese Oxides as Promising Multi-Functional Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li/Na Batteries

      Naoaki Yabuuchi, Ryo Hara, Masataka Kajiyama, Kei Kubota, Toru Ishigaki, Akinori Hoshikawa and Shinichi Komaba

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301453

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      A P2-type sodium-/lithium-containing manganese-based layered material is prepared and its electrode performance in Na cells is examined. The Na+/Li+ ion-exchanged sample, O2-type layered material shows good electrode performance in Li cells without unfavorable phase transition. These P2-/O2-type manganese-based layered materials are used as bi-functional electrode materials for rechargeable Na/Li batteries.

    8. Interconnected Frameworks with a Sandwiched Porous Carbon Layer/Graphene Hybrids for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances

      Jun Yan, Qian Wang, Changpeng Lin, Tong Wei and Zhuangjun Fan

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400500

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      3D interconnected frameworks composed of sandwiched graphene/porous carbon layers synthesized using a facile one-step pyrolysis of the mixture of graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid and KOH exhibit unparalleled capacitive performance with large capacitance (481 F g−1 and 212 F cm−3) and superior energy density (25.7 Wh kg−1 and 11.3 Wh L−1) in aqueous electrolytes. These values are comparable to those of previously reported carbon materials in aqueous solutions.

    9. You have free access to this content
      Universal Design Principles for Cascade Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factors and Internal Quantum Efficiencies Approaching 100%

      Adam Barito, Matthew E. Sykes, Bingyuan Huang, David Bilby, Bradley Frieberg, Jinsang Kim, Peter F. Green and Max Shtein

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400216

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      A generalized framework is developed for understanding the performance of planar cascade heterojunction (CHJ) organic photovoltaic cells consisting of multiple subjunctions connected electrically in parallel. By matching the maximum power point voltage of each subjunction and minimizing the charge injection barriers intrinsic to CHJs, a 46% increase in power conversion efficiency over reference single heterojunction devices is demonstrated.

  34. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A Novel Soft Metal-Polymer Composite for Multidirectional Pressure Energy Harvesting

      Majid Taghavi, Virgilio Mattoli, Ali Sadeghi, Barbara Mazzolai and Lucia Beccai

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400024

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      A cost-effective 3D sponge composed of rubber and conductive wires is introduced, which generates electric energy by periodic compression. It can be fabricated in a symmetric configuration, hence there is not a preferred surface or a specific direction for compression to obtain the energy harvesting or pressure sensing. The energy conversion occurs due to both triboelectric and electrostatic effects, which benefit from the air gap between polymer and wires.

  35. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Semitransparent Tandem Solar Cell of 8.02% Conversion Efficiency with Solution-Processed Graphene Mesh and Laminated Ag Nanowire Top Electrodes

      Abd. Rashid bin Mohd Yusoff, Seung Joo Lee, Fabio Kurt Shneider, Wilson Jose da Silva and Jin Jang

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301989

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      A high-performance semitransparent tandem solar cell that uses solution-processed graphene mesh and laminated Ag NW as a transparent anode and cathode, respectively, is demonstrated. The laminated top electrode can be deposited without causing any damage to the underlying organic solar cells. Power conversion efficiencies of 8.02% and 6.47% are obtained when the light is projected from the solution-processed graphene mesh and laminated AgNW, respectively.

  36. Communications

    1. Constructing a Metallic/Semiconducting TaB2/Ta2O5 Core/Shell Heterostructure for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Yongqiang Yang, Chenghua Sun, Lianzhou Wang, Zhibo Liu, Gang Liu, Xiuliang Ma and Hui-Ming Cheng

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400057

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      A conceptual metallic/semiconducting TaB2/Ta2O5 core/shell heterostructure exhibits a substantial improvement in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate under both UV and visible light. TaB2 plays a dual role in boosting the photocatalytic activity by extending the light-absorption range via efficient interfacial electronic modification and by promoting the separation and transfer of photoexcited charge carriers by using metallic TaB2 core as an electron collector.

  37. Full Papers

    1. A New High Power LiNi0.81Co0.1Al0.09O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Minki Jo, Mijung Noh, Pilgun Oh, Youngsik Kim and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301583

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      A new LiNi0.81Co0.1Al0.09O2 cathode exhibits a remarkably improved rate capability, showing a capacity of 155 mAh g−1, even at a 10C rate and cycling stability at 60 °C. More importantly, this material has dramatically improved thermal stability caused by the reduction in heat generation compared to LiNi0.89Co0.11O2.

