Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 17

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Carolina Novo

Impact Factor: 14.385

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/83 (Energy & Fuels); 4/136 (Physics Applied); 5/136 (Chemistry Physical); 5/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 7/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

VIEW

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  2. 101 - 139
  1. Communications

    1. A One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrogen and Carbon Fuels from Water and Carbon Dioxide

      Fang-Fang Li, Shuzhi Liu, Baochen Cui, Jason Lau, Jessica Stuart, Baohui Wang and Stuart Licht

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401791

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      A single-pot electrolytic synthesis of hydrogen and carbon fuels is achieved through the use of a mixed, hydroxide/carbonate electrolyte, nickel anode (generating O2), and nickel or steel cathode (generating graphite and hydrogen). Low hydroxide fractions in the electrolyte ensure efficient carbon formation, while high fractions form only H2 at the cathode; added barium and lithium salts ensure effective nickel anode stability.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Ultrathin Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets Embedded with TiO2-B Nanodomains for Lithium-Ion Storage: Capacity Enhancement by Phase Boundaries

      Qili Wu, Jungu Xu, Xianfeng Yang, Fengqi Lu, Shiman He, Jingling Yang, Hong Jin Fan and Mingmei Wu

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401756

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      Anatase nanosheets with TiO2-B nanodomains form microspheres. Due to its ultrathin nanosheet structure and additional anatase/TiO2-B interface lithium storage, this anode material displays stable capacities of 180 and 110 mAh g−1 at 3400 and 8500 mA g−1 after 1000 cycles. The mechanism of Li-ion storage at the boundaries is discussed.

    2. Nonequilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution

      Young-Sang Yu, Chunjoong Kim, Yijin Liu, Anton van der Ven, Ying Shirley Meng, Robert Kostecki and Jordi Cabana

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402040

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      Compositional and morphological transitions during the electrochemical reaction of a single Li1+xMn2–xO4 microcrystal are successfully probed at the nanoscale using operando full-field transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy. It is possible to visualize the directionality of the transitions and correlate them with fracture. The approach reveals nonequilibrium pathways where phases at different potentials can coexist within a microcrystal.

    3. High Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes Composed of Ultralarge Graphene Sheets and Vanadium Dioxide

      Myungsup Lee, Boon-Hong Wee and Jong-Dal Hong

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401890

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      The utilization of ultralarge graphene oxide sheets (UGO) (mean lateral size of 47 μm ± 22 μm) in a flexible hybrid supercapacitor electrode composed of UGO and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanobelts is reported. A significant improvement in the specific capacitance (769 F g−1) for this electrode can be achieved due to the presence of fewer intersheet tunneling barriers.

  3. Reviews

    1. Energy Harvesting Technologies for Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems

      C. R. Bowen and M. H. Arafa

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401787

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      Tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) are becoming increasingly important to ensure safe and efficient use of tires in the automotive sector. In order to provide a maintenance-free and battery-less sensor solution there is growing interest in using energy harvesting technologies to power TPMS. This review discusses the use of piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electret and triboelectric materials in TPMS harvesting systems.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Ultrafast Charge Generation Pathways in Photovoltaic Blends Based on Novel Star-Shaped Conjugated Molecules

      Oleg V. Kozlov, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Nina Kausch-Busies, Dmitry Yu Paraschuk, Yoann Olivier, David Beljonne, Jérôme Cornil and Maxim S. Pshenichnikov

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401657

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      Novel donor materials for organic solar cells, triphenyl-based star-shaped small molecules, are studied using ultrafast spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Both electron- and hole-transfer pathways are found to be equally important for generation of the separated charges in blends with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester. The results provide routes for further optimization of small-molecule organic solar cells.

    2. Design Principles for Metal Oxide Redox Materials for Solar-Driven Isothermal Fuel Production

      Ronald Michalsky, Venkatesh Botu, Cory M. Hargus, Andrew A. Peterson and Aldo Steinfeld

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401082

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      Design principles for solar-thermochemical metal oxide redox materials, reducible metal oxide catalysts, and solid oxide fuel cell materials are presented. Trends in the surface activity and oxygen-vacancy conductivity of a wide range of transition-metal oxides are established and are understood to be due to electronic charge localization. The utility of the concepts is demonstrated with a descriptor-based design principle of metal oxide redox materials for an isothermal solar-driven splitting of CO2 and H2O.

  5. Reviews

    1. Supercapacitors Performance Evaluation

      Sanliang Zhang and Ning Pan

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401401

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      Inconsistencies in supercapacitor performance evaluation severely hinder progress in this important field of electrical energy storage. Clarifications are made in this article to identify the inconsistencies and their causes. Proper solutions are proposed to facilitate the production of reliable, intrinsic, and comparable performance metrics for supercapacitors.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Unraveling the Morphology of High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Based on the Donor Polymer PBDTTT-EFT

      Wenchao Huang, Eliot Gann, Lars Thomsen, Cunku Dong, Yi-Bing Cheng and Christopher R. McNeill

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401259

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      The morphology of a novel and highly efficient polymer solar cell is comprehensively investigated using surface sensitive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and bulk-sensitive grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The solvent additive 1,8-diiodooctane in particular is shown to be effective at controlling fullerene aggregation and enhancing polymer ordering, facilitating efficiencies of over 9%.

    2. Shelf Life Degradation of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Intrinsic Evolution of Charge Transfer Complex

      Antonio Guerrero, Hamed Heidari, Teresa S. Ripolles, Alexander Kovalenko, Martin Pfannmöller, Sara Bals, Louis-Dominique Kauffmann, Juan Bisquert and Germà Garcia-Belmonte

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401997

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      Long-term stability analysis under non-accelerated conditions reveals spontaneous chemical interaction between bulk materials. Device degradation occurs by the formation of donor–acceptor charge transfer complexes that act as exciton quenchers. Generation of these radical species diminishes photocurrent and reduces open-circuit voltage by the creation of electronic defect states.

    3. Design Meets Nature: Tetrahedrite Solar Absorbers

      Jaeseok Heo, Ram Ravichandran, Christopher F. Reidy, Janet Tate, John F. Wager and Douglas A. Keszler

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401506

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      Computational inverse design and consequent experimental results allow for the identification of new tetrahedrite-mineral compositions as promising absorber candidates in drift-based thin-film solar cells. In device simulations, cell efficiencies above 20% are modeled with absorber layers as thin as 250 nm. These new compositions thus open opportunities for realization of a new class of high-efficiency thin-film solar cell.

    4. One-Step Solvothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Manganese Fluoride as an Anode for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Insights into the Conversion Mechanism

      Kun Rui, Zhaoyin Wen, Yan Lu, Jun Jin and Chen Shen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401716

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      A favorable MnF2 anode is successfully synthesized based on ionic liquid and it delivers surprisingly inspiring electrochemical performance, with a capacity retention of 237 mAh g−1 at 10 C after 5000 cycles. Redistribution of metallic Mn nanoparticles within the LiF matrix, resulting in the formation of Mn network facilitating electron transport, is considered as the dominant cause for improvement of reversibility and capability.

    5. Mg Substitution Clarifies the Reaction Mechanism of Olivine LiFePO4

      Fredrick Omenya, Bohua Wen, Jin Fang, Ruibo Zhang, Qi Wang, Natasha A. Chernova, Joe Schneider-Haefner, Frederic Cosandey and M. Stanley Whittingham

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401204

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      Magnesium substitution into the LiFePO4 structure stabilizes the formation of the solid solution phase, LixMgyFe1–yPO4 for 0 < x < 1. Whereas in pure nanosized LiFePO4 the solid solution phase is metastable, the introduction of magnesium thermodynamically stabilizes the solid solution. As this phase is stable, there is no overpotential needed to generate the solid solution.

