Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editors: Carolina Novo da Silva, Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 16.146

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 3/89 (Energy & Fuels); 4/139 (Chemistry Physical); 4/144 (Physics Applied); 4/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 5/260 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Materials Technologies, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  1. Full Papers

    1. CoNi2S4-Graphene-2D-MoSe2 as an Advanced Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

      Jianfeng Shen, Jingjie Wu, Liyuan Pei, Marco-Tulio F. Rodrigues, ZhuQing Zhang, Fangfang Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Pulickel M. Ajayan and Mingxin Ye

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600341

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      A 3D CoNi2S4-graphene-MoSe2 nanocomposite is designed and prepared using a facile ultrasonication and hydrothermal method. Because of the novel nanocomposite structures and resultant maximized synergistic effect among ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets, highly conductive graphene and CoNi2S4 nanoparticles, the electrode exhibits rapid electron and ion transport rate and large electroactive surface area, resulting in its amazing electrochemical properties.

  2. Communications

    1. Constructive Effects of Alkyl Chains: A Strategy to Design Simple and Non-Spiro Hole Transporting Materials for High-Efficiency Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells

      Jinbao Zhang, Bo Xu, Malin B. Johansson, Mahboubeh Hadadian, Juan Pablo Correa Baena, Peng Liu, Yong Hua, Nick Vlachopoulos, Erik M. J. Johansson, Gerrit Boschloo, Licheng Sun and Anders Hagfeldt

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502536

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      A series of simple alkylated triphenylamine molecules are designed and synthesized as hole transporting materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. The effects of the alkyl chains on the photovoltaic performance are for the first time systematically investigated. A high efficiency of 17.33% is achieved by combining HTM X21 and the mixed-ion perovskites.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale

      Sadok Ben Dkhil, Martin Pfannmöller, Sara Bals, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Noriyuki Yoshimoto, Driss Hannani, Meriem Gaceur, Christine Videlot-Ackermann, Olivier Margeat and Jörg Ackermann

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600290

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      Increasing solar cells based on benzo-dithiophene-based polymers (PTB7 and PTB7-Th) to square-centimeter size leads to performance losses that are not caused by the area enlargement of the photoactive and interlayer, respectively, but are only related to the sheet resistance of the transparent electrode based on indium tin oxide. Air processing generates an additional but small loss in efficiency (<10%) due to changes of the electronic properties of each layer.

    2. Integrated Intercalation-Based and Interfacial Sodium Storage in Graphene-Wrapped Porous Li4Ti5O12 Nanofibers Composite Aerogel

      Chaoji Chen, Henghui Xu, Tengfei Zhou, Zaiping Guo, Lineng Chen, Mengyu Yan, Liqiang Mai, Pei Hu, Shijie Cheng, Yunhui Huang and Jia Xie

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600322

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      Integrated structure designs allowing for intercalation-based and interfacial Na storage contribute to an excess capacity of 195 mA h g−1 at 0.2 C and an excellent durability of up to 12 000 cycles, positioning the graphene-porous Li4Ti5O12 composite aerogel as a promising anode for high-performance sodium-ion batteries.

    3. Low-Overpotential Electrocatalytic Water Splitting with Noble-Metal-Free Nanoparticles Supported in a sp3 N-Rich Flexible COF

      Dinesh Mullangi, Vishal Dhavale, Sorout Shalini, Shyamapada Nandi, Sean Collins, Tom Woo, Sreekumar Kurungot and Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600110

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      A highly flexible sp3 N-rich covalent organic framework (COF) as support for M/M(OH)2 (M = Ni/Co) nanoparticles to form electrocatalysts for water splitting with exceptionally low overpotentials (258 mV @ 10 mA cm−2) and favorable electrode–electrolyte kinetics (Tafel slope = 38.9 mV dec−1) is developed. The synergistic interactions between sp3 nitrogens of the COF and the nanoparticle are evident from density-functional-theory modeling.

    4. Design Principles for Optimum Performance of Porous Carbons in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Ritu Sahore, Barnaby D. A. Levin, Mian Pan, David A. Muller, Francis J. DiSalvo and Emmanuel P. Giannelis

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600134

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      Porosity characteristics of porous carbons toward their performance as sulfur hosts in Li–S battery cathodes are systematically investigated at a high sulfur loading of ≈80 wt%. A series of hierarchical porous carbons with highly controlled porosity is employed as a model system. Additionally, cryo-TEM is used for the first time to directly observe the sulfur distribution in the composite particles.

  4. Communications

    1. Lithium Sulfide/Metal Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Cathode Prelithiation Material

      Yongming Sun, Hyun-Wook Lee, Zhi Wei Seh, Guangyuan Zheng, Jie Sun, Yanbin Li and Yi Cui

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600154

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      Li2S/metal nanocomposites are synthesized via chemical conversion reactions, and their properties as cathode prelithiation additives have been investigated to offset the initial lithium loss in lithium-ion batteries. The Li2S/Co nanocomposite shows good stability, and delivers a high “donor” lithium-ion specific capacity of 670 mAh g−1 in the cutoff potential range of existing cathode materials in a carbonate-based electrolyte.

    2. Uniform Hierarchical Fe3O4@Polypyrrole Nanocages for Superior Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

      Jun Liu, Xijun Xu, Renzong Hu, Lichun Yang and Min Zhu

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600256

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      Hierarchical Fe3O4@polypyrrole nanocages constructed with thin nanosheets are synthesized via a reduction and in situ polymerization route. They exhibit a stable cycling performance (650 mA h g−1 capacity at 2000 mA g−1 after 500 cycles) and superior rate capability (reversible capabilities of 1120, 950, 796, 657, and 490 mA h g−1 at 100, 300, 1000, 2500, and 5000 mA g−1, respectively).

    3. A Stabilized, Intrinsically Safe, 10% Efficient, Solar-Driven Water-Splitting Cell Incorporating Earth-Abundant Electrocatalysts with Steady-State pH Gradients and Product Separation Enabled by a Bipolar Membrane

      Ke Sun, Rui Liu, Yikai Chen, Erik Verlage, Nathan S. Lewis and Chengxiang Xiang

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600379

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      An efficient, stable, and intrinsically safe solar water-splitting device is demonstrated using a III–V tandem junction photoanode, an acid-stable, earth-abundant hydrogen evolution catalyst, and a bipolar membrane. The integrated photoelectrochemical cell operates under a steady-state pH gradient and achieves ≈10% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, >100 h of stability in a large (>1 cm2) photoactive area in relation to most previous reports.

  5. Progress Reports

    1. Recent Advances in Breaking Scaling Relations for Effective Electrochemical Conversion of CO2

      Yawei Li and Qiang Sun

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600463

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      The origin of the scaling relations, their negative effects on CO2 electrocatalysis, and the strategies for breaking their limitations to reduce the overpotential, improve the catalytic activity and suppress the side reaction, are discussed.

    2. Layer-by-Layer Processed Organic Solar Cells

      Yifan Wang and Xiaowei Zhan

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600414

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      Layer-by-layer (LL) processing techniques exhibit some advantages over the traditional blend-casting technique in organic solar cells. The recent developments of LL vacuum-deposited and solution-processed solar cells are summarized.