  38. Communications

    1. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Philippe Labouchere, Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Thomas Moehl, Hauke Harms, Sudam Chavhan, Ramon Tena-Zaera, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Michael Graetzel and Nicolas Tetreault

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400217

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      A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nano­wires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive backbone host. Using a combination of self-assembly, hydrothermal or electrodeposition of single crystalline ZnO nanowires and TiO2 passivation, a novel photoanode with scattering capability for optimal light harvesting is fabricated.

  39. Full Papers

    1. Mesoporous TiO2 Beads Offer Improved Mass Transport for Cobalt-Based Redox Couples Leading to High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Leo-Philipp Heiniger, Fabrizio Giordano, Thomas Moehl and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400168

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      Mass transport for cobalt-based electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells is facilitated by replacing the standard nanocrystalline TiO2 film with a film composed of mesoporous TiO2 beads. The combination of strong light scattering with improved electrolyte diffusion makes such structures promising alternatives to standard nanocrystalline TiO2.

  40. Communications

    1. Effects of Processing Conditions on the Recombination Reduction in Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Peter Zalar, Martijn Kuik, Niva A. Ran, John A. Love and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400438

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      The steady-state bimolecular recombination in two solution processed small molecule organic solar cell blends is studied. Using a variety of different processing conditions, the charge-carrier mobilities and morphological organization are radically changed. Despite these changes, no apparent correlation exists between these observations and the reduced Langevin recombination rate. The reduced Langevin recombination rate may more strongly depend on the donor:acceptor system than the morphology.

  41. Full Papers

    1. Comparing the Device Physics and Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerenes and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

      Jason T. Bloking, Tommaso Giovenzana, Andrew T. Higgs, Andrew J. Ponec, Eric T. Hoke, Koen Vandewal, Sangwon Ko, Zhenan Bao, Alan Sellinger and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301426

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      A small molecule electron acceptor, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), achi­eves efficiencies of 3.7% and open-circuit voltage values of 1.11 V in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices with polythiophene donor materials. The lower internal quantum efficiency (56%) in these non-fullerene acceptor devices is attributed to an absence of the favorable energetic offsets resulting from nanoscale mixing of donor and acceptor found in comparable fullerene-based devices.

    2. Triple-Layer Structured Composite Separator Membranes with Dual Pore Structures and Improved Interfacial Contact for Sustainable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Soo Bong Hong, So Hyun Park, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Sang-Young Lee, Young Soo Kwon, Taiho Park, Phil-Hyun Kang and Sung Chul Hong

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400477

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      A composite separator membrane with an A/B/A type layered structure, composed of a microporous poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel layer (A) and a macroporous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) non-woven matrix (B), is proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The membranes provide DSSCs with an optimal combination of short- and long-term performance, demonstrating high ion conductivity, high electrolyte affinity, electrolyte retention capability, improved interfacial contact, and plausible passivation of the dyes.

    3. Metallic Photonic Crystal Absorber-Emitter for Efficient Spectral Control in High-Temperature Solar Thermophotovoltaics

      Veronika Rinnerbauer, Andrej Lenert, David M. Bierman, Yi Xiang Yeng, Walker R. Chan, Robert D. Geil, Jay J. Senkevich, John D. Joannopoulos, Evelyn N. Wang, Marin Soljačić and Ivan Celanovic

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400334

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      A tunable and highly spectral selective absorber/emitter based on 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on a single flat Ta substrate is demonstrated for high-temperature solar thermal energy conversion and optimized for a solar thermophotovoltaic application. The measured system efficiency shows significant improvement using the PhC absorber relative to a blackbody absorber in the same configuration, as predicted by a detailed system model.

    4. A Three-Dimensionally Interconnected Carbon Nanotube–Conducting Polymer Hydrogel Network for High-Performance Flexible Battery Electrodes

      Zheng Chen, John W. F. To, Chao Wang, Zhenda Lu, Nan Liu, Alex Chortos, Lijia Pan, Fei Wei, Yi Cui and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400207

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      A three-dimensionally interconnected carbon nanotube–conducting polymer hydrogel network fabricated from a simple yet efficient solution process demonstrates good mechanical properties, high conductivity, and facile ion transport, leading to facile electrode kinetics and high strain tolerance during electrode volume change. Such a material platform holds great promise for the fabrication of a variety of high-performance flexible electrodes.

