Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 16.146

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 3/89 (Energy & Fuels); 4/139 (Chemistry Physical); 4/144 (Physics Applied); 4/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 5/260 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  1. Correction

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      Miniaturized Supercapacitors: Focused Ion Beam Reduced Graphene Oxide Supercapacitors with Enhanced Performance Metrics

      Derrek E. Lobo, Parama Chakraborty Banerjee, Christopher D. Easton and Mainak Majumder

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600250

      This article corrects:
  2. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Thermoelectric Paper Based on Double Carrier-Filtering Processes at Nanowire Heterojunctions

      Jaeyoo Choi, Jang Yeol Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Chong Rae Park and Heesuk Kim

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502181

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      A rationally designed graphene/polymer/inorganic nanocrystal free-standing paper is demonstrated. The free-standing paper has a high thermoelectric performance, high flexibility, and mechanical/chemical durability for flexible thermoelectric materials. The paper features two heterojunctions that induce double-carrier filtering, thus increasing the electrical conductivity without a major decrease in the thermopower. This shows great potential for the preparation of flexible/or wearable power-conversion devices.

    2. Overcoming Electrode-Induced Losses in Organic Solar Cells by Tailoring a Quasi-Ohmic Contact to Fullerenes via Solution-Processed Alkali Hydroxide Layers

      Hong Zhang, R. Clayton Shallcross, Ning Li, Tobias Stubhan, Yi Hou, Wei Chen, Tayebeh Ameri, Mathieu Turbiez, Neal R. Armstrong and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502195

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      Solution-processed alkali hydroxides significantly reduce the work function of metal oxides, such as zinc oxide or aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), and are further proven to effectively passivate defect states in these metal oxides. The interface states with alkali hydroxide-modified AZO contacts tail all the way to the Fermi energy, providing for a highly n-doped (metal-like) interfacial molecular layer.

  3. Communications

    1. Optimized “Alloy-Parallel” Morphology of Ternary Organic Solar Cells

      Zaiyu Wang, Yajie Zhang, Jianqi Zhang, Zhixiang Wei and Wei Ma

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502456

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      The morphology features of polymer/small molecule/fullerene ternary organic solar cells are investigated. For the first time, simultaneously enhanced face-on molecular packing for both polymer and small molecule donor materials is observed. This optimized morphology yields an enhanced performance when 40% small molecule is added.

  4. Reviews

    1. Recent Developments and Understanding of Novel Mixed Transition-Metal Oxides as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

      Yang Zhao, Xifei Li, Bo Yan, Dongbin Xiong, Dejun Li, Stephen Lawes and Xueliang Sun

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502175

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      Mixed transition-metal oxides (MTMOs), including stannates, ferrites, cobaltates, and nickelates, have attracted increasing attention in the application of high performance lithium-ion batteries. The rational design, energy storage mechanism and the future trends and prospects of novel MTMO are discussed in detail. It is believed that MTMOs with higher reversible capacity, better structural stability, and high electronic conductivity are some of the most promising candidates for anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment via a Self-Powered Electrochemical Process

      Shuwen Chen, Ning Wang, Long Ma, Tao Li, Magnus Willander, Yang Jie, Xia Cao and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501778

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      A sustainable wastewater treatment system based on a triboelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated via a self-powered electrochemical process. The system harvests kinetic energy from wastewater to produce electrical power for treating wastewater. High removal efficiency of rhodamine B and copper ions and high energy utilization are achieved. The system can also be used for electroplating with better performance.

    2. Mesoporous MoS2 as a Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Exhibiting Pseudocapacitive Li and Na-Ion Charge Storage

      John B. Cook, Hyung-Seok Kim, Yan Yan, Jesse S. Ko, Shauna Robbennolt, Bruce Dunn and Sarah H. Tolbert

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501937

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      Mesoporous MoS2 is synthesized via thermal sulfurization of block copolymer templated mesoporous MoO2. These nanoporous films show high levels of pseudocapcitance using both Li+ and Na+. When cycled with Li+, the material exhibits a reversible charge storage capacity of 140 mAh g−1 in only 20 s, and can be cycled more than 10 000 times.

    3. Carbon Nanodot Surface Modifications Initiate Highly Efficient, Stable Catalysts for Both Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reactions

      Juan Liu, Shunyan Zhao, Chuanxi Li, Manman Yang, Yanmei Yang, Yang Liu, Yeshayahu Lifshitz, Shuit-Tong Lee and Zhenhui Kang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502039

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      Metal-free carbon nanodots surface-modified with either phosphorus or amidogen can respectively achieve superior electrocatalytic activity approaching and even exceeding that of the benchmark Pt/C and IrO2 /C catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER). Attaching Au nanoparticles on these catalysts will further enhance their electrocatalytic activities under visible light.

  6. Communications

    1. New Processable Phenanthridinone-Based Polymers for Organic Solar Cell Applications

      Maxime Guérette, Ahmed Najari, Julie Maltais, Jean-Rémi Pouliot, Stéphane Dufresne, Martin Simoneau, Simon Besner, Patrick Charest and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502094

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      New phenanthridinone-based polymers are designed and synthesized by direct (hetero)arylation polymerization for photo­voltaic applications. Bulk-hetero­junction solar cells prepared in air and a random terpolymer (P3) blended with PC71BM in o-dichlorobenzene lead to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 6.7%. When the same polymer is processed with PC61BM in o-xylene with blade-coating in a chlorine-free system, a PCE of 4.7% is observed.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High-Concentration Electrolyte Layer

      Jianming Zheng, Pengfei Yan, Donghai Mei, Mark H. Engelhard, Samuel S. Cartmell, Bryant J. Polzin, Chongmin Wang, Ji-Guang Zhang and Wu Xu

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502151

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      A transient layer of highly concentrated electrolyte can be formed in the vicinity of a Li metal anode by fast lithium stripping or high C-rate discharge. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer immediately coordinate with the available solvents and facilitate the formation of a highly flexible and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the Li surface, effectively mitigating the Li corrosion by free organic solvents and enabling the sustainable operation of Li metal batteries.

    2. Iridium Oxide-Assisted Plasmon-Induced Hot Carriers: Improvement on Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Hot Carriers

      Sung-Fu Hung, Fang-Xing Xiao, Ying-Ya Hsu, Nian-Tzu Suen, Hong-Bin Yang, Hao Ming Chen and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501339

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      Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metal is a promising avenue for application to solar energy. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hot carriers generated by the SPR effect limit the photocatalytic performance. Using the synergistic effect of co-catalyst IrOX, the photoelectrochemical performance is enhanced by 100% due to the accelerated charge transfer of hot holes and massive hot-electron injection into TiO2.

    3. Ni and Co Segregations on Selective Surface Facets and Rational Design of Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathodes

      Pengfei Yan, Jianming Zheng, Jiaxin Zheng, Zhiguo Wang, Gaofeng Teng, Saravanan Kuppan, Jie Xiao, Guoying Chen, Feng Pan, Ji-Guang Zhang and Chong-Min Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502455

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      For pristine Li–Mn-rich oxide cathodes, Ni and Co show distinctive plane selectivity while forming their surface segregation layers (SSLs). The Ni-SSL features spinel-like structure, while Co-SSL is characterized as rock salt structure. The SSL shows dependence on composition and synthesis methods, signifying a rational design of layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for optimized battery cycling stability.

