Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Martin Ottmar, Deputy Editor: Carolina Novo

Impact Factor: 10.043

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 3/81 (Energy & Fuels); 6/128 (Physics Applied); 7/135 (Chemistry Physical); 7/68 (Physics Condensed Matter); 10/241 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  2. 101 - 141
  1. Full Papers

    1. N-Annulated Perylene as a Coplanar π-Linker Alternative to Benzene as a Low Energy-Gap, Metal-Free Dye in Sensitized Solar Cells

      Zhaoyang Yao, Cancan Yan, Min Zhang, Renzhi Li, Yanchun Cai and Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400244

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      N-Annulated Perylene as a Coplanar π-Linker Alternative to Benzene as a Low Energy-Gap, Metal-Free Dye in Sensitized Solar Cells A new perylene dye that displays an 8.8% power conversion efficiency at an irradiance of the AM1.5G sunlight is synthesized. This is the highest efficiency achieved so far by a metal-free pyrelene dye. Time-resolved photophysical and electrical measurements are performed to analyze the charge transfer dynamics that contribute to the photovoltaic performance.

  2. Communications

    1. Device Area Scale-Up and Improvement of SWNT/Si Solar Cells Using Silver Nanowires

      Xiaokai Li, Yeonwoong Jung, Jing-Shun Huang, Tenghooi Goh and André D. Taylor

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400186

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      Power loss due to parasitic resistance limits the scale-up of nanocarbon/Si solar cells and, here, a viable approach that mitigates this problem is reported. The direct solution casting of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto the single-walled nanotube (SWNT)/silicon junctions leads to a significant improvement in photovoltaic properties owing to enhanced carrier transport in the bilayer AgNW/SWNT composites, implying a great potential for wafer-scale nanocarbon/Si solar cells with relatively high efficiency.

    2. An Aqueous Sodium Ion Hybrid Battery Incorporating an Organic Compound and a Prussian Blue Derivative

      Dong Jun Kim, Young Hwa Jung, K. Kamala Bharathi, Sang Hyun Je, Do Kyung Kim, Ali Coskun and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400133

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      An aqueous sodium ion hybrid battery consisting of disodium naphthalenediimide salt (anode) and KCo0.5Cu0.5Fe(CN)6 (cathode) is reported. Both electrode materials are inexpensive and exhibit appropriate operating voltages and robust reversibility under neutral aqueous electrolyte conditions, delivering a full-cell voltage of 1.1 V with 88% capacity retention after 100 cycles.

  3. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Influence of Nanocrystal Aggregates on Photovoltaic Performance in Nanocrystal–Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Marcus L. Böhm, René J. P. Kist, Frederik S. F. Morgenstern, Bruno Ehrler, Salvatore Zarra, Abhishek Kumar, Yana Vaynzof and Neil C. Greenham

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400139

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      The influence of nanocrystal aggregates on photovoltaic device performance is studied in a CdSe:poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) bulk heterojunction solar cell. The exclusion of CdSe aggregates yields a superior blend morphology leading to improved charge generation and better percolation in the nanocrystal component. Solar cells with treated nanocrystals show a significant increase in device performance.

    2. Flexible and Highly Scalable V2O5-rGO Electrodes in an Organic Electrolyte for Supercapacitor Devices

      Ce Yao Foo, Afriyanti Sumboja, Daniel Jia Hong Tan, Jiangxin Wang and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400236

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      Flexible, free-standing, and binder-free graphene-based V2O5 composite electrodes that do not require current collectors are fabricated into a prototype supercapacitor device exhibiting a performance of 52.5 mF cm–2 (157.51 mF), with the total electrode mass reaching up to 20 mg. One unit of the assembled prototype device is capable of powering up a commercial gadget consisting of eight light-emitting diodes.

  4. Communications

    1. Improved Performance in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells with a Sol-Gel MgZnO Electron-Collecting Layer

      Bradley A. MacLeod, Philip Schulz, Sarah R. Cowan, Andres Garcia, David S. Ginley, Antoine Kahn and Dana C. Olson

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400073

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      Enhanced power conversion efficiency is observed for inverted organic solar cells when a sol-gel deposited MgZnO is used in place of ZnO. The enhanced fill factor and open-circuit voltage suggest reduced recombination at the interface with bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with either [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or indene C60 bis-adduct (ICBA).

  5. Full Papers

    1. On the Thermodynamics, the Role of the Carbon Cathode, and the Cycle Life of the Sodium Superoxide (NaO2) Battery

      Conrad L. Bender, Pascal Hartmann, Miloš Vračar, Philipp Adelhelm and Jürgen Janek

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301863

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      The cycle life of non-aqueous sodium oxygen cells can be significantly improved by proper choice of the cycling conditions (“shallow cycling”), and the gravimetric capacity of the oxygen cathode depends on the type of carbon used. A detailed view of the thermodynamic properties of the sodium-oxygen battery helps to explain the competition between NaO2 and Na2O2 as discharge products.

  6. Communications

    1. Morphological Control for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Via the Backbone Design of Cathode Interlayer Materials

      Wenjun Zhang, Yulei Wu, Qinye Bao, Feng Gao and Junfeng Fang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400359

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      Two alcohol-soluble organic molecules are synthesized and introduced into inverted organic solar cells as the cathode interlayer. A power conversion efficiency as high as 9.22% is obtained by using the more hydrophobic molecule FTBTF-N as the cathode interlayer. Morphological studies suggest that design of backbone can help to enhance short-circuit current density and fill factor.

    2. Nano-Copper-Assisted Immobilization of Sulfur in High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Carbon Cathodes for Room Temperature Na-S Batteries

      Shiyou Zheng, Pan Han, Zhuo Han, Peng Li, Huijuan Zhang and Junhe Yang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400226

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      A novel strategy for nano-copper-assisted immobilization of S in high-surface-area mesoporous carbon cathodes for room temperature Na-S batteries is presented. The unique structural composite cathode containing 50% S shows stable and high reversible capacities, together with remarkable rate and cycling capabilities.

    3. A Three Dimensional Multi-Layered Sliding Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Weiming Du, Xun Han, Long Lin, Mengxiao Chen, Xiaoyi Li, Caofeng Pan and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301592

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      A novel design of a 3D triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. Because of its largely increased friction areas, the device has a multi-layered structure, high transferred-charge-quantity, and current output. It delivers an open-circuit voltage of 800 V, a short-circuit current density of 5.5 mA m-2 with a maximum instantaneous power of 4.4 W m-2. This represents important progress toward practical applications in self-powered technologies.

    4. A Low-Frequency Energy Harvester from Ultralong, Vertically Aligned BaTiO3 Nanowire Arrays

      Aneesh Koka and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301660

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      An energy harvester with a low resonant frequency using ultralong vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanowire arrays is developed and its power harvesting behavior is characterized when subjected to low amplitude base vibrations. The BaTiO3 nanowire energy harvester has favorable attributes such as compact size and low resonant frequency for its potential implementation in consumer electronics and biomedical applications.

    5. Metal−Organic Framework-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Core-Shell-Structured Porous Fe/Fe3C@C Nanoboxes Supported on Graphene Sheets for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reactions

      Yang Hou, Taizhong Huang, Zhenhai Wen, Shun Mao, Shumao Cui and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400337

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      A novel core-shell-structured hybrid as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, consisting of nitrogen-doped porous Fe/Fe3C@C nanoboxes supported on graphene sheets, is synthesized through simple pyrolysis of graphene oxide-supported iron-based metal−organic frameworks. The hybrid exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than a commercial Pt/C catalyst, excellent long-term stability, and superior methanol tolerance due to the synergistic effect between N-doped Fe/Fe3C@C and N-doped graphene sheets.

