Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 14

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Joern Ritterbusch, Deputy Editor: Carolina Novo

Impact Factor: 14.385

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/82 (Energy & Fuels); 4/136 (Physics Applied); 5/136 (Chemistry Physical); 5/67 (Physics Condensed Matter); 7/251 (Materials Science Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1614-6840

Associated Title(s): Advanced Engineering Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Materials Interfaces, Advanced Optical Materials, Energy Technology, Fuel Cells, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Small

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  2. 101 - 126
  1. Progress Reports

    1. Hybrid and Aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

      Arumugam Manthiram and Longjun Li

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401302

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      Hybrid and aqueous lithium-air batteries have the potential to achieve the ultrahigh energy density of the Li-O2 couple in ambient environments. The current status of hybrid and aqueous lithium-air batteries, limitations and challenges hindering their adoption, and future directions to overcome the challenges are summarized.

  2. Communications

    1. Metal Fluorides Nanoconfined in Carbon Nanopores as Reversible High Capacity Cathodes for Li and Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries: FeF2 as an Example

      Wentian Gu, Alexandre Magasinski, Bogdan Zdyrko and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401148

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      Highly uniform nanocomposites with nanoconfined iron fluoride (FeF2) are successfully produced using vacuum impregnation of activated carbon powder with a fluoride precursor and subsequent precursor transformation. When confined in carbon nanopores, metal fluoride nanoparticles exhibit dramatically enhanced performance characteristics and cycle life in Li ion batteries. Carbon pore walls accommodate fluoride volume changes during lithiation, prevent physical separation of fluoride particles, and deliver electrons or holes to the electrochemical reaction sites during cell operation.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Synergy Between Metal Oxide Nanofibers and Graphene Nanoribbons for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes

      Jun Yin, Joseph M. Carlin, Jangwoo Kim, Zhong Li, Jay Hoon Park, Bharat Patel, Srinivasan Chakrapani, Sangho Lee and Yong Lak Joo

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401412

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      Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) unzipped from carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibers with a high degree of defects and hydrophilicity of the surface are promising cathode components for rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. The optimum synergy between ZnO nanofibers and GNRs together with inclusion of catalysts, such as platinum, can balance the discharge capacity and cycle life.

    2. A Comparison of Five Experimental Techniques to Measure Charge Carrier Lifetime in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells

      Tracey M. Clarke, Christoph Lungenschmied, Jeff Peet, Nicolas Drolet and Attila J. Mozer

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401345

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      Five experimental techniques that measure charge carrier lifetime are applied to an organic solar cell and compared. At high charge carrier densities, all the techniques surprisingly provide similar lifetimes. At low charge carrier densities, deviations to apparent high reaction orders are observed.

    3. The Effect of Fluorination in Manipulating the Nanomorphology in PTB7:PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction Systems

      Shuai Guo, Jing Ning, Volker Körstgens, Yuan Yao, Eva M. Herzig, Stephan V. Roth and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401315

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      The nanomorphology of novel fluorinated polymers PTB7-Fx (fluorine units coupled with submonomer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) bulk heterojunction films for photovoltaic applications is comprehensively investigated using both direct imaging and scattering techniques. Absorption properties, film morphology, film crystallinity of the photoactive layers, and the corresponding solar cell performance are consecutively probed. The reason for different photovoltaic performance with varied degrees of fluorinated PTB7 and the efficiency-morphology relationship are addressed.

  4. Communications

    1. Enhanced Environmental Stability of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Blade-Coating

      Jong H. Kim, Spencer T. Williams, Namchul Cho, Chu-Chen Chueh and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401229

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      A simple and effective method to prepare air-processable perovskite films is ­developed. The blade-coated ­perovskite films feature self-assembled ­air-protection patches, and solar cells based on these film showed significantly improved air-­stability with high power conversion efficiencies up to 9.52%. It is also ­demonstrated that the blade-coating process is applicable to the fabrication of high efficiency (12.21%) perovskite solar cells.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Fast Li Storage in MoS2-Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites: Advantageous Functional Integration of 0D, 1D, and 2D Nanostructures

      Changbao Zhu, Xiaoke Mu, Peter A. van Aken, Joachim Maier and Yan Yu

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401170

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      A 3D porous composite consisting of nano-0D MoS2, nano-1D carbon ­nanotubes, and nano-2D graphene is prepared using an electrostatic spray deposition technique. Either nanodots of amorphous MoS2 (0.5–5 nm) or nanocrystalline few-layered MoS2 (5–10 nm) bonded to graphene-carbon nanotubes backbone are obtained. Such ­composites show excellent rate performance and ­superior cycling stability.

    2. Impact of the Doping Method on Conductivity and Thermopower in Semiconducting Polythiophenes

      Anne M. Glaudell, Justin E. Cochran, Shrayesh N. Patel and Michael L. Chabinyc

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401072

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      The thermoelectric properties of three high-hole mobility polythiophenes, poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C14), and poly(2,5-bis(thiphen-2-yl)-(3,7-diheptadecantyltetrathienoacene)) (P2TDC17-FT4), doped with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) and a fluorinated alkyl silane, (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-trichlorosilane (FTS), are measured over a wide range of electrical conductivities. A correlation between conductivity and thermopower emerges that can be used to guide material design for thermoelectrics.

    3. NiCo2S4 Nanosheets Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Foams as an Advanced Electrode for Supercapacitors

      Laifa Shen, Jie Wang, Guiyin Xu, Hongsen Li, Hui Dou and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400977

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      A general paradigm for fabricating 3D electrode and high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors is demonstrated via the use of a highly conductive 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam (NCF) based composite electrode design. This provides efficient and rapid pathways for ion and electron transport, which achieve a simultaneous improvement in the form factor flexibility, lightweight, excellent specific energy, and power performance.

    4. Natural Fiber Welded Electrode Yarns for Knittable Textile Supercapacitors

      Kristy Jost, David P. Durkin, Luke M. Haverhals, E. Kathryn Brown, Matthew Langenstein, Hugh C. De Long, Paul C. Trulove, Yury Gogotsi and Genevieve Dion

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401286

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      Wearable electronics are quickly evolving, finding use in the clothing industry, but they still need an integrated textile power source. Steps towards making capacitive yarns for knitted electrochemical ­capacitors using a technique called natural fiber welding are described. Carbon materials are embedded into cotton, linen, bamboo, and viscose yarns and electrochemically characterized.

  6. Communications

    1. Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries

      Juchuan Li, Cheng Ma, Miaofang Chi, Chengdu Liang and Nancy J. Dudney

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401408

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      A solid-state high-voltage (5 V) lithium battery is demonstrated to deliver a cycle life of 10 000 with 90% capacity retention. The solid electrolyte enables the use of high-voltage cathodes and Li anodes with minimum side reactions, leading to a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.98+%.

    2. Novel Wearable Energy Devices Based on Aligned Carbon Nanotube Fiber Textiles

      Shaowu Pan, Huijuan Lin, Jue Deng, Peining Chen, Xuli Chen, Zhibin Yang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401438

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      A novel wearable supercapacitor textile with the desired and combined properties of being thin, lightweight, transparent, and flexible is developed by stacking two aligned carbon nanotube fiber-based textile electrodes. The supercapacitor textile is further integrated to create a new energy textile that can convert solar energy to electric energy, in addition to storing it with a high entire photoelectric conversion and storage efficiency.