  8. Communications

    1. Liquid-Like Ionic Conduction in Solid Lithium and Sodium Monocarba-closo-Decaborates Near or at Room Temperature

      Wan Si Tang, Motoaki Matsuo, Hui Wu, Vitalie Stavila, Wei Zhou, Albert Alec Talin, Alexei V. Soloninin, Roman V. Skoryunov, Olga A. Babanova, Alexander V. Skripov, Atsushi Unemoto, Shin-Ichi Orimo and Terrence J. Udovic

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502237

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      Both LiCB9H10 and NaCB9H10 exhibit liquid-like cationic conductivities (≥0.03 S cm−1) in their disordered hexagonal phases near or at room temperature. These unprecedented conductivities and favorable stabilities enabled by the large pseudoaromatic polyhedral anions render these materials in their pristine or further modified forms as promising solid electrolytes in next-generation, power devices.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Control and Optimization of the Electrochemical and Mechanical Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Silicon Electrodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

      Anton Tokranov, Ravi Kumar, Chunzeng Li, Stephen Minne, Xingcheng Xiao and Brian W. Sheldon

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502302

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      The formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on Si electrodes are examined with results obtained from several in situ techniques. Varying the cycling schedule during the first lithiation cycle results in SEI films with substantially different properties, which are measured and analyzed. These observations lead to a basic multiphase SEI model that describes both mechanical and electrochemical behavior.

  10. Communications

    1. From Hollow Carbon Spheres to N-Doped Hollow Porous Carbon Bowls: Rational Design of Hollow Carbon Host for Li-S Batteries

      Fei Pei, Taihua An, Jun Zang, Xiaojing Zhao, Xiaoliang Fang, Minseng Zheng, Quanfeng Dong and Nanfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502539

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      A novel silica-assisted ­polybenzoxazine coating strategy is developed to ­synthesize N-doped hollow porous ­carbon bowls (N-HPCB). Due to the high specific surface area, N atom doping, and unique bowl-like structure of N-HPCB, the S/N-HPCB cathode has stable cycling stability, excellent rate capability, and high volumetric energy density.

    2. A High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Battery with Ultrahigh-Loading Lithium Polysulfide Cathode and its Failure Mechanism

      Long Qie, Chenxi Zu and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502459

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      An ultrahigh-loading lithium polysulfide cathode is developed to investigate the electrochemical behaviors of high-energy Li-S batteries. With this design, Li-S batteries with an ultrahigh areal sulfur loading (18.1 mg cm–2) are achieved with low polarization, high areal capacity, and promising cycling performance. It is further demonstrated that the challenge for high sulfur loading cells is the serious lithium-metal corrosion and electrolyte depletion.

  11. Full Papers

    1. A Series of Pyrene-Substituted Silicon Phthalocyanines as Near-IR Sensitizers in Organic Ternary Solar Cells

      Lili Ke, Jie Min, Matthias Adam, Nicola Gasparini, Yi Hou, J. Darío Perea, Wei Chen, Hong Zhang, Stefanie Fladischer, Anna-Chiara Sale, Erdmann Spiecker, Rik R. Tykwinski, Christoph J. Brabec and Tayebeh Ameri

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502355

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      A series of silicon phthalocyanines, axially substituted by a pyrene acid group and peripherally incorporated by tert-butyl groups, are introduced as functional near infrared (IR) sensitizers into the P3HT:PCBM system. An efficient near-IR sensitization of up to 750 nm/800 nm and power conversion efficiency improvement up to 50% is achieved. The influence of the alkyl chain length on the performance, transport, and microstructure is extensively studied.

    2. Al Doping for Mitigating the Capacity Fading and Voltage Decay of Layered Li and Mn-Rich Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries

      Prasant Kumar Nayak, Judith Grinblat, Mikhael Levi, Elena Levi, Sangryun Kim, Jang Wook Choi and Doron Aurbach

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502398

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      Al doping is found to be useful in mitigating discharge voltage decay as well as stabilizing the specific capacity of Li and Mn-rich cathode materials by suppressing layered-to-spinel transformation upon prolonged cycling. Al doped Li1.2Ni0.16Mn0.51Al0.05Co0.08O2 is found to exhibit 96% capacity retention as compared to 68% for undoped Li1.2Ni0.16Mn0.56Co0.08O2 after 100 cycles.

    3. Low-Temperature-Processed 9% Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices through Interfacial Management of p–n Heterojunction

      Randi Azmi, Havid Aqoma, Wisnu Tantyo Hadmojo, Jin-Mun Yun, Soyeon Yoon, Kyungkon Kim, Young Rag Do, Seung-Hwan Oh and Sung-Yeon Jang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502146

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      High-efficiency colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices (CQDPVs) are developed by improving the interfacial properties of p–n heterojunctions using a conjugated polyelectrolyte as an interface modifier. The conjugated polyelectrolyte effectively improves charge extraction efficiency by enhancing internal electric field and passivating interfacial defects. Using this strategy, CQDPVs with 9% efficiency are able to be fabricated through room temperature solution process.

  12. Communications

    1. Hole Transport Layer Free Inorganic CsPbIBr2 Perovskite Solar Cell by Dual Source Thermal Evaporation

      Qingshan Ma, Shujuan Huang, Xiaoming Wen, Martin A. Green and Anita W. Y. Ho-Baillie

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502202

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      A hole-transport-material-free planar solar cell of cesium lead mixed halide perovskite (CsPbIBr2) is deposited by dual source thermal evaporation for the first time, achieving an efficiency of 4.7%. The addition of iodine into the bromide lowers the bandgap resulting in wider solar spectrum absorption. Compared to the hybrid halide perovskites, CsPbIBr2 demonstrates better thermal stability.

    2. Temperature-Dependent Bias Poling and Hysteresis in Planar Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells

      Yunlong Zou and Russell J. Holmes

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501994

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      The efficiency of perovskite photovoltaic cells is greatly impacted by the anomalous hysteresis effect. It is found that by applying a forward bias prior to testing, device efficiency (ηp) can be significantly improved. This bias poling effect can be stabilized at temperatures ≤250 K. As a result, hysteresis free operation of a planar perovskite photovoltaic cell is achieved at 170 K with ηp of 19%.

    3. Bandgap-Tunable Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites with High Thermal Stability for Efficient Solar Cells

      Rebecca J. Sutton, Giles E. Eperon, Laura Miranda, Elizabeth S. Parrott, Brett A. Kamino, Jay B. Patel, Maximilian T. Hörantner, Michael B. Johnston, Amir Abbas Haghighirad, David T. Moore and Henry J. Snaith

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502458

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      Highest reported efficiency cesium lead halide perovskite solar cells are realized by tuning the bandgap and stabilizing the black perovskite phase at lower temperatures. CsPbI2Br is employed in a planar architecture device resulting in 9.8% power conversion efficiency and over 5% stabilized power output. Offering substantially enhanced thermal stability over their organic based counterparts, these results show that all-inorganic perovskites can represent a promising next step for photovoltaic materials.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Stable Li–Organic Batteries with Nafion-Based Sandwich-Type Separators

      Zhiping Song, Yumin Qian, Minoru Otani and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501780

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      A sandwich-type Li–ion permselective separator with polypropylene/Nafion/polypropylene structure is developed to prohibit dissolved electroactive organic anions and molecules from migrating to the Li anode. A Li–organic battery with 1,1′-iminodianthraquinone cathode using a PNP separator shows the highest level of cycling stability for soluble organic electrode materials (76% capacity retention after 400 cycles and Coulombic efficiency above 99.6%).

  14. Communications

    1. Efficiency Enhancement of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells via Alkali Metals Doping

      Yao-Tsung Hsieh, Qifeng Han, Chengyang Jiang, Tze-Bin Song, Huajun Chen, Lei Meng, Huanping Zhou and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502386

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      Doping of alkali metals in precursor solutions demonstrates an effective strategy to achieve high efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells. The properties of doped films are related to alkali metal radius. Smaller alkali atoms are beneficial for increasing carrier concentration, whereas larger atoms are conducive to grain growth. Over 8% efficiency of K-doped Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell with optimized CdS thickness is realized.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Outstanding Low Temperature Thermoelectric Power Factor from Completely Organic Thin Films Enabled by Multidimensional Conjugated Nanomaterials

      Chungyeon Cho, Kevin L. Wallace, Ping Tzeng, Jui-Hung Hsu, Choongho Yu and Jaime C. Grunlan

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502168

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      High power factor organic thermoelectric nanocomposites are assembled via layer-by-layer assembly. Polyaniline, graphene, and double-walled carbon nanotubes, stabilized with intrinsically conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), are alternately deposited from aqueous solutions. This multilayer nanocomposite thin film (≈1 μm thick) exhibits an electrical conductivity of 1880 S cm−1 and a Seebeck coefficient of 120 μV K−1, producing a thermoelectric power factor of 2710 μW m−1 K−2.