    6. Confined Ultrasmall SnO2 Particles in Micro/Mesoporous Carbon as an Extremely Long Cycle-Life Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Ali Jahel, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu, Laure Monconduit and Cathie Vix-Guterl

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400025

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      Nanoconfinement of ultrasmall SnO2 particles in mesoporous carbon with suitable pore size is demonstrated as an efficient method for creating extremely long cycle-life anode battery materials. Exceptional rate capability, high Coulombic efficiency, and excellent cyclic reversibility are shown. The high capacity at high current rate and long cycling makes this composite a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Broadband Plasmonic Photocurrent Enhancement in Planar Organic Photovoltaics Embedded in a Metallic Nanocavity

      Matthew E. Sykes, Adam Barito, Jojo A. Amonoo, Peter F. Green and Max Shtein

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301937

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      The process of broadband plasmonic photocurrent enhancement is studied using planar organic photovoltaics composed of archetypal boron subpthalocyanine chloride/fullerene (SubPc/C60) heterojunctions embedded within semitransparent silver nanocavities. External quantum efficiency enhancement factors of 4.3×/2.8× over normal incidence are demonstrated for inverted/conventional devices on resonance. The absorption efficiency is shown to be nearly identical between devices at surface plasmon resonance, while a higher internal quantum efficiency is exhibited in inverted structures.

  8. Communications

    1. Improved Cu2O-Based Solar Cells Using Atomic Layer Deposition to Control the Cu Oxidation State at the p-n Junction

      Sang Woon Lee, Yun Seog Lee, Jaeyeong Heo, Sin Cheng Siah, Danny Chua, Riley E. Brandt, Sang Bok Kim, Jonathan P. Mailoa, Tonio Buonassisi and Roy G. Gordon

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301916

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      Solar cells are produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of n-type amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layers on electrochemically deposited p-type cuprous oxide, Cu2O, absorber layers. The diethylzinc precursor in the ALD process reduces Cu2+-related defects at the heterojunction interface, improving the solar-cell open-circuit voltage. An NREL-certified power conversion efficiency of 2.85% is reported.

    2. Molecular Engineering of New Thienyl-Bodipy Dyes for Highly Efficient Panchromatic Sensitized Solar Cells

      Chuanjiang Qin, Antoine Mirloup, Nicolas Leclerc, Ashraful Islam, Ahmed El-Shafei, Liyuan Han and Raymond Ziessel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400085

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      Stepwise construction of thienyl-bodipy dyes bearing a carboxylic acid or an acrylate function is realized. The color of the dye is tuned by the presence of one or two vinyl-thienyl arms. These highly colored dyes exhibit strong absorption spanning to 760 nm when anchored to TiO2 nanoparticles. The use of two complementary absorbing dyes produces a conversion efficiency of 6.43% and a incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ICPE) plateau about 70% between 500 and 700 nm.

  9. Full Papers

    1. A New Spinel-Layered Li-Rich Microsphere as a High-Rate Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Dong Luo, Guangshe Li, Chaochao Fu, Jing Zheng, Jianming Fan, Qi Li and Liping Li

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400062

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      Spinel-layered lithium-rich Li-Mn-Co-O microspheres are prepared using a solvothermal-precursor method. Introduction of a spinel-like structure to the layered Li-rich cathode forms new spinel-layered microspheres, which are essential for high rate Li-ion batteries. The synthetic method reported will provide a new way to prepare assembled microspheres with promising applications as excellent high-rate electrode materials.

    2. Polysulfonated Fluoro-oxyPBI Membranes for PEMFCs: An Efficient Strategy to Achieve Good Fuel Cell Performances with Low H3PO4 Doping Levels

      Davide Carlo Villa, Simone Angioni, Sonia Dal Barco, Piercarlo Mustarelli and Eliana Quartarone

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301949

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      Polybenzimidazoles are promising materials to replace Nafion in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The actual challenge is a compromise between H3PO4 doping level and membrane stability and the design of new materials offers promising opportunities. Here, highly efficient novel polysulfonated fluoro-oxy polybenzimidazole (fluoro-oxyPBI)-based membranes for PEMFCs are reported. Robust, performing, and durable electrolytes are obtained even in presence of low acid doping level.

    3. High-Performance, Transparent, Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for See-Through Photovoltaic Windows

      Kun Zhang, Chuanjiang Qin, Xudong Yang, Ashraful Islam, Shufang Zhang, Han Chen and Liyuan Han

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301966

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      Transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with high transparency and efficiency based on a UV/near-infrared (NIR) dye cocktail system are demonstrated. The transparent cocktail DSCs are fabricated with Y1 and HSQ5 dyes, taking the advantage of the dyes’ strong absorption in the UV and NIR regions. The best transparent cell exhibits a light transmittance of 60.3% and an efficiency of 3.66%.

    4. Identifying the Impact of Surface Recombination at Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells by Means of Electroluminescence and Modeling

      Jens Reinhardt, Maria Grein, Christian Bühler, Martin Schubert and Uli Würfel

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400081

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      Current-voltage characteristics, electroluminescence measurements, and modeling are used to identify the selectivity of electrodes in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A strong correlation is found between the electrode selectivity, the open circuit voltage, and forward current of the device, and the electroluminescence yield. This is fully reproduced in the numerical simulations.

  10. Communications

    1. Harnessing Steric Separation of Freshly Nucleated Li2S Nanoparticles for Bottom-Up Assembly of High-Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur and Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Feixiang Wu, Hyea Kim, Alexandre Magasinski, Jung Tae Lee, Huan-Ting Lin and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400196

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      A nanostructured C-Li2S composite nanopowder is prepared via a scalable, high-throughput solution-processing method based on the steric separation of freshly nucleated Li2S nanoparticles and their self-assembling. Each 100–200 nm particle is composed of smaller 5–20 nm Li2S nanoparticles uniformly distributed within a rigid carbon matrix. When used as a cathode material for Li cells, this composite demonstrates high rate performance, near-theoretical capacity utilization, and excellent cycle stability.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Integrating ZnO Microwires with Nanoscale Electrodes Using a Suspended PMMA Ribbon for Studying Reliable Electrical and Electromechanical Properties

      Hakseong Kim, Hoyeol Yun, Ho Ang Yoon and Sang Wook Lee

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301973

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      ZnO-microwire-based electronic and electromechanical devices are fabricated by using the suspended cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ribbon structure. The electrical connection between the ZnO microwire and the nanoscale circuit is mediated by the PMMA ribbon structure. Electrical contact and piezoelectric properties of the fabricated devices are investigated.

    2. Impact of Hole Transport Layer Surface Properties on the Morphology of a Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction

      N. Edwin Widjonarko, Philip Schulz, Philip A. Parilla, Craig L. Perkins, Paul F. Ndione, Ajaya K. Sigdel, Dana C. Olson, David S. Ginley, Antoine Kahn, Michael F. Toney and Joseph J. Berry

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301879

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      Quantification of structural morphology in poly(3-hexylthiophene):1-(3-methoxy­carbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]C 61 (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) is done by combining novel X-ray analysis, contact angle, and depth-profile X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to show that the BHJ morphology is mostly insensitive to the surface properties of the underlying substrate. The results and methodology are readily applicable to a diverse set of organic electronic systems.

