Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editors: Carolina Novo, Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 14.385

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/83 (Energy & Fuels); 4/136 (Physics Applied); 5/136 (Chemistry Physical); 5/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 7/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  1. Full Papers

    1. A Tale of Two Sites: On Defining the Carrier Concentration in Garnet-Based Ionic Conductors for Advanced Li Batteries

      Travis Thompson, Asma Sharafi, Michelle D. Johannes, Ashfia Huq, Jan L. Allen, Jeff Wolfenstine and Jeff Sakamoto

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500096

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      The bulk ionic conductivity is correlated to the Li site distribution for a series of cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 compositions stabilized by supervalent substitution with Ta. The ionic conductivity maximizes at the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transformation because this represents the maximum in octahedrally coordinated Li and minimum in tetrahedrally coordinated Li site occupancies. Li-ion conducting garnets can enable several beyond Li-ion technologies.

    2. Sequential Processing for Organic Photovoltaics: Design Rules for Morphology Control by Tailored Semi-Orthogonal Solvent Blends

      Jordan C. Aguirre, Steven A. Hawks, Amy S. Ferreira, Patrick Yee, Selvam Subramaniyan, Samson A. Jenekhe, Sarah H. Tolbert and Benjamin J. Schwartz

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402020

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      Sequential processing of polymers and fullerenes offers a new way to control the morphology of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics. The fullerene casting solvent must properly swell but not dissolve the polymer underlayer. A set of simple design rules is presented for finding the appropriate fullerene-casting solvent blend to optimize BHJ formation and thus photovoltaic performance with any conjugated polymer.

  2. Communications

    1. Sputtered NiOx Films for Stabilization of p+n-InP Photoanodes for Solar-Driven Water Oxidation

      Ke Sun, Yanjin Kuang, Erik Verlage, Bruce S. Brunschwig, Charles W. Tu and Nathan S. Lewis

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402276

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      A photoanode protection strategy using a multifunctional NiOx coating is presented. The transparency/antireflectivity, low electrochromism, conduction of holes, corrosion protection, and active electrocatalysis for water-oxidation half-reaction are described.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Impact of Nanoscale Elemental Distribution in High-Performance Kesterite Solar Cells

      Kasra Sardashti, Richard Haight, Tayfun Gokmen, Wei Wang, Liang-Yi Chang, David B. Mitzi and Andrew C. Kummel

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402180

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      The effect of top surface and grain boundary composition, measured by Auger nanoprobe microscopy, on the performance of polycrystalline copper–zinc–tin–sulfide/selenide (CZTSSe) solar cells is demonstrated. Using photo­voltaic device simulation, an approach to overcome the bulk defects and further improve the efficiency of the solar cells is proposed.

    2. Drastic Layer-Number-Dependent Activity Enhancement in Photocatalytic H2 Evolution over nMoS2/CdS (n ≥ 1) Under Visible Light

      Kun Chang, Mu Li, Tao Wang, Shuxin Ouyang, Peng Li, Lequan Liu and Jinhua Ye

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402279

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      The single-layer MoS2 is shown to exhibit high co-catalytic activity for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Single-layer-MoS2/CdS with 2.0 wt% of co-catalyst exhibits the highest H2 generation rate, corresponding to an apparent quantum efficiency of 30.2% in Na2S–Na2SO3 and 38.4% in lactic acid solution at 420 nm.

  4. Communications

    1. Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx–Au–TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

      Zhongcheng Yuan, Zhongwei Wu, Sai Bai, Zhouhui Xia, Weidong Xu, Tao Song, Haihua Wu, Luhai Xu, Junjie Si, Yizheng Jin and Baoquan Sun

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500038

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      A unique sandwiched structure of TiOx/Au-NPs/TiOx is used to improve the charge transport properties of a TiOx film via plasmonic-mediated hot carrier injection at the metal-semiconductor Schottky junction. The injected carrier helps to fill trap states and to further decrease the Fermi level of TiOx. The combined effects dramatically enhance the perovskite solar cell performance, with a power conversion efficiency of 16.2%.

    2. Novel Large-Scale Synthesis of a C/S Nanocomposite with Mixed Conducting Networks through a Spray Drying Approach for Li–S Batteries

      Jie Ma, Zheng Fang, Yong Yan, Zhenzhong Yang, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Zhaoxiang Wang and Xuejie Huang

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500046

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      A woolball-like nanocomposite of commercial carbon/sulfur microspheres with sulfur content over 81 wt% is successfully fabricated using a new one-step spray drying approach. The designed polyporous electrodes with a sulfur loading of 2.5 mg cm−2 exhibit excellent Li storage performance. This facile and cost-effective process of fabricating the carbon/sulfur nanocomposite shows great promise for large-scale application in practical lithium–sulfur batteries.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Ultrathin YSZ Coating on Pt Cathode for High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity

      Ikwhang Chang, Sanghoon Ji, Joonho Park, Min Hwan Lee and Suk Won Cha

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402251

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      Porous metal-based catalysts are prone to agglomeration during operation at elevated temperatures. An ultrathin oxide layer is presented that is coated on metal catalysts using an atomic layer deposition technique, which suppresses the agglomeration process significantly while enhancing electrocatalytic activities. The scheme is demonstrated for cathodes of micro solid oxide fuel cells operating at 500 °C, but it should be generically applicable to other electrochemical catalysis with metal-based electrodes.

    2. AuPd–MnOx/MOF–Graphene: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid at Room Temperature

      Jun-Min Yan, Zhi-Li Wang, Ling Gu, Si-Jia Li, Hong-Li Wang, Wei-Tao Zheng and Qing Jiang

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500107

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      AuPd–MnOx/ZIF-8–rGO composites are synthesized using a facile wet-chemical method and show good catalytic performance for formic acid dehydrogenation at room temperature. The excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the electronically enriched Pd surface, the strong metal–support interaction, as well as the ultrafine and high distribution of the AuPd–MnOx nanocomposite on the unique ZIF-8–rGO bi-supportZIF-8–rGO.