    2. A Bottom-Up Approach toward All-Solution-Processed High-Efficiency Cu(In,Ga)S2 Photocathodes for Solar Water Splitting

      Néstor Guijarro, Mathieu S. Prévot, Xiaoyun Yu, Xavier A. Jeanbourquin, Pauline Bornoz, Wiktor Bourée, Melissa Johnson, Florian Le Formal and Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501949

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      An all-solution processable fabrication of sulfide chalcopyrite-based photocathodes for water splitting is reported. Colloidal nanocrystal-based films experience a significant coalescence when annealed in the presence of Sb, Bi, or Mg, yielding microcrystalline thin films with a superior photoelectrochemical response. Further improvement is achieved by sequential surface modification with CdS, TiO2, and Pt, all deposited by wet chemical routes.

    3. A High-Energy-Density Multiple Redox Semi-Solid-Liquid Flow Battery

      Hongning Chen and Yi-Chun Lu

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502183

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      A new concept of multiple redox semi-solid-liquid (MRSSL) flow battery that takes advantages of active species in both the liquid phase and solid phase is proposed and demonstrated by utilizing liquid lithium iodide electrolyte and solid sulfur/carbon composite. The LiI-S/C MRSSL catholyte achieves record volumetric capacity (550 Ah L−1catholyte) with high coulombic efficiency (>95%).

    4. SiO2 Hollow Nanosphere-Based Composite Solid Electrolyte for Lithium Metal Batteries to Suppress Lithium Dendrite Growth and Enhance Cycle Life

      Dong Zhou, Ruliang Liu, Yan-Bing He, Fengyun Li, Ming Liu, Baohua Li, Quan-Hong Yang, Qiang Cai and Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502214

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      A SiO2 hollow nanosphere-based composite solid electrolyte for Li metal batteries is presented. Cross-linked TPGDA framework is in situ polymerized in liquid electrolyte, which is absorbed in a SiO2 hollow nanosphere layer to form this hierarchical electrolyte. The prepared solid electrolyte exhibits high conductivity, excellent safety, remarkable suppression for Li dendrite growth and enhanced cycle life.

    5. Opening of Bottleneck Pores for the Improvement of Nitrogen Doped Carbon Electrocatalysts

      Jonas Pampel and Tim-Patrick Fellinger

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502389

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      Ionothermal carbonization is used to develop all-surface nitrogen doped carbons with very high pore volume. Variation of the detailed pore structure reveals strongly improved catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity by the opening of bottleneck pores. The catalyst with optimized pore system shows a high selectivity toward the favored four electron process and an outstanding E 1/2 of ≈880 mV versus reversible hydrogen electrode.

    6. A Cu-Based Nanoparticulate Film as Super-Active and Robust Catalyst Surpasses Pt for Electrochemical H2 Production from Neutral and Weak Acidic Aqueous Solutions

      Peili Zhang, Mei Wang, Hong Chen, Yongqi Liang, Junliang Sun and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502319

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      A Cu-based nanoparticulate film behaves as a functionally mimicking material of hydrogenase enzymes, displaying superior activity and perfect stability for electrocatalytic H2 production from neutral and weak-acidic aqueous solutions. Such a cheap and conveniently prepared material can be a promising alternative to Pt electrodes for potential use in photo- and electro-driven hydrogen generation devices.

  16. Communications

    1. Enhanced Electro-Optical Properties of Nanocone/Nanopillar Dual-Structured Arrays for Ultrathin Silicon/Organic Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

      Jian He, Zhenhai Yang, Peipei Liu, Sudong Wu, Pingqi Gao, Mei Wang, Suqiong Zhou, Xiaofeng Li, Hongtao Cao and Jichun Ye

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501793

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      Periodic nanocone–nanopillar dual-structured arrays are wet chemical etched on 20 μm-thick crystalline silicon substrates, enabling the realization of excellent light absorption properties and enhanced electrical contact with PEDOT:PSS. The finally textured silicon/PEDOT:PSS thin film hybrid solar cell shows a power conversion efficiency of 12.2%. These results provide a viable route toward high-performance thin film silicon/polymer hybrid cells by shape-controlled nanotexturing.

    2. Atomic Layer-by-Layer Co3O4/Graphene Composite for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Yuhai Dou, Jiantie Xu, Boyang Ruan, Qiannan Liu, Yuede Pan, Ziqi Sun and Shi Xue Dou

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501835

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      An “atomic layer-by-layer” structure of Co3O4/graphene is developed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the atomic thickness of both the Co3O4 nanosheets and the graphene, the composite exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacity of 1134.4 mAh g−1 and an ultralong life up to 2000 cycles at 2.25 C, far beyond the performances of previously reported Co3O4/C composites.

  17. Full Papers

    1. New Insights into Defect-Mediated Heterostructures for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

      Xiaoqiang An, Tong Li, Bo Wen, Junwang Tang, Ziyu Hu, Li-Min Liu, Jiuhui Qu, C. P. Huang and Huijuan Liu

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502268

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      The potential of defect engineering in the synthesis of defect-mediated heterostructures is investigated. Both experimental observations and theoretical calculations demonstrate the spontaneous formation of defect-mediated interfaces in TiO2/BiVO4 heterojunctions. The synergetic effect between defective interfaces and quantum dots sensitization results in significantly increased photoconversion efficiency, which provides a new paradigm for designing photoelectrodes for solar fuel production.

    2. Lithium Doping to Enhance Thermoelectric Performance of MgAgSb with Weak Electron–Phonon Coupling

      Zihang Liu, Yumei Wang, Jun Mao, Huiyuan Geng, Jing Shuai, Yuanxu Wang, Ran He, Wei Cai, Jiehe Sui and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502269

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      Intrinsically weak electron–phonon coupling, reflected by the low deformation potential Edef ≈ 6.3 eV, plays a crucial role in the relatively high power factor of undoped MgAgSb. The optimized carrier concentration by Li doping leads to a sharp reduction in resistivity and significantly enhances the power factor (PF). Low lattice thermal conductivity can be simultaneously achieved via all-scale hierarchical phonon scattering architecture. Collectively, much higher (PF)ave ≈ 25 μW cm−1 K−2 with a high (ZT)ave ≈ 1.1 from 300 to 548 K is achieved for 0.01 Li doping.

    3. Operando Lithium Dynamics in the Li-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Material via Neutron Diffraction

      Haodong Liu, Yan Chen, Sunny Hy, Ke An, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Danna Qian, Minghao Zhang and Ying Shirley Meng

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502143

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      The lithium and oxygen dynamics of two Li-rich compounds are investigated and compared via neutron diffraction under operando battery cycling to show the path-dependent rate of lithium migration from the lithium layer and transition metal layer is asymmetric for charging and discharging revealing the origin of irreversible lithium loss.

    4. Band Edge Engineering of Oxide Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Integration of Subsurface Dipoles with Atomic-Scale Control

      Yasuyuki Hikita, Kazunori Nishio, Linsey C. Seitz, Pongkarn Chakthranont, Takashi Tachikawa, Thomas F. Jaramillo and Harold Y. Hwang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502154

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      Flat band potential at an oxide semiconductor/aqueous electrolyte interface is systematically shifted over 1.3 V by atomically engineering an electrostatic dipole layer near this interface. Coherent stacking of polar oxide surfaces stabilizes a large internal electric field over atomic distances. This technique enables the decoupling of the bulk and interface constraints in designing photoelectrodes using complex oxides.