  12. Communications

    1. 8% Efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells from Redox Equilibrated Simple Precursors in DMSO

      Hao Xin, John K. Katahara, Ian L. Braly and Hugh W. Hillhouse

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301823

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      8.3% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells are demonstrated from an absorber film processed from molecular precursor solution of simple salts, thiourea, and dimethyl sulf­oxide (DMSO). Characterizations of the absorber film and devices reveal a pure kesterite absorber material with imperfect morphology, which suggests great potential for further improvement in device performance.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6-dione-Based Copolymers as Organic Photovoltaic Donor Materials

      Zbyslaw R. Owczarczyk, Wade A. Braunecker, Stefan D. Oosterhout, Nikos Kopidakis, Ross E. Larsen, David S. Ginley and Dana C. Olson

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301821

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      An integrated approach for optimizing organic photovoltaic (OPV) absorber materials is discussed. The approach utilizes theoretical calculations to design candidate materials and contactless time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to evaluate those materials for OPV applications prior to their optimization in devices. The approach is demonstrated for a class of “push–pull” copolymer absorbers based on cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6-dione (CTD).

  14. Communications

    1. Sn-Coupled p-Si Nanowire Arrays for Solar Formate Production from CO2

      Sung Kyu Choi, Unseock Kang, Seunghoon Lee, Dong Jin Ham, Sang Min Ji and Hyunwoong Park

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301614

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      Vertically aligned, free-standing p-Si nanowire arrays of varying lengths are grown on p-Si wafers and coupled with Sn nanoparticles for solar CO2 conversion. These heterojunction wire/Sn arrays increase the production of formate dramatically, by more than 10 and 5 times compared to planar p-Si and wire arrays, respectively, with Faradaic efficiencies of ≈40% in a single cell and 88% in a H-type cell.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency

      Ning Li, Derya Baran, George D. Spyropoulos, Hong Zhang, Stephane Berny, Mathieu Turbiez, Tayebeh Ameri, Frederik C. Krebs and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400084

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      Organic tandem solar cells fabricated by a mass-production compatible coating technique under ambient conditions reach exceptionally high fill factors and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.66% (on glass) and 5.56% (on flexible substrate). This achievement, along with the optical simulation, reveals that a maximum PCE of 21% is theoretically achievable for large-scale production of organic tandem solar cells.

    2. Solution-Based Silicon in Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Torsten Bronger, Paul H. Wöbkenberg, Jan Wördenweber, Stefan Muthmann, Ulrich W. Paetzold, Vladimir Smirnov, Stephan Traut, Ümit Dagkaldiran, Stephan Wieber, Michael Cölle, Anna Prodi-Schwab, Odo Wunnicke, Matthias Patz, Martin Trocha, Uwe Rau and Reinhard Carius

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301871

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      Solution-based semiconductors are a promising new material class in thin-film electronics. So far, the quality of the device made of such material has been rather poor. Here, solar cells made of solution-based silicon with an efficiency of 3.5%, exceeding previous results by a factor of seven, are reported. This may pave the way for development of industrial applications.

  16. Communications

    1. Weaving Efficient Polymer Solar Cell Wires into Flexible Power Textiles

      Zhitao Zhang, Zhibin Yang, Zhongwei Wu, Guozhen Guan, Shaowu Pan, Ye Zhang, Houpu Li, Jue Deng, Baoquan Sun and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301750

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      Novel wire-shaped polymer solar cells that have high performance are developed by introducing a thin layer of titania nanoparticles that increases the charge separation and transport and an aligned carbon nanotube fiber electrode that increases their stability. These solar cell wires are easily woven into flexible clothes that serve as lightweight and deformable power sources for portable electronic devices.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Charge Transport Anisotropy in Highly Oriented Thin Films of the Acceptor Polymer P(NDI2OD-T2)

      Kim Tremel, Florian S. U. Fischer, Navaphun Kayunkid, Riccardo Di Pietro, Roman Tkachov, Anton Kiriy, Dieter Neher, Sabine Ludwigs and Martin Brinkmann

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301659

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      Large-scale alignment of a high mobility, n-type donor–acceptor polymer is achieved by high temperature rubbing of thin films, while post-rubbing thermal annealing protocols strongly dictate the texture. These highly ordered and oriented layers exhibit anisotropic charge transport with enhanced electron mobilities along the polymer backbone as compared to the perpendicular direction.

  18. Communications

    1. High-Dielectric Constant Side-Chain Polymers Show Reduced Non-Geminate Recombination in Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Namchul Cho, Cody W. Schlenker, Kristina M. Knesting, Patrick Koelsch, Hin-Lap Yip, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301857

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      High-dielectric constant side-chain polymers that show reduced non-geminate recombination in heterojunction solar cells are reported. Active layer polymers with high dielectric side-chains show increased performance over alkyl side-chain polymers. The doubling in efficiency is attributed to suppressed recombination.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Domain Compositions and Fullerene Aggregation Govern Charge Photogeneration in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells

      Sameer Vajjala Kesava, Zhuping Fei, Adam D. Rimshaw, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, John B. Asbury, Martin Heeney and Enrique D. Gomez

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400116

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      Effect of domain compositions and fullerene aggregation on charge photogeneration and device performance in low band-gap polymer/fullerene solar cells is examined. Composition maps generated from energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the compositions of mixed phases are correlated with polaron yields and device performance.

  20. Communications

    1. In Situ Construction of Nanoscale CdTe-CdS Bulk Heterojunctions for Inorganic Nanocrystal Solar Cells

      Zhaolai Chen, Hao Zhang, Qingsen Zeng, Yan Wang, Dandan Xu, Lei Wang, Haiyu Wang and Bai Yang

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400235

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      Nanoscale CdTe-CdS bulk heterojunctions are constructed in situ by annealing mercaptoethylamine-stabilized CdTe NCs, which exhibit efficient separation, transport, and injection of photogenerated carriers. Inorganic NC solar cells based on the CdTe-CdS bulk heterojunction exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 4% and an internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Side-Chain Engineering for Fine-Tuning of Energy Levels and Nanoscale Morphology in Polymer Solar Cells

      Jaewon Lee, Min Kim, Boseok Kang, Sae Byeok Jo, Heung Gyu Kim, Jisoo Shin and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400087

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      A systematic investigation of side-chain effects on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells is presented for four polymers containing alkyl-, alkoxy-, alkyltheinyl-, and alkoxythienyl side chains. The fine-tuning of the side-chain architecture enhances the optoelectronic and morphological properties of bulk-heterojunction solar cells, resulting in an increased power conversion efficiency of up to 6.4% without any processing additives or post-treatments.

    2. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Bacterial Cellulose Paper Electrodes

      Shaohui Li, Dekang Huang, Bingyan Zhang, Xiaobao Xu, Mingkui Wang, Guang Yang and Yan Shen

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301655

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      Freestanding paper electrodes for flexible supercapacitors are reported. The combination of bacterial cellulose with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline forms new electrodes for highly efficient and stable supercapacitors. Devices fabricated with such electrodes are highly promising for flexible energy-storage devices.

  22. Communications

    1. Overcoming Geminate Recombination and Enhancing Extraction in Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells

      Christopher M. Proctor, Steve Albrecht, Martijn Kuik, Dieter Neher and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400230

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      The effects of processing conditions on charge transport and voltage dependent recombination losses in one of the most efficient solution-processed small molecule solar cell systems reported to date are studied. With careful control of the blend film morphology, geminate recombination (GR) can be completely overcome while reducing bimolecular recombination (BMR) to allow for efficient generation and collection of photogenerated charge carriers. These results highlight that a field-dependent generation mechanism is not necessarily an inherent molecular property.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Near-Bandgap Response in InP Nanopillar Solar Cells

      Corsin Battaglia, Jingsan Xu, Maxwell Zheng, Xingtian Yin, Mark Hettick, Kevin Chen, Nancy Haegel and Ali Javey

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400061

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      The enhanced near-bandgap response in InP nanopillar solar cells fabricated by reactive ion etching is shown to be primarily due to an increase in the effective minority carrier collection length and not due to improved optical performance. This results in an efficiency of 14.4%.