  6. Communications

    1. A Reconfigurable Rectified Flexible Energy Harvester via Solid-State Single Crystal Grown PMN–PZT

      Geon-Tae Hwang, Joonseok Yang, Seong Ho Yang, Ho-Yong Lee, Minbok Lee, Dae Yong Park, Jae Hyun Han, Seung Jun Lee, Chang Kyu Jeong, Jaeha Kim, Kwi-Il Park and Keon Jae Lee

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500051

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      A single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZT) energy harvester is demonstrated by solid-state crystal growth and an optimized delamination process. The flexible harvester generates an output voltage of 100 V and a current of 20 µA. The advanced reconfigurable rectifying circuit enhanced conversion efficiency of the PMN-PZT harvester is compared to conventional rectifier. Finally, a self-powered military boot is fabricated using the harvester as a demonstration of use in operating consumer electronics.

    2. Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by Using Amorphous Ni–Co Double Hydroxides Nanocages

      Jianwei Nai, Huajie Yin, Tingting You, Lirong Zheng, Jing Zhang, Pengxi Wang, Zhao Jin, Yu Tian, Juzhe Liu, Zhiyong Tang and Lin Guo

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401880

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      Ni–Co amorphous double hydroxides nanomaterials with hollow structure and tunable Ni/Co molar ratio are synthesized via a template method. The amorphous NiCo2.7(OH)x nanocages demonstrate high surface reactivity, comparable catalytic activity, and excellent stability for efficient water oxidation. Density functional theory simulations suggest that the component-dependent electrocatalytic activities are connected to the binding energies of oxygen radical on diverse hydroxides.

    3. Rh-Ni-B Nanoparticles as Highly Efficient Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Hydrous Hydrazine

      Jun Wang, Wang Li, Yuren Wen, Lin Gu and Yu Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401879

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      RhNiB nanoparticles with sodium hydroxide dependent boron content are highly efficient catalysts for the decomposition of hydrous hydrazine at room temperature including 100% H2 selectivity and exceptionally high catalytic kinetics, which is derived from the synergistic effect of boron doping and alkali promotion. These encouraging results will promote the practical application of hydrous hydrazine for chemical hydrogen storage.

    4. Electropolymerized Conjugated Microporous Poly(zinc-porphyrin) Films as Potential Electrode Materials in Supercapacitors

      Huanhuan Zhang, Yunan Zhang, Cheng Gu and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402175

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      A film-state conjugated microporous polymer constructed with zinc porphyrin cores and dimeric carbazole linkages is fabricated by electropolymerization. With its rich micropores and excellent reversible redox processes, the novel conjugated microporous polymer film is fabricated into a supercapacitor that demonstrates high capacitance up to 142 F g−1 and good capacitance retention at high current densities.

    5. Interconnected Nanorods–Nanoflakes Li2Co2(MoO4)3 Framework Structure with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties for Supercapacitors

      Kalele Mulonda Hercule, Qiulong Wei, Owusu Kwadwo Asare, Longbing Qu, Aamir Minhas Khan, Mengyu Yan, Chunhui Du, Wei Chen and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500060

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      Using a controllable hydrothermal method, a Li2Co2(MoO4)3 NASICON-type material is successfully synthesized under mild conditions. The open 3D framework structure and the interconnected nanorods–nanoflakes morphology allow small-sized ions to easily inter­calate/deintercalate without structure destruction and enhance the ion transport kinetics at the electrode–electrolyte interface, resulting in improved electrochemical performances. This electroactive material is promising for asymmetric supercapacitors.

  7. Full Papers

    1. High Energy Density Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes

      Dongping Lv, Jianming Zheng, Qiuyan Li, Xi Xie, Seth Ferrara, Zimin Nie, Layla B. Mehdi, Nigel D. Browning, Ji-Guang Zhang, Gordon L. Graff, Jun Liu and Jie Xiao

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402290

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      A facile and effective approach is proposed to integrate commercial carbon nanoparticles into microsized secondary ones for application as high loading sulfur cathodes, targeting use in high energy density Li–S batteries. Uniform electrodes with high loading of 2–8 mg cm−2 sulfur are successfully achieved.

    2. Multiphase Nanostructure of a Quinary Metal Oxide Electrocatalyst Reveals a New Direction for OER Electrocatalyst Design

      Joel A. Haber, Eitan Anzenburg, Junko Yano, Christian Kisielowski and John M. Gregoire

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402307

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      The unique electrochemical behavior of the Ni0.3Fe0.07Co0.2Ce0.43Oxoxygen ­evolution electrocatalyst motivates ­detailed structural characterization to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanism. Atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging using inline holography techniques reveals a nanostructure in which transition metal oxide alloys form atomically sharp boundaries with ceria nanocrystals. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm this unprecedented observation of a multiphase, nanostructured oxygen evolution electrocatalyst.