    5. Electrochemical Stability of Li10GeP2S12 and Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes

      Fudong Han, Yizhou Zhu, Xingfeng He, Yifei Mo and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501590

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      The thermodynamic electrochemical stability windows of Li10GeP2S12 and Li7La3Zr2O12 are calculated using first principles computation method, and also experimentally validated using a Li/electrolyte/electrolyte-carbon cell developed by us. Both solid electrolyte materials have narrower electrochemical windows than previously claimed by the battery community. These results can provide valuable information to address the most challenging interfacial problem for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

    6. A Layer-Structured Electrode Material Reformed by a PO4-O2 Hybrid Framework toward Enhanced Lithium Storage and Stability

      Sul Hee Min, Mi Ru Jo, Si-Young Choi, Yong-Il Kim and Yong-Mook Kang

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501717

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      Improvement of the structure and surface stabilities of a LiCoO2 cathode is demonstrated by changing the surface design from an O2-framework to a PO4-framework of LiCoO2. With its advantages of easy synthesis, high structural stability, and high-surface stability from chemical attack, this surface modified LiCoO2 (phosphidated LiCoO2) shows great potential for use in lithium rechargeable batteries at high-voltage ranges.

    7. Solvent Engineering Boosts the Efficiency of Paintable Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells to Beyond 14%

      Haining Chen, Zhanhua Wei, Hexiang He, Xiaoli Zheng, Kam Sing Wong and Shihe Yang

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502087

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      A solvent engineering strategy based on the two-step sequential method is exploited to prepare a high-quality perovskite layer for high-performance paintable carbon-based, hole transport material-free perovskite solar cells (14.38%). By lowering the solvent polarity for CH3NH3I solution, the conversion of PbI2 is accelerated and the Ostwald ripening process is suppressed, leading to an even perovskite layer with enhanced interface (perovskite/carbon) contact and performance.

  18. Communications

    1. Armoring Graphene Cathodes for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium Ion Supercapacitors

      Xu-Yi Shan, Yuzuo Wang, Da-Wei Wang, Feng Li and Hui-Ming Cheng

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502064

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      An armored graphene cathode is developed for high rate and long-life lithium ion supercapacitors by the preliminary electrochemical coating. The obtained full-cell delivers a high energy density of 160 Wh kg−1 and a very small capacity decay of 0.011% per cycle indicating a potential prospect.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Going Beyond Lithium Hybrid Capacitors: Proposing a New High-Performing Sodium Hybrid Capacitor System for Next-Generation Hybrid Vehicles Made with Bio-Inspired Activated Carbon

      Ranjith Thangavel, Karthikeyan Kaliyappan, Kisuk Kang, Xueliang Sun and Yun-Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502199

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      A high-performing sodium hybrid capacitor is fabricated with Na3V2(PO4)3 and carbon derived from cinnamon sticks in an organic electrolyte. Excellent stability of 95% after 10 000 cycles at 1.1 mA cm−2 along with superior power density of 850 W kg−1 and energy density of 60 Wh kg−1 are achieved.

  20. Reviews

    1. Highly Efficient Materials Assembly Via Electrophoretic Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

      Luhan Ye, Kechun Wen, Zuoxiang Zhang, Fei Yang, Yachun Liang, Weiqiang Lv, Yukun Lin, Jianmin Gu, James H. Dickerson and Weidong He

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502018

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      An overview of the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique for electro­chemical energy conversion and storage applications is presented. High-performance EPD electrochemical devices are discussed to illustrate the developing status of the promising method. Prospectives for further advances in EPD are also proposed.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Graphitic Nanoshell/Mesoporous Carbon Nanohybrids as Highly Efficient and Stable Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Aqueous Na–Air Batteries

      Jae Yeong Cheon, Kyoungho Kim, Young Jin Sa, Sun Hye Sahgong, Yugyeong Hong, Jinwoo Woo, Sung-Dae Yim, Hu Young Jeong, Youngsik Kim and Sang Hoon Joo

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501794

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      Highly integrated graphitic nanoshell/mesoporous carbon (GNS/MC) nanohybrids are prepared and show excellent catalytic activity and durability for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. The design of GNS/MC allows for the combination of highly integrated, multiple structural motifs responsible for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reaction. Significantly, the GNS/MC is exploited as high-performance air cathode for the first demonstration of rechargeable aqueous Na–air battery.

  22. Communications

    1. Silk Nanofiber-Networked Bio-Triboelectric Generator: Silk Bio-TEG

      Hyun-Jun Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Ki-Woo Jun, Jong-Hun Kim, Wan-Chul Seung, Oh Hyeong Kwon, Jeong-Young Park, Sang-Woo Kim and Il-Kwon Oh

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502329

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      A silk nanofiber-networked bio-triboelectric generator (Silk Bio-TEG) is developed by using an eco-friendly and sustainable silk biomaterial with strong hydrogen bonding between peptide blocks. The electrospun Silk Bio-TEG shows highly durable and reliable energy harvesting performances due to its notably high surface-to-volume ratio, mechanically super-strong silk fibers, and fracture tolerant behavior of nanofiber-networks.

    2. Hierarchically Porous Nickel Sulfide Multifunctional Superstructures

      Bo You and Yujie Sun

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502333

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      Multifunctional nickel sulfide superstructures (h-NiSx) with 3D hierarchically porosity are prepared by template-free electrodeposition of porous metallic Ni microspheres arrays on a nickel foam and subsequent low-temperature sulfurization. With the designed nanoscale architecture, the resulting h-NiSx exhibit superior performance and strong robustness for overall water splitting electrocatalysis and capacitance application in alkaline electrolytes.

    3. Cross-Linked Chitosan as a Polymer Network Binder for an Antimony Anode in Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Hongcai Gao, Weidong Zhou, Ji-Hoon Jang and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502130

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      A polymer network from a cross-linking chemistry between chitosan and glutaraldehyde is designed for a high performance antimony anode in sodium-ion batteries. The polymer network can mitigate efficiently the volume change of antimony anode upon sodiation/desodiation, leading to excellent cycling stability and high Coulombic efficiency.

    4. Etching-in-a-Box: A Novel Strategy to Synthesize Unique Yolk-Shelled Fe3O4@Carbon with an Ultralong Cycling Life for Lithium Storage

      Zhiming Liu, Xin-Yao Yu and Ungyu Paik

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502318

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      An etching-in-a-box strategy is developed to synthesize unique Fe3O4@C yolk-shelled nanocubes. Interestingly, inner cavities are generated in Fe3O4 cores during the etching process. With an optimized etching time of 2 h, an ultralong cycling life is achieved, in which even after 8000 cycles the material can still deliver a significant capacity of 475 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1.

    5. Tailoring a New 4V-Class Cathode Material for Na-Ion Batteries

      Jongsoon Kim, Inchul Park, Hyungsub Kim, Kyu-Young Park, Young-Uk Park and Kisuk Kang

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502147

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      Na7V3(P2O7)4 is capable of exhibiting 4.13 V of the redox potential as a cathode material for Na ion batteires, as revealed by the structural and electrochemical characterizations from first-principles calculations and experiments. The cyclability of Na7V3(P2O7)4 is respectably stable (75% retention after 600 cycles), which is attributed to the low volume change (1%) during cycling.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Hard Carbon Anodes and Novel Electrolytes for Long-Cycle-Life Room Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Full Cell Batteries

      M. Kohl, F. Borrmann, H. Althues and S. Kaskel

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502185

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      A unique combination of the presodiation of hard carbon anodes, in a tailored NaPF6, diethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, and fluoroethylene carbonate containing an electrolyte, and the use of an Na2S/P2S5 doped tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether electrolyte in subsequent full cells, leads to stable sodium-sulfur batteries operable at room temperature with discharge capacities up to 980 mAh g−1sulfur and 1000 reversible cycles.

