Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Guangchen Xu

Impact Factor: 16.146

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 3/88 (Energy & Fuels); 4/139 (Chemistry Physical); 4/143 (Physics Applied); 4/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 5/259 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Electronic Materials, Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Science, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  1. Full Papers

    1. Observation of Electrochemically Driven Elemental Segregation in a Si Alloy Thin-Film Anode and its Effects on Cyclic Stability for Li-Ion Batteries

      Minsub Oh, Sekwon Na, Chang-Su Woo, Jun-Ho Jeong, Sung-Soo Kim, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Mark Hermann Rümmeli, Seungmin Hyun and Hoo-Jeong Lee

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501136

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      Repetition of electrochemically driven in-/out-flux of lithium ions separates Ti and Fe from Si in a (Ti, Fe)-alloyed Si anode, rendering ripple-like pattern of (Ti, Fe) segregation regions. The ripple pattern, acting as “self-formed” buffer, and subsequent morphology evolution enable an excellent cyclic stability, stable operation for more than 500 cycles at a capacity of 1400 mAh g–1.

    2. High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Photoanodes in the CuO–V2O5 System

      Lan Zhou, Qimin Yan, Aniketa Shinde, Dan Guevarra, Paul F. Newhouse, Natalie Becerra-Stasiewicz, Shawn M. Chatman, Joel A. Haber, Jeffrey B. Neaton and John M. Gregoire

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500968

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      Through integration of high throughput experimental and theoretical techniques, CuO-V2O5 is established as the most prominent composition system for oxygen evolution reaction photoelectrocatalysts. Four photoelectrocatalyst phases are discovered and structure–property relationships are developed using a strategic combination of combinatorial synthesis, high throughput screening, and detailed electronic structure calculations.

    3. Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture

      Daniel Bahro, Manuel Koppitz, Adrian Mertens, Konstantin Glaser, Jan Mescher and Alexander Colsmann

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501019

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      A three-terminal tandem solar cell architecture enables detailed studies of the external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of organic homo-tandem solar cells. Due to optoelectronic equality, all results can be transferred to conventional two-terminal tandem cells including a detailed study of subcell saturation by monochromatic bias light and bias voltage needed for accurate EQE measurements.

    4. Fe-Based Tunnel-Type Na0.61[Mn0.27Fe0.34Ti0.39]O2 Designed by a New Strategy as a Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Shuyin Xu, Yuesheng Wang, Liubin Ben, Yingchun Lyu, Ningning Song, Zhenzhong Yang, Yunming Li, Linqin Mu, Hai-Tao Yang, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Zhao-Hua Cheng, Liquan Chen and Xuejie Huang

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501156

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      A new strategy through partially/fully substituting the redox couple of existing negative electrodes in their reduced forms is proposed to design the corresponding new positive electrode materials. The power of this strategy is demonstrated through the successful design of new tunnel-type positive electrode materials of Na0.61[Mn0.61-xFexTi0.39]O2, exhibiting a usable capacity of ≈90 mAh g−1 and a high storage voltage of 3.56 V.

    5. Thin-Film Solar Cells with InP Absorber Layers Directly Grown on Nonepitaxial Metal Substrates

      Maxwell Zheng, Hsin-Ping Wang, Carolin M. Sutter-Fella, Corsin Battaglia, Shaul Aloni, Xufeng Wang, James Moore, Jeffrey W. Beeman, Mark Hettick, Matin Amani, Wei-Tse Hsu, Joel W. Ager, Peter Bermel, Mark Lundstrom, Jr-Hau He and Ali Javey

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501337

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      The design and performance of solar cells based on InP grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor–liquid–solid growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. The highest measured open circuit voltage (VOC) under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP.

    6. Heterogeneous Distribution of Sodium for High Thermoelectric Performance of p-type Multiphase Lead-Chalcogenides

      Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, David R. G. Mitchell, Zachary M. Gibbs, Rafael Santos, Vaughan Patterson, Sean Li, Yan Zhong Pei, Shi Xue Dou and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501047

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      The thermoelectric efficiency of multiphase nanostructured Pb-chalcogenides is improved substantially by sodium doping beyond the solubility limit of the matrix. Heterogeneous distribution of this dopant between the matrix and second phase precipitate arises due to solubility differences, which vary as a function of temperature. The resulting intrinsic modulation doping boosts the charge carrier mobilities at elevated temperatures.

    7. Generalized Mechanochemical Synthesis of Biomass-Derived Sustainable Carbons for High Performance CO2 Storage

      Norah Balahmar, Andrew C. Mitchell and Robert Mokaya

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500867

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      A mechanochemical activation route enables the production of lowly activated biomass-derived carbons with higher surface area compared to conventionally activated carbons but with no change in pores of size 5.8–6.5 Å. This results in a dramatic rise in CO2 storage capacity at 25 °C; up to 2.0 and 5.8 mmol g−1 at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively.

    8. Water Ingress in Encapsulated Inverted Organic Solar Cells: Correlating Infrared Imaging and Photovoltaic Performance

      Jens Adams, Michael Salvador, Luca Lucera, Stefan Langner, George D. Spyropoulos, Frank W. Fecher, Monika M. Voigt, Simon A. Dowland, Andres Osvet, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501065

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      Lifetime limitations of current-generation inverted and encapsulated organic solar cells under damp heat conditions are identified by correlating photovoltaic device performance with lock-in IR imaging techniques. The combination of electroluminescence imaging and water diffusion modeling may inform strategies for predicting early performance losses in solar cells and modules.