    5. Interfacial Engineering of P3HT/ZnO Hybrid Solar Cells Using Phthalocyanines: A Joint Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

      Giuseppe Mattioli, Sadok Ben Dkhil, Maria Ilenia Saba, Giuliano Malloci, Claudio Melis, Paola Alippi, Francesco Filippone, Paolo Giannozzi, Anil Kumar Thakur, Meriem Gaceur, Olivier Margeat, Abdou Karim Diallo, Christine Videlot-Ackermann, Jörg Ackermann, Aldo Amore Bonapasta and Alessandro Mattoni

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301694

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      Atomistic simulations and experimental investigations are combined to investigate hybrid polymer solar cells based on a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/zinc phthalocyanine/zinc oxide interface. Theoretical predictions are validated against experiments, showing that the intercalation of a ZnPc layer leads to a significant increase in the photovoltaic performance of the P3HT/ZnO device. This stresses the fundamental role of interfacial engineering in hybrid solar cells.

    6. N-Annulated Perylene as a Coplanar π-Linker Alternative to Benzene as a Low Energy-Gap, Metal-Free Dye in Sensitized Solar Cells

      Zhaoyang Yao, Cancan Yan, Min Zhang, Renzhi Li, Yanchun Cai and Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400244

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      N-Annulated Perylene as a Coplanar π-Linker Alternative to Benzene as a Low Energy-Gap, Metal-Free Dye in Sensitized Solar Cells A new perylene dye that displays an 8.8% power conversion efficiency at an irradiance of the AM1.5G sunlight is synthesized. This is the highest efficiency achieved so far by a metal-free pyrelene dye. Time-resolved photophysical and electrical measurements are performed to analyze the charge transfer dynamics that contribute to the photovoltaic performance.

  42. Communications

    1. Device Area Scale-Up and Improvement of SWNT/Si Solar Cells Using Silver Nanowires

      Xiaokai Li, Yeonwoong Jung, Jing-Shun Huang, Tenghooi Goh and André D. Taylor

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400186

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      Power loss due to parasitic resistance limits the scale-up of nanocarbon/Si solar cells and, here, a viable approach that mitigates this problem is reported. The direct solution casting of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto the single-walled nanotube (SWNT)/silicon junctions leads to a significant improvement in photovoltaic properties owing to enhanced carrier transport in the bilayer AgNW/SWNT composites, implying a great potential for wafer-scale nanocarbon/Si solar cells with relatively high efficiency.

    2. An Aqueous Sodium Ion Hybrid Battery Incorporating an Organic Compound and a Prussian Blue Derivative

      Dong Jun Kim, Young Hwa Jung, K. Kamala Bharathi, Sang Hyun Je, Do Kyung Kim, Ali Coskun and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400133

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      An aqueous sodium ion hybrid battery consisting of disodium naphthalenediimide salt (anode) and KCo0.5Cu0.5Fe(CN)6 (cathode) is reported. Both electrode materials are inexpensive and exhibit appropriate operating voltages and robust reversibility under neutral aqueous electrolyte conditions, delivering a full-cell voltage of 1.1 V with 88% capacity retention after 100 cycles.

  43. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Influence of Nanocrystal Aggregates on Photovoltaic Performance in Nanocrystal–Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Marcus L. Böhm, René J. P. Kist, Frederik S. F. Morgenstern, Bruno Ehrler, Salvatore Zarra, Abhishek Kumar, Yana Vaynzof and Neil C. Greenham

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400139

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      The influence of nanocrystal aggregates on photovoltaic device performance is studied in a CdSe:poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) bulk heterojunction solar cell. The exclusion of CdSe aggregates yields a superior blend morphology leading to improved charge generation and better percolation in the nanocrystal component. Solar cells with treated nanocrystals show a significant increase in device performance.