    6. In Situ Formation of Protective Coatings on Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium Batteries with LiFSI-Based Organic Electrolytes

      Hyea Kim, Feixiang Wu, Jung Tae Lee, Naoki Nitta, Huan-Ting Lin, Martin Oschatz, Won Il Cho, Stefan Kaskel, Oleg Borodin and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401792

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      Electrochemical reduction of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based electrolytes allows in situ formation of efficient protective coatings on the surface of both electrodes, which dramatically improve Li/S cell coulombic efficiency and cycle stability. Quantum chemistry studies suggest the coating formation is initiated by the FSI([BOND]F) anion radicals generated during electrolyte reduction. Such a reduction additionally results in the formation of LiF.

    7. A Layered-Nanospace-Confinement Strategy for the Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Porous Carbon Nanosheets for High-Rate Performance Supercapacitors

      Xiaoming Fan, Chang Yu, Juan Yang, Zheng Ling, Chao Hu, Mengdi Zhang and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401761

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      2D porous carbon nanosheets are generally fabricated using a combined process including layered-nanospace-confined pyrolysis of bio-sources and KOH activation. The unique 2D structure helps to enhance the rate capability for supercapacitors with a capacitance retention of about 80% at a high current density of 100 A g−1; this is twice that of the activated carbon particulates from bio-sources.

    8. Indolizine-Based Donors as Organic Sensitizer Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Aron J. Huckaba, Fabrizio Giordano, Louis E. McNamara, Katelyn M. Dreux, Nathan I. Hammer, Gregory S. Tschumper, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Jared H. Delcamp

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401629

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      Indolizines are exceptionally strong organic donor building blocks for use in D-π-A dyes for dye sensitized solar cells. A series of indolizine-based dyes are synthesized for comparison to known common organic donor functionality. These dyes are studied computationally, electrochemically, spectroscopically, and in dye-sensitized solar cell devices.

  7. Communications

    1. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin-Film Solar Cells by Thermal Co-evaporation with 11.6% Efficiency and Improved Minority Carrier Diffusion Length

      Yun Seog Lee, Talia Gershon, Oki Gunawan, Teodor K. Todorov, Tayfun Gokmen, Yudistira Virgus and Supratik Guha

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401372

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      11.6%-efficiency Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells are fabricated via a thermal co-evaporation method. The CZTSe thin-film with improved microstructure exhibits a minority carrier diffusion length over 2 μm, resulting in efficient photogenerated carrier collection in the device. A comparative study of photoluminescence in pure selenide and pure sulfide devices shows reduced band-tailing for pure selenide phase.

  8. Full Papers

    1. A Simple Electrochemical Route to Access Amorphous Mixed-Metal Hydroxides for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials

      Hongbo Li, Yuqian Gao, Chengxin Wang and Guowei Yang

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401767

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      A simple, facile, and chemically clean electrochemical technique is developed to prepare amorphous phases of mixed-metal hydroxides for use as the positive electrode materials in supercapacitors. The integrated performance of the amorphous mixed-metal hydroxides pseudocapacitor is superior to those of crystalline ones and the fabricated devices unveiled a super long-term cycling stability characterized by 94% retention after 20 000 cycles.

    2. Ultrathin MoS2 Nanosheets as Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Superior Performance

      Dawei Su, Shixue Dou and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401205

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      Few-layer MoS2 nanosheets are synthesized via a simple and scalable sonication exfoliation technique. The thicknesses of the MoS2 nanosheets are about 10 nm. The unique nanostructure allows the high-rate transportation of sodium ions and electrons. Furthermore, large interlayer space within the MoS2 crystal structure (d(002) = 6.38 Å), results in improvement of the electrochemical performances for sodium-ion batteries.

  9. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with a Polymer Hole Transport Layer

      Dewei Zhao, Michael Sexton, Hye-Yun Park, George Baure, Juan C. Nino and Franky So

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401855

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      A high-efficiency solution-processed inverted perovskite solar cell with poly[N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine] (poly-TPD) as the hole transport layer is demonstrated. The perovskite forms large crystallites on poly-TPD, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.8% and a maximum of 15.3%.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Water Splitting Using a Simple Ni/N/C Paper Electrocatalyst

      Jiawen Ren, Markus Antonietti and Tim-Patrick Fellinger

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401660

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      Cheap and sustainable cellulose paper, infiltrated with nickel acetate as the nickel source, and phenanthroline as the ligand and nitrogen source are carbonized to form an efficient water splitting electrocatalyst. The performance is similar or even better than that of state-of-the-art noble metal catalysts. Because of the simple, cheap, and scalable preparation procedure the catalyst is highly promising for practical low price/tech applications.

  11. Communications

    1. Polyacrylic Acid Assisted Assembly of Oxide Particles and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Flexible Battery Anodes

      Yanhua Cheng, Zheng Chen, Meifang Zhu and Yunfeng Lu

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401207

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      A polyacylic acid assisted assembly strategy is applied for fabrication of flexible battery anodes in which electrochemically active nanocrystals and carbon ­nanotubes are used as primary building blocks. The strong interaction between each constituent in a porous network of conductive carbon nanotubes leads to excellent rate performance and cycling stability of the electrodes.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Superior Lithium Storage Properties of β-FeOOH

      Linghui Yu, Shibo Xi, Chao Wei, Wenyu Zhang, Yonghua Du, Qingyu Yan and Zhichuan Xu

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401517

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      β-FeOOH is reported to have a very high capacity of ≈1400 mAh g−1as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. The storage mechanisms are investigated by a combination of electrochemical and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic studies. Very long cycling performance is achieved by a simple electrode design in which even after 3000 cycles the material still has a significant capacity.

    2. Flexible Asymmetric Micro-Supercapacitors Based on Bi2O3 and MnO2 Nanoflowers: Larger Areal Mass Promises Higher Energy Density

      Henghui Xu, Xianluo Hu, Huiling Yang, Yongming Sun, Chenchen Hu and Yunhui Huang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401882

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      High mass loading Bi2O3/carbon nano­fiber paper with outstanding capacitive performance is developed as a negative electrode for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The as-assembled device based on the flower-like Bi2O3 negative electrode and the MnO2 positive electrode achieves a high capacitance of 97 mF cm−2 (25.2 F g−1) and a maximum energy density of 43.4 μWh cm−2 (11.3 W h kg−1).

    3. Awakening Solar Water-Splitting Activity of ZnFe2O4 Nanorods by Hybrid Microwave Annealing

      Ju Hun Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Ji-Wook Jang, Jae Young Kim, Sun Hee Choi, Ganesan Magesh, Jinwoo Lee and Jae Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401933

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      A zinc ferrite nanorod photoanode is synthesized on the F-doped tin oxide glass via a simple solution method with thermal annealing and hybrid microwave treatment using a household microwave oven with a graphite susceptor. It exhibits highly improved photoactivity by 15 times relative to as-synthesized zinc ferrite photo­electrode mainly due to reduced surface trap sites.

    4. Low Substrate Temperature Encapsulation for Flexible Electrodes and Organic Photovoltaics

      Nan Chen, Peter Kovacik, Rachel M. Howden, Xiaoxue Wang, Sunghwan Lee and Karen K. Gleason

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401442

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      An encapsulation method based on initiated chemical vapor deposition is achieved for organic photovoltaics (OPV) and electrodes. It provides solvent-free, conformal, and flexible encapsulation under low substrate temperature. The conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) can be retained up to 17 times longer with a single-layer encapsulation. Vapor-deposited CeO2 layer is first-time applied in OPV encapsulation for ultraviolet screening.