    9. Photoelectrochemical Wiring of Paulschulzia pseudovolvox (Algae) to Osmium Polymer Modified Electrodes for Harnessing Solar Energy

      Kamrul Hasan, Emre Çevik, Eva Sperling, Michael A. Packer, Dónal Leech and Lo Gorton

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501100

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      The photo-electrogenic activity of a green alga, Paulschulzia pseudovolvox, is shown and the electron transfer from photolysis of water via the green alga cells to the electrode is revealed either directly or mediated by an osmium redox polymer. When benzoquinone is added to the electrolyte and the cells are protected from reactive oxygen species by the addition of superoxide dismutase, the maximum photocurrent recorded was 11.50 µA cm–2. In the presence of an inhibitor specific for photosystem II, diuron, the photocurrent decreases by 50%.

  2. Communications

    1. Light-Induced Self-Poling Effect on Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells for Increased Device Efficiency and Stability

      Yehao Deng, Zhengguo Xiao and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500721

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      Continuous illumination of the organometal trihalide perovskite (OTP) devices can cause the photovoltaic poling effect, termed light-induced self-poling (LISP), which improves the stabilized device efficiency significantly. The effect of LISP is comparable to the poling by an externally applied electric field, which can be explained by the redistribution of ions/vacancies within the OTP layers driven by photovoltage-induced additional electric field.

  3. Full Papers

    1. A High-Performance Supercapacitor Based on KOH Activated 1D C70 Microstructures

      Shushu Zheng, Hui Ju and Xing Lu

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500871

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      High-temperature KOH activation of C70 microtubes produces the corresponding 3D carbon materials containing both macropores and micropores, which exhibit excellent capacitive performances with typical capacitances of as high as 362.0 F g−1. This is much better than that of the original microtubes (3.7 F g−1), opening a wide avenue toward the applications of fullerenes in energy storage.

    2. Acacia Senegal–Inspired Bifunctional Binder for Longevity of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Gaoran Li, Min Ling, Yifan Ye, Zhoupeng Li, Jinghua Guo, Yingfang Yao, Junfa Zhu, Zhan Lin and Shanqing Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500878

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      The gum arabic (GA) binder based sulfur cathode (75 wt% sulfur) is evaluated under long-term cycling at C/5. The excellent mechanical properties of GA endow the S@GA cathode with high binding strength and suitable ductility to buffer volume change, while the functional groups chemically and physically confine sulfur species within the cathode to inhibit the shuttling effect of the polysulfides.

    3. Toward an Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution in Acidic Media: Ti-Stabilized MnO2

      Rasmus Frydendal, Elisa A. Paoli, Ib Chorkendorff, Jan Rossmeisl and Ifan E. L. Stephens

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500991

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      A strategy for designing a nonprecious metal catalyst with improved stability for oxygen evolution in acidic electrolyte is presented. Density functional theory calculations suggest that surface titanium on manganese oxide should increase the catalyst stability without affecting the activity. This notion is confirmed experimentally with thin films of Ti–MnO2.

  4. Communications

    1. Large Efficiency Improvement in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells by Introducing a Superficial Ge Nanolayer

      Sergio Giraldo, Markus Neuschitzer, Thomas Thersleff, Simón López-Marino, Yudania Sánchez, Haibing Xie, Mónica Colina, Marcel Placidi, Paul Pistor, Victor Izquierdo-Roca, Klaus Leifer, Alejandro Pérez-Rodríguez and Edgardo Saucedo

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501070

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      A large improvement of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cell efficiency is presented based on the introduction of a Ge superficial nanolayer. This improvement is explained by three complementary effects: the formation of a liquid Ge-related phase, the possible reduction of Sn multicharge states, and the formation of GeOx nanoinclusions, which lead to an impressive solar cell (VOC) increase.

  5. Full Papers

    1. A Novel High Capacity Positive Electrode Material with Tunnel-Type Structure for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yuesheng Wang, Linqin Mu, Jue Liu, Zhenzhong Yang, Xiqian Yu, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Xiao-Qing Yang, Liquan Chen and Xuejie Huang

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501005

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      Tunnel-type Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is successfully designed and synthesized as a positive electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. It shows a high reversible capacity of ≈76 mAh g−1 at a current rate of 2 C with an average voltage of 1.2 V vs. NTP. The aqueous full-cell demonstrates excellent cycle performance with small capacity decay after 300 cycles.

  6. Communications

    1. Superionic Conduction of Sodium and Lithium in Anion-Mixed Hydroborates Na3BH4B12H12 and (Li0.7Na0.3)3BH4B12H12

      Yolanda Sadikin, Matteo Brighi, Pascal Schouwink and Radovan Černý

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501016

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      Novel mixed-anion compounds Na3BH4B12H12 and (Li0.7Na0.3)3BH4B12H12 show superionic conduction corresponding to highly disordered cations and continuous migration paths in the structure. Na-rich Na3BH4B12H12 with a room-temperature conductivity of 0.5 × 10−3 S cm−1 provides a light-weight solution for the electrolyte in Na-based all solid-state batteries. (Li0.7Na0.3)3BH4B12H12 favors ionic conductivity for both Li and Na cations, but only above 500 K.