    3. Optically Switchable Smart Windows with Integrated Photovoltaic Devices

      Hyun-Keun Kwon, Kyu-Tae Lee, Kahyun Hur, Sung Hwan Moon, Malik M. Quasim, Timothy D. Wilkinson, Ji-Young Han, Hyungduk Ko, Il-Ki Han, Byoungnam Park, Byoung Koun Min, Byeong-Kwon Ju, Stephen M. Morris, Richard H. Friend and Doo-Hyun Ko

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401347

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      An optically controlled energy-harvesting smart window that incorporates a semitransparent solar cell with a photo­sensitive liquid crystal (LC) layer is demonstrated. The LC layer can switch between a transparent (day mode) and an opaque (night mode) state depending upon the incident solar radiation. Combined with a photovoltaic cell, this window provides a template for future smart window systems.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Alveoli-Inspired Facile Transport Structure of N-Doped Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Energy Applications

      Dong Young Chung, Kyung Jae Lee, Seung-Ho Yu, Minhyoung Kim, Stanfield Youngwon Lee, Ok-Hee Kim, Hyun-Jin Park and Yung-Eun Sung

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401309

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      Alveoli-inspired N-doped carbon materials with a high surface area and low transport resistance are synthesized. By incorporating a dopamine coating on a zeolitic imidazolate framework, pore size is modified and electrical conducting pathways are constructed, resulting in changes to the reaction kinetics. This is important for electrochemical energy applications.

  8. Communications

    1. High-Performance Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells Based on a Dithienogermole-Containing Molecular Donor

      Yanming Sun, Jason Seifter, Lijun Huo, Yali Yang, Ben B. Y. Hsu, Huiqiong Zhou, Xiaobo Sun, Steven Xiao, Lei Jiang and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400987

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      A novel dithienogermole-containing small-molecule donor termed p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 is synthesized and characterized, and its optical, thermal, and electrical properties are found to be comparable to its silicon analogue (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2). Solar cells based on an active layer of p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 and the fullerene PC70BM exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9%, indicating that p-DTG(FBTTh2)2 is an excellent small-molecule donor.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Performance Improvement of Magnesium Sulfur Batteries with Modified Non-Nucleophilic Electrolytes

      Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Xiangyu Zhao, Di Wang, Thomas Diemant, R. Jürgen Behm and Maximilian Fichtner

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401155

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      Magnesium sulfur battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems. A new synthetic method for non-nucleophilic electrolytes provides a feasible way to optimize the physiochemical properties of the electrolytes for magnesium sulfur batteries. The first use of modified electrolytes in glymes and binary solvents shows significant beneficial effects on the performance of magnesium sulfur batteries.

  10. Communications

    1. Overcoming the Light-Soaking Problem in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Introducing a Heavily Doped Titanium Sub-Oxide Functional Layer

      Geunjin Kim, Jaemin Kong, Junghwan Kim, Hongkyu Kang, Hyungcheol Back, Heejoo Kim and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401298

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      Light-soaking-free inverted polymer solar cell (i-PSC) devices are demonstrated by incorporating nitrogen doped sol–gel titanium sub-oxide (N-TiOx). A heavily doped electron transport layer in i-PSCs, N-TiOx on indium tin oxide yields an Ohmic contact with the bulk heterojunction layer that does not exhibit light-soaking processes. This results in highly efficient i-PSCs with power conversion efficiencies of 8.8%.

    2. Predicting the Open-Circuit Voltage of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Using Electroluminescence and Photovoltaic Quantum Efficiency Spectra: the Role of Radiative and Non-Radiative Recombination

      Wolfgang Tress, Nevena Marinova, Olle Inganäs, Mohammad. K. Nazeeruddin, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Graetzel

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400812

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      The remarkably high open-circuit voltage of methylammonium lead iodide perov­skite solar cells is investigated. Both the theoretical maximum and the real open-circuit voltage are predicted from electroluminescence and photovoltaic external quantum efficiency spectra. Radiative and non-radiative recombination are quantified, where a source of non-radiative recombination is found in the mesoscopic structure, independent of the Al2O3 or TiO2 scaffold. Without a hole-transport layer, non-radiative recombination is strongly enhanced, which reduces the open-circuit voltage.

    3. A Three-Component Nanocomposite with Synergistic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Solution

      Hao Liu, Yao Zheng, Guoxiu Wang and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401186

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      A Pd-phosphotungstic acid-mesoporous carbon nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction in aqueous alkaline electrolyte. This novel catalyst is promising to replace commercial Pt-C for ORR in alkaline fuel cells. This three-component architecture with synergistic coupling provides a new strategy for making advanced catalysts with excellent electrocatalytic activity.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Efficient, Large Area, and Thick Junction Polymer Solar Cells with Balanced Mobilities and Low Defect Densities

      Ardalan Armin, Mike Hambsch, Pascal Wolfer, Hui Jin, Jun Li, Zugui Shi, Paul L. Burn and Paul Meredith

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401221

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      Monolithic large area organic solar cells are fabricated based on bulk hetero­junctions of a high molecular weight polymer and fullerene with balanced charge carrier mobilities. Thick junctions cast from high viscosity solutions can conformally coat low sheet resistance metal-grid anodes to produce efficient large area monolithic devices.

    2. In Situ Morphology Studies of the Mechanism for Solution Additive Effects on the Formation of Bulk Heterojunction Films

      Lee J. Richter, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Felicia A. Bokel, Sebastian Engmann, Kang Wei Chou, Aram Amassian, Eric Schaible and Alexander Hexemer

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400975

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      Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  12. Communications

    1. The Scope and Limitations of Ternary Blend Organic Photovoltaics

      Brett M. Savoie, Scott Dunaisky, Tobin J. Marks and Mark A. Ratner

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400891

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      Ternary organic photovoltaic donor:acceptor blend active materials composed of three distinct species possess remarkable advantages over neat semiconductors and binary donor:acceptor blends. A blended semiconductor is a foreign concept for inorganic semiconductors, whereas electronically disparate organic semiconductors can be mixed while mutually enhancing the properties of each. This feature allows ternary semiconductors to realize many of the advantages of tandem solar cells in a single layer.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Luminescent Down-Shifting Fluoropolymer Coatings: A Straightforward Strategy to Improve the UV-Light Harvesting Ability and Long-Term Outdoor Stability of Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Gianmarco Griffini, Federico Bella, Filippo Nisic, Claudia Dragonetti, Dominique Roberto, Marinella Levi, Roberta Bongiovanni and Stefano Turri

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401312

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      A new multifunctional coating system based on a photocurable fluoropolymer that incorporates luminescent-down shifting, UV-screening, and easy-cleaning functionalities is presented. The use of such coating in organic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices allows for significant improvement of the power conversion efficiency of uncoated devices and imparts outstanding long-term device stability in real outdoor operating conditions.

  14. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on the Solution-Processable Hole Transporting Interlayer Copper Thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a Replacement for PEDOT:PSS

      Nir Yaacobi-Gross, Neil D. Treat, Pichaya Pattanasattayavong, Hendrik Faber, Ajay K. Perumal, Natalie Stingelin, Donal D. C. Bradley, Paul N. Stavrinou, Martin Heeney and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401529

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      The use of copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a universal solution-processable and highly transparent hole-transporting layer in organic bulk-heterojunction photo­voltaic cells is demonstrated. When CuSCN is employed as a replacement for the commonly used poly(3,4-ethyl­­enedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), organic solar cells with maximum power conversion efficiency of 8%, are realized; this value is 1.27 times higher than that for optimized control cells based on PEDOT:PSS.

  15. Full Papers

    1. A High Areal Capacity Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery with a Strain-Compliant Design

      Abhinav M. Gaikwad, Brian V. Khau, Greg Davies, Benjamin Hertzberg, Daniel A. Steingart and Ana Claudia Arias

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401389

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      Flexible lithium-ion batteries with a high areal capacity of ≈1 mAh cm-2 and an open-circuit potential of 2.6 V are demonstrated. Due to the reinforced electrode design, the batteries are able to maintain their capacity, even after repeated flexing up to a bend radius of 10 mm.

