Advanced Functional Materials

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    1. Hierarchical Ni–Co Hydroxide Petals on Mechanically Robust Graphene Petal Foam for High-Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Guoping Xiong, Pingge He, Dini Wang, Qiangqiang Zhang, Tengfei Chen and Timothy S. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600879

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      A hierarchical structure of Ni–Co hydroxide nanopetals grown on thin free-standing graphene petal foam has been fabricated by a two-step process and characterized as a pseudocapacitive electrode. The electrode exhibits volumetric capacitances as high as 765 F cm−3, equivalent to an areal capacitance of 15.3 F cm−2 and high rate capability.

    2. Multi-Length Scaled Silver Nanowire Grid for Application in Efficient Organic Solar Cells

      Jiang Wu, Xinglu Que, Qin Hu, Deying Luo, Tanghao Liu, Feng Liu, Thomas P. Russell, Rui Zhu and Qihuang Gong

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601049

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      Multi-length scaled silver nanowire (AgNW) grids are prepared as transparent conducting electrodes through a neutral vapor etching process. Organic solar cells with power conversion efficiency up to 9.02% are fabricated based on the multi-length scaled AgNW grids, which is higher than that based on original AgNW films and comparable to that based on indium tin oxide.

    3. Waveguiding Microactuators Based on a Photothermally Responsive Nanocomposite Hydrogel

      Ying Zhou, Adam W. Hauser, Nakul P. Bende, Mark G. Kuzyk and Ryan C. Hayward

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601569

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      A micropatterned waveguiding photoactuator consisting of a bilayer with a photothermally responsive composite poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogel with Au nanoparticles is fabricated with photolithography and shows rapid and reversible light-responsive actuation. The controlling light source is waveguided through an optical fiber connected to the photoactuator, enabling remote control without the need for maintaining line-of-sight access to the device.

    4. Monitoring the Formation of a CH3NH3PbI3–xClx Perovskite during Thermal Annealing Using X-Ray Scattering

      Alexander T. Barrows, Samuele Lilliu, Andrew J. Pearson, David Babonneau, Alan D. F. Dunbar and David G. Lidzey

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601309

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      Crystallization of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3–xClx during thermal annealing of a precursor film is studied using in situ grazing incidence wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. These results can explain the evolution of device performance with annealing time, and optimized films lead to solar cells with average power conversion efficiencies of over 12%.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Selective Enhancement of Inner Tube Photoluminescence in Filled Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

      Philip Rohringer, Lei Shi, Paola Ayala and Thomas Pichler

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505502

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      An enhancement of the inner tube's photoluminescence from double-walled carbon nanotubes is achieved by the incorporation of linear carbon chains into the hollow core of the inner tubes. This effect can be tailored by varying the length of the chains. For appropriate inner tubes with suitable diameters, an amplification of the photoluminescence intensity is found up to a factor of 6 upon filling.

    6. Resistive Switching Memory Integrated with Nanogenerator for Self-Powered Bioimplantable Devices

      Bo-Yun Kim, Woong-Hee Lee, Hyun-Gyu Hwang, Dong-Ha Kim, Jeong-Hun Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee and Sahn Nahm

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505569

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      For self-powered bioimplantable device applications, a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) driven by a piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) is developed. Biocompatible (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) lead-free piezoelectric thin films are used for both ReRAM and NG. The NKN ReRAM powered by NKN NG shows a stable memory performance, which can be applied to bioMEMS.

    7. Anisotropic and Ultralow Phonon Thermal Transport in Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites: Atomistic Insights into Solar Cell Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Efficiency

      Mingchao Wang and Shangchao Lin

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600284

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      The ultralow thermal conductivity of organic–inorganic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) (<1 W m−1 K−1) is demonstrated. Such ultralow conductivity results from small phonon group velocities and short phonon lifetimes. Furthermore, the optimal selections and rational designs of the ionic components for hybrid perovskites MABX3 (B = Pb, Sn; X = I, Br) are further discussed.

    8. Nanostructured Si/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage via Improving Junction Quality

      Shan Wu, Wei Cui, Nabi Aghdassi, Tao Song, Steffen Duhm, Shuit-Tong Lee and Baoquan Sun

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600441

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      The adhesion force between organics and nanostructured Si is dramatically improved by incorporating a silane chemical of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxydsilane (GOPS) which chemically grafts organics on silicon. In addition, GOPS can passiviate dangling bond of Si surface. The improved contact between Si and organics via GOPS incorporation results in an open circuit voltage of 640 mV for nanostructured Si/organics heterojunction solar cells.

    9. Stimulating Acrylic Elastomers by a Triboelectric Nanogenerator – Toward Self-Powered Electronic Skin and Artificial Muscle

      Xiangyu Chen, Tao Jiang, Yanyan Yao, Liang Xu, Zhenfu Zhao and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600624

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      By using the amazingly high output voltage generated from a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), a thin film dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) can be directly driven by the contact–separation motion of the TENG, demonstrating a self-powered actuation system. This DEA-TENG actuation system can potentially be applied to the field of electronic skin and soft robotics.