  8. Communications

    1. Roles of Fullerene-Based Interlayers in Enhancing the Performance of Organometal Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Po-Wei Liang, Chu-Chen Chueh, Spencer T. Williams and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402321

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      Roles of fullerene-based interlayers in enhancing the performance of organometal perovskite thin-film solar cells are elucidated. By studying various fullerenes, a clear correlation between the electron mobility of fullerenes and the resulting performance of derived devices is determined. The metallic characteristics of the bilayer perovskite/fullerene field-effect transistor indicates an effective charge redistribution occurring at the corresponding interface. A conventional perovskite thin-film solar cell derived from the C60 electron-transporting layer (ETL) affords a high power conversion efficiency of 15.4%.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Nanoconfined Carbon-Coated Na3V2(PO4)3 Particles in Mesoporous Carbon Enabling Ultralong Cycle Life for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yu Jiang, Zhenzhong Yang, Weihan Li, Linchao Zeng, Fusen Pan, Min Wang, Xiang Wei, Guantai Hu, Lin Gu and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402104

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      Nanoconfined carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 particles in mesoporous carbon are prepared using a simple nanocasting technique. The optimum design of the core–shell nanostructures with double carbon coating permits fast kinetics for both transported Na+ ions and electrons, enabling excellent rate capability of the Na3V2(PO4)3 electrode.

  10. Communications

    1. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) as a Solvent Additive for Organic Hole Transport Materials and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Erik Gabrielsson, Majid Safdari, Ming Cheng, Yong Hua, Haining Tian, James M. Gardner, Lars Kloo and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402340

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      A low-cost, chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), is used as an effective additive for the triarylamine-based organic hole-transport material, Spiro-OMeTAD, which is successfully applied in highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. A record power conversion efficiency of 7.7% is obtained by using the donor (D)-π-acceptor (A)-dye, LEG4, in combination with the new method of TeCA-doping of the hole-transporting material, Spiro-OMeTAD.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Ni3+-Induced Formation of Active NiOOH on the Spinel Ni–Co Oxide Surface for Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Hsin-Yi Wang, Ying-Ya Hsu, Rong Chen, Ting-Shan Chan, Hao Ming Chen and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500091

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      A new hierarchical Ni–Co oxide nanostructure composed of small secondary nanosheets grown on primary nanosheet arrays is synthesized via a topotactic transformation of Ni–Co layered double hydroxide (LDH). The Ni3+-rich surface benefits the formation of NiOOH, acting as the main active site for effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER).

  12. Communications

    1. Leaf Vein-Inspired Nanochanneled Graphene Film for Highly Efficient Micro-Supercapacitors

      Jian Chang, Subash Adhikari, Tae Hoon Lee, Bing Li, Fei Yao, Duy Tho Pham, Viet Thong Le and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500003

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      Inspired by natural vein-textured leaves, a 2D nanochanneled graph­ene film with high packing density and efficient ion transport pathways is proposed to facilitate high rate capabilities while maintaining high energy density. The 2D nanochannels serve as pathways for efficient ion diffusion parallel to the graphene planes in all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode geometry.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

      Eva Bundgaard, Francesco Livi, Ole Hagemann, Jon E. Carlé, Martin Helgesen, Ilona M. Heckler, Natalia K. Zawacka, Dechan Angmo, Thue T. Larsen-Olsen, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Bérenger Roth, Morten V. Madsen, Mats R. Andersson, Mikkel Jørgensen, Roar R. Søndergaard and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402186

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      A screening of 104 polymer materials for use in roll-coated polymer solar cells is reported. By synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic performances of 104 polymers it is demonstrated that finding suitable materials for large scale roll-to-roll fabricated polymer solar cells is an enormous challenge. The study shows that 13 polymers out of 104 outperform poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and are suitable for further development.

    2. The Critical Choice of PEDOT:PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll-to-Roll Processed OPVs

      Bérenger Roth, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Michael Corazza, Roar R. Søndergaard, Suren A. Gevorgyan, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401912

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      Long term stability testing following the international summit on organic photovoltaic stability protocols is used for evaluation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythio­phene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) based roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules. The influence of the choice of additives on the operational lifetime for the devices is analyzed according to the observed failure modes and predictions of the operational window are made.

    3. From Water Oxidation to Reduction: Homologous Ni–Co Based Nanowires as Complementary Water Splitting Electrocatalysts

      Zheng Peng, Dingsi Jia, Abdullah M. Al-Enizi, Ahmed A. Elzatahry and Gengfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402031

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      A homologous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo 2 O 4 ) and nickel cobalt sulfide (Ni 0.33 Co 0.67 S 2 ) all-nanowire-based system is developed, in which NiCo2O4 nanowires are first hydrothermally synthesized, followed by sulfurization to form Ni0.33Co0.67S2 nanowires. These NiCo2O4 and Ni0.33Co0.67S2 nanowires are excellent oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts, respectively, and the all-nanowire-based water splitting electrolyzer exhibits low onset potentials, high current densities, and long-stability.

  14. Communications

    1. Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Batteries Using High Transference Number Electrolytes

      Yingying Lu, Mukul Tikekar, Ritesh Mohanty, Kenville Hendrickson, Lin Ma and Lynden A. Archer

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402073

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      An electrolyte with high lithium transference number (t Li+) is predicted by theory to retard lithium dendrite formation and growth in rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Lithiated perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membranes (Li-PEM) are synthesized to study the effects of t Li+ on Li dendrite growth in an ideally single-ion conductive electrolyte system. Consistent with theory, a more than 40-fold improvement in cell lifetime is found.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Nanoflake-Assembled Hierarchical Na3V2(PO4)3/C Microflowers: Superior Li Storage Performance and Insertion/Extraction Mechanism

      Qinyou An, Fangyu Xiong, Qiulong Wei, Jinzhi Sheng, Liang He, Dongling Ma, Yan Yao and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401963

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      Nanoflake-assembled hierarchical Na3V2­(PO4)3/C microflowers are successfully synthesized using a facile method. As electrodes for hybrid lithium ion batteries, they display high capacity, excellent rate performance, and remarkable cycling stability. In addition, the insertion/extraction mechanism of Na3V2(PO4)3/C as the electrode in hybrid lithium ion batteries is investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction.