    2. Integrated Design of Organic Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Haining Tian, Lili Lin, Deping Qian, Hong Chen, Jinbao Zhang, Nick Vlachopoulos, Gerrit Boschloo, Yi Luo, Fengling Zhang, Anders Hagfeldt and Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401185

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      A series of triphenylamine-based small molecular hole transport materials (HTMs) are systematically investigated in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSCs). Among these HTMs, X3- and X35-based devices exhibit desirable power conversion efficiencies of 5.8% and 5.5%, which are better than those for the device using the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD (5.4%). This makes these new HTMs promising for high-efficiency ssDSCs or perovskite solar cells.

    3. Optimization of Carbon- and Binder-Free Au Nanoparticle-Coated Ni Nanowire Electrodes for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

      Sun Tai Kim, Nam-Soon Choi, Soojin Park and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401030

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      Au nanoparticle-coated Ni nanowire substrates are used as the electrode (Au/Ni electrode) for Li-O2 batteries. This optimized Au/Ni electrode demonstrates improved capacity of ≈600 mAh g−1Au. More importantly, it exhibits improved cyclability over 200 cycles at full discharge and charge conditions between 2.3 and 4.3 V.

    4. Electrochemical Design of Nanostructured ZnO Charge Carrier Layers for Efficient Solid-State Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jie Zhang, Philippe Barboux and Thierry Pauporté

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400932

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      Efficient perovskite-sensitized solar cells are prepared based on designed electrodeposited zinc oxide scaffold layers. They combine Cl-doped vertically oriented nanowire arrays and an intermediate thin overlayer of low n-type doped ZnO. Very large photocurrents and open-circuit voltages are achieved and a power conversion efficiency as high as 10.28% is demonstrated.

  16. Communications

    1. Direct Observation of Ordered Oxygen Defects on the Atomic Scale in Li2O2 for Li-O2 Batteries

      Dongdong Xiao, Shanmu Dong, Jing Guan, Lin Gu, Shanming Li, Nijie Zhao, Chaoqun Shang, Zhenzhong Yang, Hao Zheng, Chun Chen, Ruijuan Xiao, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Guanglei Cui and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400664

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      The structure of the discharge product, Li2O2, in lithium-oxygen batteries is revealed directly on the atomic scale. A unique stage ordering that the peroxide vacancy occupies preferentially in every other layer along the c-axis of Li2O2 is observed. This finding provides new insight into the relationship between the structure of Li2O2 and the discharge/charge behavior of Li-O2 batteries.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Highly Efficient Flexible Hybrid Nanocrystal-Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) Solar Cells

      Yu-Kuang Liao, Maël Brossard, Dan-Hua Hsieh, Tzu-Neng Lin, Martin D. B. Charlton, Shun-Jen Cheng, Chyong-Hua Chen, Ji-Lin Shen, Lung-Teng Cheng, Tung-Po Hsieh, Fang-I Lai, Shou-Yi Kuo, Hao-Chung Kuo, Pavlos G. Savvidis and Pavlos G. Lagoudakis

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401280

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      Low-cost pulse-spray deposition is used to incorporate self-assembled clusters of luminescent nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) into a flexible thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell. Luminescent down-shifting and internal scattering on NQD clusters are found to provide a large broadband improvement of the quantum efficiency, yielding a 10.9% relative increase of the efficiency.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A High Power-Density, Mediator-Free, Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

      Paolo Bombelli, Thomas Müller, Therese W. Herling, Christopher J. Howe and Tuomas P. J. Knowles

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401299

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      A soft-lithography microsolidics approach is demonstrated for the fabrication of biophotovoltaic devices that do not require membranes or mediators. Cyanobacteria settled on the microanode permit the physical proximity between cells and electrode required for mediator-free operation. Using these devices power densities of above 100 mW m–2 under white light are obtained for a chlorophyll concentration of 100 μM.

    3. Controlled Growth of NiMoO4 Nanosheet and Nanorod Arrays on Various Conductive Substrates as Advanced Electrodes for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Shengjie Peng, Linlin Li, Hao Bin Wu, Srinivasan Madhavi and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401172

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      Hierarchical NiMoO4 nanosheet and nanorod arrays are successfully grown on various conductive substrates using a facile and effective solution method. Combined with activated carbon, the integrated NiMoO4-Ni foam electrode is successfully used to construct a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor that has high energy density and remarkable cycling stability.

  18. Communications

    1. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Utilizing Multifunctional Quantum-Dot Monolayers

      Byung Joon Moon, Sungjae Cho, Kyu Seung Lee, Sukang Bae, Sanghyun Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Basavaraj Angadi, Yeonjin Yi, Min Park and Dong Ick Son

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401130

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      Polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)/monolayered quantum dots (QDs) play a multifunctional role as the electron transport layer and the absorption layer, in addition to causing surface plasmon resonance effects, for improving photovoltaic performance. This leads to a power conversion efficiency increase of up to 8.1% using a PTB7 (poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]]):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) active layer.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Understanding Triplet Formation Pathways in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Devices

      Biniam Zerai Tedlla, Feng Zhu, Matthijs Cox, Jeroen Drijkoningen, Jean Manca, Bert Koopmans and Etienne Goovaerts

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401109

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      Charge and energy transfers as well as triplet formation pathways are investigated in bulk heterojunction films and devices with “super yellow” poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (SY-PPV) as the donor polymer and fullerene derivatives with varying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels as the acceptors. Efficient triplet exciton formation in the fullerene component is demonstrated and the origin of photocurrent losses in high open-circuit voltage devices is inferred.

    2. Enhanced Thermal Stability of W-Ni-Al2O3 Cermet-Based Spectrally Selective Solar Absorbers with Tungsten Infrared Reflectors

      Feng Cao, Daniel Kraemer, Tianyi Sun, Yucheng Lan, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401042

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      The iron diffusion from a stainless steel substrate is suppressed by introducing a thick tungsten layer between the substrate and absorber coatings. The spectrally selective solar absorber with a tungsten layer demonstrates a long-term thermal stability at 600 °C, a stable solar absorptance of ≈0.90, and total hemispherical emittance of 0.15 at 500 °C.

    3. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

      Dongping Lv, Yuyan Shao, Terence Lozano, Wendy D. Bennett, Gordon L. Graff, Bryant Polzin, Jiguang Zhang, Mark H. Engelhard, Natalio T. Saenz, Wesley A. Henderson, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Jun Liu and Jie Xiao

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400993

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      A study of the failure mechanism for lithium metal batteries with liquid electrolytes indicates that at high current densities the tremendous growth of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)/Li entangled interphase towards the bulk Li dramatically increases the overall cell impedance. This is the actual origin of cell failure before “dendritic” Li forms. This provides important clues to developing innovative strategies for preventing the formation of the resistive interphase, as well as the determination of testing protocols for evaluation of high mass loading electrodes in Li half-cells.

  20. Communications

    1. Light-Driven, Membraneless, Hydrogen Peroxide Based Fuel Cells

      Lei Han, Shaojun Guo, Ping Wang and Shaojun Dong

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400424

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      A TiO2 nanotube photoanode is introduced into H2O2-based fuel cells to improve their performance by utilizing light energy and biomass power. Upon UV illumination, the light-driven, membraneless, H2O2-based fuel cells exhibit a high open-circuit potential (OCP) of 0.595 V and stable power density of 90 μW cm–2.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Microfabricated Pseudocapacitors Using Ni(OH)2 Electrodes Exhibit Remarkable Volumetric Capacitance and Energy Density

      Narendra Kurra, Nuha A. Alhebshi and H. N. Alshareef

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401303

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      A conventional photolithography process followed by chemical bath deposition of Ni(OH)2 is used in the fabrication of micro-pseudocapacitors. The micro-pseudocapacitors exhibit superior energy density compared to lithium based thin-film batteries and carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors.