  7. Reviews

    1. Recent Progress in Flexible Electrochemical Capacitors: Electrode Materials, Device Configuration, and Functions

      Byung Chul Kim, Jin-Yong Hong, Gordon G. Wallace and Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500959

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      Flexible electrochemical capacitors have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society. The growing field of flexible electrochemical capacitors is reviewed with a focus on electrode materials and device configurations. In addition, the most promising advances and future challenges are identified.

  8. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Flexible Nanostructured Silicon Solar Modules with Plasmonically Engineered Upconversion Medium

      Sung-Min Lee, Weigu Li, Purnim Dhar, Sergey Malyk, Yu Wang, Wonmok Lee, Alexander Benderskii and Jongseung Yoon

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500761

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      Plasmonically enhanced upconverion luminescence is exploited to improve the collection efficiency of above-bandgap, long-wavelength photons in ultrathin nanostructured silicon solar microcells. A composite solar module integrated with plasmonic silver nanostructures and upconversion printing medium enables the performance enhancement of surface-embedded 8 μm thick nanostructured silicon microcells by synergistic effects of plasmonically enhanced spectral upconversion, waveguiding, and fluorescence of upconversion nanocrystals.

  9. Communications

    1. Excellent Compatibility of Solvate Ionic Liquids with Sulfide Solid Electrolytes: Toward Favorable Ionic Contacts in Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Dae Yang Oh, Young Jin Nam, Kern Ho Park, Sung Hoo Jung, Sung-Ju Cho, Yun Kyeong Kim, Young-Gi Lee, Sang-Young Lee and Yoon Seok Jung

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500865

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      The excellent stability of sulfide solid electrolyte with solvate ionic liquids Li(triethylene glycol dimethyl ether)bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li(G3)TFSI) and their application in high-performance all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are successfully demonstrated. The addition of a small amount of Li(G3)TFSI gives an alternative ionic pathway through normally poor solid–solid contacts, leading to a dramatic increase in capacity of LiFePO4 composite electrode.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Formation of Yolk-Shelled Ni–Co Mixed Oxide Nanoprisms with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Hybrid Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

      Le Yu, Buyuan Guan, Wei Xiao and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500981

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      Mesoporous yolk-shelled Ni–Co mixed oxide nanoprisms have been prepared via a facile precipitation of precursor particles combined with an annealing process. When employed as electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries, these intriguing particles manifest remarkable electrochemical properties with high specific capacitance/capacity and excellent cycling stability.

  11. Progress Reports

    1. Recent Progress on Stability Enhancement for Cathode in Rechargeable Non-Aqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery

      Zhi-wen Chang, Ji-jing Xu, Qing-chao Liu, Lin Li and Xin-bo Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500633

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      Recent research on enhancing the mechanical and chemical stability of cathode for non-aqueous Li-O2 battery is summarized. In light of recent achievements, the structural integrity of constructed cathode can be well-maintained with a rational architectural design and the chemical stability can be effectively improved with the construction of a protection layer on the cathode.

  12. Full Papers

    1. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Nontoxic Chloride Treatments on CdTe Solar Cell Microstructure and Stoichiometry

      Benjamin L. Williams, Jonathan D. Major, Leon Bowen, Wytze Keuning, Mariadriana Creatore and Ken Durose

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500554

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      The effectiveness of various chlorides for activating CdTe solar cells is explored, in view of replacing the highly toxic CdCl2. It is shown that the chosen chloride must have a low dissociation energy (<4 eV) in order to catalyze the necessary metallurgical and stoichiometric changes. Significant insight into the Cl-activation mechanism is gained from the results.

    2. A Hybridized Power Panel to Simultaneously Generate Electricity from Sunlight, Raindrops, and Wind around the Clock

      Li Zheng, Gang Cheng, Jun Chen, Long Lin, Jie Wang, Yongsheng Liu, Hexing Li and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501152

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      A hybridized power panel is developed that can individually or simultaneously generate power from sunlight, raindrop, and wind, when any or all of them are available in an ambient environment. Without compromising the output performance of the solar cell itself, it is an innovative compensation to the common solar cells, especially in raining seasons or at night.

    3. Charge Accumulation and Hysteresis in Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: An Electro-Optical Analysis

      Bo Wu, Kunwu Fu, Natalia Yantara, Guichuan Xing, Shuangyong Sun, Tze Chien Sum and Nripan Mathews

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500829

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      Electric-field and charge accumulation-induced perovskite structure response are used to explain the hysteresis and ultraslow dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite-based solar cells. The charge transfer efficiency at perovskite interfaces is found to be significant in determining the severity of the hysteresis in perovskite photovoltaic devices. The interface between perovskite and TiO­2 should be modified to minimize the hysteresis.

    4. Chemical Consequences of Alkali Inhomogeneity in Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Talia Gershon, Cayla Hamann, Marinus Hopstaken, Yun Seog Lee, Byungha Shin and Richard Haight

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500922

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      Cu2ZnSnS4-based solar cells lacking an alkali diffusion barrier contain a non-uniform distribution of Na in the absorber layer. Samples containing Na “hot spots” have corresponding light beam induced current hot spots on comparable length scales. Na hot spots are also correlated with increased Cu in-diffusion with the underlying MoS2 layer and decreased diffusion of Cd to the back contact.