  6. Reviews

    1. 3D Self-Supporting Porous Magnetic Assemblies for Water Remediation and Beyond

      Ran Du, Qiuchen Zhao, Zhe Zheng, Wenping Hu and Jin Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600473

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      Three-dimensional self-supporting porous magnetic assemblies (3D-SPMAs) have emerged as a new class of macroscopic assemblies. Embracing features of 3D cellular materials and magnetic materials, they display great potential for versatile applications. Synthetic strategies and applications, especially in water remediation of 3D-SPMAs, are comprehensively reviewed; both challenges and opportunities in this realm are unraveled.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Compatibility of PTB7 and [70]PCBM as a Key Factor for the Stability of PTB7:[70]PCBM Solar Cells

      Davide Bartesaghi, Gang Ye, Ryan C. Chiechi and L. Jan Anton Koster

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502338

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      The effect of UV light on the charge transport in PTB7:[70]PCBM solar cells is investigated; while the hole transport is stable, a deterioration in the transport of electrons is found, related to the increased electron trapping. It is proven that efficiency losses of PTB7:[70]PCBM solar cells upon UV exposure are due to a reaction that involves both the donor and the acceptor.

    2. A Novel Aluminum-Ion Battery: Al/AlCl3-[EMIm]Cl/Ni3S2@Graphene

      Shuai Wang, Zhijing Yu, Jiguo Tu, Junxiang Wang, Donghua Tian, Yingjun Liu and Shuqiang Jiao

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600137

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      A novel rechargeable aluminium-ion battery based on Al3+ intercalation and deintercalation is fabricated with Ni3S2/graphene micro-flakes composite as cathode materials and high-purity Al foil as ­anode. It is clear that two batteries in series can light the red light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, and the discharge capacity remains over 60 mA h g−1 and coulombic efficiency of 99% after 100 cycles.

    3. An Air-Stable Densely Packed Phosphorene–Graphene Composite Toward Advanced Lithium Storage Properties

      Yu Zhang, Huanwen Wang, Zhongzhen Luo, Hui Teng Tan, Bing Li, Shengnan Sun, Zhong Li, Yun Zong, Zhichuan J. Xu, Yanhui Yang, Khiam Aik Khor and Qingyu Yan

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600453

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      A densely packed phosphorene–graphene composite is prepared by a simple and easily upscalable spark plasma sintering process, which exhibits much improved 1st-cycle Coulombic efficiency, high volumetric capacity, good rate capabilities as well as an outstanding cycling life, especially robust air stability in maintaining its high Li storage properties.

    4. Toward High-Thermoelectric-Performance Large-Size Nanostructured BiSbTe Alloys via Optimization of Sintering-Temperature Distribution

      Gang Zheng, Xianli Su, Xinran Li, Tao Liang, Hongyao Xie, Xiaoyu She, Yonggao Yan, Ctirad Uher, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Xinfeng Tang

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600595

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      Mechanically robust p-type Bi2Te3-based nanostructured bulk material in large size is prepared by melt spinning combined with plasma activated sintering, which shows high thermoelectric performance together with excellent homogeneity. It is of critical importance for large-scale commercial applications of nanostructured thermoelectric materials, especially as it concerns the fabrication of thermoelectric microdevices.

  8. Research News

    1. Graphene/h-BN Heterostructures: Recent Advances in Controllable Preparation and Functional Applications

      Xiuju Song, Jingyu Sun, Yue Qi, Teng Gao, Yanfeng Zhang and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600541

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      Vertically stacked graphene/h-BN heterostructures have triggered great interests in the past several years. This research news highlights recent progress in the preparation of graphene/h-BN heterostructures, as well as versatile applications in energy-efficient nanoelectronics, energy conversion and energy harvesting. Existing challenges and future directions for enhancing the performance of graphene/h-BN heterostructures in related application fields are proposed.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Empowering Semi-Transparent Solar Cells with Thermal-Mirror Functionality

      Hoyeon Kim, Hui-Seon Kim, Jaewon Ha, Nam-Gyu Park and Seunghyup Yoo

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502466

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      An efficiency of 13.3% with an outstanding total solar energy rejection ratio of 89.6% is realized in semi-transparent perovskite solar cells. With the optimal top electrode design leading to a selective transmittance in visible and high reflectance in the near-infrared region, the proposed see-through device demonstrates the noteworthy potential for ideal “energy-generating and heat-rejecting” solar windows that can make smart use of solar energy.

    2. Oxygen Degradation in Mesoporous Al2O3/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx Perovskite Solar Cells: Kinetics and Mechanisms

      Andrew J. Pearson, Giles E. Eperon, Paul E. Hopkinson, Severin N. Habisreutinger, Jacob Tse-Wei Wang, Henry J. Snaith and Neil C. Greenham

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600014

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      Key to the development of perovskite photovoltaics is the mitigation of long-term degradation mechanisms. When aging these solar cells in the presence of oxygen, two stages of degradation are evidenced that drive perovskite decomposition. This damage is coupled to the average density of charge within the perovskite, highlighting the need to maximize charge extraction efficiency when designing stable devices.

    3. High-Efficiency Large-Area Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Solar Cells

      Wenjing Xu, Shiting Wu, Xinming Li, Mingchu Zou, Liusi Yang, Zelin Zhang, Jinquan Wei, Song Hu, Yanhui Li and Anyuan Cao

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600095

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      High-efficiency large-area carbon nanotube-silicon (CNT-Si) solar cells with active areas of more than 2 cm2 have been achieved. Controlled number of flattened, highly conductive CNT strips are added onto large-area CNT-Si solar cells as self-similar top electrodes, improving the efficiency to more than 10% with the assistance of TiO2 antireflection layer and HNO3 doping.

  10. Communications

    1. A Nickel-Based Integrated Electrode from an Autologous Growth Strategy for Highly Efficient Water Oxidation

      Wei Zhang, Jing Qi, Kaiqiang Liu and Rui Cao

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502489

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      An integrated electrode with autologous catalyst-support features is designed for highly efficient water oxidation. The high performance arises from consubstantial growth of Ni(OH)2 on metallic Ni substrate by a controlled surface oxidation protocol. The integrated feature between the catalyst and the support brings extremely efficient charge transfer toward unprecedented water oxidation activity and affords excellent system stability.

    2. Atomic Layer Deposited Aluminum Oxide for Interface Passivation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Yun Seog Lee, Talia Gershon, Teodor K. Todorov, Wei Wang, Mark T. Winkler, Marinus Hopstaken, Oki Gunawan and Jeehwan Kim

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600198

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      Nanometer-scale-thick Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition are implemented as an effective interface-passivation strategy for improving Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4-based thin-film solar cell device performance. Photoluminescence characterization indicates that the enhancement originates from improved interface quality of the solar cell devices.

    3. Bipolar Membrane-Assisted Solar Water Splitting in Optimal pH

      Jingshan Luo, David A. Vermaas, Dongqin Bi, Anders Hagfeldt, Wilson A. Smith and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600100

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      An efficient and intrinsically safe bias-free solar-driven water-splitting device composed of perovskite light harvesters, Earth-abundant catalysts, and a bipolar membrane is demonstrated. Overall, 10 mA cm−2 current density with 1.63 V bias voltage for electrochemical water splitting and 12.7% solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency for solar-driven water splitting are achieved.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Molybdenum Disulfide/Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Enlarged Interlayer Spacing for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Yu-Jia Tang, Yu Wang, Xiao-Li Wang, Shun-Li Li, Wei Huang, Long-Zhang Dong, Chun-Hui Liu, Ya-Fei Li and Ya-Qian Lan

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600116

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      A simple strategy to synthesize an ultrathin molybdenum disulfide/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (MoS2/N-RGO-180) nanocomposite with the enlarged interlayer spacing of 9.5 Å is reported. MoS2/N-RGO-180 exhibits excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalytic activity with a low onset potential of −5 mV versus RHE, a small Tafel slope of 41.3 mV dec−1 and good stability over 5 000 cycles.