    2. Inverted Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with Polyethylenimine-Modified MoOX/Al2O3:ZnO Nanolaminate as the Charge Recombination Layers

      Jae Won Shim, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Yinhua Zhou, Amir Dindar, Talha M. Khan, Anthony J. Giordano, Hyeunseok Cheun, Minseong Yun, Seth R. Marder and Bernard Kippelen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400048

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      A novel charge recombination layer composed of MoOX/Al2O3:ZnO nano­laminate/polyethylenimine is employed in an inverted tandem polymer solar cell. The high conductivity and low work function of the layer result in excellent electron collection. Tandem polymer solar cells display summed open-circuit voltages from the sub-cells and a power conversion efficiency up to 6.5%.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance

      Alberto Varzi, Dominic Bresser, Jan von Zamory, Franziska Müller and Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400054

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      ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-carbon nanotube (CNT) is proposed as an innovative full-cell configuration for high-power lithium-ion batteries. By providing fast electronic and ionic conduction, the combination of the two nanomaterials provides a maximum gravimetric power density of 3.72 W kg−1, while allowing more than 10 000 cycles with minimal capacity fading under very high current load conditions.

    4. Enhanced Electrocatalysis for Hydrogen Evolution Reactions from WS2 Nanoribbons

      Jian Lin, Zhiwei Peng, Gunuk Wang, Dante Zakhidov, Eduardo Larios, Miguel Jose Yacaman and James M. Tour

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301875

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      A facile route is developed to boost the electrocatalytic activity of WS2 by chemically unzipping WS2 nanotubes to form WS2 nanoribbons (NRs) with increased edge content. Analysis indicates that the hydrogen evolution reaction activity is strongly associated with the number of exposed active edge sites. The formation of WS2 NRs is an effective route for controlling the electrochemical properties of the 2D dichalcogenides, enabling their application in electrocatalysis.

  24. Progress Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Potential Applications of Nanoporous Materials for the Adsorption, Separation, and Catalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

      Gregor Sneddon, Alex Greenaway and Humphrey H. P. Yiu

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301873

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      Nanoporous materials have shown great potential as efficient adsorbents for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. An overview of the properties of these classes of nanomaterials with their advantages and limitations regarding use as CO2 adsorbents is presented. New research directions in CO2 utilization are also discussed.

  25. Communications

    1. n-Si–Organic Inversion Layer Interfaces: A Low Temperature Deposition Method for Forming a p–n Homojunction in n-Si

      Ann S. Erickson, Arava Zohar and David Cahen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301724

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      The built-in voltage of poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)–nSi hybrid solar cells is demonstrated to indicate strong inversion over most substrate donor concentrations. This implies a p–n homojunction, induced in the Si surface by the high work function of the top contact. This induced homojunction is then used to form the source and drain electrodes in a field-effect transistor.

  26. Full Papers

    1. 1D Co-Pi Modified BiVO4/ZnO Junction Cascade for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Cleavage

      Savio J. A. Moniz, Jun Zhu and Junwang Tang

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301590

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      An ordered junction cascade photo­electrode for water splitting that consists of nanoparticulate BiVO4 on 1D ZnO rods with Co-Pi on the surface is reported. A 12-fold increase in photocurrent is observed compared to BiVO4, resulting in 47% incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) at 410 nm (4% for BiVO4) with high solar energy conversion efficiency (0.88%).

  27. Communications

    1. Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nanoporosity for Ultrahigh Power and Excellent Cyclability of Electrochemical Pseudocapacitors

      Xingyou Lang, Akihiko Hirata, Takeshi Fujita and Mingwei Chen

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301809

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      Electronic and ionic conductivity of pseudocapacitive SnO2 can be dramatically improved by a hierarchically oxide/metal nanoporous structure. The hierarchical nanoporosity gives rise to an exceptionally high volumetric power density of 257 W cm3 and excellent cycling stability along with high volumetric energy density and ultrafast rate capability in both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Fe-N-C Oxygen Reduction Fuel Cell Catalyst Derived from Carbendazim: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity

      Alexey Serov, Kateryna Artyushkova and Plamen Atanassov

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301735

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      Novel highly active and durable non-platinum group metals (PGM) cathode catalysts are synthesized using a sacrificial support method from iron-carbendazim precursors. The catalysts are found to have extremely good performance in rotating ring disc electrode experiments. Single cell membrane electrode assembly tests reveal Fe-carbendazim to be the world's second best non-PGM catalyst reported to date.

  29. Communications

    1. Anisotropy of the Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectrics

      Florian Le Goupil, Anna-Karin Axelsson, Lawrence J. Dunne, Matjaz Valant, George Manos, Tadeusz Lukasiewicz, Jan Dec, Andrey Berenov and Neil McN. Alford

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301688

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      The highly anisotropic electrocaloric effect, evidenced by both direct measurements and a descriptive theoretical model in lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 single crystals, can be exploited by producing low-cost grain-oriented ceramics. Combined with the broad-temperature-range cooling regime provided by their polar nanoregions, these materials may be the key to future cost- and energy-efficient solid-state refrigeration.

  30. Full Papers

    1. How Photoinduced Crosslinking Under Operating Conditions Can Reduce PCDTBT-Based Solar Cell Efficiency and then Stabilize It

      Aurélien Tournebize, Agnès Rivaton, Jean-Luc Gardette, Christian Lombard, Brigitte Pépin-Donat, Serge Beaupré and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301530

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      UV-visible irradiation of a poly[N-9′-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)]:[6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) provokes crosslinking between the carbazole unit and the fullerene derivative. These reactions are responsible for the formation of paramagnetic defects and freeze the BHJ morphology. The formation of defects susceptible to act as carriers traps during the burn-in period is largely counterbalanced by the stabilization of the BHJ morphology, which is key for the lifetime of this solar cell.

    2. Controlling Solution-Phase Polymer Aggregation with Molecular Weight and Solvent Additives to Optimize Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Jonathan A. Bartelt, Jessica D. Douglas, William R. Mateker, Abdulrahman El Labban, Christopher J. Tassone, Michael F. Toney, Jean M. J. Fréchet, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301733

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      The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance.

    3. Oxygen Ion Diffusion and Surface Exchange Properties of the α- and δ-phases of Bi2O3

      Ryan D. Bayliss, Stuart N. Cook, Sakis Kotsantonis, Richard J. Chater and John A. Kilner

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301575

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      The oxygen diffusion and surface exchange are quantified for the first time in the alpha and delta phases of Bi2O3. The transition between the two is accompanied by an extraordinary enhancement in properties, demonstrating conclusively that delta Bi2O3 is the fastest pure oxide ion conductor currently known. Oxygen surface exchange is also as high as the best known solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes.

    4. Facile Synthesis of 3D MnO2–Graphene and Carbon Nanotube–Graphene Composite Networks for High-Performance, Flexible, All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Zheye Zhang, Fei Xiao, Lihua Qian, Junwu Xiao, Shuai Wang and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400064

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      Two types of graphene-based networks, MnO2–graphene foam and CNT–graphene foam, are designed and fabricated using a facile and scalable method. The asymmetric supercapacitor with the as-obtained binder-free MnO2–graphene foam as the positive electrode and the CNT–graphene foam as the negative electrode shows high energy density, reasonable cycling performance, and excellent flexibility.