  22. Communications

    1. A Novel Oligomer as a Hole Transporting Material for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

      Peng Qin, Nicolas Tetreault, M. Ibrahim Dar, Peng Gao, Keri L. McCall, Simon R. Rutter, Simon D. Ogier, Neil D. Forrest, James S. Bissett, Michael J. Simms, Aaron J. Page, Raymond Fisher, Michael Grätzel and Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400980

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      A polytriarylamine-based oligomer is reported as a hole transporting material and its application in solid-state CH3NH3PbI3 based heterojunction solar cells are described. It yields a power conversion efficiency of 12.0% under 99.6 mW cm–2 illumination. In addition to suitable energy levels and high hole mobility, the low preparation cost makes it a promising candidate for photovoltaics.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Photochemical Transformations in Fullerene and Molybdenum Oxide Affect the Stability of Bilayer Organic Solar Cells

      Hui Zhang, Andreas Borgschulte, Fernando A. Castro, Rowena Crockett, Andreas C. Gerecke, Okan Deniz, Jakob Heier, Sandra Jenatsch, Frank Nüesch, Carlos Sanchez-Sanchez, Alina Zoladek-Lemanczyk and Roland Hany

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400734

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      The influence of photoinduced reactions in C60 and MoO3 on the stability of organic solar cells is investigated. A degradation process at the organic heterojunction and the formation of Mo5+ species adversely affect cell behavior during the first hours of illumination. Results suggest that the performances of solar cells composed of C60 and MoO3 should be rated after light processing.

  24. Communications

    1. Towards High-Voltage Aqueous Metal-Ion Batteries Beyond 1.5 V: The Zinc/Zinc Hexacyanoferrate System

      Leyuan Zhang, Liang Chen, Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping Liu

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400930

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      A new aqueous zinc-ion battery based on a zinc anode and a zinc hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. It relies on two reversible electrochemical reactions: zinc deposition/dissolution at the anode side and Zn2+ intercalation/extraction at the cathode side. Its average operating voltage is as high as 1.7 V.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Near-Infrared Light-Induced Photocurrent from a (NaYF4:Yb-Tm)/(Cu2O) Composite Thin Film

      Hong Jia, Shu Hong Zheng, Cheng Xu, Wei Bo Chen, Jue Chen Wang, Xiao Feng Liu and Jian Rong Qiu

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401041

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      Photocurrent generation driven by near-infrared (NIR) radiation is demonstrated in an electrodeposited (NaYF4:Yb-Tm)/(Cu2O) composite film. The mechanism, involving up-conversion of the NIR radiation into visible light in one layer of the film and then absorption and photoactive current generation in the other, will have implications for photovoltaic devices, where the utilization of sub-bandgap photons is highly desirable.

    2. An In Situ Multiscale Study of Ion and Electron Motion in a Lithium-Ion Battery Composite Electrode

      Kalid-Ahmed Seid, Jean-Claude Badot, Cristian Perca, Olivier Dubrunfaut, Patrick Soudan, Dominique Guyomard and Bernard Lestriez

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400903

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      Dielectric spectroscopy is used to study the motion of ions and electrons on different scales in lithium-ion battery electrodes. The influence of the liquid electrolyte on the electronic motions within LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 clusters and particles is demonstrated. The slope of the dotted lines corresponds to the thermal energy at 298 K and yields the mean frequency prefactor at zero energy.

  26. Communications

    1. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells using an Optical Metal Cavity Configuration

      Francesco Pastorelli, Pablo Romero-Gomez, Rafael Betancur, Alberto Martinez-Otero, Paola Mantilla-Perez, Nicolas Bonod and Jordi Martorell

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400614

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      An optical metal cavity configuration is used to trap near infrared light in a semitransparent organic solar cell. The efficiency for such cell, which has a higher than 20% transparency in the visible region, is equal to 90% of the efficiency of the corresponding opaque cell.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Ni–Fe–La(Sr)Fe(Mn)O3 as a New Active Cermet Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature CO2 Electrolysis Using a LaGaO3-Based Electrolyte

      Shijing Wang, Hidekazu Tsuruta, Minoru Asanuma and Tatsumi Ishihara

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401003

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      The addition of an oxide ion-conducting phase to Ni–Fe renders a ceramic–metallic (cermet) cathode highly effective for CO2 electrolysis at lower temperatures. An increase in the number of available reaction sites and a reduction of the polarization resistance are observed for the Ni–Fe–LSFM cathode when compared to an optimized metallic cathode (Ni–Fe).

    2. New Light-Harvesting Materials Using Accurate and Efficient Bandgap Calculations

      Ivano E. Castelli, Falco Hüser, Mohnish Pandey, Hong Li, Kristian S. Thygesen, Brian Seger, Anubhav Jain, Kristin A. Persson, Gerbrand Ceder and Karsten W. Jacobsen

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400915

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      The bandgaps of 2400 experimentally known materials from the Materials Project database are calculated using density functional theory. New light-harvesting materials are proposed that may be used in a one-photon photoelectrochemical device for water splitting. This is investigated by combining the estimation of the bandgaps with the stability analysis using Pourbaix diagrams and the evaluation of the position of the band edges.

    3. Towards a Stable Organic Electrolyte for the Lithium Oxygen Battery

      Brian D. Adams, Robert Black, Zack Williams, Russel Fernandes, Marine Cuisinier, Erik Jaemstorp Berg, Petr Novak, Graham K. Murphy and Linda F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400867

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      The greatest challenge in the development of non-aqueous lithium oxygen batteries is the necessity for materials that can withstand both reduction by metallic lithium and oxidation by some of the most reactive oxygen species (O2, O22−, etc.). It is shown that hydrogen abstraction from solvent molecules by O2 can be prevented using systematic synthetic approaches.

    4. Enabling Flexible Polymer Tandem Solar Cells by 3D Ptychographic Imaging

      Henrik F. Dam, Thomas R. Andersen, Emil B. L. Pedersen, Karl T. S. Thydén, Martin Helgesen, Jon E. Carlé, Peter S. Jørgensen, Juliane Reinhardt, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen, Eva Bundgaard, Frederik C. Krebs and Jens W. Andreasen

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400736

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      Tandem solar cells are produced by a fully solution based process under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods. The complexity is increased by the flexible substrate, which allows the process to be scalable to industrial production. A roll-to-roll X-ray analysis technique is introduced, allowing diagnostics of the solvent resistance of the interlayers. 3D reconstruction by X-ray ptychography of the layered stack of a 12 layer printed sample reveals the integrity of the individual layers.

    5. Unfolding the Mechanism of Sodium Insertion in Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles

      Liming Wu, Dominic Bresser, Daniel Buchholz, Guinevere Giffin, Claudia Ramirez Castro, Anders Ochel and Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401142

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      The electrochemical reaction of sodium and nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 is investigated, revealing that sodium ions partially reduce the rather stable oxide and form metallic titanium, sodium oxide, and amorphous sodium titanate. Once this electrochemical transformation of anatase TiO2 is complete, the newly formed material presents very stable long-term cycling performance and excellent high rate capability.

    6. A Particle-Controlled, High-Performance, Gum-Like Electrolyte for Safe and Flexible Energy Storage Devices

      Yu Wang, Wei-Hong Zhong, Tyler Schiff, Allen Eyler and Bin Li

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400463

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      A multifunctional gum-like electrolyte with excellent adhesion properties is described. By simply controlling the wax particles, the significant properties of the gum-like electrolyte, including the ionic conductivity, modulus, elasticity, and thermal protection capability, can all be adjusted. These particle-controlled properties integrated with the strong adhesion properties of the gum-like electrolyte will contribute to advanced, flexible, energy storage devices.