  12. Communications

    1. On-Fabrication Solid-State N-Doping of Graphene by an Electron-Transporting Metal Oxide Layer for Efficient Inverted Organic Solar Cells

      Hobeom Kim, Jinwoo Byun, Sang-Hoon Bae, Towfiq Ahmed, Jian-Xin Zhu, Sung-Joo Kwon, Yeongjun Lee, Sung-Yong Min, Christoph Wolf, Hong-Kyu Seo, Jong-Hyun Ahn and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600172

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      On-fabrication solid-state N-doping of graphene is developed using a Zonyl-added ZnO layer on a graphene surface. Inverted organic solar cells based on the graphene cathode and the ZnO layer exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 7.5%—a high-record power conversion efficiency of single-junction organic solar cells with graphene electrodes. For the first time 100% power conversion efficiency with respect to the ITO cathode is achieved.

  13. Reviews

    1. Recent Advances in Controlling Syntheses and Energy Related Applications of MX2 and MX2/Graphene Heterostructures

      Jianping Shi, Qingqing Ji, Zhongfan Liu and Yanfeng Zhang

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600459

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      Recent research achievements towards the controllable syntheses of monolayer MX2 and MX2/Gr heterostructures, as well as their multiple applications in electronics, optoelectronics and energy related fields, are summarized. The remaining challenges for the controllable syntheses and the large-scale applications of MX2 and MX2/Gr heterostructures are discussed, and the future research directions in the related fields are proposed.

  14. Full Papers

    1. In Situ Measurement of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Evolution on Silicon Anodes Using Atomic Force Microscopy

      Insun Yoon, Daniel P. Abraham, Brett L. Lucht, Allan F. Bower and Pradeep R. Guduru

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600099

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      Real-time measurement of thickness evolution of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries is measured. The sample design consists of multiple steps that allow separation of Si volume expansion from SEI growth. A custom electrochemical cell is designed and integrated with an atomic force microscope. Measurements using two electrolyte compositions provide fundamental information on the influence of electrolyte composition on SEI evolution during the initial cycles.

  15. Communications

    1. Over 9% Efficient Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cell Fabricated by Using Zn1–xCdxS Buffer Layer

      Kaiwen Sun, Chang Yan, Fangyang Liu, Jialiang Huang, Fangzhou Zhou, John A. Stride, Martin Green and Xiaojing Hao

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600046

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      A kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell with efficiency of over 9% is obtained by utilizing Zn1–xCdxS film as a replacement to traditional CdS buffer layer. Zn1–xCdxS film can optimize the conduction band offset between Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber and buffer, forming a minor positive conduction band alignment, thereby alleviating the recombination significantly and improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor efficiently.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Large-Area, Ultrathin Inorganic Network Coverages–Graphene Hierarchical Electrodes for Flexible, Heat-Resistant Energy Storage Application

      Jiayong Tang, Mengyuan Jin, Ping Yuan, Yanbao Fu and Xiaohua Ma

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600146

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      All-solid-state and heat-resistant asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are successfully constructed with a maximum operating voltage of 3 V using ultrathin Fe-doped MnO2 networks–reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites and ultrathin MoS2 networks–rGO composites as positive and negative electrodes, respectively, with a nonaqueous gel electrolyte. The obtained devices show good flexibility, high energy density, and possess excellent stability under extreme temperature.

    2. Poly(vinylferrocene)–Reduced Graphene Oxide as a High Power/High Capacity Cathodic Battery Material

      Seyyed Mohsen Beladi-Mousavi, Shamaila Sadaf, Lorenz Walder, Markus Gallei, Christian Rüttiger, Siegfried Eigler and Christian E. Halbig

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600108

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      Partially oxidized poly(vinylferrocene) (PVFc) and graphene oxide (GO) build up a supramolecular complex (PVFc@GO) by self-assembling. The composite is electrocatalytically reduced to PVFc@rGO. The cathodic battery material shows excellent charge efficiency at high discharge rates (up to 100 A g−1) and it is scalable up to 770 mC cm−2 at >99% coulombic efficiency with a specific capacity of 114 mAh g−1.

    3. High-Performance Small Molecule via Tailoring Intermolecular Interactions and its Application in Large-Area Organic Photovoltaic Modules

      Sachin Badgujar, Gang-Young Lee, Taiho Park, Chang Eun Song, Sangheon Park, Sora Oh, Won Suk Shin, Sang-Jin Moon, Jong-Cheol Lee and Sang Kyu Lee

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600228

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      The delicate control of intermolecular interaction has an important role in achieving well-interconnected bulk heterojunctions (BHJ). It is demonstrated that the number of 2D-BDT units is essential in creating a well-defined intermolecular interaction and the desired interconnected BHJ. High efficiency of 8.56% in small area, and 7.45% in a 77.8 cm2 rigid module is achieved.

  17. Progress Reports

    1. Engineering Multimetallic Nanocrystals for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

      Wei Wang, Bo Lei and Shaojun Guo

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600236

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      Current efforts and achievements in synthetically tuning the catalytically performance of PtM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)-based multimetallic nanocrystals for getting highly efficient catalysts to enhance both the activity and stability of oxygen reduction reaction are highlighted.

  18. Full Papers

    1. 3D Vertically Aligned and Interconnected Porous Carbon Nanosheets as Sulfur Immobilizers for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Sarish Rehman, Xingxing Gu, Kishwar Khan, Nasir Mahmood, Wenlong Yang, Xiaoxiao Huang, Shaojun Guo and Yanglong Hou

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502518

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      Integrated 3D vertically aligned and interconnected porous carbon nanosheets are fabricated to demonstrate the effect of physical adsorption of soluble polysulfides via 3D-S-VCNs with large macrovoid and mesoporous channels on enhancing the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs).

    2. Boron Nanoparticles for Room-Temperature Hydrogen Generation from Water

      Parham Rohani, Seongbeom Kim and Mark T. Swihart

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502550

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      Reaction of water with inorganic solids provides a convenient means of on-demand hydrogen generation. Boron has the highest gravimetric hydrogen generation potential among inorganic materials, but is water reactive only at high temperatures. Results presented here show that amorphous boron nanoparticles generate hydrogen from liquid water at room temperature in the presence of catalytic quantities of NaH or alkali metals.

    3. Hexagonal Boron Nitride-Based Electrolyte Composite for Li-Ion Battery Operation from Room Temperature to 150 °C

      Marco-Tulio F. Rodrigues, Kaushik Kalaga, Hemtej Gullapalli, Ganguli Babu, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600218

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      A composite electrolyte based on hexagonal boron nitride and ionic liquid allows Li-ion batteries to operate safely with outstanding performance in the range of 20–150 °C, being stable at high temperatures for over a month. The non-flammability and negligible vapor pressure of the system presents a great solution for thermal management of Li-ion batteries at extreme environments.