  13. Communications

    1. Carbonized Eggshell Membranes as a Natural and Abundant Counter Electrode for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Chih-Liang Wang, Jin-Yun Liao, Sheng-Heng Chung and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401524

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      A promising, natural, and abundant eggshell-membrane-derived counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. The carbonized sucrose-coated eggshell membranes consist of unique micropores of less than 2 nm, which effectively catalyze the triiodide into iodide in the light–electricity conversion process, leading to an improvement in the open-circuit voltage (V oc) and a competitive conversion efficiency.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Dynamics of the First-Order Metamagnetic Transition in Magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13: Reducing Hysteresis

      Edmund Lovell, André M. Pereira, A. David Caplin, Julia Lyubina and Lesley F. Cohen

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401639

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      Careful choice of sample geometry is shown to be beneficial to reduce hysteresis in first-order magnetocaloric LaFe11.6Si1.4 by taking advantage of local demagnetizing fields in a counterintuitive way. Magnetic relaxation across the magnetic phase transition is also dominated by magnetostatics and thermal linkage. Temperature dependence of the transition rate strongly suggests a mechanism driven by the free-energy difference.

    2. Controlled Doping Methods for Radial p/n Junctions in Silicon

      Rick Elbersen, Roald M. Tiggelaar, Alexander Milbrat, Guido Mul, Han Gardeniers and Jurriaan Huskens

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401745

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      Radial junctions in silicon micropillars are fabricated by deep reactive ion etching and analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Use of a CrO3-based staining solution enables visualization of the junction depth in flat and 3D structures, and measurements are compared with simulations. Current density-voltage measurements show that the micropillars have improved solar cell properties.

  15. Communications

    1. Liquid Catholyte Molecules for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

      Jinhua Huang, Lei Cheng, Rajeev S. Assary, Peiqi Wang, Zheng Xue, Anthony K. Burrell, Larry A. Curtiss and Lu Zhang

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401782

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      A series of dimethoxybenzene-based catholyte molecules, which are electrochemically reversible at high potential (4.0 V vs Li/Li+) and in the form of liquid, is developed. The liquid nature offers the molecules the possibility of being a solo or co-solvent for nonaqueous redox flow batteries. This could dramatically improve the energy density.

    2. In Situ Investigations of Li-MoS2 with Planar Batteries

      Jiayu Wan, Wenzhong Bao, Yang Liu, Jiaqi Dai, Fei Shen, Lihui Zhou, Xinghan Cai, Daniel Urban, Yuanyuan Li, Katherine Jungjohann, Michael S. Fuhrer and Liangbing Hu

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401742

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      A planar microbattery that enables various in situ measurements of lithiation of 2D materials on the individual-flake scale is developed. A large conductivity increase of thick MoS2 crystallite lithiation due to the formation of a percolative Mo nanoparticle network embedded in a Li2S matrix is observed. The nanoscale study leads to the development of a novel charging strategy for batteries that largely improves the capacity and cycling performance confirmed in bulk MoS2/Li coin cells.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Novel Metal@Carbon Spheres Core–Shell Arrays by Controlled Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanospheres: A Stable and Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

      Xinhui Xia, Yongqi Zhang, Zhanxi Fan, Dongliang Chao, Qinqin Xiong, Jiangping Tu, Hua Zhang and Hong Jin Fan

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401709

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      An array of carbon nanospheres shows good supercapacitive properties. Carbon nanospheres (CNSs) are assembled onto a vertical-standing Ni microtube scaffold, forming a core–shell array structure. This new type of metal@CNSs array is demonstrated to be a highly stable and flexible electrode for supercapacitors. Symmetric supercapacitors have a capacitance retention of 97% after 40 000 cycles.

    2. Surface Cleaning and Passivation Using (NH4)2S Treatment for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: A Safe Alternative to KCN

      Marie Buffière, Abdel-Aziz El Mel, Nick Lenaers, Guy Brammertz, Armin E. Zaghi, Marc Meuris and Jef Poortmans

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401689

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      With the aim of improving the surface properties of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber, a chemical treatment process based on the immersion of the absorber into a S(NH4)2 solution is developed. This treatment results first in the removal of CuxSe secondary phase from the absorber surface and second in the incorporation of sulfur into the surface region of the material. Both of these effects can explain the improvement of open-circuit voltage and minority carrier lifetime in the resulting devices.

  17. Communications

    1. Low-Temperature Fabrication of Efficient Wide-Bandgap Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan, Yanjun Fang and Jinsong Huang

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401616

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      A mixed halide perovskite solar cell with a 1.72 eV bandgap is developed by incorporating Br into perovskite through a low-temperature solution process. A high efficiency of 13.1% is achieved by carefully tuning the thickness, morphology, and surface passivation of the perovskite layers. The fabrication techniques and conditions are compatible with future perovskite/Si tandem cell studies.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Asymmetric Rate Behavior of Si Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Ultrafast De-Lithiation versus Sluggish Lithiation at High Current Densities

      Juchuan Li, Nancy J. Dudney, Xingcheng Xiao, Yang-Tse Cheng, Chengdu Liang and Mark W. Verbrugge

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401627

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      An asymmetric rate performance for Si anodes of lithium-ion batteries is observed. Under a high rate of 100 C (current density 420 A g-1), 72% capacity can be delivered during de-lithiation of a 70-nm Si thin film, while only 1% capacity can be delivered during lithiation. This asymmetric rate performance is caused by the potential–concentration profile, ohmic voltage shift under high currents, and a difference in chemical diffusion coefficients.

    2. Three-Phase Multiscale Modeling of a LiCoO2 Cathode: Combining the Advantages of FIB–SEM Imaging and X-Ray Tomography

      Lukas Zielke, Tobias Hutzenlaub, Dean R. Wheeler, Chien-Wei Chao, Ingo Manke, André Hilger, Nils Paust, Roland Zengerle and Simon Thiele

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401612

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      3D information (X-ray tomography) and 2D information (FIB–SEM) of LiCoO2 electrodes are combined to obtain more realistic 3D representative volumes via a stochastic model. The model is also used to reconstruct nanoporous carbon-binder domain volumes, from which transport parameters are incorporated into the larger scale calculation. This approach enables assessment of the influence of the nanoporosity of the carbon-binder domain on transport relevant properties.

    3. Ethanedithiol Treatment of Solution-Processed ZnO Thin Films: Controlling the Intragap States of Electron Transporting Interlayers for Efficient and Stable Inverted Organic Photovoltaics

      Sai Bai, Yizheng Jin, Xiaoyong Liang, Zhizhen Ye, Zhongwei Wu, Baoquan Sun, Zaifei Ma, Zheng Tang, Jianpu Wang, Uli Würfel, Feng Gao and Fengling Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401606

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      A general and efficient molecular passivation strategy ofor solution-processed ZnO thin films using ethanedithiol (EDT) is developed to modify the defect and intragap states of the electron transporting interlayers in inverted organic solar cells. The efficiency and long-term air stability of devices based on EDT-passivated ZnO interlayers are significantly improved.