    2. Making Ends Meet: Flow Synthesis as the Answer to Reproducible High-Performance Conjugated Polymers on the Scale that Roll-to-Roll Processing Demands

      Martin Helgesen, Jon E. Carlé, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen, Eva Bundgaard and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401996

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      Upscaling polymer solar cell fabrication using roll-to-roll processing requires conjugated polymer materials on a comparable scale. A simple home built reactor is described for daily production of >100 g, which is enough to supply a large scale roll-to-roll processing machine and manufacture of flexible modules free from vacuum, silver, and indium.

  16. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

      Joseph W. Rumer, Raja S. Ashraf, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Zhenggang Huang, Iain Meager, Christian B. Nielsen, Bob C. Schroeder, Michael L. Chabinyc and Iain McCulloch

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401426

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      A bis-azide-based small molecule cross­linker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a non­invasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Dual-Confined Flexible Sulfur Cathodes Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Double-Shelled Hollow Carbon Spheres and Wrapped with Graphene for Li–S Batteries

      Guangmin Zhou, Yubao Zhao and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402263

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      A dual-confined flexible cathode is designed by encapsulating sulfur in nitrogen-doped double-shelled hollow carbon spheres followed by graphene wrapping for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries. Sulfur/polysulfides are immobilized in the cathode through the physical confinement by the hollow sphere and graphene wrapping and chemical binding between the hetero-nitrogen atoms and lithium polysulfides, enabling a high specific capacity and sustainable cycling stability.

    2. A Composite Gel–Polymer/Glass–Fiber Electrolyte for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Hongcai Gao, Bingkun Guo, Jie Song, Kyusung Park and John B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402235

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      An integrated approach is developed to prepare a composite gel–polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) for use in sodium ion batteries. The mechanical properties of the gel–polymer electrolyte are reinforced by a glass–fiber paper, and the surface properties are tuned by a polydopamine coating. When tested in a sodium-ion battery with Na2MnFe(CN)6 as cathode, the rate capability, cycling performance, and coulombic efficiency are significantly improved.

  18. Communications

    1. Ultratransparent Polymer/Semitransparent Silver Grid Hybrid Electrodes for Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells

      Yong Hyun Kim, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401822

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      A hybrid ultratransparent poly(3,4-ethyl­enedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulf­onate) (PEDOT:PSS)/metal grid thin-film is demonstrated as a transparent electrode for organic solar cells. The transmittance of the PEDOT:PSS thin-films on glass reaches values as high as 91.5%, a nearly 100% transmittance ratio. The device with the hybrid electrode shows an efficiency of 2.8%, which is comparable to that of an indium tin oxide based reference device.

  19. Full Papers

    1. An Ion-Exchange Promoted Phase Transition in a Li-Excess Layered Cathode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

      Jianqing Zhao, Ruiming Huang, Wenpei Gao, Jian-Min Zuo, Xiao Feng Zhang, Scott T. Misture, Yuan Chen, Jenny V. Lockard, Boliang Zhang, Shengmin Guo, Mohammad Reza Khoshi, Kerry Dooley, Huixin He and Ying Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401937

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      A Li-excess layered Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is completely converted to a Li4Mn5O12-type spinel product via ex situ ion exchanges and a post-annealing process. This sheds light on the fundamental understanding of phase transitions within Li-excess layered oxides and provides a novel route for tailoring electrochemical performance of Li-excess layered cathode materials for high-capacity lithium ion batteries.

    2. A Temporary Barrier Effect of the Alloy Layer During Selenization: Tailoring the Thickness of MoSe2 for Efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells

      Jianjun Li, Yi Zhang, Wei Zhao, Dahyun Nam, Hyeonsik Cheong, Li Wu, Zhiqiang Zhou and Yun Sun

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402178

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      The formation of interfacial MoSe2 in Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cells can be tailored by an advanced annealing process without an additional barrier layer, reducing the series resistance of the CZTSe solar cell to a low level. A CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 8.7% is fabricated.

  20. Communications

    1. Disordered Lithium-Rich Oxyfluoride as a Stable Host for Enhanced Li+ Intercalation Storage

      Ruiyong Chen, Shuhua Ren, Michael Knapp, Di Wang, Raiker Witter, Maximilian Fichtner and Horst Hahn

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401814

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      A new intercalation compound Li2VO2F with disordered rock-salt structure enables up to ≈1.8 Li+ storage (420 mAh g−1) at ≈2.5 V with a lattice volume change of only ≈3%. A high capacity of 300 mAh g−1 at 1C rate is observed. At –10 °C, Li2VO2F can deliver a reversible capacity of 280 mAh g−1 at ≈2.4 V.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

      Florian A. Y. N. Schröder, Jacqueline M. Cole, Paul G. Waddell and Scott McKechnie

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401728

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      The possibility to transform a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, by a molecular engineering approach into new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell is explored. The conceptual idea involves adding an “anchoring” group to the parent laser dyes, rendering them dye-sensitized solar cell-active, while maintaining key property attributes that are particularly attractive to dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

  22. Communications

    1. Nanostructured Conjugated Ladder Polymers for Stable and Fast Lithium Storage Anodes with High-Capacity

      Jiansheng Wu, Xianhong Rui, Chengyuan Wang, Wen-Bo Pei, Raymond Lau, Qingyu Yan and Qichun Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402189

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      N anoparticles of n-type conjugated ladder polymer poly(benzobisimidazobenzo­phenanthroline) (BBL) and its analogue (SBBL) are prepared through a reprecipitation method. The ladder polymers are tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. They exhibit high capacity, good rate performance, and excellent cycle life, especially at high temperature of 50 °C.