    4. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

      Qana A. Alsulami, Banavoth Murali, Yara Alsinan, Manas R. Parida, Shawkat M. Aly and Omar F. Mohammed

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502356

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      A complete understanding of the charge transfer, charge separation, and charge recombination at D/A interfaces is integral for boosting solar cell photoconversion efficiency (PCE). Time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy provide a basis for accomplishing the high performance solar cell. The device optimization enhanced the PCE from 2% in IC60BA-based to >9% in PC71BM-based solar cells.

    5. Progressive Regulation of Electrical and Thermal Transport Properties to High-Performance CuInTe2 Thermoelectric Materials

      Yubo Luo, Junyou Yang, Qinghui Jiang, Weixin Li, Dan Zhang, Zhiwei Zhou, Yudong Cheng, Yangyang Ren and Xu He

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600007

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      A progressive regulation of electrical and thermal transport properties of CuInTe2 is performed through anion (P and Sb) substitution and in situ oxidation of CuInTe2 by ZnO. Using this approach, an unprecedented high power factor of 1445 μW m−1 K−2 and ZT of 1.61 at 823 K has been obtained in the CuInTe1.99Sb0.01+1.0 wt% ZnO sample.

  19. Communications

    1. Efficiency Enhancement of Carbon Nitride Photoelectrochemical Cells via Tailored Monomers Design

      Juncao Bian, Lifei Xi, Chao Huang, Kathrin M. Lange, Rui-Qin Zhang and Menny Shalom

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600263

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      Uniform carbon nitride electrodes, with enhanced photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) performance, are successfully developed by clever design of monomers interaction at high temperatures using thermal vapor condensation method. The monomers alteration leads to a significant improvement of the optical, electronic, and PEC properties of the carbon nitride films, resulting in incident photon-to-current efficiency of 16% at 400 nm.

    2. Fully Packaged Self-Powered Triboelectric Pressure Sensor Using Hemispheres-Array

      Keun Young Lee, Hong-Joon Yoon, Tao Jiang, Xiaonan Wen, Wanchul Seung, Sang-Woo Kim and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502566

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      A fully packaged hemispheres-array-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (H-TENG) that can endure severe environments is reported. The hemispheres-array-structure plays a dual role as the triboelectric material and an elastic “spring” to keep the two opposite materials separated for inducing the electrostatic effect during contact-separation cycle. H-TENGs can be applicable as an active self-powered sensor array to detect the distribution of external pressure.

    3. Air-Stable, Efficient Mixed-Cation Perovskite Solar Cells with Cu Electrode by Scalable Fabrication of Active Layer

      Yehao Deng, Qingfeng Dong, Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600372

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      High efficiency and air stable doctor-blade coated perovskite solar cells are reported. The high quality mixed cation perovskite film (FA x MA1− x PbI3) is fabricated by taking the unique advantage of doctor-blade coating method, based on which solar cell efficiency larger than 18% is realized. In addition, choosing copper as cathode enhances device environmental stability substantially, paving the way for real applications.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Light-Driven Highly Selective Conversion of CO2 to Formate by Electrosynthesized Enzyme/Cofactor Thin Film Electrode

      Soo Youn Lee, Sung Yul Lim, Daye Seo, Jin-Young Lee and Taek Dong Chung

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502207

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      The electrosynthesized enzyme/cofactor thin film-coated bioelectrode facilitates long-lasting enzyme activity and selective conversion of CO2, which are essential for continuous CO2 reduction. By combination with the photoanode where oxygen evolution reaction proceeds, light-driven CO2 reduction to high value chemical, formate is consisted as a real eco-friendly and economic energy conversion system, and the results show superior Faradaic efficiency under zero bias potential.

  21. Communications

    1. 3D Porous Hierarchical Nickel–Molybdenum Nitrides Synthesized by RF Plasma as Highly Active and Stable Hydrogen-Evolution-Reaction Electrocatalysts

      Yongqi Zhang, Bo Ouyang, Jing Xu, Shi Chen, Rajdeep Singh Rawat and Hong Jin Fan

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600221

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      Nickel–molybdenum bimetallic nitride dendritic nanofilms are obtained by a fast and environmentally friendly N2-plasma-activation method. The bimetallic nitride film has a 3D porous dendritic nanostructure and demonstrates outstanding catalytic activity for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in an alkaline electrolyte.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Near Infrared, Highly Efficient Luminescent Solar Concentrators

      Yufeng Zhou, Daniele Benetti, Zhiyuan Fan, Haiguang Zhao, Dongling Ma, Alexander O. Govorov, Alberto Vomiero and Federico Rosei

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501913

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      A large-area semi-transparent luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) is developed using engineered Stokes shifts in near infrared (NIR) core/shell PbS/CdS quantum dots (QDs). The as-prepared QD-based LSC yields a remarkable optical efficiency of 6.1% with geometric factor of 10, which is a record optical efficiency for planar NIR QD-based LSCs.

    2. Wet-Chemical Processing of Phosphorus Composite Nanosheets for High-Rate and High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Yanyan Zhang, Xianhong Rui, Yuxin Tang, Yaqing Liu, Jiaqi Wei, Shi Chen, Wan Ru Leow, Wenlong Li, Yuanjun Liu, Jiyang Deng, Bing Ma, Qingyu Yan and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502409

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      A sublimation-induced synthesis strategy has been developed to form holey phosphorus-based composite nanosheets by a chemistry-based solvothermal reaction. As proof-of-concept, the phosphorus composite nanosheets electrodes can achieve a high capacity of 630 mAh g−1 at ultrahigh current density of 20 A g−1.

    3. Role of Stress Factors on the Adhesion of Interfaces in R2R Fabricated Organic Photovoltaics

      Michael Corazza, Nicholas Rolston, Reinhold H. Dauskardt, MichailJ. Beliatis, Frederik C. Krebs and Suren A. Gevorgyan

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501927

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      The effect of high temperature, humidity, and UV irradiation on the interface adhesion of roll-to-roll fabricated organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is investigated. The samples range from bare front electrodes to complete devices. It is shown that applying single stress or combinations of stresses onto the samples variably affects the adhesion properties of the different interfaces in the OPV device.

    4. Capacitance Spectroscopy for Quantifying Recombination Losses in Nonfullerene Small-Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Viktor V. Brus, Christopher M. Proctor, Niva A. Ran and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502250

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      A simple method for the determination of the density of free charge carriers and quantification of nongeminate recombination losses in organic-bulk heterojunction solar cells, based on the analysis of capacitance spectroscopy data, is presented. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of nongeminate recombination losses in nonfullerene T1: perylene diimide small-molecule solar cells in the scope of bimolecular- and trap-assisted recombination mechanisms under 1 sun illumination.

    5. Mesoscopic Framework Enables Facile Ionic Transport in Solid Electrolytes for Li Batteries

      Cheng Ma, Yongqiang Cheng, Kai Chen, Juchuan Li, Bobby G. Sumpter, Ce-Wen Nan, Karren L. More, Nancy J. Dudney and Miaofang Chi

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600053

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      The importance of the previously overlooked mesoscopic ordering to the design of future superionic conductors for Li batteries is demonstrated through a combination of atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. By maximizing the number of Li transport pathways in three dimensions, such a unique atomic framework effectively facilitates the ionic conduction within the material.