    7. The Role of Sodium as a Surfactant and Suppressor of Non-Radiative Recombination at Internal Surfaces in Cu2ZnSnS4

      Talia Gershon, Byungha Shin, Nestor Bojarczuk, Marinus Hopstaken, David B. Mitzi and Supratik Guha

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400849

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      Sodium has at least two types of positive effects on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS): i) it suppresses non-radiative recombination and ii) it acts as a surfactant for increasing grain size. Changes in grain size are also correlated with redistribution of zinc in the CZTS layer, indicating that removal of ZnS solutes from the grain boundaries may be critical for achieving large-grained thin film microstructures.

    8. 3D Si/C Fiber Paper Electrodes Fabricated using a Combined Electrospray/Electrospinning Technique for Li-Ion Batteries

      Yunhua Xu, Yujie Zhu, Fudong Han, Chao Luo and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400753

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      A novel flexible 3D Si/C fiber paper electrode is synthesized using a combined electrospray/electrospinning technique, in which Si nanoparticles are simultaneously and uniformly incorporated into the electrospun carbon fiber matrix. The C/Si composites show an overall electrode capacity of 1600 mAh g-1, capacity loss less than 0.079% per cycle for 600 cycles, and excellent rate performance.

    9. Light-Induced Degradation of Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Devices: An Intrinsic or Material-Dependent Failure Mechanism?

      Eszter Voroshazi, Ilaria Cardinaletti, Thierry Conard and Barry P. Rand

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400848

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      After overcoming the early stage instability problems in organic solar cells, the current focus is the initial light-induced failure mechanisms observed mostly in polymer:fullerene devices. Despite similar one-stage exponential performance loss in various device types, it is suggested that performance loss arises from multiple concurrent failure mechanisms and, furthermore, it is likely material dependent.

    10. Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte via Ionic Modification of Active Species

      Xiaoliang Wei, Lelia Cosimbescu, Wu Xu, Jian Zhi Hu, M. Vijayakumar, Ju Feng, Mary Y. Hu, Xuchu Deng, Jie Xiao, Jun Liu, Vincent Sprenkle and Wei Wang

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400678

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      A viable strategy to design a high-performance nonaqueous electrolyte using molecular structure engineering is demonstrated. A high electroactive material concentration of 0.8 M is obtained by derivatizing pristine ferrocene into an ionic charged form. The flow cell delivers an energy density as high as 50 Wh L−1 and energy efficiency of >75%.

  28. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells

      Xiaozhou Che, Xin Xiao, Jeramy D. Zimmerman, Dejiu Fan and Stephen R. Forrest

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400568

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      High-efficiency, vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic tandem and triple-junction photovoltaic cells are demonstrated. The devices are composed of two sub-cells with minimal absorption spectral overlap. A nearly transparent fullerene/wide-energy gap organic mixture is introduced as the interconnecting blocking layer to further reduce cell losses. A power conversion efficiency of 10.0% is achieved for the tandem cell and 11.1% is achieved for a triple-junction cell.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Interplay of Optical, Morphological, and Electronic Effects of ZnO Optical Spacers in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

      Sadok Ben Dkhil, David Duché, Meriem Gaceur, Anil K. Thakur, Fatima Bencheikh Aboura, Ludovic Escoubas, Jean-Jacques Simon, Antonio Guerrero, Juan Bisquert, Germà Garcia-Belmonte, Qinye Bao, Mats Fahlman, Christine Videlot-Ackermann, Olivier Margeat and Jörg Ackermann

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400805

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      Solution-processed ZnO optical spacers (OSP) are investigated in highly efficient polymer solar cells. The morphology of the OSP layer is shown to be crucial for introducing efficient electron extraction properties to the ZnO layer. By optimizing the optical spacer effects, contact resistance, and morphology of the ZnO layer, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid (PC70BM) bulk heterojunction solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 7.6% are obtained.

  30. Communications

    1. A Light Harvesting Antenna Using Natural Extract Graminoids Coupled with Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles for Bio-Photovoltaic Cells

      Gede Widia Pratama Adhyaksa, Eka Cahya Prima, Dong Ki Lee, Ilwoo Ock, Su Yatman, Brian Yuliarto and Jeung Ku Kang

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400470

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      Natural extract graminoids coordinated with plasmonic silver nanoparticles are reported to serve as efficient light harvesting antennas for bio-photovoltaic cells, where emission quenching by silver nanoparticles facilitates electron collection from natural sensitizers. Moreover, the (100) nanosheet of titanium dioxide and the ligand tethering are demonstrated to be very important for efficient solar-driven electron collection.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Thin Film Co3O4/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Benjamin Kupfer, Koushik Majhi, David A. Keller, Yaniv Bouhadana, Sven Ruhle, Hannah Noa Barad, Assaf Y. Anderson and Arie Zaban

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401007

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      All-oxide photovoltaics can be ecofriendly and cost-effective power sources. The photovoltaic activity of a Co3O4/TiO2 thin film is demonstrated for the first time, and it is observed that the photovoltaic performance is influenced by the thin film deposition temperatures. Deposition at 600 °C leads to drastic performance enhancement because the higher deposition temperature gives rise to improved crystallinity with larger crystalline grains.

    2. 3D Architecture Materials Made of NiCoAl-LDH Nanoplates Coupled with NiCo-Carbonate Hydroxide Nanowires Grown on Flexible Graphite Paper for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Juan Yang, Chang Yu, Xiaoming Fan and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400761

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      A new type of flexible architecture electrode, made of NiCoAl-LDH nanoplates coupled with NiCo-carbonate hydroxide nanowires (LDH-NPs/CH-NWs) that are simultaneously grown in situ on graphite paper, is fabricated by a one-step hydrothermal technique. Asymmetrical supercapacitors created by pairing up LDH-NPs/CH-NWs and activated carbon (AC) show a high energy density of 14.9 Wh kg−1 at a high power density of 51.5 kW kg−1, demonstrating their promise for high-performance energy-storage devices.

    3. Low-Temperature Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Partially Amorphous La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ Cathodes

      Anna Evans, Julia Martynczuk, Dieter Stender, Christof W. Schneider, Thomas Lippert and Michel Prestat

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400747

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      The reduction of the operating temperature is a major goal in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research. Significant progress has been recently made by developing nanostructured electrodes. Lowering the temperature offers a new option, i.e., using materials with low crystallinity. Micro-SOFC with partially amorphous La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ cathodes can deliver power densities higher than 200 mW cm−2 at temperatures as low as 400 °C.

    4. Influence of Oxides on the Stress Evolution and Reversibility during SnOx Conversion and Li-Sn Alloying Reactions

      Hadi Tavassol, Michael W. Cason, Ralph G. Nuzzo and Andrew A. Gewirth

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400317

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      Stress development during lithiation of Sn and SnOx electrodes, as probed by in situ electrochemical stress measurements, depends intimately on the amount of oxygen contained in the film. In films with little oxygen lithiation causes compressive stress. Alternatively, oxygen rich films exhibit both compressive and tensile stress due to conversion reactions.

  32. Communications

    1. Structuring Porous Iron-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon in a Core/Shell Geometry for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Ming Zhou, Chunzhen Yang and Kwong-Yu Chan

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400840

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      Highly porous iron-nitrogen-doped hollow core mesoporous shell (Fe-N-HCMS) carbon is synthesized with regular mesopores, thus providing high surface area and large pore volume. Excellent mass transfer, durability, and methanol tolerance, in addition to high activity for the oxygen reduction reaction, are demonstrated. The limiting current density is the highest reported for non-precious-metal nitrogen-doped carbons.