    5. Large-Area Rolled-Up Nanomembrane Capacitor Arrays for Electrostatic Energy Storage

      Ravikant Sharma, Carlos César Bof Bufon, Daniel Grimm, Robert Sommer, Arndt Wollatz, Jörg Schadewald, Dominic J. Thurmer, Pablo F. Siles, Martin Bauer and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301631

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      The fabrication and optimization of large-area rolled-up ultracompact nano­membrane based capacitor arrays is demonstrated. Employing hybrid dielectric layers of HfO2 and TiO2 incorporated into an Al2O3 matrix substantially increases the capacitance per footprint area (C pa). Their electrical properties are precisely controlled by adjusting the oxide composition. The scalability is tested in parallel on a 4-inch wafer platform with 1600 devices.

    6. Quantum-Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Hierarchical Cu2S Microspheres Wrapped by Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Effective Counter Electrodes

      Meidan Ye, Chang Chen, Nan Zhang, Xiaoru Wen, Wenxi Guo and Changjian Lin

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301564

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      RGO-Cu2S composites composed of Cu2S microspheres wrapped by reduced graphene oxide nanosheets are fabricated via a facile solvothermal process. The addition of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets imparts versatile hierarchical Cu2S microspheres by varying their amount, and enhances the performance of the reduced graphene oxide-Cu2S counter electrode in the CdS/CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell.

    7. Titanium Dioxide Mesoporous Electrodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Cross-Analysis of the Critical Parameters

      Silvia Colella, Emanuele Orgiu, Ingmar Bruder, Andrea Liscio, Vincenzo Palermo, Bernd Bruchmann, Paolo Samorì and Peter Erk

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301362

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      Cross-physico-chemical and electrical characterization of four TiO2 electrodes is performed, with the purpose of evaluating the oxide properties on the real device scale and finding a correlation with the photovoltaic performances of sDSSCs. In particular, we propose capacitance measurements and surface potential determination as an effective, straight and simple method to screen and select the most suitable mesoporous anode.

    8. Nonequilibrium Charge Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells

      Ian A. Howard, Fabian Etzold, Frédéric Laquai and Martijn Kemerink

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301743

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      Nonequilibrium charge carrier dynamics play a decisive role in organic solar cell function. Multidimensional transient spectroscopic data are examined here through the lens of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations based on a minimalistic extended Gaussian disorder model. This provides important insights into the fundamental physical origins of the device-relevant nonequilibrium dynamics.

  31. Communications

    1. A General Route to Enhance Polymer Solar Cell Performance using Plasmonic Nanoprisms

      Kai Yao, Michael Salvador, Chu-Chen Chueh, Xu-Kai Xin, Yun-Xiang Xu, Dane W. deQuilettes, Ting Hu, Yiwang Chen, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400206

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      By embedding various types of colloidal silver nanoprisms into both interfacial layers, significant and general enhancement in the device performances of multiple polymer solar cell systems is demonstrated. The increased device efficiencies are due to the cooperative optical enhancement, resulting in enhanced short-circuit current densities. These results provide a powerful, general, and tunable means to enhance light harvesting at desired wavelength bands in existing and emerging organic photovoltaic materials.

  32. Full Papers

    1. In-Situ Investigation of Quantitative Contributions of the Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte to the Cell Performance in Anode-Supported Planar SOFCs

      Wei Wu, Wan Bing Guan, Guo Liang Wang, Feng Wang and Wei Guo Wang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400120

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      A novel method that embeds Pt voltage probes into a triple-phase boundary (TPB) is developed and the quantitative contributions of the anode, cathode, and electrolyte to cell performance are investigated in situ for anode-supported planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Determining the effect of cell components on performance is experimentally demonstrated.

    2. Direct Growth of Flower-Like δ-MnO2 on Three-Dimensional Graphene for High-Performance Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries

      Shuangyu Liu, Yunguang Zhu, Jian Xie, Ying Huo, Hui Ying Yang, Tiejun Zhu, Gaoshao Cao, Xinbing Zhao and Shichao Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301960

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      A highly efficient 3D-G-MnO2 air cathode has been prepared by directly growing graphene and flower-like δ-MnO2 on a skeleton of Ni foam. Li-O2 batteries with 3D-G-MnO2 electrode can sustain 132 cycles at a capacity of 492 mAh gMnO2+carbon −1 (1000 mAh gcarbon −1) and yield an average energy density of 1350 Wh KgMnO2+carbon −1 over 110 cycles at 0.333 mA cm−2.

    3. Unraveling Charge Separation and Transport Mechanisms in Aqueous-Processed Polymer/CdTe Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells

      Lei Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Hao-Tong Wei, Hao Zhang, Qi-Dai Chen, Huai-Liang Xu, Wei Han, Bai Yang and Hong-Bo Sun

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301882

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      Aqueous-processed hybrid solar cells consisting of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV)-based aqueous polymers and water-solution CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) are investigated. Different from their oil-soluble counterparts, the CdTe NC partly capped CdS shell layers form effective charge transport networks and play a dominant role in charge separation and carrier transport processes.

    4. Structural Characterization of a Composition Tolerant Bulk Heterojunction Blend

      Ye Huang, Xiaofeng Liu, Cheng Wang, James T. Rogers, Gregory M. Su, Michael L. Chabinyc, Edward J. Kramer and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301886

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      The effect of blend ratio of a small molecule (X2) to [6,6]-phenyl C61 ­butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) on the ­photovoltaic performance of bulk ­heterojunction solar cells is investigated. For the X2:PC61BM, the best power ­conversion effieicncy is approximately 6.6% and it is insensitive to the blend ratio over the range 7:3 to 4:6. The ­morphology of the blend films is examined to gain insight into the domain size and order of the individual components within the thin films.

    5. Layer-by-Layer Solution-Processed Low-Bandgap Polymer-PC61BM Solar Cells with High Efficiency

      Pei Cheng, Jianhui Hou, Yongfang Li and Xiaowei Zhan

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301349

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      Polymer solar cells are fabricated without solvent additives using a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-C-T, as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC61BM) as the acceptor. After thermal annealing, layer-by-layer solution processed devices exhibit a power conversion efficiency as high as 7.13%, which is much higher than that of blend devices (4.49%), due to efficient vertical phase separation.

    6. Phase Transformation Induced Capacitance Activation for 3D Graphene-CoO Nanorod Pseudocapacitor

      Yun Guang Zhu, Ye Wang, Yumeng Shi, Zhi Xiang Huang, Lin Fu and Hui Ying Yang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301788

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      An ex situ method demonstrates that the capacity increase of CoO-3DG pseudocapacitors is due to phase transformation from nanorods to nanoflowers with a valence change of Co. This evidence could help to understand the activation process phenomenon in metal oxide pseudo-capacitors.

  33. Communications

    1. Dip-Coated Gold Nanoparticle Electrodes for Aqueous-Solution-Processed Large-Area Solar Cells

      Xiaohang Du, Zhaolai Chen, Zibo Li, Hongxia Hao, Qingsen Zeng, Chunwei Dong and Bai Yang

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400135

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      A solution-processed gold nanoparticle (NP) top electrode is investigated for large-area solar cells. The large-area gold NPs film is obtained using a dip-coating technique. The gold NP film shows an extremely low electric resistance of 2 Ω/◻. All-solution-processed solar cells are also fabricated with an optimized power conversion efficiency of 1.71%

    2. Ternary NiS/ZnxCd1-xS/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic H2-Production Activity

      Jun Zhang, Lifang Qi, Jingrun Ran, Jiaguo Yu and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301925

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      A ternary Zn x Cd1-x S-based material in the co-presence of NiS and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is designed and synthesized. It shows a high solar photocatalytic H2-production activity and the apparent quantum efficiency of 31.1% at 420 nm. This represents one of the most active metal sulfide photocatalysts in the absence of noble-metal cocatalysts and the significantly improved performance can be attributed to the positive synergetic effect of NiS and RGO over Zn x Cd1-x S.