  24. Communications

    1. High-Density Monolith of N-Doped Holey Graphene for Ultrahigh Volumetric Capacity of Li-Ion Batteries

      Xiaopeng Wang, Lingxiao Lv, Zhihua Cheng, Jian Gao, Liye Dong, Chuangang Hu and Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502100

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      A convenient and scalable strategy to prepare N-doped holey-graphene monolith (NHGM) electrodes with high volumetric capacity for lithium-ion batteries is shown. The holey-graphene sheets are an excellent material featuring a high Li-ion storage, unimpeded ion channels, and high volumetric capacity. NHGM possesses the advantageous features of a high packing density, efficient ion channels, and favorable mass transport, resulting in a high volumetric capacity, high rate capability, and excellent stability as anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    2. Polymer Stabilization of Lead(II) Perovskite Cubic Nanocrystals for Semitransparent Solar Cells

      Yunlong Guo, Kazutaka Shoyama, Wataru Sato and Eiichi Nakamura

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502317

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      Lead (II) perovskite (PV, e.g., CH3NH3PbI3–xClx) with 3 wt% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) produces an ≈90 nm film containing a PVP–PV composite consisting of ≈15-nm-sized PV nanocrystals. Solar cells using 3 wt% PVP–PV have several advantages over a device using nondoped PV, which include an increase in transparency, stability of the film, efficiency, and reproducibility.

    3. High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enabled by Environment-Friendly Single-Solvent Processing

      Hao Zhang, Huifeng Yao, Wenchao Zhao, Long Ye and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502177

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      Green-single-solvent-prepared polymer solar cells (PSCs) with efficiency of 9.7% based on PBDT-TS1:PC71BM are realized without resorting to any additives or further treatments. An environment-friendly solvent 2-methylanisole is proposed to fabricate PSCs for the first time. It reveals the possibility of replacing binary systems with a single solvent to fabricate highly efficient PSCs.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Is Excess PbI2 Beneficial for Perovskite Solar Cell Performance?

      Fangzhou Liu, Qi Dong, Man Kwong Wong, Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Annie Ng, Zhiwei Ren, Qian Shen, Charles Surya, Wai Kin Chan, Jian Wang, Alan Man Ching Ng, Changzhong Liao, Hangkong Li, Kaimin Shih, Chengrong Wei, Huimin Su and Junfeng Dai

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502206

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      PbI2 residue-containing perovskite films are intrinsically unstable under illumination. While the excess PbI2 improves the cell efficiency due to improved perovskite layer morphology, optimization of the deposition leads to lead iodide-free films with improved photostability and high efficiency. However, compared to photodegradation, other processes are more important in device degradation.

    2. Origin of the S-Shaped JV Curve and the Light-Soaking Issue in Inverted Organic Solar Cells

      Anton Sundqvist, Oskar J. Sandberg, Mathias Nyman, Jan-Henrik Smått and Ronald Österbacka

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502265

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      Using in-device characterization methods and drift-diffusion simulations, the origin of the s-shaped JV curve and the light-soaking issue in inverted solar cells employing TiO2 as an electron-selective layer are clarified. The s-shape is a result of the energetics at the selective contact in the pristine device; the effect of UV exposure is to decrease the work function of the ITO/TiO2-contact.

    3. Atomic-Scale Observation of Oxygen Substitution and Its Correlation with Hole-Transport Barriers in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Jin Hyun Kim, Si-Young Choi, Minseok Choi, Talia Gershon, Yun Seog Lee, Wei Wang, Byungha Shin and Sung-Yoon Chung

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501902

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      Using transmission electron microscopy, the presence of nanoscale layers is directly demonstrated in which oxygen is substantially substituted for Se, near grain boundaries in polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 films. Ab initio density functional theory calculations show that oxygen substitution remarkably lowers the valence band maximum and subsequently widens the overall bandgap, making a major contribution to the formation of a robust barrier blocking the holes.

    4. Solvent-Mediated Dimension Tuning of Semiconducting Oxide Nanostructures as Efficient Charge Extraction Thin Films for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 16%

      Wu-Qiang Wu, Fuzhi Huang, Dehong Chen, Yi-Bing Cheng and Rachel A. Caruso

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502027

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      Various anatase nanostructured TiO2 thin films on transparent conducting oxide substrates are fabricated via a solvent-mediated solvothermal approach for application in lead iodide perovskite solar cells. A high efficiency exceeding 16% is achieved by carefully tuning the morphology, dimension, and optical properties of the oxide nanostructure, as well as optimizing interfacial charge ­extraction from the perovskite absorber to the oxide nanostructures.

  26. Communications

    1. Elastomeric and Dynamic MnO2/CNT Core–Shell Structure Coiled Yarn Supercapacitor

      Changsoon Choi, Hyeon Jun Sim, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Xavier Lepró, Ray H. Baughman and Seon Jeong Kim

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502119

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      Reversibly deformable and highly performing solid-state yarn supercapacitors are obtained using MnO2-deposited microcoiled yarn electrodes. The core(CNT)–shell(MnO2)-structured coiled electrodes achieve high stretchability (37.5%) without the help of elastomeric substrates, minimizing the size of the supercapacitors. Therefore, high specific capacitances of 34.6 F cm−3, 61.25 mF cm−2, and 2.72 mF cm−1 are achieved for coiled supercapacitors without impairing mechanical stretchability or electrochemical cyclability.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Local Intermolecular Order Controls Photoinduced Charge Separation at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Semiconductors

      Hilary M. Feier, Obadiah G. Reid, Natalie A. Pace, Jaehong Park, Jesse J. Bergkamp, Alan Sellinger, Devens Gust and Garry Rumbles

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502176

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      The presence of aggregate/ordered phases in P3HT/PCBM samples controls the branching between bound geminate pairs and free charge. Both polymer crystallites and fullerene aggregates can facilitate free charge generation.

  28. Communications

    1. A Hierarchical N/S-Codoped Carbon Anode Fabricated Facilely from Cellulose/Polyaniline Microspheres for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Dingfeng Xu, Chaoji Chen, Jia Xie, Bao Zhang, Ling Miao, Jie Cai, Yunhui Huang and Lina Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501929

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      Hierarchical N/S-codoped carbon microspheres with expanded interlayer distance and enhanced conductivity are fabricated facilely from cellulose/polyaniline composite in a “green” and low-cost route. This material achieves a high reversible capacity of ≈280 mA h g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and superior rate performance of ≈130 mA h g−1 at 10 A g−1, and ultralong cycle life of more than 3000 cycles as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, holding great promise for economic large-scale energy storage.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Amorphous Cobalt Boride (Co2B) as a Highly Efficient Nonprecious Catalyst for Electrochemical Water Splitting: Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution

      Justus Masa, Philipp Weide, Daniel Peeters, Ilya Sinev, Wei Xia, Zhenyu Sun, Christoph Somsen, Martin Muhler and Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502313

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      Cobalt boride (Co2B) is presented as a highly efficient water splitting nonprecious catalyst for oxygen and hydrogen evolution in alkaline electrolytes. The catalyst achieves a current density of 10 mA cm−2 at as low as 1.61 VRHE and is among the best reported for cobalt-based catalysts. Stable performance was maintained for at least 60 h during electrolysis at 10 mA cm−2.

    2. Defects, Entropy, and the Stabilization of Alternative Phase Boundary Orientations in Battery Electrode Particles

      Tae Wook Heo, Ming Tang, Long-Qing Chen and Brandon C. Wood

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501759

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      The thermodynamic and kinetic stabilization of defect-containing phase boundary orientations in energy storage materials is theoretically investigated using a statistical approach. Application to LiXFePO4 produces a probability landscape of preferred Li-rich/Li-lean phase boundary orientations, which reveals two new configurational entropic factors associated with the defective interface. The importance of these entropic factors in the stabilization under actual operating conditions is identified by comparison with available experimental observations.