    2. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confining Sulfur in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Weidong Zhou, Chongmin Wang, Qinglin Zhang, Héctor D. Abruña, Yang He, Jiangwei Wang, Scott X. Mao and Xingcheng Xiao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401752

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      Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

    3. Identifying the Optimum Morphology in High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

      Guijun Li, Kwong Lung Ching, Jacob Y. L. Ho, Man Wong and Hoi-Sing Kwok

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401775

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      The study of the perovskite solar cells provides insight into the optimum morphology. A bilayer structure is required for efficient solar cells, and one with a high efficiencies of up to 15.2% and an open-circuit voltage (Voc) up to 1110 mV is demonstrated. Furthermore, the 80% high yield also paves the way for the possibility of mass production in the future.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Clare Dyer-Smith, Ian A. Howard, Clément Cabanetos, Abdulrahman El Labban, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Frédéric Laquai

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401778

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      The polymer side chain pattern determines the efficiency of PBDTTPD:phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells because it changes the yield of free charges and the nongeminate recombination dynamics, as demonstrated by broadband transient pump–probe spectroscopy. Tuning of the side chains leads to a doubling of the power conversion efficiency from 4% up to 8%.

  24. Communications

    1. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium–Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

      Dong Zheng, Deyu Qu, Xiao-Qing Yang, Xiqian Yu, Hung-Sui Lee and Deyang Qu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401888

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      The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solutions can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li–S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

    2. Mn2V2O7: An Earth Abundant Light Absorber for Solar Water Splitting

      Qimin Yan, Guo Li, Paul F. Newhouse, Jie Yu, Kristin A. Persson, John M. Gregoire and Jeffrey B. Neaton

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401840

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      Complex oxide β-Mn2V2O7 is identified as exhibiting near-optimal band energetics for solar fuel applications among known metal oxides. Experiments, corroborated by theory, indicate a bandgap near 1.8 eV. The calculations predict that β-Mn2V2O7 has well-aligned band edge energies for the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate appreciable photocurrent, corroborating the predictions.

    3. A Universal Interface Layer Based on an Amine-Functionalized Fullerene Derivative with Dual Functionality for Efficient Solution Processed Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells

      Hamed Azimi, Tayebeh Ameri, Hong Zhang, Yi Hou, Cesar Omar Ramirez Quiroz, Jie Min, Mengyao Hu, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Thomas Przybilla, Gebhard J. Matt, Erdmann Spiecker, Yongfang Li and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401692

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      The successful application of an effective dipolar interface layer based on an amine functionalized fullerene derivative (DMAPA-C60) is reported for the perovskite and organic photovoltaic devices. The incorporation of DMAPA-C60 facilities a favorable energy level alignment, and results in enhanced mobility-lifetime (µt) product.

  25. Full Papers

    1. The Effect of Antisite Disorder and Particle Size on Li Intercalation Kinetics in Monoclinic LiMnBO3

      Jae Chul Kim, Dong-Hwa Seo, Hailong Chen and Gerbrand Ceder

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401916

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      Mn/Li antisite disorder in monoclinic LiMnBO3 impedes 1D Li diffusion. This effect of channel-blocking on macroscopic Li transport and capacity is subject to particle size as large particles have a higher probability to contain at least two antisites within a single channel than small particles. Thus, in order to make a substantial amount of Li accessible and improve the capacity of LiMnBO3, its particle size should be minimized.

    2. Micropatterning of Flexible and Free Standing Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Films for Enhanced Pyroelectric Energy Transformation

      Daniel Zabek, John Taylor, Emmanuel Le Boulbar and Chris R. Bowen

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401891

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      The ability to readily form a flexible and free-standing pyroelectric polyvinylidene­difluoride harvester widens the range of potential applications and device features. It is demonstrated that direct heating of the electroactive material using a partially covered electrode with a square array of holes improves the absorption of the available thermal energy and increases transformed energy by 1080% compared to a fully covered electrode.

    3. Dithienogermole-Containing Small-Molecule Solar Cells with 7.3% Efficiency: In-Depth Study on the Effects of Heteroatom Substitution of Si with Ge

      Mijin Moon, Bright Walker, Junghoon Lee, Song Yi Park, Hyungju Ahn, Taehyo Kim, Tack Ho Lee, Jungwoo Heo, Jung Hwa Seo, Tae Joo Shin, Jin Young Kim and Changduk Yang

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402044

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      A series of solution-processed small-molecules based on dithienogermole (DTGe) units is synthesized and fully optimized with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3%. This is a record for germanium (Ge)-based small molecules in devices and the PCE value reported is, for the first time, certified for this class of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  26. Communications

    1. Tellurium@Ordered Macroporous Carbon Composite and Free-Standing Tellurium Nanowire Mat as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Tellurium Batteries

      Ning Ding, Shao-Feng Chen, Dong-Sheng Geng, Sheau-Wei Chien, Tao An, T. S. Andy Hor, Zhao-Lin Liu, Shu-Hong Yu and Yun Zong

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401999

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      Tellurium impregnated ordered macro­porous carbon and free-standing tellurium nanowire mat are prepared as cathode materials to construct a novel Li–Te battery. The Li–Te battery shows improved cyclability and rate capability as compared to Li–S and Li–Se batteries.

    2. Reliability of Mixed-Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics Grown via Organic Vapor Phase Deposition

      Byeongseop Song, Quinn C. Burlingame, Kyusang Lee and Stephen R. Forrest

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401952

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      Organic vapor phase deposition is used to grow a roughened active layer for an organic photovoltaic cell that suppresses morphological changes in a subsequently deposited Bphen blocking layer. Bphen grown on smooth active layers grown by vacuum thermal evaporation crystallizes due to lack of morphological “pinning.” Morphological pinning leads to improved operational device lifetime of the organic vapor phase deposition-grown organic photovoltaic cells.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Efficient CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Graphdiyne (GD)-Modified P3HT Hole-Transporting Material

      Junyan Xiao, Jiangjian Shi, Huibiao Liu, Yuzhuan Xu, Songtao Lv, Yanhong Luo, Dongmei Li, Qingbo Meng and Yuliang Li

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401943

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      A novel large π-conjugated carbon material , graphdiyne (GD), is introduced into perovskite solar cells for the first time. As a dopant to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hole-transporting material, GD exhibits relatively strong π–π stacking interaction with P3HT, yielding a high power conversion efficiency value of 14.58% with good stability and reproducibility, superior to the pristine P3HT-based devices.