    2. Flexible and Highly Scalable V2O5-rGO Electrodes in an Organic Electrolyte for Supercapacitor Devices

      Ce Yao Foo, Afriyanti Sumboja, Daniel Jia Hong Tan, Jiangxin Wang and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400236

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      Flexible, free-standing, and binder-free graphene-based V2O5 composite electrodes that do not require current collectors are fabricated into a prototype supercapacitor device exhibiting a performance of 52.5 mF cm–2 (157.51 mF), with the total electrode mass reaching up to 20 mg. One unit of the assembled prototype device is capable of powering up a commercial gadget consisting of eight light-emitting diodes.

  44. Communications

    1. Improved Performance in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells with a Sol-Gel MgZnO Electron-Collecting Layer

      Bradley A. MacLeod, Philip Schulz, Sarah R. Cowan, Andres Garcia, David S. Ginley, Antoine Kahn and Dana C. Olson

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400073

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      Enhanced power conversion efficiency is observed for inverted organic solar cells when a sol-gel deposited MgZnO is used in place of ZnO. The enhanced fill factor and open-circuit voltage suggest reduced recombination at the interface with bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with either [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or indene C60 bis-adduct (ICBA).

  45. Full Papers

    1. On the Thermodynamics, the Role of the Carbon Cathode, and the Cycle Life of the Sodium Superoxide (NaO2) Battery

      Conrad L. Bender, Pascal Hartmann, Miloš Vračar, Philipp Adelhelm and Jürgen Janek

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301863

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      The cycle life of non-aqueous sodium oxygen cells can be significantly improved by proper choice of the cycling conditions (“shallow cycling”), and the gravimetric capacity of the oxygen cathode depends on the type of carbon used. A detailed view of the thermodynamic properties of the sodium-oxygen battery helps to explain the competition between NaO2 and Na2O2 as discharge products.

  46. Communications

    1. Morphological Control for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Via the Backbone Design of Cathode Interlayer Materials

      Wenjun Zhang, Yulei Wu, Qinye Bao, Feng Gao and Junfeng Fang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400359

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      Two alcohol-soluble organic molecules are synthesized and introduced into inverted organic solar cells as the cathode interlayer. A power conversion efficiency as high as 9.22% is obtained by using the more hydrophobic molecule FTBTF-N as the cathode interlayer. Morphological studies suggest that design of backbone can help to enhance short-circuit current density and fill factor.

    2. Nano-Copper-Assisted Immobilization of Sulfur in High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Carbon Cathodes for Room Temperature Na-S Batteries

      Shiyou Zheng, Pan Han, Zhuo Han, Peng Li, Huijuan Zhang and Junhe Yang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400226

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      A novel strategy for nano-copper-assisted immobilization of S in high-surface-area mesoporous carbon cathodes for room temperature Na-S batteries is presented. The unique structural composite cathode containing 50% S shows stable and high reversible capacities, together with remarkable rate and cycling capabilities.

    3. A Three Dimensional Multi-Layered Sliding Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Weiming Du, Xun Han, Long Lin, Mengxiao Chen, Xiaoyi Li, Caofeng Pan and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301592

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      A novel design of a 3D triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. Because of its largely increased friction areas, the device has a multi-layered structure, high transferred-charge-quantity, and current output. It delivers an open-circuit voltage of 800 V, a short-circuit current density of 5.5 mA m-2 with a maximum instantaneous power of 4.4 W m-2. This represents important progress toward practical applications in self-powered technologies.

    4. A Low-Frequency Energy Harvester from Ultralong, Vertically Aligned BaTiO3 Nanowire Arrays

      Aneesh Koka and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301660

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      An energy harvester with a low resonant frequency using ultralong vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanowire arrays is developed and its power harvesting behavior is characterized when subjected to low amplitude base vibrations. The BaTiO3 nanowire energy harvester has favorable attributes such as compact size and low resonant frequency for its potential implementation in consumer electronics and biomedical applications.

    5. Metal−Organic Framework-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Core-Shell-Structured Porous Fe/Fe3C@C Nanoboxes Supported on Graphene Sheets for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reactions

      Yang Hou, Taizhong Huang, Zhenhai Wen, Shun Mao, Shumao Cui and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400337

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      A novel core-shell-structured hybrid as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, consisting of nitrogen-doped porous Fe/Fe3C@C nanoboxes supported on graphene sheets, is synthesized through simple pyrolysis of graphene oxide-supported iron-based metal−organic frameworks. The hybrid exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than a commercial Pt/C catalyst, excellent long-term stability, and superior methanol tolerance due to the synergistic effect between N-doped Fe/Fe3C@C and N-doped graphene sheets.