    5. Diketopyrrolopyrroles with a Distinct Energy Level Cascade for Efficient Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Solar Cells

      Christian J. Mueller, Michael Brendel, Pia Ruckdeschel, Jens Pflaum and Mukundan Thelakkat

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500914

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      Tailored low molecular weight diketopyrrolopyrrole compounds with a precise energy level offset are synthesized by tuning the electron deficiency on the terminal aryl unit. Application of these compounds in cascade solar cells in combination with C60 leads to drastically increased short-circuit current densities and power conversion efficiencies.

    6. Miniaturized Supercapacitors: Focused Ion Beam Reduced Graphene Oxide Supercapacitors with Enhanced Performance Metrics

      Derrek E. Lobo, Parama Chakraborty Banerjee, Christopher D. Easton and Mainak Majumder

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500665

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      High resolution planar micro-supercapacitors are fabricated by optimised focused ion beam irradiation, resulting in geometries with inter-electrode spacings as small as 1 μm, the smallest reported to date. These electrodes are observed to have exceptional electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance (102 mF/cm2), low equivalent series resistance and short response time along with high energy and power densities.

  13. Communications

    1. MnO2 Thin Films on 3D Scaffold: Microsupercapacitor Electrodes Competing with “Bulk” Carbon Electrodes

      Etienne Eustache, Camille Douard, Richard Retoux, Christophe Lethien and Thierry Brousse

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500680

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      A simple, binder-free fabrication of high capacitance electrodes based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) thin films is reported. The 3D structure of these electrodes significantly improves the areal capacitance of the MnO2 thin films up to 670 mF cm−2 in aqueous electrolyte, which is 4.5 times higher than the best reported capacitance of 3D electrodes thus far. This capacitance is on the same order of magnitude than that of a bulk carbon electrode. Moreover, the 3D MnO2 based electrode exhibits a stable cycling behavior for more than 15 000 cycles.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Highly Stable Carbon-Free Ag/Co3O4-Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries: Electrochemical and Structural Investigations

      Dennis Wittmaier, Natalia A. Cañas, Indro Biswas and Kaspar Andreas Friedrich

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500763

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      Material behavior of gas diffusion electrodes for lithium-air batteries with a highly stable bimetallic catalyst is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation and evolution of Ag2O and specifically AgIAgIIIO2 phases for Ag and Ag/Co3O4 electrodes at different potentials is demonstrated and quantitatively determined. Complementary XRD-mappings show the homogeneous distribution and decomposition of higher Ag oxides over time under ambient conditions.

    2. Significance of Average Domain Purity and Mixed Domains on the Photovoltaic Performance of High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small-Molecule BHJ Solar Cells

      Subhrangsu Mukherjee, Christopher M. Proctor, Guillermo C. Bazan, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Harald Ade

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500877

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      Resonant soft X-ray scattering reveals a correlation between average domain purity and device fill-factor for an efficient solution processed small molecule 7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM) system. The results show the requirement of optimal combination of phase purities to diminish bimolecular as well as geminate recombination.

  15. Communications

    1. 11.2% Efficient Solution Processed Kesterite Solar Cell with a Low Voltage Deficit

      Stefan G. Haass, Matthias Diethelm, Melanie Werner, Benjamin Bissig, Yaroslav E. Romanyuk and Ayodhya N. Tiwari

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500712

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      An 11.2% efficient kesterite solar cell is fabricated with a open circuit voltage (Voc ) deficit of only 0.57 V, possible by employing the three-stage annealing process. The reduced Voc deficit goes along with an increased minority carrier lifetime, low diode saturation current, and ideality factor, which are signatures of the semiconductor material with a low concentration of recombination centers.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Flash Converted Graphene for Ultra-High Power Supercapacitors

      Lisa J. Wang, Maher F. El-Kady, Sergey Dubin, Jee Youn Hwang, Yuanlong Shao, Kristofer Marsh, Brian McVerry, Matthew D. Kowal, Mir F. Mousavi and Richard B. Kaner

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500786

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      Ultra-high power supercapacitors (5–7 × 105 W kg−1) are made using a 3D graphene architecture active material. Flash converted graphene (FCG) active material is made by reducing freeze-dried graphene oxide using an ordinary camera flash as a photothermal source. Pre-FCG and post-FCG are two different methods of making flash converted graphene supercapacitors and show different properties and capacitive behaviors.

    2. Carrier-Selectivity-Dependent Charge Recombination Dynamics in Organic Photovoltaic Cells with a Ferroelectric Blend Interlayer

      Sae Byeok Jo, Min Kim, Dong Hun Sin, Jaewon Lee, Heung Gyu Kim, Hyomin Ko and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500802

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      The carrier selectivity at charge collecting interfaces in organic solar cells is demonstrated through the utilization of ferroelectric–semiconductor blend interlayers. Transient electrical measurements reveal the elongated charge carrier lifetime within devices with highly charge-selective contacts, which is well correlated with the asymmetric development of charge carrier density profiles in the photo­active layers.