    2. Highly Stable Supercapacitors with Conducting Polymer Core-Shell Electrodes for Energy Storage Applications

      Chuan Xia, Wei Chen, Xianbin Wang, Mohamed N. Hedhili, Nini Wei and Husam N. Alshareef

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401805

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      Polyaniline RuO2 core–shell electrodes are fabricated by dilute chemical polymerization and atomic layer deposition. The RuO2 layer stabilizes the polyaniline pseudocapacitors and significantly improves their energy density. A specific capacitance of 710 F g−1 at 5 mV s−1 and power density of 42.2 kW kg−1 at an energy density of 10 Wh kg−1 are obtained. Capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at 20 A g−1, is achieved.

  28. Communications

    1. Highly Flexible Aqueous Photovoltaic Elastomer Gels Derived from Sulfonated Block Ionomers

      Heba A. Al-Mohsin, Kenneth P. Mineart and Richard J. Spontak

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401941

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      Physically cross-linked hydrogels generated from midblock-sulfonated block ionomers yield novel photovoltaic elastomer gels that are competitive with existing biophotovoltaic systems. The independent roles of photosensitive dyes and the degree of sulfonation in the ionomers on the light-harvesting performance of these photovoltaic elastomer gels are examined. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy provide insight into the nano- and atomic-scale mechanism of ion transport.

    2. Radical or Not Radical: Revisiting Lithium–Sulfur Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Electrolytes

      Marine Cuisinier, Connor Hart, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Arnd Garsuch and Linda F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401801

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      Tracking down trisulfur radical in lithium–sulfur batteries is reported. In nonaqueous electrolytes, dissociation of polysulfide dianions to radicals, and particularly trisulfur S3·−, is believed to play a key role in the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. While S3·− exists in only minor concentration in glymes, exacerbated dissociation in donor solvents allows full utilization of both sulfur and lithium sulfide.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT:PCBM Organic Solar Cells by Strong Spin–Orbit Coupling-Induced Delayed Fluorescence

      Daniel Moseguí González, Volker Körstgens, Yuan Yao, Lin Song, Gonzalo Santoro, Stephan V. Roth and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401770

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      Organic solar cells are doped with iron oxide nanoparticles. An increased efficiency for low doping concentrations is found and ascribed to a reduced device recombination, which is traced with prompt and delayed fluorescence measurements. Morphological and crystalline characterization is addressed by grazing-incidence small/wide-angle X-ray scattering in order to ensure that the improvement is not morphology related.

    2. Porosity-Controlled TiNb2O7 Microspheres with Partial Nitridation as A Practical Negative Electrode for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Hyunjung Park, Hao Bin Wu, Taeseup Song, Xiong Wen (David) Lou and Ungyu Paik

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401945

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      Porosity controlled TiNb2O7 microspheres are successfully prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction. Ammonia gas treatment is then carried out to enhance conductivity with a Ti1−XNbXN layer formed on the surface. These partially nitridated TiNb2O7 microspheres show a superior rate capability of ≈143 mAh g−1 at 100 C and durable long-term cyclability of ≈91% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 5 C.

    3. Bis(Naphthalene Imide)diphenylanthrazolines: A New Class of Electron Acceptors for Efficient Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells and Applicable to Multiple Donor Polymers

      Haiyan Li, Taeshik Earmme, Selvam Subramaniyan and Samson A. Jenekhe

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402041

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      Novel nonfullerene electron acceptors, bis[naphthalene imide)diphenylanthrazolines, are found to be compatible with multiple donor polymers, enabling polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 3.0%–3.1% and high photovoltages of close to 1.0 V. The size of the alkyl chain appended onto a nonfullerene acceptor is found to dramatically change the photovoltaic efficiency.

  30. Communications

    1. Flexible Perovskite Photovoltaic Modules and Solar Cells Based on Atomic Layer Deposited Compact Layers and UV-Irradiated TiO2 Scaffolds on Plastic Substrates

      Francesco Di Giacomo, Valerio Zardetto, Alessandra D'Epifanio, Sara Pescetelli, Fabio Matteocci, Stefano Razza, Aldo Di Carlo, Silvia Licoccia, Wilhelmus M. M. Kessels, Mariadriana Creatore and Thomas M. Brown

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401808

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      Flexible perovskite photovoltaic modules are demonstrated for the first time. Low-temperature processes including UV-irradiation of the mesoporous TiO2 and atomic layer deposition of the compact TiO2 helps deliver solar cells with 8.4% efficiency, good flexibility, and improved stability with respect to scaffoldless equivalents. Screen-printable scaffolds and masking/laser patterning procedures enables fabrication of 3.1%-efficient mesostructured perovskite modules on plastic substrates.

    2. Phenoxazine-Based Small Molecule Material for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells and Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

      Ming Cheng, Bo Xu, Cheng Chen, Xichuan Yang, Fuguo Zhang, Qin Tan, Yong Hua, Lars Kloo and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401720

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      The phenoxazine-based acceptor–donor–acceptor structured small-molecule material M1 is used either as a hole-transport material in (CH3NH3)PbI3-perovskite-based solar cells or as photoactive donor material in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Excellent power conversion efficiencies of 13.2% and 6.9% are achieved in these two types of photovoltaic devices, respectively.