    6. Confined Ultrasmall SnO2 Particles in Micro/Mesoporous Carbon as an Extremely Long Cycle-Life Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Ali Jahel, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu, Laure Monconduit and Cathie Vix-Guterl

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400025

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      Nanoconfinement of ultrasmall SnO2 particles in mesoporous carbon with suitable pore size is demonstrated as an efficient method for creating extremely long cycle-life anode battery materials. Exceptional rate capability, high Coulombic efficiency, and excellent cyclic reversibility are shown. The high capacity at high current rate and long cycling makes this composite a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  47. Full Papers

    1. Broadband Plasmonic Photocurrent Enhancement in Planar Organic Photovoltaics Embedded in a Metallic Nanocavity

      Matthew E. Sykes, Adam Barito, Jojo A. Amonoo, Peter F. Green and Max Shtein

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301937

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      The process of broadband plasmonic photocurrent enhancement is studied using planar organic photovoltaics composed of archetypal boron subpthalocyanine chloride/fullerene (SubPc/C60) heterojunctions embedded within semitransparent silver nanocavities. External quantum efficiency enhancement factors of 4.3×/2.8× over normal incidence are demonstrated for inverted/conventional devices on resonance. The absorption efficiency is shown to be nearly identical between devices at surface plasmon resonance, while a higher internal quantum efficiency is exhibited in inverted structures.

  48. Communications

    1. Improved Cu2O-Based Solar Cells Using Atomic Layer Deposition to Control the Cu Oxidation State at the p-n Junction

      Sang Woon Lee, Yun Seog Lee, Jaeyeong Heo, Sin Cheng Siah, Danny Chua, Riley E. Brandt, Sang Bok Kim, Jonathan P. Mailoa, Tonio Buonassisi and Roy G. Gordon

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301916

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      Solar cells are produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of n-type amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layers on electrochemically deposited p-type cuprous oxide, Cu2O, absorber layers. The diethylzinc precursor in the ALD process reduces Cu2+-related defects at the heterojunction interface, improving the solar-cell open-circuit voltage. An NREL-certified power conversion efficiency of 2.85% is reported.

    2. Molecular Engineering of New Thienyl-Bodipy Dyes for Highly Efficient Panchromatic Sensitized Solar Cells

      Chuanjiang Qin, Antoine Mirloup, Nicolas Leclerc, Ashraful Islam, Ahmed El-Shafei, Liyuan Han and Raymond Ziessel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400085

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      Stepwise construction of thienyl-bodipy dyes bearing a carboxylic acid or an acrylate function is realized. The color of the dye is tuned by the presence of one or two vinyl-thienyl arms. These highly colored dyes exhibit strong absorption spanning to 760 nm when anchored to TiO2 nanoparticles. The use of two complementary absorbing dyes produces a conversion efficiency of 6.43% and a incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ICPE) plateau about 70% between 500 and 700 nm.

  49. Full Papers

    1. A New Spinel-Layered Li-Rich Microsphere as a High-Rate Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Dong Luo, Guangshe Li, Chaochao Fu, Jing Zheng, Jianming Fan, Qi Li and Liping Li

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400062

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      Spinel-layered lithium-rich Li-Mn-Co-O microspheres are prepared using a solvothermal-precursor method. Introduction of a spinel-like structure to the layered Li-rich cathode forms new spinel-layered microspheres, which are essential for high rate Li-ion batteries. The synthetic method reported will provide a new way to prepare assembled microspheres with promising applications as excellent high-rate electrode materials.

    2. Polysulfonated Fluoro-oxyPBI Membranes for PEMFCs: An Efficient Strategy to Achieve Good Fuel Cell Performances with Low H3PO4 Doping Levels

      Davide Carlo Villa, Simone Angioni, Sonia Dal Barco, Piercarlo Mustarelli and Eliana Quartarone

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301949

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      Polybenzimidazoles are promising materials to replace Nafion in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The actual challenge is a compromise between H3PO4 doping level and membrane stability and the design of new materials offers promising opportunities. Here, highly efficient novel polysulfonated fluoro-oxy polybenzimidazole (fluoro-oxyPBI)-based membranes for PEMFCs are reported. Robust, performing, and durable electrolytes are obtained even in presence of low acid doping level.


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