    10. Tailorable Thermal Properties Through Reactive Blending Using Orthogonal Chemistries and Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Poly(1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine) Networks

      Mareva Fevre, Rudy J. Wojtecki, James Hedrick, Jeannette M. García and James L. Hedrick

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600661

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      Poly(1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine) networks are modified using a reactive blending approach to mitigate thermal behavior, recyclability, and adhesion of the films. The materials are homogeneous and exhibit combined properties of each mixed components. A layer-by-layer strategy allows for economical, large-scale, and facile deposition of the monomers using dip or spray-coating processes.

    11. Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Weak Topological Insulators with Bismuth-Based Stack Structure

      Ping Wei, Jiong Yang, Liang Guo, Shanyu Wang, Lihua Wu, Xianfan Xu, Wenyu Zhao, Qingjie Zhang, Wenqing Zhang, Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Jihui Yang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600718

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      Inspired by the fascinating crystal structure of weak topological insulators featuring an alternating stack of 2D quantum spin Hall layers and normal insulator layers, the discovery of the intrinsic minimum lattice thermal conductivity occurring near room temperature and strongly anharmonic lattice dynamics in this kind of novel materials provides an intriguing pathway for the exploration of highly efficient thermoelectric materials.

    12. A Bamboo-Like GaN Microwire-Based Piezotronic Memristor

      Haitao Liu, Qilin Hua, Ruomeng Yu, Yuchao Yang, Taiping Zhang, Yingjiu Zhang and Caofeng Pan

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600962

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      Multilevel memristors based on defect boundaries in single bamboo-like gallium nitride (GaN) microwire devices are reported firstly. By coupling the piezoelectric and semiconducting properties of GaN microwires, the SET voltage of memristors is modulated, and the most recent resistance is remembered when power off. It has potential future applications in multilevel storage, stress sensing, waveform tuning, and time-delay switching.

    13. Weakly Conjugated Hybrid Zinc Porphyrin Sensitizers for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Peng Qin, Paek Sanghyun, Mohammad Ibrahim Dar, Kasparas Rakstys, Hany ElBatal, Shaheen A. Al-Muhtaseb, Christian Ludwig and Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601120

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      Two weakly conjugated hybrid zinc porphyrin molecules based on quinolizino acridine and triazatruxene fused amines are designed and synthesized as light harvester for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. After optimization, the new dye with triazatruxene based donor shows a power conversion efficiency of 5.1%, which is better than the earlier reported strongly conjugated porphyrin dyes.

    14. Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal

      Lin Niu, Qingsheng Zeng, Jia Shi, Chunxiao Cong, Chunyang Wu, Fucai Liu, Jiadong Zhou, Wei Fu, Qundong Fu, Chuanhong Jin, Ting Yu, Xinfeng Liu and Zheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601392

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      High-quality organic–inorganic perovskite nanoplatelets can be well-controlled synthesized from few-layers to hundred nanometers on Si/SiO2 substrate. Raman characterizations reveal that the evolutions of Raman peaks are sensitive to the thickness. Furthermore, under the thickness-dependent photoresponse and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of perovskite devices, the results indicate the most suitable thickness for their possible optoelectronic applications.

    15. Quantifying the Complex Pore Architecture of Hierarchical Faujasite Zeolites and the Impact on Diffusion

      Jeffrey Kenvin, Sharon Mitchell, Michael Sterling, Robbie Warringham, Tobias C. Keller, Paolo Crivelli, Jacek Jagiello and Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601748

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      Differential hysteresis scanning and positron annihilation spectroscopy are combined to quantify the architecture and effectiveness of complex pore networks in a challenging set of faujasite zeolites with hierarchical porosity. Correlation of the pore geometry with the enhanced diffusion of ortho-positronium emphasizes the importance of improved porosity descriptors. This powerful approach is applicable to any complex porous material integrating micro and/or mesopores.

    16. Composite Nanostructures of TiO2 and ZnO for Water Splitting Application: Atomic Layer Deposition Growth and Density Functional Theory Investigation

      Marina Kulmas, Leanne Paterson, Katja Höflich, Muhammad Y. Bashouti, Yanlin Wu, Manuela Göbelt, Jürgen Ristein, Julien Bachmann, Bernd Meyer and Silke Christiansen

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505524

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      A novel photoanode for water oxidation based on a composite TiO2-ZnO encapsulation engineered for stabilized photo­electroactivity of the nanostructured silicon substrate is developed. Density functional theory is applied to obtain realistic structural models of the TiO2-ZnO composite on the atomic scale and the way in which the configurational modifications lead to a better performance of the electrodes is investigated.

    17. Full Color Light Responsive Diarylethene Inks for Reusable Paper

      Woomin Jeong, Mohammed Iqbal Khazi, Dong-Hoon Park, Young-Sik Jung and Jong-Man Kim

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600032

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      Photochromic diarylethene derivatives, which serve as light-responsive cyan, magenta, and yellow colored ink materials for full color ink-jet printing, have been developed. The results of these studies demonstrate that the light-responsive ink can be used in a printing system based on the “write–erase–write” concept that utilizes the same paper multiple times.