  23. Communications

    1. Synthesizing Nitrogen-Doped Core–Sheath Carbon Nanotube Films for Flexible Lithium Ion Batteries

      Zhiyong Pan, Jing Ren, Guozhen Guan, Xin Fang, Binjie Wang, Seok-Gwang Doo, In Hyuk Son, Xianliang Huang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600271

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      A new family of aligned nitrogen-doped core–sheath carbon nanotube films is synthesized by growing nitrogen-doped graphene layers coaxially around carbon nanotubes. The films exhibit both high tensile strength and electrical conductivity, and they are developed as flexible and effective anodes for lithium ion batteries that display high specific capacities. The lithium ion battery stably works under bending and twisting.

  24. Progress Reports

    1. Carbon Nanomaterials in Different Dimensions for Electrochemical Energy Storage

      Jiangfeng Ni and Yan Li

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600278

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      Carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and their assemblies represent a unique type of materials for electrochemical energy storage. In this progress report, state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanomaterials with different dimensions in Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and redox flow cells are described and discussed in detail, with the most recent and typical progresses being the focus.

    2. Is the Cu/Zn Disorder the Main Culprit for the Voltage Deficit in Kesterite Solar Cells?

      Stéphane Bourdais, Christophe Choné, Bruno Delatouche, Alain Jacob, Gerardo Larramona, Camille Moisan, Alain Lafond, Fabrice Donatini, Germain Rey, Susanne Siebentritt, Aron Walsh and Gilles Dennler

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502276

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      The possible role of the cationic (Cu/Zn) disorder and anionic (S/Se) distribution on the severe Voc deficit generally reported in CZTSSe-based solar cells is investigated. It is concluded that none of these disorders is likely to be the direct main culprit for the Voc deficit, but that the partially-ordered state is preferred as it promotes radiative recombination.

  25. Communications

    1. Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection

      Junzheng Chen, Kee Sung Han, Wesley A. Henderson, Kah Chun Lau, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Trevor Dzwiniel, Huilin Pan, Larry A. Curtiss, Jie Xiao, Karl T. Mueller, Yuyan Shao and Jun Liu

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600160

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      Lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole as a supporting salt in electrolytes achieves a reduced Li2S8 solubility by tuning the chemical production to Li4S8 dimer. Ab initio molecular dynamics and nuclear magnetic resonance calculation confirms the solvation structure radius increase by 20%. Combined with Li2S8 and LiNO3, the electrolyte can demonstrate a stable 300 cycling battery of practical sulfur loading.

    2. Tunable Bandgap Energy and Promotion of H2O2 Oxidation for Overall Water Splitting from Carbon Nitride Nanowire Bundles

      Kan Zhang, Luyang Wang, Xiaowei Sheng, Ming Ma, Myung Sun Jung, Wanjung Kim, Hyoyoung Lee and Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502352

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      A stepwise four-electron reaction significantly alleviates the thermodynamics reaction barrier for overall water splitting. Regenerated 1D carbon nitride nanowire bundles from tailoring and reassembly of 2D g-C3N4 produce novel physicochemical and optoelectronic properties, which well realize the stepwise four-electron reaction along with a quantum efficiency of 5.2‰ at 420 nm.

    3. High-Rate and High-Volumetric Capacitance of Compact Graphene–Polyaniline Hydrogel Electrodes

      Yufei Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Anthony G. Pandolfo, Jie Ding and Dan Li

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600185

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      High-rate and high-volumetric pseudocapacitance is generally considered very challenging to achieve. This work reports that a compact polyaniline–graphene hydrogel film can provide a combination of high-volumetric pseudocapacitance, excellent rate capability, and long cycle life. The pore connectivity which ensures fast ion transport and well-maintained nanostructured polyaniline in the compact electrode is the key.

  26. Full Papers

    1. Light-Induced Degradation Mechanism in Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Fullerene Blend Solar Cells

      Yasunari Tamai, Hideo Ohkita, Miki Namatame, Kazuhiro Marumoto, Satoru Shimomura, Toshihiro Yamanari and Shinzaburo Ito

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600171

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      Photodegradation mechanisms in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/indene-C60 bisadduct blend cells are studied. Photovoltaic efficiency drops by ≈60% after 45 h solar cell operation. The origin of the photodegradation is attributed to charge trap formation in the P3HT disorder domains during the light exposure, likely because of residual bromine atoms at P3HT chain ends.

  27. Communications

    1. Perylene Diimide Trimers Based Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 7%

      Ningning Liang, Kai Sun, Zhong Zheng, Huifeng Yao, Guangpeng Gao, Xiangyi Meng, Zhaohui Wang, Wei Ma and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600060

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      Fullerene-free polymer solar cell devices based on a new acceptor, H-tri-PDI that is connected by three perylene diimide (PDI) units via imide position shows a power conversation efficiency of 7.25% with a short circuit current density of 16.5 mA cm−2. Thus H-tri-PDI molecules and the method of connecting multiple PDI units via imide position provide a reliable guide for the further development of PDI-based acceptors.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Impact of Monovalent Cation Halide Additives on the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite

      Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, M. Ibrahim Dar, Aditya Sadhanala, Satyaprasad P. Senanayak, Marius Franckevičius, Neha Arora, Yuanyuan Hu, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502472

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      Incorporation of monovalent cation halide additives improve the semiconductor behavior and photovoltaic performance of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite through the formation of uniform and continuous perovskite film, better conversion and loading of CH3NH3PbI3, and possible passivation of defect states at the crystallite surfaces, as well as the enhancement in the bulk charge transport along with a minimization of disorder.

  29. Communications

    1. Improved Efficiency in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a Novel Diarylamino-Substituted Molecule as PEDOT:PSS Replacement

      Abdulrahman El Labban, Hu Chen, Mindaugas Kirkus, Jeremy Barbe, Silvano Del Gobbo, Marios Neophytou, Iain McCulloch and Jessica Eid

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502101

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      An approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted planar perovskites solar cells using solution-processed organic small molecules hole transporting layer is reported. Devices using CH3NH3PbI3 as photoactive layer and PC60BM as electron transport layer show power conversion efficiencies exceeding 12% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) higher than 1 V.

    2. Degradation of Sexithiophene Cascade Organic Solar Cells

      Ludwig Bormann, Frederik Nehm, Nelli Weiß, Vasileios C. Nikolis, Franz Selzer, Alexander Eychmüller, Lars Müller-Meskamp, Koen Vandewal and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502432

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      The degradation of sexithiophene cascade organic solar cells is studied. Glass–glass encapsulated devices on indium tin oxide as transparent electrode show efficiencies of 6.6% and degrade within 500 h in illuminated 38 °C/50% RH climate. Fully flexible devices with silver nanowire electrode and alumina barrier achieve 5% efficiency and degrade within 30 h due to electrode failure.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Superior Sodium Storage in Na2Ti3O7 Nanotube Arrays through Surface Engineering

      Jiangfeng Ni, Shidong Fu, Chao Wu, Yang Zhao, Joachim Maier, Yan Yu and Liang Li

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502568

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      Surface engineered sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanotube arrays can afford an ultrastable and robust capability for Na storage, retaining a capacity of 78 mAh g–1 at 10 C over 10 000 continuous cycles. The excellent Na-storage of Na2Ti3O7 nanotube arrays enabled by surface engineering opens up new possibilities to develop stable and robust Na electrode materials.