  19. Communications

    1. Spontaneous Formation of Nanofibrillar and Nanoporous Structures in High-Conductivity Conducting Polymers and Applications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Chun-Yang Lu, Chih-Hung Tsai, Yu-Tang Tsai, Chao-Jui Hsu, Ching-Hsiang Chang and Chung-Chih Wu

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401738

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      High-conductivity and highly electrochemically active poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films with nanofibrillar, nanoporpous, and PEDOT-richer surface structures are spontaneously induced by addition of highly polar, high-boiling-point co-solvent and by repeated solution coating. They are useful as the effective electrocatalytic layer or the dual-function electrocatalytic/conductive layer in Pt-free/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-free counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) giving efficiencies similar to those using Pt/FTO-containing counter electrodes.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis and Characterization of High-Energy, High-Power Spinel-Layered Composite Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Aiswarya Bhaskar, Steffen Krueger, Vassilios Siozios, Jie Li, Sascha Nowak and Martin Winter

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401156

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      The electrochemical performance of spinel-layered composite cathode materials is investigated, revealing that careful tailoring of the component ratio can produce an optimum material with high energy and high power. The composition with x = 0.5 exhibits the highest capacity retention (C-rate C/25) after 50 cycles and a high-rate capability.

    2. 3D Porous γ-Fe2O3@C Nanocomposite as High-Performance Anode Material of Na-Ion Batteries

      Ning Zhang, Xiaopeng Han, Yongchang Liu, Xiaofei Hu, Qing Zhao and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401123

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      3D porous γ-Fe2O3@C nanocomposite, which is prepared by a simple and template-free aerosol-assisted method and comprises very fine γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (5 nm) uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix, shows a reversible capacity of 740 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 200 mA g-1 and 358 mAh g-1 after 1400 cycles at 2000 mA g-1 as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    3. 2D and Trap-Assisted 2D Langevin Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Blends

      Mathias Nyman, Oskar J. Sandberg and Ronald Österbacka

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400890

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      The theory of 2D Langevin recombination is extended to the case with high trap density and demonstrated experimentally on the model system poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (PBTTT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) using both transient and steady-state techniques. The recombination capture coefficients are derived for trap-assisted and band-to-band recombination, showing that anisotropic charge transport reduces the capture coefficients in both cases resulting in a reduced overall recombination.

  21. Communications

    1. Toward High Cycle Efficiency of Silicon-Based Negative Electrodes by Designing the Solid Electrolyte Interphase

      Qinglin Zhang, Xingcheng Xiao, Weidong Zhou, Yang-Tse Cheng and Mark W. Verbrugge

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401398

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      This work coordinates the relationship between the composition, electrochemical properties, and mechanical properties of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its impact on the performance of lithium-ion batteries. The insightful information obtained in this work can support the design of artificial SEI layers for high-capacity electrodes with improved cycle efficiency and life.

    2. Broad Work-Function Tunability of p-Type Conjugated Polyelectrolytes for Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Byoung Hoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Lee, Song Yi Jeong, Sae Byeol Park, Seoung Ho Lee and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401653

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      p-Type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are developed as organic-based work-function modifier materials for the broad work-function (WF) tunability of various metal electrodes. Facile oxidative treatments of n-type CPEs using various oxidants produce unprecedented p-type CPEs with reversed electronic properties corresponding to n-type CPEs, resulting in fine WF tuning of adjacent metal electrodes. This change leads to substantial increases in power conversion efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Multilayered-Electrode-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators with Managed Output Voltage and Multifold Enhanced Charge Transport

      Gang Cheng, Li Zheng, Zong-Hong Lin, Jin Yang, Zuliang Du and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401452

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      A multilayered-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (ME-TENG) is developed in which the output voltage can be managed by controlling the charge flow in a process of multiple steps (N steps), which results in N times lower voltage but an N times increase in total charge transport. The ME-TENG provides a novel method to manage the output voltage and has potential applications in self-powered sensor arrays and human–machine interfacing with logic communications.

  23. Communications

    1. Hybrid Mg2+/Li+ Battery with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability

      Tao Gao, Fudong Han, Yujie Zhu, Liumin Suo, Chao Luo, Kang Xu and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401507

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      A rechargeable hybrid Mg2+/Li+ battery is designed by coupling a dendrite-free magnesium anode with an electrolyte-compatible cathode in a mixed Mg2+/Li+ electrolyte. Due to the highly reversible lithiation/delithiation of the cathode and Mg deposition/dissolution in the electrolyte, the battery demonstrates the best overall performances among reported magnesium-ion batteries and mixed-ion batteries in terms of cycling stability, specific capacity, specific energy, and rate capability.

    2. Reversible Aluminum-Ion Intercalation in Prussian Blue Analogs and Demonstration of a High-Power Aluminum-Ion Asymmetric Capacitor

      Zheng Li, Kai Xiang, Wenting Xing, W. Craig Carter and Yet-Ming Chiang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401410

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      Electroanalytical, structural, and microanalytical techniques are combined to demonstrate the first clear and convincing case of electrochemical storage by Al-ion intercalation in a Prussian blue analog host. In addition, a high power asymmetric capacitor using Al-ion intercalation is demonstrated. Al, Fe, and Cu elemental maps of intercalated Al0.18 K0.02Cu[Fe(CN)6]0.7·3.7H2O obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) area scan are shown.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Investigation of Radical and Cationic Cross-Linking in High-Efficiency, Low Band Gap Solar Cell Polymers

      Chin Pang Yau, Sarah Wang, Neil D. Treat, Zhuping Fei, Bertrand J. Tremolet de Villers, Michael L. Chabinyc and Martin Heeney

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401228

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      Low band gap dithienogermole-co-thieno[3,4-c]pyrroledione (DTG-TPD) polymers incorporating varying amounts of cross-linkable alkyl bromide or oxetane sidechains are synthesized. Random copolymers with a 20% incorporation of the cross-linker demonstrate a higher solar cell efficiency (PCE up to 7.9%) than the parent polymer, while 100% cross-linker incorporation reduces device efficiency. Cross-linking of the polymer in the presence or absence of fullerene results in different behavior. Solvent resistant films cannot be obtained by UV radical cross-linking in the presence of fullerene, whereas cationic cross-linking is successful.

    2. Mechanically Robust BiSbTe Alloys with Superior Thermoelectric Performance: A Case Study of Stable Hierarchical Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

      Yun Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Xianli Su, Hongyao Xie, Shengcheng Shu, Tianle Chen, Gangjian Tan, Yonggao Yan, Xinfeng Tang, Ctirad Uher and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401391

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      Melt-spinning combined with plasma activated sintering is adopted to design hierarchical nanostructured BiSbTe alloys. Thanks to the hierarchical configuration and nanodispersion, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced significantly, leading to superior thermoelectric performance and robust mechanical properties. Accompanied by an excellent thermal stability, the melt-spinning-based synthesis approach offers great potential for commercial applications.

    3. Dominating Energy Losses in NiO p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Torben Daeneke, Ze Yu, George P. Lee, Dongchuan Fu, Noel W. Duffy, Satoshi Makuta, Yasuhiro Tachibana, Leone Spiccia, Amaresh Mishra, Peter Bäuerle and Udo Bach

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401387

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      NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are limited in their efficiency by their inherently low fill factor. This work investigates the origins of this limitation following a systematic approach investigating changes in the light-harvesting efficiency, injection efficiency, dye regeneration yield, and charge collection efficiency. Overcoming the identified limitations will result in improved p-type DSCs and higher tandem DSC efficiencies.

    4. Ordered Network of Interconnected SnO2 Nanoparticles for Excellent Lithium-Ion Storage

      Vinodkumar Etacheri, Gulaim A. Seisenbaeva, James Caruthers, Geoffrey Daniel, Jean-Marie Nedelec, Vadim G. Kessler and Vilas G. Pol

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401289

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      A unique nanoarchitecture of interconnected SnO2 particles is demonstrated as a high-performance Li-ion battery anode. Excellent Li-ion storage properties of these SnO2 anodes are attributed to the synergetic effect of ultrafine particle size and interconnected microstructure.