    3. A Transparent Planar Concentrator Using Aggregates of gem-Pyrene Ethenes

      James L. Banal, Jonathan M. White, Tin Wai Lam, Andrew W. Blakers, Kenneth P. Ghiggino and Wallace W. H. Wong

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500818

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      Aggregation is the key. Positional isomerism can influence the physical and optoelectronic properties of materials and provides a basis for further improving the performance of planar concentrator devices. Transparent planar concentrators can be realized from aggregates of gem-pyrene ethenes due to their large Stokes shift and high luminescence efficiency.

  17. Reviews

    1. Design Considerations for Unconventional Electrochemical Energy Storage Architectures

      Alexandru Vlad, Neelam Singh, Charudatta Galande and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402115

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      Intensive work in the field of unconventional electrochemical energy storage devices has resulted in impressive progress. With many configurations and approaches successfully demonstrated, system-level considerations call for further improvements. An overview of the recent advances in electrode materials, processing and device architectures for energy storage applications is provided and guidelines for further developments are given.

    2. High Efficiency Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting

      Tiejun Zhu, Chenguang Fu, Hanhui Xie, Yintu Liu and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500588

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      Thermoelectric materials offer a promising solution for harvesting ubiquitous waste heat to useful electrical power. Both high operating temperature and high figure of merit are desirable for high efficiency thermoelectric power generation. Half-Heusler compounds are one of most promising high temperature thermoelectric materials (>900 K) with good mechanical robustness and thermal stability for practical application.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Cation Substitution of Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Solar Cell with over 9% Efficiency

      Zhenghua Su, Joel Ming Rui Tan, Xianglin Li, Xin Zeng, Sudip Kumar Batabyal and Lydia Helena Wong

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500682

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      9.2%-efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-based pure sulfide thin film solar cells are fabricated by replacing partial Zn with Cd via low-cost sol–gel method. The appropriate incorporation of Cd into CZTS thin films can adjust band gaps, improve microstructure, and reduce the ZnS secondary phase in CZTS thin film, resulting in significant improvement of efficiencies.

    2. Spatially Confined MnO2 Nanostructure Enabling Consecutive Reversible Charge Transfer from Mn(IV) to Mn(II) in a Mixed Pseudocapacitor-Battery Electrode

      Yu-Ting Weng, Hsiao-An Pan, Rung-Chuan Lee, Tzu-Yang Huang, Yun Chu, Jyh-Fu Lee, Hwo-Shuenn Sheu and Nae-Lih Wu

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500772

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      The possibility of stabilizing MnO 2 electrode using a SiO 2 -confined nanostructure, which exhibits exceptionally good electrochemical stability under large negative polarization in aqueous electrolyte, is demonstrated. The nano­structured composite exhibits unique mixed ­pseudocapacitance-battery behaviors involving consecutive reversible charge transfer from Mn(IV) to Mn(II). A strategy to design and stabilize electrochemical materials that are composed of intrinsically unstable but high-performing component materials is suggested.

    3. Similar or Totally Different: the Adjustment of the Twist Conformation Through Minor Structural Modification, and Dramatically Improved Performance for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

      Zhaofei Chai, Mei Wu, Manman Fang, Sushu Wan, Ting Xu, Runli Tang, Yujun Xie, Anyi Mei, Hongwei Han, Qianqian Li and Zhen Li

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500846

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      The sensitizer configuration of the acceptor and anchoring group affects electron injection and recombination in the corresponding dye-sensitized solar cells. The partial broken conjugation shows an efficient approach to enhancing photovoltaic performance after a systematical investigation of seven similar-looking sensitizers.

    4. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Microbatteries Using Silicon Nanofilm Anodes: High Performance and Memory Effect

      Frédéric Le Cras, Brigitte Pecquenard, Vincent Dubois, Viet-Phong Phan and Delphine Guy-Bouyssou

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501061

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      Nanosized silicon based all-solid-state lithium-ion microbatteries are manufactured and packaged using industrial equipment. The perfect stability of these cells allows the study of the specific features of the silicon electrode (Li15Si4, memory effect) and their influence on the electrochemical behavior of the Li-ion cell for different cell designs and operating conditions.

    5. Synergistic Impact of Solvent and Polymer Additives on the Film Formation of Small Molecule Blend Films for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Caitlin McDowell, Maged Abdelsamie, Kui Zhao, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Guillermo C. Bazan and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501121

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      In situ measurement shows that polystyrene (PS) and diiodooctane (DIO) additives promote donor crystallite formation synergistically, on different time scales and through different mechanisms. PS-rich films retain solvent, promoting phase separation early in the casting process. Meanwhile, the low vapor pressure of DIO extends the time scale of film evolution and allows for crystalline rearrangement of the donor phase after casting.

    6. Three-Dimensional Smart Catalyst Electrode for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Sheng Chen, Jingjing Duan, Pengju Bian, Youhong Tang, Rongkun Zheng and Shi-Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500936

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      A 3D catalyst electrode mimicking external stimuli–responsive functionality has been fabricated, which not only exhibits superior performance toward catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER), but also dynamically change its color with the OER, providing an opportunity to quickly monitor the catalytic reaction.