  31. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A Novel Aluminum–Graphite Dual-Ion Battery

      Xiaolong Zhang, Yongbing Tang, Fan Zhang and Chun-Sing Lee

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502588

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      A novel low-cost aluminum–graphite dual-ion battery is reported. The battery shows a reversible capacity of ≈100 mAh g−1 and a capacity retention of 88% after 200 charge–discharge cycles. A packaged aluminum–graphite battery is estimated to deliver an energy density of ≈150 Wh kg−1 at a power density of ≈1200 W kg−1, which is ≈50% higher than most commercial lithium ion batteries.

  32. Reviews

    1. Two-Dimensional Materials for Beyond-Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Lele Peng, Yue Zhu, Dahong Chen, Rodney S. Ruoff and Guihua Yu

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600025

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      Two-dimensional nanomaterials have gained growing interest as promising candidates for electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and beyond. Various kinds of two-dimensional nanomaterials for sodium ion batteries and other emerging battery technologies are summarized, along with the current difficulties and potential strategies. Perspectives on the future development of two-dimensional nanomaterials as beyond-Li-ion energy storage electrodes are presented.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Sustained Water Oxidation by Direct Electrosynthesis of Ultrathin Organic Protection Films on Silicon

      Anahita Azarpira, Thomas Schedel-Niedrig, H.-J. Lewerenz and Michael Lublow

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502314

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      Organic protection layers are electrochemically synthesized on silicon by RuO2-supported polymerization of alcohols. The resulting Si/SiO2/protection layer/RuO2 photoanode proves an unprecedented high photovoltage and efficient activity upon sustained light-induced oxidation of water. On the atomistic level, a detailed reaction scheme is provided for understanding the formation principles of the organic protection layer.

  34. Communications

    1. Understanding Charge Transport in Molecular Blend Films in Terms of Structural Order and Connectivity of Conductive Pathways

      Christopher M. Proctor, Abhishek S. Kher, John A. Love, Ye Huang, Alexander Sharenko, Guillermo C. Bazan and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502285

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      The factors limiting charge carrier mobility in solution processed small molecule solar cells are investigated using a combination of X-ray scattering techniques and temperature dependent mobility measurements. It is found that order in the π–π stacking direction is correlated with the activation energy for transport while the connectivity of conducting domains is the primary limitation to hole transport in some systems.

    2. A Highly Stretchable Supercapacitor Using Laser-Induced Graphene Electrodes onto Elastomeric Substrate

      Andrea Lamberti, Francesca Clerici, Marco Fontana and Luciano Scaltrito

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600050

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      Stretchable electrochemical supercapacitor exploiting laser-induced graphene (LIG) transfer onto elastomeric substrates is reported. Elastomeric energy-storage devices are fabricated using polymeric electrolyte and all-PDMS (all-polydimethylsiloxane) architecture. The symmetric LIG/PDMS supercapacitor can sustain repeated charge–discharge cycles without suffering significant deterioration of specific capacitance even under stretching and bending conditions.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Insights into Ionic Transport and Structural Changes in Magnetite during Multiple-Electron Transfer Reactions

      Wei Zhang, David C. Bock, Christopher J. Pelliccione, Yan Li, Lijun Wu, Yimei Zhu, Amy. C. Marschilok, Esther S. Takeuchi, Kenneth J. Takeuchi and Feng Wang

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502471

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      In order to better understand the mechanisms of multiple-electron transfer reactions leading to high capacity in Fe3O4, a comprehensive experimental investigation, assisted with ab initio calculations, is made on local ionic transport and ordering in the material. It is revealed that the cubic-close-packed O-anion array is sustained in Fe3O4 during delithiation, thereby enabling multi-Li intercalation and conversion reactions.

  36. Reviews

    1. Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier in Organic Photovoltaics: Morphology and Device Optimization of Well-Known PBDTTT Polymers

      Shaoqing Zhang, Long Ye and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502529

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      Well-known PBDTTT polymers are the subject of considerable attention in the field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). These photovoltaic polymers possess excellent absorption and hole mobility and show great potential in single- or multiple-junction, ternary blend, and fullerene-free OPV devices. Owing to the integrated morphology and device efforts, over 10% efficiencies have been realized in these novel OPV devices.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Photovoltaic Materials and Devices Based on the Alloyed Kesterite Absorber (AgxCu1–x)2ZnSnSe4

      Talia Gershon, Yun Seog Lee, Priscilla Antunez, Ravin Mankad, Saurabh Singh, Doug Bishop, Oki Gunawan, Marinus Hopstaken and Richard Haight

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502468

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      Band tailing in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 is demonstrated to be suppressed by replacing Cu with Ag, whose covalent radius is ≈15% larger. The optical band gap converges in energy with the position of the photoluminescence peak as the Ag content increases from 0% to 100%. This substitution also unpins the Fermi level from midgap and improves the photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  38. Communications

    1. All-Component Transient Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Kun (Kelvin) Fu, Zhengyang Wang, Chaoyi Yan, Zhen Liu, Yonggang Yao, Jiaqi Dai, Emily Hitz, Yibo Wang, Wei Luo, Yanan Chen, Myeongseob Kim and Liangbing Hu

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502496

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      Transient energy storage is a novel concept of using transient technology to design a device that can degrade and dissolve into the surrounding environment after being triggered by the external stimulus. A systematic design of a transient lithium-ion battery to achieve high battery performance and all-component transience is reported.

  39. Full Papers

    1. Crosslinkable Amino-Functionalized Conjugated Polymer as Cathode Interlayer for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

      Jing Wang, Kai Lin, Kai Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Khalid Mahmood, Lei Ying, Fei Huang and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502563

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      A novel crosslinkable aminoalkyl-functionalized polymer, poly [9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(hex-5-en-1-yl)-fluorene] (PFN-V), is designed and applied as cathode interlayer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells. The PFN-V interlayer facilitates the achievement of Ohmic contacts and an optimized surface energy as well as the suppression of charge recombination, leading to an improved power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells from 3.11% to 9.18%.

  40. Communications

    1. Ni3FeN Nanoparticles Derived from Ultrathin NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets: An Efficient Overall Water Splitting Electrocatalyst

      Xiaodan Jia, Yufei Zhao, Guangbo Chen, Lu Shang, Run Shi, Xiaofeng Kang, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung and Tierui Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502585

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      Ni3FeN nanoparticles with a particle size of ≈100 nm and a thickness of ≈9 nm are successfully synthesized by thermal ammonolysis of ultrathin NiFe-layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanosheets. The Ni3FeN nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in electrochemical overall water splitting.

  41. Full Papers

    1. Mechanism of Na+ Insertion in Alkali Vanadates and Its Influence on Battery Performance

      Steffen Hartung, Nicolas Bucher, Joseph B. Franklin, Anna M. Wise, Linda Y. Lim, Han-Yi Chen, Johanna Nelson Weker, Maria-E. Michel-Beyerle, Michael F. Toney and Madhavi Srinivasan

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502336

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      In operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction on Na+-insertion into Na2.46V6O16 and Li2.55V6O16 cathodes reveals two crystallographic sites (orange, red) that are reversibly occupied by Na-ions when operating in a narrow potential range. In contrast, at an increased potential range Na+ occupies interstices (blue) causing irreversible structural changes associated with capacity fading. For Li2.55V6O16 cyclability is enhanced due to minor Li+-retention.