    3. High-Areal-Capacity Silicon Electrodes with Low-Cost Silicon Particles Based on Spatial Control of Self-Healing Binder

      Zheng Chen, Chao Wang, Jeffrey Lopez, Zhenda Lu, Yi Cui and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401826

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      Systematic studies of the interactions between self-healing polymer and Si particles with particle size control leads to stable electrodes with high areal capacities of 3–4 mAh cm−2 for low-cost, large Si particles (0.5–1.5 μm in diameter).

    4. Schottky Junction Effect on High Performance Fuel Cells Based on Nanocomposite Materials

      Bin Zhu, Peter D. Lund, Rizwan Raza, Ying Ma, Liangdong Fan, Muhammad Afzal, Janne Patakangas, Yunjun He, Yufeng Zhao, Wenyi Tan, Qiu-An Huang, Jun Zhang and Hao Wang

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401895

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel fuel cell device based on integrating the Schottky junction effect with the electrochemical principle is designed, constructed, and verified through experiments. It is found that the Schottky junction has a significant effect on the greatly enhanced device performance, and the fuel cell device incorporating the Schottky junction effect reaches a power output of 1000 mW cm−2 at 550 °C.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Electrically Contacted Bienzyme-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon Nanoparticle Electrodes: Applications for the Development of Dual Amperometric Biosensors and Multifuel-Driven Biofuel Cells

      Alexander Trifonov, Ran Tel-Vered, Michael Fadeev and Itamar Willner

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401853

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      Mesoporous carbon nanoparticle electrodes for dual amperometric biosensors and multifuel-driven biofuel cells are reported. Electrically contacted bienzyme electrodes are prepared by the capping of different relays in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles through crosslinking of two different enzymes. The electrodes are implemented for the dual analysis of analytes and to construct biofuel cells that effectively utilize biomass fuel substrates.

    2. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type PbSe by Cr Doping with Optimized Carrier Concentration

      Qian Zhang, Eyob Kebede Chere, Kenneth McEnaney, Mengliang Yao, Feng Cao, Yizhou Ni, Shuo Chen, Cyril Opeil, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401977

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      Transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Nb, and Mo) are used as donors in PbSe to increase the average ZT of n-type PbSe. A larger average ZT value can be obtained by an optimization of carrier concentration to ≈1018-1019 cm-3. The calculated device efficiency of Pb0.995Cr0.005Se is as high as ≈12.5% with cold side 300 K and hot side 873 K.

  32. Communications

    1. A One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrogen and Carbon Fuels from Water and Carbon Dioxide

      Fang-Fang Li, Shuzhi Liu, Baochen Cui, Jason Lau, Jessica Stuart, Baohui Wang and Stuart Licht

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401791

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      A single-pot electrolytic synthesis of hydrogen and carbon fuels is achieved through the use of a mixed, hydroxide/carbonate electrolyte, nickel anode (generating O2), and nickel or steel cathode (generating graphite and hydrogen). Low hydroxide fractions in the electrolyte ensure efficient carbon formation, while high fractions form only H2 at the cathode; added barium and lithium salts ensure effective nickel anode stability.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Ultrathin Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets Embedded with TiO2-B Nanodomains for Lithium-Ion Storage: Capacity Enhancement by Phase Boundaries

      Qili Wu, Jungu Xu, Xianfeng Yang, Fengqi Lu, Shiman He, Jingling Yang, Hong Jin Fan and Mingmei Wu

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401756

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      Anatase nanosheets with TiO2-B nanodomains form microspheres. Due to its ultrathin nanosheet structure and additional anatase/TiO2-B interface lithium storage, this anode material displays stable capacities of 180 and 110 mAh g−1 at 3400 and 8500 mA g−1 after 1000 cycles. The mechanism of Li-ion storage at the boundaries is discussed.

    2. Nonequilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution

      Young-Sang Yu, Chunjoong Kim, Yijin Liu, Anton van der Ven, Ying Shirley Meng, Robert Kostecki and Jordi Cabana

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402040

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      Compositional and morphological transitions during the electrochemical reaction of a single Li1+xMn2–xO4 microcrystal are successfully probed at the nanoscale using operando full-field transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy. It is possible to visualize the directionality of the transitions and correlate them with fracture. The approach reveals nonequilibrium pathways where phases at different potentials can coexist within a microcrystal.

    3. High Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes Composed of Ultralarge Graphene Sheets and Vanadium Dioxide

      Myungsup Lee, Boon-Hong Wee and Jong-Dal Hong

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401890

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      The utilization of ultralarge graphene oxide sheets (UGO) (mean lateral size of 47 μm ± 22 μm) in a flexible hybrid supercapacitor electrode composed of UGO and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanobelts is reported. A significant improvement in the specific capacitance (769 F g−1) for this electrode can be achieved due to the presence of fewer intersheet tunneling barriers.

  34. Reviews

    1. Energy Harvesting Technologies for Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems

      C. R. Bowen and M. H. Arafa

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401787

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      Tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) are becoming increasingly important to ensure safe and efficient use of tires in the automotive sector. In order to provide a maintenance-free and battery-less sensor solution there is growing interest in using energy harvesting technologies to power TPMS. This review discusses the use of piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electret and triboelectric materials in TPMS harvesting systems.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Ultrafast Charge Generation Pathways in Photovoltaic Blends Based on Novel Star-Shaped Conjugated Molecules

      Oleg V. Kozlov, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Nina Kausch-Busies, Dmitry Yu Paraschuk, Yoann Olivier, David Beljonne, Jérôme Cornil and Maxim S. Pshenichnikov

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401657

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      Novel donor materials for organic solar cells, triphenyl-based star-shaped small molecules, are studied using ultrafast spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Both electron- and hole-transfer pathways are found to be equally important for generation of the separated charges in blends with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester. The results provide routes for further optimization of small-molecule organic solar cells.