  19. Reviews

    1. Graphene-Containing Nanomaterials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Songping Wu, Rui Xu, Mingjia Lu, Rongyun Ge, James Iocozzia, Cuiping Han, Beibei Jiang and Zhiqun Lin

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500400

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      Graphene-based nanomaterials are promising candidates for electrode materials in next-generation energy storage devices. Consequently, they have generated considerable interest to date. Various synthesis strategies for nanoparticle/graphene composites are summarized. Recent progress and perspectives on the future development of nanomaterial/graphene composites as electrode materials are also presented.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Control of Charge Dynamics via Use of Nonionic Phosphonate Chains and Their Effectiveness for Inverted Structure Solar Cells

      Gyoungsik Kim, Seyeong Song, Jungho Lee, Taehyo Kim, Tack Ho Lee, Bright Walker, Jin Young Kim and Changduk Yang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500844

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      Nonionic phosphonate side chains are introduced into an isoindigo-based model polymer in order to induce a high compatibility at hybrid organic/inorganic interfaces, while controlling charge transport/collection and recombination dynamics in inverted polymer solar cells. This approach can bring ≈20% improvement in efficiency when compared to a nonmodified control analog.

  21. Communications

    1. Bilayer Structure with Ultrahigh Energy/Power Density Using Hybrid Sol–Gel Dielectric and Charge-Blocking Monolayer

      Yunsang Kim, Mohanalingam Kathaperumal, Vincent W. Chen, Yohan Park, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Ming-Jen Pan, Bernard Kippelen and Joseph W. Perry

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500767

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      A hybrid sol–gel dielectric bilayer structure yields a maximum energy density of 40 J cm−3 with high extraction efficiency. The silica sol–gel dielectric is coated by an alkylphosphonic acid monolayer, as a charge-blocking layer. The dense monolayer suppresses charge injection and electrical conduction, leading to high energy extraction efficiency, which exhibits nearly linear dielectric behavior suitable for high energy density applications.

    2. Lithographically Integrated Microsupercapacitors for Compact, High Performance, and Designable Energy Circuits

      Karolina U. Laszczyk, Kazufumi Kobashi, Shunsuke Sakurai, Atsuko Sekiguchi, Don N. Futaba, Takeo Yamada and Kenji Hata

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500741

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      A wafer-scale integrated energy device circuit (IEDC) consisting of electrochemically isolated microsupercapacitor cells that could be connected in parallel and in series, and in arbitrarily arrangements. Such IEDC possesses the same capacitance, operational voltage, same order relaxation time constant although being 1/1000th-times smaller than an equivalent Al electrolytic capacitor.

    3. High-Performance Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells with 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and 25% Average Visible Transmittance Based on Transparent CuSCN as the Hole-Transporting Material

      Jae Woong Jung, Chu-Chen Chueh and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500486

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      High-performance planar heterojunction perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell (PVSC) is demonstrated by utilizing CuSCN as a hole-transporting layer. Efficient hole-transport and hole-extraction at the CuSCN/CH3NH3PbI3 interface facilitate the PVSCs to reach 16% power conversion efficiency (PCE). In addition, excellent transparency of CuSCN also enables high-performance semitransparent PVSC (10% PCE and 25% average visible transmittance) to be realized.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Electrochemically Stable Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Batteries with a Microporous Carbon Nanofiber Filter for Polysulfide

      Sheng-Heng Chung, Pauline Han, Richa Singhal, Vibha Kalra and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500738

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      Various activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) are adhered onto one side of a polypropylene membrane to form ACNF-filter-coated separators. Four different ACNF filters with tunable micropores are examined to optimize the polysulfide-trapping capability, enhance redox reversibility, and bolster mechanical durability. The results demonstrate that ACNF filters possessing abundant micropores and good electrical conductivity emphatically boost the overall Li–S cell performance.

  23. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      SEI Growth and Depth Profiling on ZFO Electrodes by Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

      Andrea Di Cicco, Angelo Giglia, Roberto Gunnella, Stephan L. Koch, Franziska Mueller, Francesco Nobili, Marta Pasqualini, Stefano Passerini, Roberto Tossici and Agnieszka Witkowska

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500642

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      The evolution of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) in carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 (ZFO-C) anodes is studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Experiments probe locally the SEI growth in the 2–100 nm range, using both total electron (TEY) and total fluorescence (TFY) yield techniques. XAS analysis shows that the SEI grows preferentially around the ZFO-C nanoparticles.

    2. Superior Bifunctional Electrocatalytic Activity of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ/Carbon Composite Electrodes: Insight into the Local Electronic Structure

      Emiliana Fabbri, Maarten Nachtegaal, Xi Cheng and Thomas J. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402033

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      Carbon acts as activity booster for Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ for the oxygen reduction and evolution reaction due to the occurrence of electronic effects that change the local perovskite electronic configuration. The change of the Co oxidation state in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ when it is coupled with carbon can account for the superior catalytic activity composite electrodes versus single material electrodes.

  24. Full Papers

    1. A Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Asymmetric Electrochemical Capacitor Based on Hierarchical Porous V2O5 Nanosheets on Carbon Nanofibers

      Linlin Li, Shengjie Peng, Hao Bin Wu, Le Yu, Srinivasan Madhavi and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500753

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      An advanced free-standing film electrode is successfully fabricated by anchoring hierarchical porous V2O5 nanosheets on flexible electrospun carbon nanofibers. Utilizing this integrated electrode, a flexible quasi-solid-state hybrid supercapacitor is assembled and shown to manifest outstanding cycling stability, enhanced energy/power density, and excellent flexibility.