    3. Bi-Functional Iron-Only Electrodes for Efficient Water Splitting with Enhanced Stability through In Situ Electrochemical Regeneration

      Benjamin C. M. Martindale and Erwin Reisner

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502095

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      Bi-functional iron-only electrodes are capable of both water reduction and oxidation in aqueous alkaline solution, allowing full water splitting using ultra-low cost electrodes with activity greater than similar cobalt and nickel materials. In situ electrochemical regeneration of the catalysts occurs under conditions of potential reversal, significantly extending the stability of electrodes widely associated with corrosion.

    4. A Water-Proof Triboelectric–Electromagnetic Hybrid Generator for Energy Harvesting in Harsh Environments

      Hengyu Guo, Zhen Wen, Yunlong Zi, Min-Hsin Yeh, Jie Wang, Liping Zhu, Chenguo Hu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501593

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      A waterproof triboelectric–electromagnetic hybrid generator, which consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator, is demonstrated for harvesting mechanical energy in harsh environments. The characteristics of the outputs from both generators in the hybrid mode are systematically studied. Solid progress in both TENG packaging and the applications of the hybrid generator is presented.

  30. Communications

    1. Free-Standing Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Films: Integrated Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Ultralong Cycle Life and Superior Rate Capability

      Suqing Wang, Lu Xia, Le Yu, Lei Zhang, Haihui Wang and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502217

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      The fabrication of large-area free-standing porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber films is reported. The flexible film exhibits a high rate capability and ultralong cycle life used for sodium-ion batteries, due to the presence of abundant pores, high nitrogen-doping level, interconnected conductive network, and excellent structural stability of the electrode.

    2. Low-Cost Higher Loading of a Sulfur Cathode

      Weidong Zhou, Bingkun Guo, Hongcai Gao and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502059

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      To increase the sulfur content/loading, trap the soluble Li2Sx intermediates, and improve the cycling stability of Li/S batteries, 3D-interlaced, nitrogen-doped, micro/mesoporous carbon-fiber free standing membranes are developed. Extendable multilayers' stacking of the carbon fibers not only allows a greater sulfur content/loading on the cathode, but also helps to better mitigate the diffusion of polysulfide.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels for Heat Release Applications

      David Zhitomirsky, Eugene Cho and Jeffrey C. Grossman

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502006

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      Polymer-based solar thermal fuels are investigated for their heat release properties in the solid-state. These materials exhibit excellent film forming properties and readily charge and discharge in the solid-state. These materials exhibit energy storage densities of 30 Wh kg−1, storage half-lives of over 50 h, cycling stability of over 100 cycles, with potential application stability into the 200 °C range.

  32. Communications

    1. Hybrid 2D–0D Graphene–VN Quantum Dots for Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage

      Lan Wang, Jiaguang Sun, Ranran Song, Shubin Yang and Huaihe Song

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502067

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      An efficient bottom-up approach is demonstrated toward hybrid 2D–0D graphene–vanadium nitride (VN) quantum dots with homogeneous dispersion of VN onto graphene, multiporous structure, and continuous graphene backbone. Such unique structures efficiently prevent the aggregation of VN and accommodate their volume changes, and also facilitate the fast diffusion of lithium and electron, rendering a significant improvement in electrochemical activities for lithium and sodium storage.

    2. Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Highly Efficient Polymer Donors with Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency

      Tao Liu, Lijun Huo, Xiaobo Sun, Bingbing Fan, Yunhao Cai, Taehyo Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hyosung Choi and Yanming Sun

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502109

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      Ternary structures are demonstrated as a promising approach to increase the efficiency and light harvesting of solar cells. A high power conversion efficiency of 10.2% is achieved for ternary organic solar cells with two efficient polymer donors. The improved performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of enhanced light absorption and charge transport, efficient energy transfer, improved charge generation and morphology.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Sulfidation of NiMn-Layered Double Hydroxides/Graphene Oxide Composites toward Supercapacitor Electrodes with Enhanced Performance

      Jingwei Chen, Xu Wang, Jiangxin Wang and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501745

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      Sulfidation of NiMn-layered double hydroxides can be achieved by a simple hydrothermal process. The microflower-like sulfidated NiMn LDH can realize notably enhanced specific capacitances under various current densities due to the reduced charge transfer resistance. Additional GO can be simultaneously reduced during the sulfidation process, leading to enhanced cycling stability.

  34. Communications

    1. Long-Life, High-Voltage Acidic Zn–Air Batteries

      Longjun Li and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502054

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      An acidic Zn–air battery (AZAB) is developed as a next-generation rechargeable metal–air battery. The use of a solid electrolyte enables alkaline Zn/Zn(OH)42− redox at the anode side and acidic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the cathode side. The developed AZAB solves the persistent problems facing conventional Zn–air batteries, such as CO2 ingression, dendrite penetration, zincate loss, and low cell voltage.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Real-Time Investigation of Intercalation and Structure Evolution in Printed Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Thin Films

      Thaer Kassar, Nusret S. Güldal, Marvin Berlinghof, Tayebeh Ameri, Andreas Kratzer, Bob C. Schroeder, Giovanni Li Destri, Andreas Hirsch, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch, Christoph J. Brabec and Tobias Unruh

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502025

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      Real-time grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements using a fully automated sample cell show that bimolecular crystals in printed thin films keep their volume upon drying due to the intercalation of fullerene molecules between side chains of the polymer even when finalizing the drying in vacuum. Intercalation speeds up the drying process resulting in stable morphologies in less than 1 min.

    2. Tuning Transition Metal Oxide–Sulfur Interactions for Long Life Lithium Sulfur Batteries: The “Goldilocks” Principle

      Xiao Liang, Chun Yuen Kwok, Fernanda Lodi-Marzano, Quanquan Pang, Marine Cuisinier, He Huang, Connor J. Hart, Diane Houtarde, Kavish Kaup, Heino Sommer, Torsten Brezesinski, Jürgen Janek and Linda F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501636

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      The Li-S battery is a compelling energy storage system but capacity fade from the polysulfide shuttle is problematic. Proof of concept, and the critical metrics to entrap polysulfides via their redox reaction with a positive electrode host to form surface-bound polythionate mediator species, are demonstrated. Positive electrodes within the “right” redox window are directly correlated to superior Li-S cell performance.

    3. MoS2 Nanosheets Vertically Aligned on Carbon Paper: A Freestanding Electrode for Highly Reversible Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Xiuqiang Xie, Taron Makaryan, Mengqiang Zhao, Katherine L. Van Aken, Yury Gogotsi and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502161

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      MoS2 nanosheets vertically aligned on paper towel derived carbon paper are fabricated as freestanding electrode for sodium-ion batteries. Benefiting from the 3D hierarchical structure, the as-prepared electrodes exhibited high initial Coulombic efficiency, high reversible capacity, high-rate charging, and a long cycle life. In situ Raman electrospectroscopy is employed to investigate the sodiation/desodiation process.

    4. Improving Film Formation and Photovoltage of Highly Efficient Inverted-Type Perovskite Solar Cells through the Incorporation of New Polymeric Hole Selective Layers

      Qifan Xue, Guiting Chen, Meiyue Liu, Jingyang Xiao, Ziming Chen, Zhicheng Hu, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Bin Zhang, Fei Huang, Wei Yang, Hin-Lap Yip and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502021

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      The perovskite photovoltaic voltage output can be modulated by incorporating two new alcohol-soluble polymeric hole selective layers (HSLs). The deep highest occupied molecular orbital level and high lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of HSLs can effectively increase open-circut voltage and reduce charge recombination loss, resulting in high performance perovskite solar cells with improved power conversion efficiencies.