    2. Design Principles for Metal Oxide Redox Materials for Solar-Driven Isothermal Fuel Production

      Ronald Michalsky, Venkatesh Botu, Cory M. Hargus, Andrew A. Peterson and Aldo Steinfeld

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401082

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      Design principles for solar-thermochemical metal oxide redox materials, reducible metal oxide catalysts, and solid oxide fuel cell materials are presented. Trends in the surface activity and oxygen-vacancy conductivity of a wide range of transition-metal oxides are established and are understood to be due to electronic charge localization. The utility of the concepts is demonstrated with a descriptor-based design principle of metal oxide redox materials for an isothermal solar-driven splitting of CO2 and H2O.

    3. Unraveling the Morphology of High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Based on the Donor Polymer PBDTTT-EFT

      Wenchao Huang, Eliot Gann, Lars Thomsen, Cunku Dong, Yi-Bing Cheng and Christopher R. McNeill

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401259

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      The morphology of a novel and highly efficient polymer solar cell is comprehensively investigated using surface sensitive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and bulk-sensitive grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The solvent additive 1,8-diiodooctane in particular is shown to be effective at controlling fullerene aggregation and enhancing polymer ordering, facilitating efficiencies of over 9%.

    4. Shelf Life Degradation of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Intrinsic Evolution of Charge Transfer Complex

      Antonio Guerrero, Hamed Heidari, Teresa S. Ripolles, Alexander Kovalenko, Martin Pfannmöller, Sara Bals, Louis-Dominique Kauffmann, Juan Bisquert and Germà Garcia-Belmonte

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401997

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      Long-term stability analysis under non-accelerated conditions reveals spontaneous chemical interaction between bulk materials. Device degradation occurs by the formation of donor–acceptor charge transfer complexes that act as exciton quenchers. Generation of these radical species diminishes photocurrent and reduces open-circuit voltage by the creation of electronic defect states.

    5. Design Meets Nature: Tetrahedrite Solar Absorbers

      Jaeseok Heo, Ram Ravichandran, Christopher F. Reidy, Janet Tate, John F. Wager and Douglas A. Keszler

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401506

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      Computational inverse design and consequent experimental results allow for the identification of new tetrahedrite-mineral compositions as promising absorber candidates in drift-based thin-film solar cells. In device simulations, cell efficiencies above 20% are modeled with absorber layers as thin as 250 nm. These new compositions thus open opportunities for realization of a new class of high-efficiency thin-film solar cell.

    6. One-Step Solvothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Manganese Fluoride as an Anode for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Insights into the Conversion Mechanism

      Kun Rui, Zhaoyin Wen, Yan Lu, Jun Jin and Chen Shen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401716

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      A favorable MnF2 anode is successfully synthesized based on ionic liquid and it delivers surprisingly inspiring electrochemical performance, with a capacity retention of 237 mAh g−1 at 10 C after 5000 cycles. Redistribution of metallic Mn nanoparticles within the LiF matrix, resulting in the formation of Mn network facilitating electron transport, is considered as the dominant cause for improvement of reversibility and capability.

    7. Mg Substitution Clarifies the Reaction Mechanism of Olivine LiFePO4

      Fredrick Omenya, Bohua Wen, Jin Fang, Ruibo Zhang, Qi Wang, Natasha A. Chernova, Joe Schneider-Haefner, Frederic Cosandey and M. Stanley Whittingham

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401204

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      Magnesium substitution into the LiFePO4 structure stabilizes the formation of the solid solution phase, LixMgyFe1–yPO4 for 0 < x < 1. Whereas in pure nanosized LiFePO4 the solid solution phase is metastable, the introduction of magnesium thermodynamically stabilizes the solid solution. As this phase is stable, there is no overpotential needed to generate the solid solution.

    8. A Layered-Nanospace-Confinement Strategy for the Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Porous Carbon Nanosheets for High-Rate Performance Supercapacitors

      Xiaoming Fan, Chang Yu, Juan Yang, Zheng Ling, Chao Hu, Mengdi Zhang and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401761

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      2D porous carbon nanosheets are generally fabricated using a combined process including layered-nanospace-confined pyrolysis of bio-sources and KOH activation. The unique 2D structure helps to enhance the rate capability for supercapacitors with a capacitance retention of about 80% at a high current density of 100 A g−1; this is twice that of the activated carbon particulates from bio-sources.

    9. Indolizine-Based Donors as Organic Sensitizer Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Aron J. Huckaba, Fabrizio Giordano, Louis E. McNamara, Katelyn M. Dreux, Nathan I. Hammer, Gregory S. Tschumper, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Jared H. Delcamp

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401629

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      Indolizines are exceptionally strong organic donor building blocks for use in D-π-A dyes for dye sensitized solar cells. A series of indolizine-based dyes are synthesized for comparison to known common organic donor functionality. These dyes are studied computationally, electrochemically, spectroscopically, and in dye-sensitized solar cell devices.

  36. Communications

    1. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin-Film Solar Cells by Thermal Co-evaporation with 11.6% Efficiency and Improved Minority Carrier Diffusion Length

      Yun Seog Lee, Talia Gershon, Oki Gunawan, Teodor K. Todorov, Tayfun Gokmen, Yudistira Virgus and Supratik Guha

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401372

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      11.6%-efficiency Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells are fabricated via a thermal co-evaporation method. The CZTSe thin-film with improved microstructure exhibits a minority carrier diffusion length over 2 μm, resulting in efficient photogenerated carrier collection in the device. A comparative study of photoluminescence in pure selenide and pure sulfide devices shows reduced band-tailing for pure selenide phase.

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