    2. Soluble Dicyanodistyrylbenzene-Based Non-Fullerene Electron Acceptors with Optimized Aggregation Behavior for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells

      Oh Kyu Kwon, Jung-Hwa Park, Sang Kyu Park and Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400929

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      A new class of small molecules based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene combined with naphthalimide is developed for use as non-fullerene electron acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The optical, electrochemical, and film formation characteristics of the new materials are found to be suitable for preparing solution-processed devices. Solar cells prepared with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a donor material exhibit a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.71%.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Solving the Capacitive Paradox of 2D MXene using Electrochemical Quartz-Crystal Admittance and In Situ Electronic Conductance Measurements

      Mikhael D. Levi, Maria R. Lukatskaya, Sergey Sigalov, Majid Beidaghi, Netanel Shpigel, Leonid Daikhin, Doron Aurbach, Michel W. Barsoum and Yury Gogotsi

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400815

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      Novel approach is used to explain the origin of the perfect capacitance response of the recently discovered 2D titanium carbide, MXene, observed at high charge/discharge rates. Its principle is based on the characterization of the mechanical deformations during charge/discharge by electrochemical quartz-crystal admittance (EQCA) complemented by in situ electronic conductance and electrochemical impedance.

    2. Micro- and Mesoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon–Selenium Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium Selenium Batteries

      Jung Tae Lee, Hyea Kim, Martin Oschatz, Dong-Chan Lee, Feixiang Wu, Huan-Ting Lin, Bogdan Zdyrko, Won Il Cho, Stefan Kaskel and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400981

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      A novel selenium (Se) cathode is developed and studied for lithium-selenium (Li-Se) batteries. The combination of the hierarchical structure of carbide-derived carbon (CDC) as the Se host and the high concentration of Li salt in the electrolytes improves the specific capacity and cycle stability of Li/Se cells. Rechargeable Se-CDC/Li batteries show significantly better performance than similarly produced rechargeable sulfur (S)–CDC/Li batteries.

    3. Hierarchically Porous Li4Ti5O12 Anode Materials for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries: Effects of Nanoarchitectural Design and Temperature Dependence of the Rate Capability

      George Hasegawa, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Tsutomu Kiyomura, Hiroki Kurata, Kazuki Nakanishi and Takeshi Abe

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400730

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      Novel nanostructural design of Li4Ti5O12 materials with interconnected pores and flower-like surface morphologies is reported for high-performance Li- and Na-ion batteries. The detailed electrochemical studies reveal that the optimization of the cell operating temperature in addition to the nanoarchitecture, efficiently facilitates rate capability in Na+ insertion/extraction. The findings offer progress in the practical use of Na-ion batteries.

    4. Efficiently Enhancing Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalytic Activity of MnO2 using Facile Hydrogenation

      Tianran Zhang, Fangyi Cheng, Jing Du, Yuxiang Hu and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400654

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      Hydrogenation is a novel, facile and efficient strategy to enhance the catalytic activity of MnO 2 for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). Compared to pristine MnO2, the prepared catalyst exhibits much enhanced activity as a result of modified microstructure, improved electronic properties, and enhanced oxygen activation due to the formation of hydrogen bonds.

    5. Designing Active and Stable Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Hydrogen Production Using Molybdenum Sulfide Nanomaterials

      Jesse D. Benck, Sang Chul Lee, Kara D. Fong, Jakob Kibsgaard, Robert Sinclair and Thomas F. Jaramillo

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400739

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      Active and stable molybdenum sulfide/silicon photocathodes for solar hydrogen production are fabricated using two different molybdenum sulfide nanomaterials chosen to provide corrosion resistance and catalytic activity. These scalable devices exhibit excellent performance, demonstrating that with future work, molybdenum sulfide/silicon photocathodes could be used for sustainable solar water splitting.

    6. Nitrogen-Doping-Induced Defects of a Carbon Coating Layer Facilitate Na-Storage in Electrode Materials

      Wei Shen, Cong Wang, Qunjie Xu, Haimei Liu and Yonggang Wang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400982

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      Nitrogen-doped carbon coating, which is a simple and effective approach, is used to improve the electrochemical performance of a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material in sodium-ion batteries and demonstrates obvious and significant modification effects. Moreover, the different impacts on the improvement of electrochemical performance by various carbon-nitrogen species are analyzed and verified in detail.

  34. Communications

    1. A Bendable Li-Ion Battery with a Nano-Hairy Electrode: Direct Integration Scheme on the Polymer Substrate

      Min-Suk Jung, Jong-Hyun Seo, Myoung-Woon Moon, Jang Wook Choi, Young-Chang Joo and In-Suk Choi

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400611

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      A direct integration scheme for a Li-ion battery on a polymer substrate is successfully implemented. As a proof of concept, the bendable Li-ion battery is fabricated using a nano-hairy Si anode, which exhibits a much longer cycle life and a higher capacity on various C-rates compared to a Si thin film electrode on a pristine PI. In the cyclic bending test, with a bending radius of 16 mm, over 3000 cycles are measured without a voltage drop.

  35. Full Papers

    1. Device Architectures for Enhanced Photon Recycling in Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

      Xing Sheng, Myoung Hee Yun, Chen Zhang, Ala'a M. Al-Okaily, Maria Masouraki, Ling Shen, Shuodao Wang, William L. Wilson, Jin Young Kim, Placid Ferreira, Xiuling Li, Eli Yablonovitch and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400919

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      A multijunction solar cell architecture with low refractive index interfaces is presented that approaches thermodynamic efficiency limits by enhanced photon recycling. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate improved cell performance for thin-film microcells printed on low-index substrates. This device scheme suggests possible routes to realize high-efficiency full-spectrum cell operation by advanced photon management.

    2. Thermodynamic Aspects of Cathode Coatings for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Muratahan Aykol, Scott Kirklin and C. Wolverton

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400690

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      Functional electrode coatings are critical for the enhancement of electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries. A materials screening approach to find novel HF-scavenging lithium-ion battery cathode coatings based on first-principles thermodynamics is presented. This coating design approach can aid experimental efforts by allowing materials screening prior to actual battery production and by predicting effective coatings.

    3. Contact-Induced Mechanisms in Organic Photovoltaics: A Steady-State and Transient Study

      Sarah R. Cowan, Jian V. Li, Dana C. Olson and Erin L. Ratcliff

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400549

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      Free carrier lifetimes in organic photo­voltaics are shown to vary for contacts with equivalent work functions but different carrier densities. Suppression of injection at the hole-collecting interface is demonstrated to reduce recombination, leading to a higher number of extracted carriers, even under short-circuit conditions. Surface recombination is found to be a non-dominant mechanism for the high density of states contact.

  36. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A Scalable Nanogenerator Based on Self-Poled Piezoelectric Polymer Nanowires with High Energy Conversion Efficiency

      Richard A. Whiter, Vijay Narayan and Sohini Kar-Narayan

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400519

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      Energy harvesting from vibrations is demonstrated using a nanogenerator composed of piezoelectric polymer nanowires with high energy conversion efficiency. Nanowires of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) grown using a simple, scalable, and cost-effective template-wetting technique are shown to be successfully exploited in high-performance nanogenerators without the need for electrical poling.

  37. Full Papers

    1. Mesh-Shaped Nanopatterning of Pt Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Enhanced Light Harvesting

      Dong Jun Kim, Jong Kwan Koh, Chang Soo Lee and Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400414

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      A mesh-shaped nanopatterned structure on a Pt counter electrode is fabricated via a facile nanopatterning technique using polymeric nanostamps. The resulting solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell shows 7.0% efficiency, which is much higher than the efficiencies of non-patterned cells (5.4–5.7%). The observed improvement in performance is due to enhanced light harvesting and a greater surface area.