  36. Reviews

    1. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanostructured Photocatalysts for Renewable Energy Production

      Yufei Zhao, Xiaodan Jia, Geoffrey I.N. Waterhouse, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung, Dermot O'Hare and Tierui Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501974

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      Nanostructured layered double hydroxide (LDH) photocatalysts, owing to their unique layered structure, compositional flexibility, low cost and ease-of-synthesis represent one of the hottest new research directions in semiconductor photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Structure-activity relationships in nanostructured LDH compounds are explored, and the importance of using advanced characterization techniques in the future development of more efficient LDH-based photocatalysts is emphasized.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Breaking Down the Crystallinity: The Path for Advanced Lithium Batteries

      Chenxi Zu, Andrei Dolocan, Penghao Xiao, Shannon Stauffer, Graeme Henkelman and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501933

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      The crystallinity of impurities formed on lithium-metal anodes via chemical reactions with the electrolyte is identified to be the dominating degradation factor of lithium-metal anode in lithium-sulfur batteries. The degradation can be suppressed with tailored electrolytes containing metal ions of lower reactivity with sulfur than lithium, which inhibit the passivation layer long-range crystallinity and growth.

  38. Communications

    1. Hole-Conductor-Free Fully Printable Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Mixed-Anion Perovskite CH3NH3PbI(3−x)(BF4)x

      Jiangzhao Chen, Yaoguang Rong, Anyi Mei, Yuli Xiong, Tongfa Liu, Yusong Sheng, Pei Jiang, Li Hong, Yanjun Guan, Xiaotong Zhu, Xiaomeng Hou, Miao Duan, Jianquan Zhao, Xiong Li and Hongwei Han

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502009

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      Mixed-anion perovskite CH3NH3PbI(3x)(BF4)x has been developed and optimized to enable a highly efficient hole-conductor-free fully printable mesoscopic solar cell. The employment of BF4 in hybrid organic–inorganic halide perovskite significantly improves its optical and electric properties, such as light harvesting ability, carrier concentration, and conductivity, leading to an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 13.24%.

  39. Full Papers

    1. Green-Solvent-Processed All-Polymer Solar Cells Containing a Perylene Diimide-Based Acceptor with an Efficiency over 6.5%

      Sunsun Li, Hao Zhang, Wenchao Zhao, Long Ye, Huifeng Yao, Bei Yang, Shaoqing Zhang and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501991

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      By introducing a perylene diimide (PDI)-based polymer acceptor PPDIODT with excellent solubility in anisole, a high efficiency of 6.58% is recorded for a green-solvent-processed all-polymer solar cell (All-PSC). Hence, the combination of the rational molecular design of the acceptor material, the elaborate selection of the donor material, and the optimization of the device configuration results in an efficiency breakthrough in PDI-based All-PSCs.

    2. A New Strategy for Achieving a High Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries—Encapsulating Germanium Nanoparticles in Carbon Nanoboxes

      Dan Li, Hongqiang Wang, Hua Kun Liu and Zaiping Guo

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501666

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      A novel strategy for achieving a high performance germanium anode material is proposed via encapsulating germanium nanoparticles in carbon nanoboxes. The robust and densely stacked carbon nanoboxes are demonstrated to buffer the volume change and ensure a high tap density and enhanced electronic conductivity for the germanium anode. Improved electrochemical performance is achieved, owing to the unique structure.

  40. Reviews

    1. Routes to High Energy Cathodes of Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Chun Fang, Yunhui Huang, Wuxing Zhang, Jiantao Han, Zhe Deng, Yuliang Cao and Hanxi Yang

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501727

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      Recent developments in cathode materials with a high energy density (> 450 Wh kg−1) for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are reviewed and their Na-storage mechanisms discussed. Some possible strategies for building advanced cathode materials are also proposed.

  41. Communications

    1. Graphene-Supported Nitrogen and Boron Rich Carbon Layer for Improved Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries Due to Enhanced Chemisorption of Lithium Polysulfides

      Shouyi Yuan, Junwei Lucas Bao, Lina Wang, Yongyao Xia, Donald G. Truhlar and Yonggang Wang

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501733

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A strategy is presented to chemically bind sulfur and its discharge products with a graphene-supported N/B-rich carbon layer with various N sites and a unique N = B/N-B site in the surface carbon frameworks, prepared by polymerizing and carbonizing ionic liquids ([Emim]BF4) onto the graphene.

  42. Full Papers

    1. Robust Thin Films-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator Arrays for Harvesting Bidirectional Wind Energy

      Zuci Quan, Chang Bao Han, Tao Jiang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501799

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      Double-side-fixed triboelectric nanogenerator (DTENG) arrays, compared to single-side-fixed triboelectric nanogenerator arrays for harvesting single-pathway wind energy, are developed to harvest bidirectional wind energy. Short-circuit current, durability, and stability of the optimized DTENG can be dramatically improved by a 4 × 1 array connected in parallel because of the improved device configuration, stickiness, and abrasion by adhering Ti buffer layers.

    2. Multicolor Electroluminescence from Intermediate Band Solar Cell Structures

      Nair López, Kin Man Yu, Tooru Tanaka and Wladyslaw Walukiewicz

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501820

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      Two-color electroluminescence associated with transitions from and to the intermediate band is observed in GaNAs based intermediate band solar cell structures. These results provide the first direct evidence for the optical coupling required for the cell operation and offer the potential of using similar structures for multicolor light emitting devices operating under forward and reverse bias conditions.

  43. Communications

    1. Enhancing the Kinetics of Li-Rich Cathode Materials through the Pinning Effects of Gradient Surface Na+ Doping

      Ren-Peng Qing, Ji-Lei Shi, Dong-Dong Xiao, Xu-Dong Zhang, Ya-Xia Yin, Yun-Bo Zhai, Lin Gu and Yu-Guo Guo

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501914

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      Gradient surface Na-ion doping is realized and demonstrated as an effective strategy to enhance the kinetics of Li-rich cathode materials. Owing to the pinning effect of Na-doping in the Li layer, the resultant Li-rich particles exhibit superior electrochemical performances in terms of specific capacity, Coulombic efficiency, and cycling stability.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Facile Synthesis of a 3D Nanoarchitectured Li4Ti5O12 Electrode for Ultrafast Energy Storage

      Bote Zhao, Xiang Deng, Ran Ran, Meilin Liu and Zongping Shao

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500924

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      A novel electrode architecture is designed and realized by in situ tailoring of Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystals into a 3D current collector (derived from filter paper) through a facile route. The electrode can be charged/discharged in 21 s (100 C) to ≈60% of its theoretical capacity and deliver an excellent cycling stability at 50 C.

    2. Influence of Meso and Nanoscale Structure on the Properties of Highly Efficient Small Molecule Solar Cells

      Tobias Moench, Pascal Friederich, Felix Holzmueller, Bogdan Rutkowski, Johannes Benduhn, Timo Strunk, Christian Koerner, Koen Vandewal, Aleksandra Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Wolfgang Wenzel and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501280

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      The morphology of highly efficient organic solar cells is analyzed with various experimental and theoretical methods. Depositing the absorber layer at selected substrate temperatures (room temperature, 80 °C, and 140 °C) leads to substantial demixing of the absorber layer, increased domain purity, and decreased donor–acceptor interface area.

    3. Loss Mechanisms in High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

      R. C. I. MacKenzie, V. S. Balderrama, S. Schmeisser, R. Stoof, S. Greedy, J. Pallarès, L. F. Marsal, A. Chanaewa and E. von Hauff

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501742

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      Air stable PTB7:PC70BM solar cells with efficiencies of 8% are demonstrated. The device employs a V2O5 anodic transport layer. Impedance spectroscopy is applied to confirm that the device contact interfaces in this architecture are stable under ambient conditions. Intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy is used to model the optoelectronic response of solar cell active layer as a function of aging.