    3. O- and N-Doped Carbon Nanowebs as Metal-Free Catalysts for Hybrid Li-Air Batteries

      Longjun Li and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301795

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      Oxygen- and nitrogen-doped carbon nanowebs (ON-CNWs) are developed as an efficient, metal-free oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for hybrid Li-air batteries. The oxygen- and nitrogen-doping leads to highly active pyridone species on the carbon nanoweb surface for ORR. With a hybrid Li-air cell, the ON-CNW is demonstrated to show cell performance comparable to that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

    4. Ni-Based Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation Developed In-Situ in a HCO3/CO2 System at Near-Neutral pH

      Khurram Saleem Joya, Yasir F. Joya and Huub J. M. de Groot

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301929

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      Electrochemically generated NiOx nanoworms from a neutral bicarbonate system split water into dioxygen and protons with tremendous efficiency and stability. The NiOx electrocatalyst follows a pH-potential dependence, revealing a PCET (proton coupled electron transfer) mechanism of one electron and one proton oxidation. It does not require proton abstracting phosphate or borate buffers for electrogeneration and catalysis, and shows promising activity for anodic oxidation of water in phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Organic Solar Cells Featuring a Biomimetic Active Layer and a Self-Cleaning Antireflective Coating

      Jing-De Chen, Lei Zhou, Qing-Dong Ou, Yan-Qing Li, Su Shen, Shuit-Tong Lee and Jian-Xin Tang

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301777

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      A novel method for light manipulation in organic solar cells by patterning a biomimetic moth-eye nanostructure into the active layer and adding an antireflective coating is reported. The light harvesting of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bis-adduct (P3HT:ICBA)-based solar cells is enhanced to a record efficiency of 7.86% due to the collective excitation of self-enhanced absorption by broadband polarization-insensitive light scattering, surface plasmonic resonance, and the antireflective effect.

    2. Carbon-Coated Li3Nd3W2O12: A High Power and Low-Voltage Insertion Anode with Exceptional Cycleability for Li-Ion Batteries

      Rohit Satish, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Wong Chui Ling, John B. Goodenough and Srinivasan Madhavi

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301715

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      A low-voltage and high power garnet framework Li3Nd3W2O12 insertion anode is successfully demonstrated in a full-cell configuration with a long cycle life. The full-cell is capable of delivering very stable cycling profiles at high current rates, which clearly suggests the high power capability of such garnet-type anodes.

  35. Communications

    1. Multidimensional ZnO Architecture for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High-Efficiency up to 7.35%

      Xin-Hong Lu, Yan-Zhen Zheng, Shi-Qing Bi, Yuan Wang, Xia Tao, Liming Dai and Jian-Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301802

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      A multidimensional ZnO photoanode consisting of a 2D-nanosheet tuned 3D-aggregate film and a 0D-nanocrystallite compact layer is developed and found to simultaneously possess large surface area, effective electron transport, and strong light-scattering capability. This leads to a remarkable efficiency of 7.35%, which is among the world records for ZnO-DSCs.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dielectric Modification of 5V-Class Cathodes for High-Voltage All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

      Chihiro Yada, Akihiro Ohmori, Kazuto Ide, Hisatsugu Yamasaki, Takehisa Kato, Toshiya Saito, Fumihiro Sagane and Yasutoshi Iriyama

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301416

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      A “5V-class” all-solid-state lithium battery (Li/Li3.2PO3.8N0.2/LiCr0.05Ni0.45Mn1.5O4-δ) demonstrates an improved rate capability when its electrolyte/cathode interface is modified by dielectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Such “dielectric modification” is supposed to be able to resolve a Li+-deficient layer at the interface which has limited the charge-transfer reactions rates.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Integration of Photosystem I with Graphene Oxide for Photocurrent Enhancement

      Gabriel LeBlanc, Kevin M. Winter, William B. Crosby, G. Kane Jennings and David E. Cliffel

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301953

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      An abundant material from plants, photosystem I (PSI), is combined with graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to generate composite films capable of improved photoelectrochemical performance on a p-doped silicon substrate.

  37. Communications

    1. Paper-Based Anti-Reflection Coatings for Photovoltaics

      Dongheon Ha, Zhiqiang Fang, Liangbing Hu and Jeremy N. Munday

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301804

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      A new paper-based anti-reflection coating for solar cells is presented showing a large reduction in the reflection over the entire solar spectrum for a wide range of angles. This process is simple and inexpensive, requiring no high temperature or vacuum-based processing, and is made from renewable cellulose fibers.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Quantitative Analysis and Visualized Evidence for High Charge Separation Efficiency in a Solid-Liquid Bulk Heterojunction

      Xin Zhao, Wenjun Luo, Jianyong Feng, Mingxue Li, Zhaosheng Li, Tao Yu and Zhigang Zou

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301785

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      Nanostructured solar cells indicate higher conversion efficiencies than planar structure ones. In this study, quantitative analysis suggests that higher charge separation efficiency is responsible for enhanced performance by decoupling photon absorption, interfacial charge transfer, and charge separation processes. Furthermore, visualized evidence is given to show higher charge separation efficiency comes from a shorter hole diffusion distance in a nanostructured device.

    2. Fullerene Nucleating Agents: A Route Towards Thermally Stable Photovoltaic Blends

      Camilla Lindqvist, Jonas Bergqvist, Ching-Chiao Feng, Stefan Gustafsson, Olof Bäcke, Neil D. Treat, Céline Bounioux, Patrik Henriksson, Renee Kroon, Ergang Wang, Anke Sanz-Velasco, Per Magnus Kristiansen, Natalie Stingelin, Eva Olsson, Olle Inganäs, Mats R. Andersson and Christian Müller

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301437

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      Fullerene nucleating agents are used to thermally arrest the nanostructure of photovoltaic blends that comprise a non-crystalline thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and PCBM. In particular, C60 efficiently nucleates PCBM crystallization and reduces the size of fullerene crystals to only 200 nanometers. Solar cells show significantly improved thermal stability of the bulk-heterojunction nanostructure even after annealing at an elevated temperature of 130 °C.

    3. Rotating-Disk-Based Direct-Current Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Chi Zhang, Tao Zhou, Wei Tang, Changbao Han, Limin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301798

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      A direct-current triboelectric nano­generator (DC-TENG) based on a rotating disk design for harvesting rotational mechanical energy is reported. With two pairs of flexible electric brushes made of carbon fiber, the DC-TENG is demonstrated as a constant current source for directly and continuously driving electronic devices and/or charging an energy storage unit without a rectifier bridge.

  39. Communications

    1. An Alternative Hole Transport Layer for Both ITO- and Graphene-Based Organic Solar Cells

      Hyesung Park and Jing Kong

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301280

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      A new type of hole transport layer, polythiophene derivative, for organic solar cells is introduced, which shows similar transparency and good wettability for both indium tin oxide (ITO) and graphene compared to poly(3,4-ethylened­ioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Efficient graphene-based organic solar cells are demonstrated and shows power conversion efficiencies approaching those of ITO-based reference devices using the proposed hole transport layer.

  40. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Improved Open–Circuit Voltage in ZnO–PbSe Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Understanding and Reducing Losses Arising from the ZnO Conduction Band Tail

      Robert L. Z. Hoye, Bruno Ehrler, Marcus L. Böhm, David Muñoz-Rojas, Rashid M. Altamimi, Ahmed Y. Alyamani, Yana Vaynzof, Aditya Sadhanala, Giorgio Ercolano, Neil C. Greenham, Richard H. Friend, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll and Kevin P. Musselman

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301544

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      A fundamental loss mechanism in depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs) is identified to arise from the metal oxide conduction band tail. This loss is studied in ZnO–PbSe CQDSCs and minimized by optimizing the ZnO–PbSe conduction band alignment via magnesium-doping of the ZnO. Significant improvements in open-circuit voltage and efficiency are achieved.