  25. Communications

    1. Stable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Mesoporous Metallurgical Silicon

      Xiaopeng Li, Chenglin Yan, Junna Wang, Andreas Graff, Stefan L. Schweizer, Alexander Sprafke, Oliver G. Schmidt and Ralf B. Wehrspohn

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401556

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      Extremely cheap mesoporous silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching of inexpensive metallurgical silicon have a higher porosity and thus volume expansion possibility than simple silicon nanowires. Metallurgical Si nanowires (MG-SiNWs) show a reversible capacity of about 2111 mAh g−1 at a current rate of 0.2 C, an encouraging stability of over at least 50 cycles as well as a good rate capability.

  26. Full Papers

    1. A Flexible Porous Carbon Nanofibers-Selenium Cathode with Superior Electrochemical Performance for Both Li-Se and Na-Se Batteries

      Linchao Zeng, Wencong Zeng, Yu Jiang, Xiang Wei, Weihan Li, Chenglong Yang, Yanwu Zhu and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401377

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      A flexible and free-standing porous carbon nanofibers/selenium composite electrode (Se@PCNFs) is prepared by infiltrating Se into mesoporous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs). The Se@PCNFs electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance for both lithium and sodium storage, which is attributed to synergistic effects of the uniform distribution of Se in PCNFs and the 3D interconnected PCNFs framework.

  27. Communications

    1. Improved Performance in Polymer Solar Cells Using Mixed PC61BM/PC71BM Acceptors

      Seo-Jin Ko, Wonho Lee, Hyosung Choi, Bright Walker, Seungjib Yum, Seongbeom Kim, Tae Joo Shin, Han Young Woo and Jin Young Kim

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401687

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      A ternary blend polymer solar cell (PSC) comprising a semicrystalline polymer and two fullerene derivatives (C60, C70) shows a substantial increase in energy conversion efficiency as compared to that of corresponding binary blend PSCs. The enhancement in device efficiency results from an increase in short-circuit current density and a minimization of fill factor decrease at the optimum blend ratio.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Exploration of the Effective Location of Surface Oxygen Defects in Graphene-Based Electrocatalysts for All-Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries

      Minjoon Park, In-Yup Jeon, Jaechan Ryu, Jong-Beom Baek and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401550

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      The electrocatalytic activity of edge-functionalized graphene nanoplateleted catalysts towards vanadium redox couples is highly dependent on the edge structure and the preservation of the basal plane with a high crystallinity. Such materials with oxygen functionality at the edges and a defect-free basal plane can greatly increase the redox peak current density and charge/discharge cycle performance.

  29. Communications

    1. 3D Printer Based Slot-Die Coater as a Lab-to-Fab Translation Tool for Solution-Processed Solar Cells

      Doojin Vak, Kyeongil Hwang, Andrew Faulks, Yen-Sook Jung, Noel Clark, Dong-Yu Kim, Gerard J. Wilson and Scott E. Watkins

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401539

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      A 3D printer based slot-die coater is developed as a lab-to-fab translation tool for solution-processed solar cells. The modified 3D printer is used to develop the printing process for potential use in large scale roll-to-roll production. Fabrication of a 47.3 cm2 organic solar cell module with 4.56% efficiency and printed perovskite solar cells with 11.6% efficiency are demonstrated.

  30. Full Papers

    1. 3D Hierarchical Porous α-Fe2O3 Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Kangzhe Cao, Lifang Jiao, Huiqiao Liu, Yongchang Liu, Yijing Wang, Zaiping Guo and Huatang Yuan

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401421

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      3D hierarchical porous α-Fe2O3 nano­sheets on copper foil are successfully fabricated by a facile method. When used as binder-free anode material, these unique 3D hierarchical nanosheets with porous structure exhibit high reversible lithium-storage performance, outstanding rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

    2. Lateral Organic Solar Cells with Self-Assembled Semiconductor Nanowires

      Min Kim, Jong Hwan Park, Joo Hyun Kim, Ji Ho Sung, Sae Byeok Jo, Moon-Ho Jo and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401317

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      Lateral organic solar cells in which organic semiconductor nanowires are incorporated are fabricated on patterned asymmetric electrodes. Efficient charge sweep-out is achieved by incorporating self-assembled nanowires into the photoactive layer. The lateral devices can be fabricated on any substrate and mechanically deformed without loss of performance, which presents an approach to large-scale fabrication of flexible energy devices.

  31. Communications

    1. Carbon Quantum Dots/Cu2O Heterostructures for Solar-Light-Driven Conversion of CO2 to Methanol

      Haitao Li, Xinyi Zhang and Douglas R. MacFarlane

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401077

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      A carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/Cu2O heterostructure with a protruding structure is synthesized and found to offer highly efficient photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to methanol under solar-light irradiation. The CQDs/Cu2O photocatalyst exhibits excellent stability during the conversion process, which is attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer properties of the CQDs.

  32. Progress Reports

    1. Hybrid and Aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

      Arumugam Manthiram and Longjun Li

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401302

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      Hybrid and aqueous lithium-air batteries have the potential to achieve the ultrahigh energy density of the Li-O2 couple in ambient environments. The current status of hybrid and aqueous lithium-air batteries, limitations and challenges hindering their adoption, and future directions to overcome the challenges are summarized.

  33. Communications

    1. Metal Fluorides Nanoconfined in Carbon Nanopores as Reversible High Capacity Cathodes for Li and Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries: FeF2 as an Example

      Wentian Gu, Alexandre Magasinski, Bogdan Zdyrko and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401148

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      Highly uniform nanocomposites with nanoconfined iron fluoride (FeF2) are successfully produced using vacuum impregnation of activated carbon powder with a fluoride precursor and subsequent precursor transformation. When confined in carbon nanopores, metal fluoride nanoparticles exhibit dramatically enhanced performance characteristics and cycle life in Li ion batteries. Carbon pore walls accommodate fluoride volume changes during lithiation, prevent physical separation of fluoride particles, and deliver electrons or holes to the electrochemical reaction sites during cell operation.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Synergy Between Metal Oxide Nanofibers and Graphene Nanoribbons for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes

      Jun Yin, Joseph M. Carlin, Jangwoo Kim, Zhong Li, Jay Hoon Park, Bharat Patel, Srinivasan Chakrapani, Sangho Lee and Yong Lak Joo

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401412

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      Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) unzipped from carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibers with a high degree of defects and hydrophilicity of the surface are promising cathode components for rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. The optimum synergy between ZnO nanofibers and GNRs together with inclusion of catalysts, such as platinum, can balance the discharge capacity and cycle life.

    2. A Comparison of Five Experimental Techniques to Measure Charge Carrier Lifetime in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells

      Tracey M. Clarke, Christoph Lungenschmied, Jeff Peet, Nicolas Drolet and Attila J. Mozer

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401345

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      Five experimental techniques that measure charge carrier lifetime are applied to an organic solar cell and compared. At high charge carrier densities, all the techniques surprisingly provide similar lifetimes. At low charge carrier densities, deviations to apparent high reaction orders are observed.

    3. The Effect of Fluorination in Manipulating the Nanomorphology in PTB7:PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction Systems

      Shuai Guo, Jing Ning, Volker Körstgens, Yuan Yao, Eva M. Herzig, Stephan V. Roth and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401315

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      The nanomorphology of novel fluorinated polymers PTB7-Fx (fluorine units coupled with submonomer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) bulk heterojunction films for photovoltaic applications is comprehensively investigated using both direct imaging and scattering techniques. Absorption properties, film morphology, film crystallinity of the photoactive layers, and the corresponding solar cell performance are consecutively probed. The reason for different photovoltaic performance with varied degrees of fluorinated PTB7 and the efficiency-morphology relationship are addressed.