    4. (040)-Crystal Facet Engineering of BiVO4 Plate Photoanodes for Solar Fuel Production

      Chang Woo Kim, Young Seok Son, Myung Jong Kang, Do Yoon Kim and Young Soo Kang

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501754

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      A facile strategy for improving solar fuel production of BiVO4 photoanodes is investigated. A (040)-crystal facet engineered BiVO4 is hydrothermally synthesized with a structure directing agent and seed layer approach. Its photocurrent density is determined to be 0.94 mA cm−2 under 1-sun and produces 42.1% of the absorbed photon-to-current conversion efficiency at 1.23 V (vs RHE, reversible hydrogen electrode). The photoelectrochemical hydrogen production can reach 0.2 mmol in 10 h.

    5. Optimized Temperature Effect of Li-Ion Diffusion with Layer Distance in Li(Ni xMnyCoz)O2 Cathode Materials for High Performance Li-Ion Battery

      Suihan Cui, Yi Wei, Tongchao Liu, Wenjun Deng, Zongxiang Hu, Yantao Su, Hao Li, Maofan Li, Hua Guo, Yandong Duan, Weidong Wang, Mumin Rao, Jiaxin Zheng, Xinwei Wang and Feng Pan

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501309

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The temperature effect for kinetics of Li-ion diffusion in Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 materials is investigated systematically. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of Li(Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2)O2 is the largest with the minimum temperature effect. Ab initio calculations and experimental measurements indicate that the larger Li slab space benefits to Li-ion diffusion with the minimum temperature effect in layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 materials.

    6. Engineering Cobalt Phosphide (CoP) Thin Film Catalysts for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Activity on Silicon Photocathodes

      Thomas R. Hellstern, Jesse D. Benck, Jakob Kibsgaard, Christopher Hahn and Thomas F. Jaramillo

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501758

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly active thin films of cobalt phosphide (CoP) are synthesized on silicon to create efficient nonprecious metal photocathodes. These low light absorbing CoP electrocatalysts are ideal for catalytic and protecting layers in photoelectrochemical water splitting devices. The CoP/silicon photoelectrodes exhibit excellent activity and durability and represent continued progress toward cost effective, sustainable solar water splitting.

    7. Amino-Functionalized Conjugated Polymer as an Efficient Electron Transport Layer for High-Performance Planar-Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

      Chen Sun, Zhihong Wu, Hin-Lap Yip, Hua Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Qifan Xue, Zhicheng Hu, Zhanhao Hu, Yan Shen, Mingkui Wang, Fei Huang and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501534

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fullerene electron transport layer is replaced by a thickness-insensitive ­conjugated polymer in p–i–n planar hetero­junction perovskite solar cells. The amines of polymer side chains can both passivate the surface traps of perovskite and reduce the work function of the metal cathode. With these dual functionalities, the resulting solar cells show 16.7% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which outperforms those based on fullerene interlayer.

  45. Reviews

    1. Integration: An Effective Strategy to Develop Multifunctional Energy Storage Devices

      Shaowu Pan, Jing Ren, Xin Fang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501867

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      Recent progress in integrating a variety of functions into electrochemical energy storage devices is carefully described with an emphasis on the design of materials and structures. The main challenges and important directions are also summarized to offer some useful clues for the future development.

  46. Full Papers

    1. Extraordinary Performance of Carbon-Coated Anatase TiO2 as Sodium-Ion Anode

      Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Bernd Oschmann, Daniel Buchholz, Xinwei Dou, Ingo Lieberwirth, Martin Panthöfer, Wolfgang Tremel, Rudolf Zentel and Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The extraordinary electrochemical performance of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles, obtained via in situ polymer functionalization, is reported. The enhanced performance as Na-ion anode can be ascribed to the synergetic effect of the small particle size (≈11 nm) and homogeneous carbon coating as confirmed via comparison with uncoated particles of comparable size (≈15 nm), and larger (≈40 nm) particles with carbon coating.

  47. Communications

    1. Tailoring Unique Mesopores of Hierarchically Porous Structures for Fast Direct Electrochemistry in Microbial Fuel Cells

      Long Zou, Yan Qiao, Zhen-Yu Wu, Xiao-Shuai Wu, Jia-Le Xie, Shu-Hong Yu, Jinhong Guo and Chang Ming Li

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501535

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      A highly biocompatible hierarchically porous structure comprising macro-, meso- or micropores from cost-effective bacterial cellulose through a facile carbonization approach is tailored for its nanopore structure to disclose the mechanism in a porous electrode to enhance direct electrochemistry through endogenous mediator-based electron transfer between microbes and electrode. The unique mediator-accessible mesopore structure is necessary to greatly boost anode bioelectrocatalysis.

  48. Full Papers

    1. Highly Stable Transparent Conductive Silver Grid/PEDOT:PSS Electrodes for Integrated Bifunctional Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors

      Guofa Cai, Peter Darmawan, Mengqi Cui, Jiangxin Wang, Jingwei Chen, Shlomo Magdassi and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501882

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By coating a layer of PEDOT:PSS on a silver grid film, a highly stable transparent and conductive hybrid film has been successfully fabricated by a facile and low-cost method. It presents an excellent electrochemical cycling stability, a remarkable mechanical flexibility, and an outstanding electrochromic and energy-storage performance when used as flexible electrochromic supercapacitor electrodes.

  49. Communications

    1. Dual Planar-Helix Type Energy Storage Wires to Circumvent Universal Energy Lag Effect

      Inho Nam, Jongseok Park, Soomin Park, Seongjun Bae, Young Geun Yoo and Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501812

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There has been an unsolvable bottleneck in energy storage wires, a greatly diminished energy even when the most advanced materials are used. Here, the bottleneck is proved using analytical derivation, which is referred as an “energy lag effect.” To solve the effect, new-type energy storage wires are designed, including a dual planar-helix structure. The systems do not show any energy lagging, experimentally or analytically.

    2. Beneficial Effects of PbI2 Incorporated in Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Young Chan Kim, Nam Joong Jeon, Jun Hong Noh, Woon Seok Yang, Jangwon Seo, Jae S. Yun, Anita Ho-Baillie, Shujuan Huang, Martin A. Green, Jan Seidel, Tae Kyu Ahn and Sang Il Seok

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502104

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Beneficial effects are demonstrated by PbI2 incorporated into perovskite materials as a light absorber in solar cells. The PbI2 distributed into the perovskite layers leads to reduced hysteresis and ionic migration, and enables the fabrication of remarkably improved solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 19.75% under air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination of 100 mW cm−2 intensity.

  50. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing Low-Bias Performance of Hematite Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting by Simultaneous Reduction of Bulk, Interface, and Surface Recombination Pathways

      In Sun Cho, Hyun Soo Han, Manca Logar, Joonsuk Park and Xiaolin Zheng

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501840

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For a hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanode, multiple electron/hole recombination pathways occurring in the bulk, interfaces, and surfaces largely limit its low-bias performance for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. A facile and rapid three-step approach is reported to simultaneously reduce these recombinations for hematite nanorods array photoanodes, leading to a greatly reduced onset potential down to 0.64 VRHE for PEC water oxidation.

    2. Controlling the Active Sites of Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nanotube–Graphene Nanolobes for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Catalysis

      Abdelhamid M. El-Sawy, Islam M. Mosa, Dong Su, Curtis J. Guild, Syed Khalid, Raymond Joesten, James F. Rusling and Steven L. Suib

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501966

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A sequential two-step strategy to dope sulfur into carbon nanotube–graphene nanolobes is developed. Advanced characterization techniques confirm that increasing the incorporation of heterocyclic sulfur into the carbon ring of CNTs not only enhances OER activity at an overpotential of 350 mV but also retains 100% of stability for 75 h.

    3. Understanding Open-Circuit Voltage Loss through the Density of States in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Samuel D. Collins, Christopher M. Proctor, Niva A. Ran and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501721

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic devices is well below the thermodynamic limit due to high rates of bimolecular recombination and energetic disorder. Here, the effect of disorder on voltage loss in molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is carefully determined from a range of in situ energetic measurements.

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