    2. Very High Surface Capacity Observed Using Si Negative Electrodes Embedded in Copper Foam as 3D Current Collectors

      Driss Mazouzi, David Reyter, Magali Gauthier, Philippe Moreau, Dominique Guyomard, Lionel Roué and Bernard Lestriez

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301718

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      A Cu foam current collector allows for the creation of Si-based 3D composite electrodes with loadings as high as 10 mg cm−2, which corresponds to 10 mAh cm−2. The 3D copper framework shows advantages in the cycle life and power performance when compared to the common 2D design and could therefore allow a significant increase in energy density.

  41. Communications

    1. Achieving High Efficiency of PTB7-Based Polymer Solar Cells via Integrated Optimization of Both Anode and Cathode Interlayers

      Cheng Gu, Youchun Chen, Zhongbo Zhang, Shanfeng Xue, Shuheng Sun, Chengmei Zhong, Huanhuan Zhang, Ying Lv, Fenghong Li, Fei Huang and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301771

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      A poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodi­thiophene) (PTB7)-based polymer solar cell (PSC) with conventional structure can achieve a significant power convesion efficiency of 8.42%, which is realized by integrated optimization of both anode and cathode interlayers. The effects of a conjugated microporous polymer film as the anode interlayer are threefold: it enhances the contact with active layer, increases the work function and conductivity, and blocks electrons.

    2. Hybrid Silica–Polymer Ionogel Solid Electrolyte with Tunable Properties

      Aurélie Guyomard-Lack, Julio Abusleme, Patrick Soudan, Bernard Lestriez, Dominique Guyomard and Jean Le Bideau

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301570

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      Solid and flexible ionogel-based membranes are obtained by a simple one-step process. Tuning the composition of the silica–polymer hybrid membranes allows the attainment of highly specific properties. The high ionic conductivities of the solid membranes are in the range of those of the ionic liquid electrolytes on which they are based. Good mechanical properties and high transparency from 250 to 1000 nm are also observed. The membranes are successfully applied within entirely solid lithium batteries.

    3. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor of NaxCoO2 Thin Films by Structural Engineering

      Peter Brinks, Bouwe Kuiper, Eric Breckenfeld, Gertjan Koster, Lane W. Martin, Guus Rijnders and Mark Huijben

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301927

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      By controlling the crystallinity and average grain size of thermoelectric NaxCoO2 thin films, a doubling of the thermoelectric power factor is achieved in combination with a strong suppression of the thermal conductivity. These structurally engineered NaxCoO2 thin films outperform single crystalline and polycrystalline samples at room temperature and demonstrate the potential of thermoelectric oxide thin films.

  42. Full Papers

    1. Ultrahigh-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on a High-Capacity Anode and a High-Voltage Cathode with an Electroconductive Nanoparticle Shell

      Jung-In Lee, Eun-Ho Lee, Jang-Hoon Park, Soojin Park and Sang-Young Lee

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301542

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      Lithium-ion batteries with ultrahigh energy density are made possible using a high-capacity Si anode and a high-voltage LiCoO2 (LCO) cathode, both coated with nanoparticles of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO). The ATO nanoparticle shell enhances electronic conduction and mitigates unwanted reactions at the electrode surface. As a result, unprecedented improvements in the volumetric energy density (274 mA h cm−3) and capacity retention after the 100th cycle (83.9%) are achieved.

  43. Progress Reports

    1. Are Binary Copper Sulfides/Selenides Really New and Promising Thermoelectric Materials?

      Gilles Dennler, Radoslaw Chmielowski, Stéphane Jacob, Frédéric Capet, Pascal Roussel, Sebastian Zastrow, Kornelius Nielsch, Ingo Opahle and Georg K. H. Madsen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301581

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      Copper sulfides and copper selenides have recently been reported as new and promising low-cost and environmentally friendly thermoelectric materials. It is shown that these materials have actually been studied for more than 190 years. The absence of commercial thermoelectric modules based on them stems from some major intrinsic issues related to these chalcogenides. Further developing these semiconductors will require addressing and solving these problems before large scale utilization can be considered.

  44. Communications

    1. Simultaneously Enhancing Light Extraction and Device Stability of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes using a Corrugated Polymer Nanosphere Templated PEDOT:PSS Layer

      Changyeon Lee, Dong Jin Kang, Hyunbum Kang, Taesu Kim, Junwoo Park, Jaeho Lee, Seunghyup Yoo and Bumjoon J. Kim

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301345

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      A simple and efficient method for enhancing the light extraction and device stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a corrugated polystyrene nanosphere-templated polymer hole-injection layer (HIL) is reported. HIL-induced improvements in power efficiency and ambient stability of the OLEDs by factors of 2 and 4, respectively, compared to the control device are observed.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Polymer:Fullerene Blends: From Geminate to Non-Geminate Recombination

      Dimali Amarasinghe Vithanage, Ergang Wang, Zhongqiang Wang, Fei Ma, Olle Inganäs, Mats R. Andersson, Arkady Yartsev, Villy Sundström and Torbjörn Pascher

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301706

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      The dynamics of a new polymer-fullerene blend are globally fitted using a chemical reaction rate model over 12 orders of magnitude in time and a factor of 33 in light intensity. The charge recombination is non-geminate and a correlated disorder model of site energies is proposed to explain the observed dependency.

    2. Towards Long-Term Photostability of Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

      Sandeep K. Pathak, Antonio Abate, Tomas Leijtens, Derek J. Hollman, Joël Teuscher, Luis Pazos, Pablo Docampo, Ullrich Steiner and Henry J. Snaith

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301667

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      Encapsulated solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) show a reversible and quick deterioration in performance while aging under inert atmosphere. This is attributed to the activation of deep traps and the change in Schottky barrier at the TiO2 surface. This is remedied by forming an insulating alumino-silicate “shell” around the TiO2 nanocrystals, and by introducing an insulating mesoporous SiO2 “buffer layer” between the top electrode and TiO2.

  46. Communications

    1. Ordered Macro-/Mesoporous Anatase Films with High Thermal Stability and Crystallinity for Photoelectrocatalytic Water-Splitting

      Renyuan Zhang, Dengke Shen, Ming Xu, Dan Feng, Wei Li, Gengfeng Zheng, Renchao Che, Ahmed A. Elzatahry and Dongyuan Zhao

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301725

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      Hierarchically ordered macro-/meso­porous TiO2 films with a large surface area, huge pore volume, highly crystalline frameworks, and continuous morphology are successfully synthesized using a confined evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method accompanied by a surfactant sulfuric acid carbonization method. The films exhibit reveal excellent photoelectrocatalytic water-splitting performance.

  47. Full Papers

    1. Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Hydrophobic Antireflective Inverted Moth-Eye Nanopatterned PDMS Films

      Jung Woo Leem, Sehwan Kim, Soo Hyun Lee, John A. Rogers, Eunkyoung Kim and Jae Su Yu

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301315

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      Inverted moth-eye nanopatterned poly-dimethylsiloxane (IMN PDMS) films fabricated by soft imprint lithography serve as antireflection (AR) layers on glass substrates for encapsulated organic solar cells. The AR IMN PDMS film, which has a hydrophobic surface, increases the short-circuit current density and thus improves the power conversion efficiency.