  38. Communications

    1. High-Performance Planar-Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Ternary Halide Large-Band-Gap Perovskites

      Po-Wei Liang, Chu-Chen Chueh, Xu-Kai Xin, Fan Zuo, Spencer T. Williams, Chien-Yi Liao and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400960

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      High-performance planar-heterojunction (PHJ) solar cells based on large band-gap (1.70–1.83 eV) perovskites are demonstrated. By incorporating Cl into the MAPb(I1-YBrY)3, the crystallinity and homogeneity of the solution-processed perovskite thin films are much improved, which results in an increased charge carrier diffusion length from ≈160 nm to ≈700–800 nm. This enhancement leads to a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10% in the low-temperature solution-processed PHJ devices.

  39. Full Papers

    1. High Band Degeneracy Contributes to High Thermoelectric Performance in p-Type Half-Heusler Compounds

      Chenguang Fu, Tiejun Zhu, Yanzhong Pei, Hanhui Xie, Heng Wang, G. Jeffrey Snyder, Yong Liu, Yintu Liu and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400600

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      A new p-type half-Heusler alloy, Ti-doped FeV0.6Nb0.4Sb, with high figure of merit (zT) of 0.8 is developed. The large band degeneracy of Nv = 8, together with the low carrier scattering potentials and the reduced lattice thermal conductivity, contribute to the high thermoelectric performance.

  40. Communications

    1. High-Performance Li/Dissolved Polysulfide Batteries with an Advanced Cathode Structure and High Sulfur Content

      Chenxi Zu and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400897

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      High-performance Li/dissolved polysulfide batteries with a high sulfur concentration of 60 wt% and a high sulfur loading of 5.5 mg cm−2 are demonstrated with a sandwich cathode containing a pristine carbon nanofiber current collector filled with polysulfides and a hydrophilic composite upper current collector for high sulfur utilization.

  41. Full Papers

    1. Aniline Tetramer-Graphene Oxide Composites for High Performance Supercapacitors

      Jian Yan, Liping Yang, Mengqi Cui, Xu Wang, Kenji Jianzhi Chee, Viet Cuong Nguyen, Vipin Kumar, Afriyanti Sumboja, Ming Wang and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400781

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      A strategy using aniline tetramer combined with graphene oxides (AT-GO) is developed to enhance the cycling stability in supercapacitor. The AT-GO exhibits capacitance retention of 97.7% after 2000 cycles. AT-GO also delivers a high specific capacitance of 769 F g−1 at 1 A g−1; and remains 555 F g−1 at 60 A g−1. This work suggests that the AT-GO composite is a very promising electrode material.

    2. A Triboelectric Generator Based on Checker-Like Interdigital Electrodes with a Sandwiched PET Thin Film for Harvesting Sliding Energy in All Directions

      Hengyu Guo, Qiang Leng, Xianming He, Mingjun Wang, Jie Chen, Chenguo Hu and Yi Xi

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400790

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      A triboelectric generator based on checker-like interdigital electrodes with a sandwiched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin film is designed and fabricated. It can harvest 2D translational motion energy in all directions. The generator can be used to charge a commercial capacitor and harvest computer mouse operation energy to generate electrical energy with advantages of being flexible, light weight, durable, cost-effective, and portable by folding or rolling into a small part.

    3. The Role of Photon Energy in Free Charge Generation in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Daniele Di Nuzzo, L. Jan Anton Koster, Veronique S. Gevaerts, Stefan C. J. Meskers and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400416

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      The generation of photocurrent in (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b′′]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia­diazole)] (C-PCPDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells is independent of photon energy when exciting above the optical band gap, but reduced and depending on photon excess energy for direct excitation of the low-energy charge transfer band. In contrast for poly[(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (Si-PCPDTBT):PCBM cells, which have a more optimized phase-separated morphology, charge generation is equally efficient for all photon energies.

    4. High Frequency Thermal Energy Harvesting Using Magnetic Shape Memory Films

      Marcel Gueltig, Hinnerk Ossmer, Makoto Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki Miki, Koki Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki Takagi and Manfred Kohl

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400751

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      An energy harvesting device that simultaneously uses the large abrupt change of magnetization and intrinsic actuation due to a first order phase transformation in a polycrystalline magnetic shape memory alloy film is presented. Using frequency up-conversion, mechanical oscillation frequencies above 200 Hz are excited yielding a maximum power density of 5 mW cm−3.

  42. Communications

    1. A Self-Anchored Phosphotungstic Acid Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Achieved via One-Step Synthesis

      Shanfu Lu, Xin Xu, Jin Zhang, Sikan Peng, Dawei Liang, Haining Wang and Yan Xiang

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400842

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      An excellent hybrid proton exchange membrane (PEM) is prepared using a one-step synthesis to anchor phosphotungstic acid (HPW) into a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix. The hybrid membrane exhibits high proton conductivity and excellent stability. The impressive performance of a single cell based on the hybrid membrane, with a power density of 618 mW cm–2 at 50 °C, demonstrates promising potential for application in fuel cells.

  43. Full Papers

    1. Germanium- and Silicon-Substituted Donor–Acceptor Type Copolymers: Effect of the Bridging Heteroatom on Molecular Packing and Photovoltaic Device Performance

      Jong Soo Kim, Zhuping Fei, Sebastian Wood, David T. James, Myungsun Sim, Kilwon Cho, Martin J. Heeney and Ji-Seon Kim

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400527

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      Heavy atom substitution of silicon and germanium into poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) is investigated. The longer bond length of C-Ge results in increased polymer backbone planarity and enhanced thin film crystallinity, resulting in higher hole mobility and photovoltaic performance.

  44. Communications

    1. Interpenetrated Inorganic Hybrids for Efficiency Enhancement of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells

      Furui Tan, Shengchun Qu, Qiwei Jiang, Junpeng Liu, Zhijie Wang, Fumin Li, Gentian Yue, Shengjun Li, Chong Chen, Weifeng Zhang and Zhanguo Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400512

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      Photovoltaic performance improvement of a PbS quantum dot (QD) based hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cell is achieved by modulating the interpenetration and percolation of the two hybrid phases. The PbS QD:CdSe nanotetrapod hybrid is demonstrated to be more effective at extracting charge carriers compared to PbS:CdSe QD, which favors a 44% overall increase in conversion efficiency compared to traditional PbS QD solar cells.

  45. Full Papers

    1. Tethered Molecular Sorbents: Enabling Metal-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

      Lin Ma, Houlong Zhuang, Yingying Lu, Surya S. Moganty, Richard G. Hennig and Lynden A. Archer

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400390

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      A novel class of molecular sorbents for sulfur cathodes is developed that takes advantage of strong lithium-nitrogen and lithium-chlorine interactions to sequester lithium polysulfides in the cathode. Introduction of as little as 2 wt% of these molecules to a physical sulfur-carbon blend leads to stable long-term cycling behavior of Li-S batteries.

  46. Communications

    1. Impact of the Specific Surface Area on the Memory Effect in Li-Ion Batteries: The Case of Anatase TiO2

      Edyta Madej, Fabio La Mantia, Wolfgang Schuhmann and Edgar Ventosa

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400829

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Until recently, the memory effect was believed to be absent in Li-ion battery materials. Here, the memory effect is clearly observed in anatase TiO2 nanoparticles when they are used as the negative electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Additionally, the memory effect strongly decreases with increasing specific surface area of the TiO2 sample.

  47. Full Papers

    1. π-Extended Narrow-Bandgap Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Oligomers for Solution-Processed Inverted Organic Solar Cells

      Woong Shin, Takuma Yasuda, Yu Hidaka, Go Watanabe, Ryota Arai, Keiro Nasu, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Wakako Murakami, Kengo Makita and Chihaya Adachi

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400879

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      Well-organized donor/acceptor bulk-heterojunction domains are spontaneously formed in a binary blend film of a π-extended benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based oligomer and a fullerene derivative. A power conversion efficiency as high as 5.9% is achieved for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells based on this nanostructured photoactive blend layer.