    2. Nanoscale Elastic Changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) Pseudocapacitive Electrodes

      Jeremy Come, Yu Xie, Michael Naguib, Stephen Jesse, Sergei V. Kalinin, Yury Gogotsi, Paul R. C. Kent and Nina Balke

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502290

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      In situ observations of Li-ion intercalation into 2D MXene, through changes in mechanical properties measured using scanning probe microscopy, reveal high and slow ion diffusion paths.

  42. Communications

    1. Carbon-Network-Integrated SnSiOx+2 Nanofiber Sheathed by Ultrathin Graphitic Carbon for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage

      Haiyong He, Debin Kong, Bin Wang, Wei Fu, Xiongying Qiu, Quan-Hong Yang and Linjie Zhi

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502495

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      Graphitic carbon is grown on SnSiOx+2 nanofibers to obtain nanocables, into the core of which carbon network and atomic-level dispersion of SnOx were embedded. The resultant nanocables with a highly conductive carbon framework exhibit outstanding cycling performance with high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability even at high current rates.

  43. Reviews

    1. Nanoarchitectured Array Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yang Xu, Min Zhou and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502514

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      A nanoarchitectured array is highlighted as an advanced electrode design for rechargeable lithium- and sodium-ion batteries. Nanoarchitectured array electrodes provide a rapid ion diffusion route, directional electron transport pathway, large surface area, high structural stability, as well as composition advantages, and thus significantly improve battery performances and hold promise for other possible energy storage technologies.

    2. Transition Metal Disulfides as Noble-Metal-Alternative Co-Catalysts for Solar Hydrogen Production

      Kun Chang, Xiao Hai and Jinhua Ye

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502555

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      Recent progress in the use of transition metal disulfides as noble-metal-alternative photo-cocatalysts in the solar hydrogen production field is reviewed, focusing on the effect of structural matchability with photoharvesters, band edges tunability, and phase transformation on the improvement of hydrogen production activities. Moreover, both findings and current perspectives are critically summarized, highlighting crucial issues that should be addressed in future research activities.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Li3N as a Cathode Additive for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Kyusung Park, Byeong-Chul Yu and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502534

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      A new sacrificial cathode additive, Li3N, has been proposed and characterized for an Li-ion battery. Li3N addition can increase significantly the charging capacities of the cathode and thereby compensate for the initial irreversible capacity losses in the anode. Li3N is shown to be chemically stable in a dry atmosphere and can increase the reversible capacities of a full cell.

    2. Time-Dependent Morphology Evolution of Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells during Solvent Vapor Annealing

      Jie Min, Xuechen Jiao, Ibrahim Ata, Andres Osvet, Tayebeh Ameri, Peter Bäuerle, Harald Ade and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502579

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      Time-dependent morphology evolution of solution-processed small molecule solar cells during solvent vapor annealing is systematically and methodically investigated. This not only reveals the importance of precisely controlling SVA time on gaining morphological control, but also provides a path toward the rational optimization of device performance.

    3. Controlled SnO2 Crystallinity Effectively Dominating Sodium Storage Performance

      Linlin Fan, Xifei Li, Bo Yan, Jianmin Feng, Dongbin Xiong, Dejun Li, Lin Gu, Yuren Wen, Stephen Lawes and Xueliang Sun

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502057

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      The significant impacts of SnO2 crystallinity, considering both amorphous and crystalline modifications, on sodium storage performance are investigated for the first time. The amorphous SnO2 exhibits a high specific capacity (380.2 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability (with capacity retention of 91.7%, relative to the 6th cycle over 100 cycles) compared to that of crystalline SnO2 (specific capacity of 138.6 mAh g−1, capacity retention of 83.0%).

    4. Multi-Functional Transparent Luminescent Configuration for Advanced Photovoltaics

      Minwoo Nam, Hyun-Keun Kwon, S. Joon Kwon, Soon-Hong Kwon, Minjeong Cha, Sung-Hwan Lee, Sangpil Park, Dawoon Jeong, Kyu-Tae Lee, Hanju Rhee, Young Rag Do, Sangin Kim, Kyoungsik Kim, Richard H. Friend, Joon Soo Han, Il Ki Han and Doo-Hyun Ko

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502404

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      Multi-functional luminescent down-shifting (LDS) templates bearing subwavelength nanostructures are demonstrated. The LDS platform is tailored to photovoltaic devices to accommodate a distinctively enhanced efficiency and lifetime as a result of the nanopattern-assisted strong LDS property. Combined with the multi-functionality involving prominent LDS characteristics, color tunability and surface energy modulation, the developed LDS nanotemplate offers promise for esthetic building-integrated photovoltaics.

    5. Real-Time Photoluminescence Studies of Structure Evolution in Organic Solar Cells

      Sebastian Engmann, Felicia A. Bokel, Hyun Wook Ro, Dean M. DeLongchamp and Lee J. Richter

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502011

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      The average structure in blade-coated active layers containing processing additives for the use in organic solar cells is determined using a combination of in-situ photoluminescence and UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphology evolution can be divided into three characteristic stages. Detailed information on the onset of polymer gelation, molecular rearrangements, and the evolution of phase purity within the bulk heterojunction can be gained via modeling the time-dependent PL intensity with a random-walk exciton diffusion model.

    6. Band Edge Modulated Polymer Layer to Decrease Back Electron Transfer and Increase Efficiency in Sensitized Solar Cells

      Arulraj Arulkashmir, Vediappan Sudhakar and Kothandam Krishnamoorthy

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502334

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      Conjugated polymers with various frontier orbital levels are used to decrease the back electron transfer and increase the overall performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. A polymer with commensurate frontier orbital levels with that of dye as well as redox electrolytes can increase the cell efficiency by 22%.

  45. Reviews

    1. Critical Challenges in Rechargeable Aprotic Li–O2 Batteries

      Ningning Feng, Ping He and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502303

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      Aprotic Li–O2 batteries have attracted worldwide interest due to their extremely high energy density. The development and critical challenges of Li–O2 batteries are summarized from the perspective of the unique electrochemistry involving in the stability of aprotic electrolytes, the three-phase reactions on the cathodes, and the dissolution/deposition reactions on the anodes.

    2. From Lithium-Oxygen to Lithium-Air Batteries: Challenges and Opportunities

      Dongsheng Geng, Ning Ding, T. S. Andy Hor, Sheau Wei Chien, Zhaolin Liu, Delvin Wuu, Xueliang Sun and Yun Zong

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502164

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      Lithium-oxygen batteries are a promising potential technology for next-generation energy storage, but their practical realization still faces many challenges. The most pressing questions concern the long term operational stability under ambient air. The effects of CO2 and H2O on the electrochemistry of Li-O2 and the battery performance are discussed.

  46. Communications

    1. Self-Doped and Crown-Ether Functionalized Fullerene as Cathode Buffer Layer for Highly-Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

      Fuwen Zhao, Zhen Wang, Jianqi Zhang, Xiangwei Zhu, Yajie Zhang, Jin Fang, Dan Deng, Zhixiang Wei, Yongfang Li, Li Jiang and Chunru Wang

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502120

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      Self-doped and crown-ether functionalized fullerene PCMI:K+ works well as a cathode buffer layer in polymer solar cells based on PTB7-Th, with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.30%, which is one of the highest PCEs to date. A series of experiments are used to shed light upon the mechanism of the simultaneous elevation in photovoltaic parameters with PCMI:K+.