  48. Communications

    1. Solution-Processed Antimony Selenide Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Ying Zhou, Meiying Leng, Zhe Xia, Jie Zhong, Huaibing Song, Xinsheng Liu, Bo Yang, Junpei Zhang, Jie Chen, Kunhao Zhou, Junbo Han, Yibing Cheng and Jiang Tang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301846

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      Sb2Se3 is introduced as the absorber layer for thin film photovoltaics because of its very attractive material, optical, and electrical properties. High quality Sb2Se3 films are produced using a hydrazine solution process, and a heterojunction TiO2/Sb2Se3 solar cell achieving 2.26% efficiency with an impressive high open circuit voltage of 0.52 V is reported.

  49. Reviews

    1. A Review of Graphene-Based Nanostructural Materials for Both Catalyst Supports and Metal-Free Catalysts in PEM Fuel Cell Oxygen Reduction Reactions

      Xuejun Zhou, Jinli Qiao, Lin Yang and Jiujun Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301523

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      A comprehensive overview and description of graphene-based nanomaterials for catalyst supports and metal-free catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is presented. The catalyst material selection, design, synthesis, and characterization, as well as a theoretical understanding of the catalysis process and mechanisms are discussed. The challenges and their corresponding approaches, in addition to the directions for future perspectives and research are suggested.

  50. Communications

    1. Two Redox Couples are Better Than One: Improved Current and Fill Factor from Cobalt-Based Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jiayan Cong, Yan Hao, Licheng Sun and Lars Kloo

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301273

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A tandem redox strategy is used in cobalt-based electrolytes. Co(bpy)32+/Co(bpy)33+ offers a high photovoltage at the photoanode, whereas the I/I3 or Fc/Fc+ redox couples facilitates charge transfer at the counter electrode. Electron exchange in the electrolyte offers the beneficial concentration gradients. The overall conversion efficiency is improved from 6.5% to 7.5%.

  51. Progress Reports

    1. Nanocarbon Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Media for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage

      Qing Li, Ruiguo Cao, Jaephil Cho and Gang Wu

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301415

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      The development of highly efficient catalysts from earth-abundant elements rather than precious metals is crucial for advanced electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies. Recent breakthroughs in the nanocarbon composite cathode catalysts in alkaline-based fuel cells and metal-air batteries are summarized and guidance for the rational design and synthesis of advanced catalysts with improved activity and performance durability is presented.

  52. Full Papers

    1. 3D Hyperbranched Hollow Carbon Nanorod Architectures for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Shuangqiang Chen, Xiaodan Huang, Hao Liu, Bing Sun, Waikong Yeoh, Kefei Li, Jinqiang Zhang and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301761

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      3D hyperbranched carbon nanorod-sulfur nanocomposites are synthesized and applied as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. The composite materials delivered high specific capacity, excellent high rate capability, and extended cycle life. The superior performance is attributed to the nanomaze architecture and high aspect ratio of carbon nanorods, which suppress the dissolution of polysulfides and confine volume expansion.

    2. A Conclusive View on Charge Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in As-Prepared and Annealed P3HT:PCBM Blends: Combined Experimental and Simulation Work

      Juliane Kniepert, Ilja Lange, Niels J. van der Kaap, L. Jan Anton Koster and Dieter Neher

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301401

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      Biased-amplified extraction experiments and drift-diffusion simulations are performed on as-prepared and annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends to provide conclusive information about the dynamics of photogenerated charge. Charge generation is found to be independent of the electric field and non-geminate recombination is found to be bimolecular with a very weak dependence of the bimolecular recombination coefficient on carrier density.

    3. Decreased Recombination Through the Use of a Non-Fullerene Acceptor in a 6.4% Efficient Organic Planar Heterojunction Solar Cell

      Bregt Verreet, Kjell Cnops, David Cheyns, Paul Heremans, Andre Stesmans, German Zango, Christian G. Claessens, Tomas Torres and Barry P. Rand

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301413

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      The power conversion efficiency of a planar heterojunction solar cell based on boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride (SubNc) is improved from ηP = 2.8% to 4.4% by inserting diindenoperylene (DIP) at the anode and also to ηP > 6% by the use of a chlorinated subphthalocyanine (Cl6SubPc) as a non-fullerene acceptor material that increases open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and short-circuit current.

    4. Plasmon-Enhanced Polymer Photovoltaic Device Performance Using Different Patterned Ag/PVP Electrospun Nanofibers

      Jung-Yao Chen, Hung-Chin Wu, Yu-Cheng Chiu and Wen-Chang Chen

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301665

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      Highly conducting silver (Ag)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) electrospun nanofibers with different patterns (non­woven, aligned, and crossed) are prepared using a coaxial electrospinning technique. When the crossed pattern nanofibers are used in P3HT (poly(3-hexyl­thiophene)):PC61BM ([6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) photovoltaics, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is improved from 3.53 to 4.19% because of the enhanced carrier mobility and surface plasmon resonance effects.

  53. Communications

    1. Sponge-Like Piezoelectric Polymer Films for Scalable and Integratable Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Electronic Systems

      Yanchao Mao, Ping Zhao, Geoffrey McConohy, Hao Yang, Yexiang Tong and Xudong Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301624

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      Flexible and integratable nanogenerators made from sponge-like mesoporous piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films can be directly attached to an electronic device, and effectively convert mechanical energy from ambient surface oscillations to electricity. These devices provide a promising solution for developing practical self-powered electronic devices.

  54. Full Papers

    1. A Combination of X-Ray Tomography and Carbon Binder Modeling: Reconstructing the Three Phases of LiCoO2 Li-Ion Battery Cathodes

      Lukas Zielke, Tobias Hutzenlaub, Dean R. Wheeler, Ingo Manke, Tobias Arlt, Nils Paust, Roland Zengerle and Simon Thiele

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301617

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      In LiCoO2 electrodes the carbon binder domain (CBD) is crucial for all transport phenomena, yet X-ray tomography-based investigations fail to resolve the CBD. A novel method combining X-ray tomographic data with different virtual CBD models is presented that enables the representation of all phases and is transferable to other systems. The influence of CBD morphology and content on transport parameters is investigated for a discharged and fully charged electrode.

    2. Silicon-Microtube Scaffold Decorated with Anatase TiO2 as a Negative Electrode for a 3D Litium-Ion Microbattery

      Etienne Eustache, Pascal Tilmant, Laurence Morgenroth, Pascal Roussel, Gilles Patriarche, David Troadec, Nathalie Rolland, Thierry Brousse and Christophe Lethien

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301612

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      A scaffold based on silicon microtubes is used to improve the volumetric capacity of a 3D Li-ion microbattery. It is fabricated using facilities compatible with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. A surface capacity close to 0.2 mA h cm–2 is obtained in liquid electrolyte with the silicon-microtube scaffold (charge rate of C/10). The obtained performance values are compared to previously published results.

  55. Communications

    1. A Sandwich-Like Hierarchically Porous Carbon/Graphene Composite as a High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yang Yan, Ya-Xia Yin, Yu-Guo Guo and Li-Jun Wan

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301584

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      A sandwich-like hierarchically porous carbon/graphene (G@HPC) composite is synthesized using a facile ionothermal process. The composite exhibits high specific capacity, remarkable cycling stability, and high-rate capability because of the synergistic effect of low-graphitized porous carbon with hierarchical structure and highly conductive graphene sandwiched between porous carbons.

  56. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Charge Extraction in Thick Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells through Infiltrated Diffusion Doping

      Junghwan Kim, Kilho Yu, Heejoo Kim, Sooncheol Kwon, Geunjin Kim, Kyungchoon Kwon and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301502

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      Efficient inverted polymer solar cells with thick active layers and a high internal quantum efficiency are demonstrated using solution-processed conductive charge-transport channels. The conductive transport channels are formed by using the infiltration-doping ability of soluble vanadium oxide into bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films and can effectively extract photogenerated charge carriers in thick BHJ films by reducing trap-assisted recombination.

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