  35. Communications

    1. Enhanced Environmental Stability of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Blade-Coating

      Jong H. Kim, Spencer T. Williams, Namchul Cho, Chu-Chen Chueh and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401229

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      A simple and effective method to prepare air-processable perovskite films is ­developed. The blade-coated ­perovskite films feature self-assembled ­air-protection patches, and solar cells based on these film showed significantly improved air-­stability with high power conversion efficiencies up to 9.52%. It is also ­demonstrated that the blade-coating process is applicable to the fabrication of high efficiency (12.21%) perovskite solar cells.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Fast Li Storage in MoS2-Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites: Advantageous Functional Integration of 0D, 1D, and 2D Nanostructures

      Changbao Zhu, Xiaoke Mu, Peter A. van Aken, Joachim Maier and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401170

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      A 3D porous composite consisting of nano-0D MoS2, nano-1D carbon ­nanotubes, and nano-2D graphene is prepared using an electrostatic spray deposition technique. Either nanodots of amorphous MoS2 (0.5–5 nm) or nanocrystalline few-layered MoS2 (5–10 nm) bonded to graphene-carbon nanotubes backbone are obtained. Such ­composites show excellent rate performance and ­superior cycling stability.

    2. Impact of the Doping Method on Conductivity and Thermopower in Semiconducting Polythiophenes

      Anne M. Glaudell, Justin E. Cochran, Shrayesh N. Patel and Michael L. Chabinyc

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401072

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      The thermoelectric properties of three high-hole mobility polythiophenes, poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C14), and poly(2,5-bis(thiphen-2-yl)-(3,7-diheptadecantyltetrathienoacene)) (P2TDC17-FT4), doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) and a fluorinated alkyl silane, (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-trichlorosilane (FTS), are measured over a wide range of electrical conductivities. A correlation between conductivity and thermopower emerges that can be used to guide material design for thermoelectrics.

    3. NiCo2S4 Nanosheets Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Foams as an Advanced Electrode for Supercapacitors

      Laifa Shen, Jie Wang, Guiyin Xu, Hongsen Li, Hui Dou and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400977

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      A general paradigm for fabricating 3D electrode and high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors is demonstrated via the use of a highly conductive 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam (NCF) based composite electrode design. This provides efficient and rapid pathways for ion and electron transport, which achieve a simultaneous improvement in the form factor flexibility, lightweight, excellent specific energy, and power performance.

    4. Natural Fiber Welded Electrode Yarns for Knittable Textile Supercapacitors

      Kristy Jost, David P. Durkin, Luke M. Haverhals, E. Kathryn Brown, Matthew Langenstein, Hugh C. De Long, Paul C. Trulove, Yury Gogotsi and Genevieve Dion

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401286

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      Wearable electronics are quickly evolving, finding use in the clothing industry, but they still need an integrated textile power source. Steps towards making capacitive yarns for knitted electrochemical ­capacitors using a technique called natural fiber welding are described. Carbon materials are embedded into cotton, linen, bamboo, and viscose yarns and electrochemically characterized.

  37. Communications

    1. Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries

      Juchuan Li, Cheng Ma, Miaofang Chi, Chengdu Liang and Nancy J. Dudney

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401408

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      A solid-state high-voltage (5 V) lithium battery is demonstrated to deliver a cycle life of 10 000 with 90% capacity retention. The solid electrolyte enables the use of high-voltage cathodes and Li anodes with minimum side reactions, leading to a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.98+%.

    2. Novel Wearable Energy Devices Based on Aligned Carbon Nanotube Fiber Textiles

      Shaowu Pan, Huijuan Lin, Jue Deng, Peining Chen, Xuli Chen, Zhibin Yang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401438

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      A novel wearable supercapacitor textile with the desired and combined properties of being thin, lightweight, transparent, and flexible is developed by stacking two aligned carbon nanotube fiber-based textile electrodes. The supercapacitor textile is further integrated to create a new energy textile that can convert solar energy to electric energy, in addition to storing it with a high entire photoelectric conversion and storage efficiency.

    3. Optically Switchable Smart Windows with Integrated Photovoltaic Devices

      Hyun-Keun Kwon, Kyu-Tae Lee, Kahyun Hur, Sung Hwan Moon, Malik M. Quasim, Timothy D. Wilkinson, Ji-Young Han, Hyungduk Ko, Il-Ki Han, Byoungnam Park, Byoung Koun Min, Byeong-Kwon Ju, Stephen M. Morris, Richard H. Friend and Doo-Hyun Ko

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401347

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      An optically controlled energy-harvesting smart window that incorporates a semitransparent solar cell with a photo­sensitive liquid crystal (LC) layer is demonstrated. The LC layer can switch between a transparent (day mode) and an opaque (night mode) state depending upon the incident solar radiation. Combined with a photovoltaic cell, this window provides a template for future smart window systems.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Alveoli-Inspired Facile Transport Structure of N-Doped Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Energy Applications

      Dong Young Chung, Kyung Jae Lee, Seung-Ho Yu, Minhyoung Kim, Stanfield Youngwon Lee, Ok-Hee Kim, Hyun-Jin Park and Yung-Eun Sung

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401309

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      Alveoli-inspired N-doped carbon materials with a high surface area and low transport resistance are synthesized. By incorporating a dopamine coating on a zeolitic imidazolate framework, pore size is modified and electrical conducting pathways are constructed, resulting in changes to the reaction kinetics. This is important for electrochemical energy applications.

  39. Communications

    1. High-Performance Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells Based on a Dithienogermole-Containing Molecular Donor

      Yanming Sun, Jason Seifter, Lijun Huo, Yali Yang, Ben B. Y. Hsu, Huiqiong Zhou, Xiaobo Sun, Steven Xiao, Lei Jiang and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400987

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      A novel dithienogermole-containing small-molecule donor termed p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 is synthesized and characterized, and its optical, thermal, and electrical properties are found to be comparable to its silicon analogue (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2). Solar cells based on an active layer of p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 and the fullerene PC70BM exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9%, indicating that p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 is an excellent small-molecule donor.

  40. Full Papers

    1. Performance Improvement of Magnesium Sulfur Batteries with Modified Non-Nucleophilic Electrolytes

      Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Xiangyu Zhao, Di Wang, Thomas Diemant, R. Jürgen Behm and Maximilian Fichtner

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401155

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      Magnesium sulfur battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems. A new synthetic method for non-nucleophilic electrolytes provides a feasible way to optimize the physiochemical properties of the electrolytes for magnesium sulfur batteries. The first use of modified electrolytes in glymes and binary solvents shows significant beneficial effects on the performance of magnesium sulfur batteries.

  41. Communications

    1. Overcoming the Light-Soaking Problem in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Introducing a Heavily Doped Titanium Sub-Oxide Functional Layer

      Geunjin Kim, Jaemin Kong, Junghwan Kim, Hongkyu Kang, Hyungcheol Back, Heejoo Kim and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401298

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      Light-soaking-free inverted polymer solar cell (i-PSC) devices are demonstrated by incorporating nitrogen doped sol–gel titanium sub-oxide (N-TiOx). A heavily doped electron transport layer in i-PSCs, N-TiOx on indium tin oxide yields an Ohmic contact with the bulk heterojunction layer that does not exhibit light-soaking processes. This results in highly efficient i-PSCs with power conversion efficiencies of 8.8%.