  48. Communications

    1. A Nanosheets-on-Channel Architecture Constructed from MoS2 and CMK-3 for High-Capacity and Long-Cycle-Life Lithium Storage

      Xin Xu, Zhaoyang Fan, Xinyao Yu, Shujiang Ding, Demei Yu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400902

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      A unique hybrid nanostructure of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on CMK-3 is designed and fabricated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. With advantages of the nanosheets-on-channel architecture, the MoS2@CMK-3 electrode is able to deliver a high discharge capacity of 934 mAh g−1 even after 150 cycles at a current density of 400 mA g−1.

    2. High Activity of Nanoporous-Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ@430L Composites for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Yucun Zhou, Ting Luo, Xianlong Du, Jianqiang Wang, Wei Yang, Chunwen Sun, Changrong Xia, Shaorong Wang and Zhongliang Zhan

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400883

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      Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ nanoparticles imbedded in macroporous 430L stainless steel demonstrate excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen electro-oxidation. This is enabled by superior redox properties of ceria catalysts and high conductivities of the supporting 430L scaffolds. Thin yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte fuel cells produce promising power densities of 0.94 W cm−2 at 800 °C and 0.55 W cm−2 at 700 °C.

  49. Full Papers

    1. The Crucial Influence of Fullerene Phases on Photogeneration in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Andreas Zusan, Koen Vandewal, Benedikt Allendorf, Nis Hauke Hansen, Jens Pflaum, Alberto Salleo, Vladimir Dyakonov and Carsten Deibel

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400922

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      Increasing the fullerene loading significantly lowers the field dependence of free charge carrier generation of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the polymer pBTTT-C16. The charge transfer splitting is driven by the presence of pure fullerene domains that are identified as the main prerequisite for a highly efficient, field-independent charge carrier photogeneration.

  50. Communications

    1. Layered P2/O3 Intergrowth Cathode: Toward High Power Na-Ion Batteries

      Eungje Lee, Jun Lu, Yang Ren, Xiangyi Luo, Xiaoyi Zhang, Jianguo Wen, Dean Miller, Aaron DeWahl, Stephen Hackney, Baris Key, Donghan Kim, Michael D. Slater and Christopher S. Johnson

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400458

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      Novel layered P2/O3 intergrowth Na1-xLix­Ni0.5Mn0.5O2 cathodes show high-rate performance for sodium-ion batteries. The good electrochemical properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of an intergrowth structure that results from the direct incorporation of Li in the matrix. This finding highlights the importance of multiphase intergrowths with orientation relationships that can attain performance for future optimized sodium-ion batteries.

  51. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Shortened Alkyl Chains on Solution-Processable Small Molecules with Oxo-Alkylated Nitrile End-Capped Acceptors for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

      Dan Deng, Yajie Zhang, Liu Yuan, Chang He, Kun Lu and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400538

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      A new end-capped acceptor, oxo-alkylated nitrile, is used to synthesize solution-processable small molecules for organic solar cells. Alkyl chain shortening affects the self-assembly and crystallinity of the active materials, and a device efficiency of 5.6% is achieved.

    2. Double Columnar Structure with a Nanogradient Composite for Increased Oxygen Diffusivity and Reduction Activity

      Young-Wan Ju, Junji Hyodo, Atsushi Inoishi, Shintaro Ida, Tetsuya Tohei, Yeong-Gi So, Yuichi Ikuhara and Tatsumi Ishihara

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400783

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      A double columnar functional interlayer (DCFL) consisting of Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ (SDC) and Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ (SSC) is fabricated between a La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3−δ (LSGM) electrolyte film and a SSC cathode film using pulsed laser deposition. The DCFL has improved power generating properties in a solid oxide fuel cell, with improved electric conductivity and oxygen diffusivity in the cathode.

    3. Morphology Related Photodegradation of Low-Band-Gap Polymer Blends

      Xiao Wang, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Hans-Georg Mack, Hamed Azimi, Christoph J. Brabec, Alfred J. Meixner and Dai Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400497

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      Morphology related photodegradation of low band-gap polymer blends are studied by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The observed Stern-Volmer type of kinetics indicate that only a small number of photo-oxidized monomer units act as quenchers of the C-PCPDTBT polymer luminescence. Both permanent and temporary photodegradation processes are observed.

    4. Reduced Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanowires as Efficient Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts and Supercapacitor Electrodes

      Yongcheng Wang, Tong Zhou, Kun Jiang, Peimei Da, Zheng Peng, Jing Tang, Biao Kong, Wen-Bin Cai, Zhongqin Yang and Gengfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400696

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      A facile NaBH4 reduction method is reported to create oxygen vacancies on the surface of mesoporous Co3O4 nanowires and these are used as efficient water oxidation catalysts and high performance supercapacitor electrodes. The reduced Co3O4 nanowires exhibit substantially enhanced electrochemical performance compared to the pristine Co3O4 nanowires. Calculations show that oxygen vacancies create new defect states located in the band gaps of Co3O4, leading to the substantially enhanced electrochemical performance.

    5. Donor-Acceptor Interfacial Interactions Dominate Device Performance in Hybrid P3HT-ZnO Nanowire-Array Solar Cells

      Luisa Whittaker-Brooks, William E. McClain, Jeffrey Schwartz and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400585

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      The adsorption of interfacial molecular layers provides a way to improve device performance. Arylphosphonate-modified ZnO nanowire array-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid photovoltaics are fabricated, and inverted solar cells made with these treated interfaces exhibit power conversion efficiencies as high as 2.1%. This is due to improvements in the short-circuit current density, which can be attributed to surface passivation of ZnO and enhanced wettability from P3HT.

    6. Batch-to-Batch Variation of Polymeric Photovoltaic Materials: its Origin and Impacts on Charge Carrier Transport and Device Performances

      Harrison Ka Hin Lee, Zhao Li, Iordania Constantinou, Franky So, Sai Wing Tsang and Shu Kong So

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400768

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      Batch-to-batch variation of the photovoltaic performance of devices based on commercial samples of the polymer poly[N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5- (4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) is reported, with efficiency ranging from 5.7% to 2.5%. As revealed by gel permeation chromatography, bimodal distributions are observed in the molecular weight. Charge transport data suggest that low molecular weight components increase the average hopping distance, resulting in lower mobility and poorer photovoltaic performance.

  52. Communications

    1. Strongly Coupled Bi2S3@CNT Hybrids for Robust Lithium Storage

      Jiangfeng Ni, Yang Zhao, Tingting Liu, Honghe Zheng, Lijun Gao, Chenglin Yan and Liang Li

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400798

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A strongly coupled Bi2S3@CNT hybrid is fabricated and exhibits a stable Li-storage capacity, retaining 405 mAh g−1 over 100 cycles at a rate of 1 A g−1. More importantly, the hybrid demonstrates robust rate capability, delivering 429 and 376 mAh g–1 at high rates of 2 and 5 A g–1, thereby suggesting its great potential for advanced rechargeable battery applications.

    2. Thin HfxZr1-xO2 Films: A New Lead-Free System for Electrostatic Supercapacitors with Large Energy Storage Density and Robust Thermal Stability

      Min Hyuk Park, Han Joon Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Taehwan Moon, Keum Do Kim and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400610

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The promising energy storage properties of new lead-free antiferroelectric Hf x Zr1-x O2 (x = 0.1–0.4) films with high energy storage density are reported. The energy storage density of the Hf0.3Zr0.7O2 capacitor does not decrease with the increase in temperature up to 175 °C, and it decreases by only ≈4.5% after field cycling 109 times.

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