    2. Solid Solution Domains at Phase Transition Front of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4

      Hideyuki Komatsu, Hajime Arai, Yukinori Koyama, Kenji Sato, Takeharu Kato, Ryuji Yoshida, Haruno Murayama, Ikuma Takahashi, Yuki Orikasa, Katsutoshi Fukuda, Tsukasa Hirayama, Yuichi Ikuhara, Yoshio Ukyo, Yoshiharu Uchimoto and Zempachi Ogumi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500638

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      Here the phase transition dynamics of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is elucidated on high rate charging–discharging using operando time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD). The TR-XRD results indicate the existence of intermediate states ascribed to the solid-solution domains at the phase transition front. The phase transition pathways dependent on the reaction rate are shown, together with possible explanation for this unique transition behavior.

  25. Communications

    1. Thermally Induced Strain-Coupled Highly Stretchable and Sensitive Pyroelectric Nanogenerators

      Ju-Hyuck Lee, Hanjun Ryu, Tae-Yun Kim, Sung-Soo Kwak, Hong-Joon Yoon, Tae-Ho Kim, Wanchul Seung and Sang-Woo Kim

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500704

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      Thermally induced strain-coupled highly stretchable and sensitive pyroelectric nano­generators have been demonstrated using a different thermal expansion coefficient in the micropatterned P(VDF-TrFE) and PDMS structures. When the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects are coupled, the power-generating performance of the nanogenerator is dramatically enhanced with high stretchability. The highly sensitive pyroelectric nanogenerator operates with temperature changes ranging from extremely low to high.

  26. Reviews

    1. Advances in Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Complex Oxides without Alkaline Earth Metal Elements

      Yubo Chen, Wei Zhou, Dong Ding, Meilin Liu, Francesco Ciucci, Moses Tade and Zongping Shao

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500537

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      Recent advances in the development of cathode materials for Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed, focusing on the relationship between crystal structure, composition, catalytic activity, and durability. Various strategies for microstructure optimization and performance enhancement are also highlighted, together with challenges and prospects, to provide guidelines for knowledge-based design of novel cathodes for a new generation of SOFCs.

  27. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Poly(3,4-ethylenedio-xythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Crystalline–Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells with Improved Light-Induced Stability

      Qiming Liu, Ryo Ishikawa, Shuji Funada, Tatsuya Ohki, Keiji Ueno and Hajime Shirai

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500744

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      p-Toluenesulfonic acid/dimethyl sulfoxide (PTSA/DMSO)-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/crystalline-silicon (c-Si) hybrid solar cells with a solution-processed anti-reflection coating of TiO2 exhibit a record power conversion efficiency of 15.5%. Additionally, the performance stability of the hybrid device for both air storage and light exposure is improved due to removal of the PSS matrix from the PTSA/DMSO-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film.

    2. Superior Stable Self-Healing SnP3 Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Xiulin Fan, Jianfeng Mao, Yujie Zhu, Chao Luo, Liumin Suo, Tao Gao, Fudong Han, Sz-Chian Liou and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500174

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      A SnP3 anode material with a theoretical volumetric capacity of 6890 mAh cm−3 is investigated for Na-ion batteries. The SnP3/C can deliver a reversible capacity of 810 mAh g−1 at a current density of 150 mA g−1 for 150 cycles. The superior performance is attributed to the strong bonding interaction of P and Sn after desodiation.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Bifunctional Electrocatalytic Activity of Boron-Doped Graphene Derived from Boron Carbide

      Thazhe Veettil Vineesh, M. Praveen Kumar, Chisato Takahashi, Golap Kalita, Subbiah Alwarappan, Deepak K. Pattanayak and Tharangattu N. Narayanan

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500658

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      Bifunctional catalyst is a novel concept in modern energy technologies, where the same catalyst can be used for water splitting and oxygen reduction reactions. For the first time, a nanoparticle-free graphene-based material obtained by a novel preparation route is demonstrated to have favorable bifunctional catalytic properties.

    2. A New Interconnecting Layer of Metal Oxide/Dipole Layer/Metal Oxide for Efficient Tandem Organic Solar Cells

      Shunmian Lu, Xing Guan, Xinchen Li, Wei E. I. Sha, Fengxian Xie, Hongchao Liu, Jiannong Wang, Fei Huang and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500631

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      A new all-solution processed metal oxide/dipole layer/metal oxide interconnecting layer (ICL) for efficient tandem organic solar cell (OSC) is demonstrated. The dipole layer modifies the work function of molybdenum oxide to eliminate a pre-existing counter diode between MoO x and TiO2. Based on this ICL, homotandem OSCs with doubled open-circuit voltage and 15.53% enhancement of power conversion efficiency from a single OSC are achieved.