    2. Predicting the Open-Circuit Voltage of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Using Electroluminescence and Photovoltaic Quantum Efficiency Spectra: the Role of Radiative and Non-Radiative Recombination

      Wolfgang Tress, Nevena Marinova, Olle Inganäs, Mohammad. K. Nazeeruddin, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Graetzel

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400812

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      The remarkably high open-circuit voltage of methylammonium lead iodide perov­skite solar cells is investigated. Both the theoretical maximum and the real open-circuit voltage are predicted from electroluminescence and photovoltaic external quantum efficiency spectra. Radiative and non-radiative recombination are quantified, where a source of non-radiative recombination is found in the mesoscopic structure, independent of the Al2O3 or TiO2 scaffold. Without a hole-transport layer, non-radiative recombination is strongly enhanced, which reduces the open-circuit voltage.

    3. A Three-Component Nanocomposite with Synergistic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Solution

      Hao Liu, Yao Zheng, Guoxiu Wang and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401186

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      A Pd-phosphotungstic acid-mesoporous carbon nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction in aqueous alkaline electrolyte. This novel catalyst is promising to replace commercial Pt-C for ORR in alkaline fuel cells. This three-component architecture with synergistic coupling provides a new strategy for making advanced catalysts with excellent electrocatalytic activity.

  42. Full Papers

    1. Efficient, Large Area, and Thick Junction Polymer Solar Cells with Balanced Mobilities and Low Defect Densities

      Ardalan Armin, Mike Hambsch, Pascal Wolfer, Hui Jin, Jun Li, Zugui Shi, Paul L. Burn and Paul Meredith

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401221

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      Monolithic large area organic solar cells are fabricated based on bulk hetero­junctions of a high molecular weight polymer and fullerene with balanced charge carrier mobilities. Thick junctions cast from high viscosity solutions can conformally coat low sheet resistance metal-grid anodes to produce efficient large area monolithic devices.

    2. In Situ Morphology Studies of the Mechanism for Solution Additive Effects on the Formation of Bulk Heterojunction Films

      Lee J. Richter, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Felicia A. Bokel, Sebastian Engmann, Kang Wei Chou, Aram Amassian, Eric Schaible and Alexander Hexemer

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400975

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      Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  43. Communications

    1. The Scope and Limitations of Ternary Blend Organic Photovoltaics

      Brett M. Savoie, Scott Dunaisky, Tobin J. Marks and Mark A. Ratner

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400891

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      Ternary organic photovoltaic donor:acceptor blend active materials composed of three distinct species possess remarkable advantages over neat semiconductors and binary donor:acceptor blends. A blended semiconductor is a foreign concept for inorganic semiconductors, whereas electronically disparate organic semiconductors can be mixed while mutually enhancing the properties of each. This feature allows ternary semiconductors to realize many of the advantages of tandem solar cells in a single layer.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Luminescent Down-Shifting Fluoropolymer Coatings: A Straightforward Strategy to Improve the UV-Light Harvesting Ability and Long-Term Outdoor Stability of Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Gianmarco Griffini, Federico Bella, Filippo Nisic, Claudia Dragonetti, Dominique Roberto, Marinella Levi, Roberta Bongiovanni and Stefano Turri

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401312

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      A new multifunctional coating system based on a photocurable fluoropolymer that incorporates luminescent-down shifting, UV-screening, and easy-cleaning functionalities is presented. The use of such coating in organic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices allows for significant improvement of the power conversion efficiency of uncoated devices and imparts outstanding long-term device stability in real outdoor operating conditions.

  45. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on the Solution-Processable Hole Transporting Interlayer Copper Thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a Replacement for PEDOT:PSS

      Nir Yaacobi-Gross, Neil D. Treat, Pichaya Pattanasattayavong, Hendrik Faber, Ajay K. Perumal, Natalie Stingelin, Donal D. C. Bradley, Paul N. Stavrinou, Martin Heeney and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401529

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      The use of copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a universal solution-processable and highly transparent hole-transporting layer in organic bulk-heterojunction photo­voltaic cells is demonstrated. When CuSCN is employed as a replacement for the commonly used poly(3,4-ethyl­­enedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), organic solar cells with maximum power conversion efficiency of 8%, are realized; this value is 1.27 times higher than that for optimized control cells based on PEDOT:PSS.

  46. Full Papers

    1. A High Areal Capacity Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery with a Strain-Compliant Design

      Abhinav M. Gaikwad, Brian V. Khau, Greg Davies, Benjamin Hertzberg, Daniel A. Steingart and Ana Claudia Arias

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401389

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      Flexible lithium-ion batteries with a high areal capacity of ≈1 mAh cm-2 and an open-circuit potential of 2.6 V are demonstrated. Due to the reinforced electrode design, the batteries are able to maintain their capacity, even after repeated flexing up to a bend radius of 10 mm.

    2. Integrated Design of Organic Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Haining Tian, Lili Lin, Deping Qian, Hong Chen, Jinbao Zhang, Nick Vlachopoulos, Gerrit Boschloo, Yi Luo, Fengling Zhang, Anders Hagfeldt and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401185

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      A series of triphenylamine-based small molecular hole transport materials (HTMs) are systematically investigated in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSCs). Among these HTMs, X3- and X35-based devices exhibit desirable power conversion efficiencies of 5.8% and 5.5%, which are better than those for the device using the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD (5.4%). This makes these new HTMs promising for high-efficiency ssDSCs or perovskite solar cells.

    3. Optimization of Carbon- and Binder-Free Au Nanoparticle-Coated Ni Nanowire Electrodes for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

      Sun Tai Kim, Nam-Soon Choi, Soojin Park and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401030

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      Au nanoparticle-coated Ni nanowire substrates are used as the electrode (Au/Ni electrode) for Li-O2 batteries. This optimized Au/Ni electrode demonstrates improved capacity of ≈600 mAh g−1Au. More importantly, it exhibits improved cyclability over 200 cycles at full discharge and charge conditions between 2.3 and 4.3 V.

    4. Electrochemical Design of Nanostructured ZnO Charge Carrier Layers for Efficient Solid-State Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jie Zhang, Philippe Barboux and Thierry Pauporté

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400932

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      Efficient perovskite-sensitized solar cells are prepared based on designed electrodeposited zinc oxide scaffold layers. They combine Cl-doped vertically oriented nanowire arrays and an intermediate thin overlayer of low n-type doped ZnO. Very large photocurrents and open-circuit voltages are achieved and a power conversion efficiency as high as 10.28% is demonstrated.

  47. Communications

    1. Direct Observation of Ordered Oxygen Defects on the Atomic Scale in Li2O2 for Li-O2 Batteries

      Dongdong Xiao, Shanmu Dong, Jing Guan, Lin Gu, Shanming Li, Nijie Zhao, Chaoqun Shang, Zhenzhong Yang, Hao Zheng, Chun Chen, Ruijuan Xiao, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Guanglei Cui and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400664

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      The structure of the discharge product, Li2O2, in lithium-oxygen batteries is revealed directly on the atomic scale. A unique stage ordering that the peroxide vacancy occupies preferentially in every other layer along the c-axis of Li2O2 is observed. This finding provides new insight into the relationship between the structure of Li2O2 and the discharge/charge behavior of Li-O2 batteries.