  47. Full Papers

    1. Ionic Reactivity at Contacts and Aging of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Jordi Carrillo, Antonio Guerrero, Sara Rahimnejad, Osbel Almora, Issac Zarazua, Elena Mas-Marza, Juan Bisquert and Germà Garcia-Belmonte

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502246

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      Two reactivity sources are identified at interfaces of perovskite solar cells: (i) Weak Ti–I–Pb bonds facilitate an interfacial accommodation of moving iodide ions. This interaction produces a highly reversible capacitive current. (ii) An irreversible chemical reaction between spiro-OMeTAD+ and migrating I ions progressively reduces the hole transporting material conductivity and deteriorates solar cell performance.

    2. Overpotentials and Faraday Efficiencies in CO2 Electrocatalysis–the Impact of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Trifluoromethanesulfonate

      Sebastian S. Neubauer, Ralf K. Krause, Bernhard Schmid, Dirk M. Guldi and Günter Schmid

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502231

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      Mixtures of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate and water as electrolytes for reduction of CO2 are characterized. Broad reduction plateaus spanning over potential ranges of up to 0.58 V evolve, while hydrogen evolution reaction is largely inhibited. Consecutively, the Faraday efficiencies for CO feature high values and the process is stable.

    3. Synergistically Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transport Properties of BiCuSeO via a Dual-Doping Approach

      Yong Liu, Li-Dong Zhao, Yingcai Zhu, Yaochun Liu, Fu Li, Meijuan Yu, Da-Bo Liu, Wei Xu, Yuan-Hua Lin and Ce-Wen Nan

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502423

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      A record-high ZT value, the figure of merit, of ≈1.5 at 873 K in BiCuSeO is achieved through a Pb and Ca dual-doping approach. Synergistically, the power factor is optimized by electrical structure tuning with Pb dopants, and the thermal conductivity is reduced by phonon scattering at CaO2 nanoclusters.

    4. Temperature Dependence of Ideality Factors in Organic Solar Cells and the Relation to Radiative Efficiency

      Kristofer Tvingstedt and Carsten Deibel

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502230

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      Improved determination of ideality factors is performed by evaluating open circuit voltage–short circuit current pairs as opposed to traditional dark IV curves. The true temperature dependence of the ideality factor can then be obtained for organic solar cells otherwise substantially limited by series resistance effects. The relation to radiative efficiency, activation energy, and dark saturation current is clarified.

    5. High-Performance Thermoelectric Paper Based on Double Carrier-Filtering Processes at Nanowire Heterojunctions

      Jaeyoo Choi, Jang Yeol Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Chong Rae Park and Heesuk Kim

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502181

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      A rationally designed graphene/polymer/inorganic nanocrystal free-standing paper is demonstrated. The free-standing paper has a high thermoelectric performance, high flexibility, and mechanical/chemical durability for flexible thermoelectric materials. The paper features two heterojunctions that induce double-carrier filtering, thus increasing the electrical conductivity without a major decrease in the thermopower. This shows great potential for the preparation of flexible/or wearable power-conversion devices.

    6. Overcoming Electrode-Induced Losses in Organic Solar Cells by Tailoring a Quasi-Ohmic Contact to Fullerenes via Solution-Processed Alkali Hydroxide Layers

      Hong Zhang, R. Clayton Shallcross, Ning Li, Tobias Stubhan, Yi Hou, Wei Chen, Tayebeh Ameri, Mathieu Turbiez, Neal R. Armstrong and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502195

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      Solution-processed alkali hydroxides significantly reduce the work function of metal oxides, such as zinc oxide or aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), and are further proven to effectively passivate defect states in these metal oxides. The interface states with alkali hydroxide-modified AZO contacts tail all the way to the Fermi energy, providing for a highly n-doped (metal-like) interfacial molecular layer.

  48. Communications

    1. Optimized “Alloy-Parallel” Morphology of Ternary Organic Solar Cells

      Zaiyu Wang, Yajie Zhang, Jianqi Zhang, Zhixiang Wei and Wei Ma

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502456

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      The morphology features of polymer/small molecule/fullerene ternary organic solar cells are investigated. For the first time, simultaneously enhanced face-on molecular packing for both polymer and small molecule donor materials is observed. This optimized morphology yields an enhanced performance when 40% small molecule is added.

  49. Full Papers

    1. Mesoporous MoS2 as a Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Exhibiting Pseudocapacitive Li and Na-Ion Charge Storage

      John B. Cook, Hyung-Seok Kim, Yan Yan, Jesse S. Ko, Shauna Robbennolt, Bruce Dunn and Sarah H. Tolbert

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501937

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      Mesoporous MoS2 is synthesized via thermal sulfurization of block copolymer templated mesoporous MoO2. These nanoporous films show high levels of pseudocapcitance using both Li+ and Na+. When cycled with Li+, the material exhibits a reversible charge storage capacity of 140 mAh g−1 in only 20 s, and can be cycled more than 10 000 times.

    2. Carbon Nanodot Surface Modifications Initiate Highly Efficient, Stable Catalysts for Both Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reactions

      Juan Liu, Shunyan Zhao, Chuanxi Li, Manman Yang, Yanmei Yang, Yang Liu, Yeshayahu Lifshitz, Shuit-Tong Lee and Zhenhui Kang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502039

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      Metal-free carbon nanodots surface-modified with either phosphorus or amidogen can respectively achieve superior electrocatalytic activity approaching and even exceeding that of the benchmark Pt/C and IrO2 /C catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER). Attaching Au nanoparticles on these catalysts will further enhance their electrocatalytic activities under visible light.

  50. Communications

    1. New Processable Phenanthridinone-Based Polymers for Organic Solar Cell Applications

      Maxime Guérette, Ahmed Najari, Julie Maltais, Jean-Rémi Pouliot, Stéphane Dufresne, Martin Simoneau, Simon Besner, Patrick Charest and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502094

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      New phenanthridinone-based polymers are designed and synthesized by direct (hetero)arylation polymerization for photo­voltaic applications. Bulk-hetero­junction solar cells prepared in air and a random terpolymer (P3) blended with PC71BM in o-dichlorobenzene lead to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 6.7%. When the same polymer is processed with PC61BM in o-xylene with blade-coating in a chlorine-free system, a PCE of 4.7% is observed.

  51. Full Papers

    1. Ni and Co Segregations on Selective Surface Facets and Rational Design of Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathodes

      Pengfei Yan, Jianming Zheng, Jiaxin Zheng, Zhiguo Wang, Gaofeng Teng, Saravanan Kuppan, Jie Xiao, Guoying Chen, Feng Pan, Ji-Guang Zhang and Chong-Min Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502455

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      For pristine Li–Mn-rich oxide cathodes, Ni and Co show distinctive plane selectivity while forming their surface segregation layers (SSLs). The Ni-SSL features spinel-like structure, while Co-SSL is characterized as rock salt structure. The SSL shows dependence on composition and synthesis methods, signifying a rational design of layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for optimized battery cycling stability.

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