    3. High-Performance Ta2O5/Al-Doped Ag Electrode for Resonant Light Harvesting in Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Dewei Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Hyunsoo Kim and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500768

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      A high-performance Ta2O5/Al-doped Ag electrode is presented by inserting a di­electric layer of Ta2O5 underneath ultrathin Al-doped Ag film. Such an Al-doped Ag can be as thin as 4 nm with excellent transparency. Fine light management by tuning the Ta2O5 thickness leads to enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency for the Ta2O5/Al-doped Ag-based organic solar cells due to the optical cavity effect, superior to their indium tin oxide counterparts.

    4. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

      Laila Jaber-Ansari, Kanan P. Puntambekar, Soo Kim, Muratahan Aykol, Langli Luo, Jinsong Wu, Benjamin D. Myers, Hakim Iddir, John T. Russell, Spencer J. Saldaña, Rajan Kumar, Michael M. Thackeray, Larry A. Curtiss, Vinayak P. Dravid, Chris Wolverton and Mark C. Hersam

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500646

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      Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) is a leading cathode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries. However, LMO suffers from capacity loss due to dissolution of manganese during battery cycling. In this work, single-layer graphene coatings are shown to significantly reduce manganese loss in LMO cathodes while concurrently promoting the formation of a well-defined solid electrolyte interphase layer that further enhances cyclability.

    5. Novel K3V2(PO4)3/C Bundled Nanowires as Superior Sodium-Ion Battery Electrode with Ultrahigh Cycling Stability

      Xuanpeng Wang, Chaojiang Niu, Jiashen Meng, Ping Hu, Xiaoming Xu, Xiujuan Wei, Liang Zhou, Kangning Zhao, Wen Luo, Mengyu Yan and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500716

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      K3V2(PO4)3/C bundled nanowires are designed and fabricated using a facile organic acid-assisted method. Ex situ and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the stable framework of the K3V2(PO4)3/C bundled nanowires is responsible for the excellent cycling stability. Constructing K3V2(PO4)3/C bundled nanowires provides an effective approach to enhance the electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries.

  29. Communications

    1. Tin Oxide (SnOx) as Universal “Light-Soaking” Free Electron Extraction Material for Organic Solar Cells

      Sara Trost, Andreas Behrendt, Tim Becker, Andreas Polywka, Patrick Görrn and Thomas Riedl

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500277

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      In organic solar cells (OSCs), the necessity of UV activation that comes with the use of ZnO- and TiOx-based electron extraction layers (EELs) can be avoided by using tin oxide (SnOx), which can be prepared at temperatures as low as 80 °C. In contrast to devices based on TiOx and ZnO, OSCs comprising SnOx as EEL show well-behaved solar cell characteristics with a high fill factor (FF) and high efficiency even without the UV spectral range of the AM1.5 solar spectrum.

    2. Fabrication of High-Power Li-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors by Enhancing the Exterior Surface Charge Storage

      Mei Yang, Yiren Zhong, Jingjing Ren, Xianlong Zhou, Jinping Wei and Zhen Zhou

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500550

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      High-power Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors are fabricated with a sophisticated design in which both electrodes are based on ultrafine 3D structures. With a maximum exposure of the exterior surface to facilitate fast interfacial reaction and remedy kinetic imbalance, the hybrid devices demonstrate high energy–power integration and form a perfect bridge for the energy storage gap among the currently available technologies.

  30. Full Papers

    1. 16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

      Khalid Mahmood, Bhabani Sankar Swain and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500568

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      Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 16.1% is reported in hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells when an electron-rich polymer nanolayer is conformally coated on the surface of electron-collecting, nitrogen-doped, high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanorods.

    2. Tuning Multiscale Microstructures to Enhance Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type Bismuth-Telluride-Based Solid Solutions

      Lipeng Hu, Haijun Wu, Tiejun Zhu, Chenguang Fu, Jiaqing He, Pingjun Ying and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500411

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      Hot deformation is directly applied to zone melted Bi2Te3−x Se x ingots to optimize the thermoelectric performance. The induced multiscale microstructures, including microscale grain refinement, nanoscale distorted regions, and atomic-scale point defects, reduce the lattice thermal conductivity but maintain the high power factor, resulting in a high figure of merit of zT ≈ 1.2 at 357 K.

    3. Effects of Alkyl Terminal Chains on Morphology, Charge Generation, Transport, and Recombination Mechanisms in Solution-Processed Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Jie Min, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Nicola Gasparini, Moses Richter, Artem V. Bakirov, Maxim A. Shcherbina, Sergei N. Chvalun, Linda Grodd, Souren Grigorian, Tayebeh Ameri, Sergei A. Ponomarenko and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500386

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      The length of the terminal alkyl chains at dicyanovinyl groups of two dithienosilole containing small molecules is investigated to evaluate how such parameter influences the molecular solubility, blend morphology, and transport limitations as well as their photovoltaic performance in bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    4. Creating Highly Active Atomic Layer Deposited NiO Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Katie L. Nardi, Nuoya Yang, Colin F. Dickens, Alaina L. Strickler and Stacey F. Bent

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500412

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      Nickel oxide electrocatalysts are depo­sited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and activated in situ for the oxygen evolution reaction. The Fe content in the electrolyte and the catalyst surface area are controlled to achieve enhanced activity. Fe is found to inhibit restructuring in the catalysts but increase the turnover frequency. The importance of activation of ALD-­deposited hydrous oxide electrocatalysts is discussed.

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