  48. Full Papers

    1. Highly Efficient Flexible Hybrid Nanocrystal-Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) Solar Cells

      Yu-Kuang Liao, Maël Brossard, Dan-Hua Hsieh, Tzu-Neng Lin, Martin D. B. Charlton, Shun-Jen Cheng, Chyong-Hua Chen, Ji-Lin Shen, Lung-Teng Cheng, Tung-Po Hsieh, Fang-I Lai, Shou-Yi Kuo, Hao-Chung Kuo, Pavlos G. Savvidis and Pavlos G. Lagoudakis

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401280

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      Low-cost pulse-spray deposition is used to incorporate self-assembled clusters of luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) into a flexible thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell. Luminescent down-shifting and internal scattering on NQD clusters are found to provide a large broadband improvement of the quantum efficiency, yielding a 10.9% relative increase of the efficiency.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A High Power-Density, Mediator-Free, Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

      Paolo Bombelli, Thomas Müller, Therese W. Herling, Christopher J. Howe and Tuomas P. J. Knowles

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401299

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      A soft-lithography microsolidics approach is demonstrated for the fabrication of biophotovoltaic devices that do not require membranes or mediators. Cyanobacteria settled on the microanode permit the physical proximity between cells and electrode required for mediator-free operation. Using these devices power densities of above 100 mW m–2 under white light are obtained for a chlorophyll concentration of 100 μM.

    3. Controlled Growth of NiMoO4 Nanosheet and Nanorod Arrays on Various Conductive Substrates as Advanced Electrodes for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Shengjie Peng, Linlin Li, Hao Bin Wu, Srinivasan Madhavi and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401172

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      Hierarchical NiMoO4 nanosheet and nanorod arrays are successfully grown on various conductive substrates using a facile and effective solution method. Combined with activated carbon, the integrated NiMoO4-Ni foam electrode is successfully used to construct a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor that has high energy density and remarkable cycling stability.

  49. Communications

    1. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Utilizing Multifunctional Quantum-Dot Monolayers

      Byung Joon Moon, Sungjae Cho, Kyu Seung Lee, Sukang Bae, Sanghyun Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Basavaraj Angadi, Yeonjin Yi, Min Park and Dong Ick Son

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401130

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      Polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)/monolayered quantum dots (QDs) play a multifunctional role as the electron transport layer and the absorption layer, in addition to causing surface plasmon resonance effects, for improving photovoltaic performance. This leads to a power conversion efficiency increase of up to 8.1% using a PTB7 (poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]]):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) active layer.

  50. Full Papers

    1. Understanding Triplet Formation Pathways in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Devices

      Biniam Zerai Tedlla, Feng Zhu, Matthijs Cox, Jeroen Drijkoningen, Jean Manca, Bert Koopmans and Etienne Goovaerts

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401109

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      Charge and energy transfers as well as triplet formation pathways are investigated in bulk heterojunction films and devices with “super yellow” poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (SY-PPV) as the donor polymer and fullerene derivatives with varying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels as the acceptors. Efficient triplet exciton formation in the fullerene component is demonstrated and the origin of photocurrent losses in high open-circuit voltage devices is inferred.

    2. Enhanced Thermal Stability of W-Ni-Al2O3 Cermet-Based Spectrally Selective Solar Absorbers with Tungsten Infrared Reflectors

      Feng Cao, Daniel Kraemer, Tianyi Sun, Yucheng Lan, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401042

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      The iron diffusion from a stainless steel substrate is suppressed by introducing a thick tungsten layer between the substrate and absorber coatings. The spectrally selective solar absorber with a tungsten layer demonstrates a long-term thermal stability at 600 °C, a stable solar absorptance of ≈0.90, and total hemispherical emittance of 0.15 at 500 °C.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

      Dongping Lv, Yuyan Shao, Terence Lozano, Wendy D. Bennett, Gordon L. Graff, Bryant Polzin, Jiguang Zhang, Mark H. Engelhard, Natalio T. Saenz, Wesley A. Henderson, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Jun Liu and Jie Xiao

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400993

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      A study of the failure mechanism for lithium metal batteries with liquid electrolytes indicates that at high current densities the tremendous growth of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)/Li entangled interphase towards the bulk Li dramatically increases the overall cell impedance. This is the actual origin of cell failure before “dendritic” Li forms. This provides important clues to developing innovative strategies for preventing the formation of the resistive interphase, as well as the determination of testing protocols for evaluation of high mass loading electrodes in Li half-cells.

  51. Communications

    1. Light-Driven, Membraneless, Hydrogen Peroxide Based Fuel Cells

      Lei Han, Shaojun Guo, Ping Wang and Shaojun Dong

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400424

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A TiO2 nanotube photoanode is introduced into H2O2-based fuel cells to improve their performance by utilizing light energy and biomass power. Upon UV illumination, the light-driven, membraneless, H2O2-based fuel cells exhibit a high open-circuit potential (OCP) of 0.595 V and stable power density of 90 μW cm–2.

  52. Full Papers

    1. Microfabricated Pseudocapacitors Using Ni(OH)2 Electrodes Exhibit Remarkable Volumetric Capacitance and Energy Density

      Narendra Kurra, Nuha A. Alhebshi and H. N. Alshareef

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401303

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A conventional photolithography process followed by chemical bath deposition of Ni(OH)2 is used in the fabrication of micro-pseudocapacitors. The micro-pseudocapacitors exhibit superior energy density compared to lithium based thin-film batteries and carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors.

  53. Communications

    1. A Novel Oligomer as a Hole Transporting Material for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

      Peng Qin, Nicolas Tetreault, M. Ibrahim Dar, Peng Gao, Keri L. McCall, Simon R. Rutter, Simon D. Ogier, Neil D. Forrest, James S. Bissett, Michael J. Simms, Aaron J. Page, Raymond Fisher, Michael Grätzel and Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400980

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      A polytriarylamine-based oligomer is reported as a hole transporting material and its application in solid-state CH3NH3PbI3 based heterojunction solar cells are described. It yields a power conversion efficiency of 12.0% under 99.6 mW cm–2 illumination. In addition to suitable energy levels and high hole mobility, the low preparation cost makes it a promising candidate for photovoltaics.

  54. Full Papers

    1. Photochemical Transformations in Fullerene and Molybdenum Oxide Affect the Stability of Bilayer Organic Solar Cells

      Hui Zhang, Andreas Borgschulte, Fernando A. Castro, Rowena Crockett, Andreas C. Gerecke, Okan Deniz, Jakob Heier, Sandra Jenatsch, Frank Nüesch, Carlos Sanchez-Sanchez, Alina Zoladek-Lemanczyk and Roland Hany

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400734

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The influence of photoinduced reactions in C60 and MoO3 on the stability of organic solar cells is investigated. A degradation process at the organic heterojunction and the formation of Mo5+ species adversely affect cell behavior during the first hours of illumination. Results suggest that the performances of solar cells composed of C60 and MoO3 should be rated after light processing.

  55. Communications

    1. Towards High-Voltage Aqueous Metal-Ion Batteries Beyond 1.5 V: The Zinc/Zinc Hexacyanoferrate System

      Leyuan Zhang, Liang Chen, Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping Liu

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400930

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      A new aqueous zinc-ion battery based on a zinc anode and a zinc hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. It relies on two reversible electrochemical reactions: zinc deposition/dissolution at the anode side and Zn2+ intercalation/extraction at the cathode side. Its average operating voltage is as high as 1.7 V.

  56. Full Papers

    1. Near-Infrared Light-Induced Photocurrent from a (NaYF4:Yb-Tm)/(Cu2O) Composite Thin Film

      Hong Jia, Shu Hong Zheng, Cheng Xu, Wei Bo Chen, Jue Chen Wang, Xiao Feng Liu and Jian Rong Qiu

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photocurrent generation driven by near-infrared (NIR) radiation is demonstrated in an electrodeposited (NaYF4:Yb-Tm)/(Cu2O) composite film. The mechanism, involving up-conversion of the NIR radiation into visible light in one layer of the film and then absorption and photoactive current generation in the other, will have implications for photovoltaic devices, where the utilization of sub-bandgap photons is highly desirable.

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