    18. Diamond Nanothread as a New Reinforcement for Nanocomposites

      Haifei Zhan, Gang Zhang, Vincent B. C. Tan, Yuan Cheng, John M. Bell, Yong-Wei Zhang and Yuantong Gu

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600119

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      The irregular surfaces of the new diamond nanothread (DNT) are expected to enhance the noncovalent interfacial load transfer between DNT and polymer. Through pull-out studies, it is found that the shear strength of the DNT/polyethylene interface is comparable with that of the carbon nanotube/polyethylene interface, which can be enhanced further by increasing the polyethylene density or introduction of functional groups to the DNT.

    19. Understanding and Controlling the Work Function of Perovskite Oxides Using Density Functional Theory

      Ryan Jacobs, John Booske and Dane Morgan

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600243

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      The work function values and trends of twenty technologically important perovskite oxides are investigated using density functional theory. The governing work function physics are developed using concepts of bonding ionicity, hybridization, band filling, surface dipoles, and the oxygen band center as an electronic structure descriptor. SrVO3 is found to be a new promising, low work function electron emission material.

    20. Macroscopic and Mechanically Robust Hollow Carbon Spheres with Superior Oil Adsorption and Light-to-Heat Evaporation Properties

      Jianguo Zhou, Zhenlong Sun, Mingqi Chen, Jitong Wang, Wenming Qiao, Donghui Long and Licheng Ling

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600564

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      A template-free phase-separation approach, in which a liquid–liquid phase-inversion process and a gas-foaming process are coupled for the first time, is demonstrated for the fast and continuous processing of millimeter-scale hollow carbon spheres (HCSs). The obtained HCSs have a hierarchical structure with a porous carbon shell and huge external voids. They also boast a high mechanical strength, high hydrophobicity, good electronic and thermal properties, high oil adsorption ability, and unique light-to-heat evaporation properties.

    21. Mechanical Properties of Highly Porous Super Liquid-Repellent Surfaces

      Maxime Paven, Regina Fuchs, Taro Yakabe, Doris Vollmer, Michael Kappl, Akiko N. Itakura and Hans-Jürgen Butt

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600627

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      Super liquid-repellent surfaces have self-cleaning properties and are desirable for many applications. These surfaces are highly porous on the nano- or micrometer scale, what inherently makes them mechanically weak. It is demonstrated that force-sensitive measurements using the colloidal probe technique can be used to optimize for mechanical strength and low wettability by tuning the reaction parameters of soot-templated surfaces.

    22. Inkjet Printing of a Highly Loaded Palladium Ink for Integrated, Low-Cost pH Sensors

      Yiheng Qin, Arif U. Alam, Matiar M. R. Howlader, Nan-Xing Hu and M. Jamal Deen

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600657

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      The inkjet printing of a highly loaded palladium ink is developed to deposit homogenous and low-resistance palladium films on rigid and flexible substrates. A bilayer structure is formed in the printed palladium films after annealing. The oxide-rich surface is pH-sensitive and the bottom layer is electron-conductive. The inkjet-printed and integrated pH sensors show accurate measurement results for real water samples.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High-Speed and Low-Energy Nitride Memristors

      Byung Joon Choi, Antonio C. Torrezan, John Paul Strachan, P. G. Kotula, A. J. Lohn, Matthew J. Marinella, Zhiyong Li, R. Stanley Williams and J. Joshua Yang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600680

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      Ultrafast switching of an AlN memristor: ON switching is acheived using an 85 ps positive voltage pulse, and OFF switching using an 85 ps negative voltage pulse on the Al electrode of a Pt/AlN/Al memristor stack. A relatively low switching current (≈15 μA for 50 nm devices) has also been demonstrated in these memristors based on AlN films. The formation of an Al-rich conduction channel through the AlN layer is revealed.

    24. In-Plane Self-Turning and Twin Dynamics Renders Large Stretchability to Mono-Like Zigzag Silicon Nanowire Springs

      Zhaoguo Xue, Mingkun Xu, Xing Li, Jimmy Wang, Xiaofan Jiang, Xianlong Wei, Linwei Yu, Qing Chen, Junzhuan Wang, Jun Xu, Yi Shi, Kunji Chen and Pere Roca i Cabarrocas

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600780

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      Cyclic crystallographic-index-lowering self-turning and twin dynamics leads to periodic zigzag growth of in-plane Si nanowires, while in-situ scanning electron microscopy observations reveal a new twin-triggering growth mechanism that is the key to reset a complete zigzag growth cycle. Direct “stress-strain” testing confirms a linear stretchability of 12% under tensile strain, indicating a promising candidate for high performance stretchable electronics.

    25. Mechano- and Photochromism from Bulk to Nanoscale: Data Storage on Individual Self-Assembled Ribbons

      Damiano Genovese, Alessandro Aliprandi, Eko A. Prasetyanto, Matteo Mauro, Michael Hirtz, Harald Fuchs, Yasuhiko Fujita, Hiroshi Uji-I, Sergei Lebedkin, Manfred Kappes and Luisa De Cola

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601269

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      Flat, self-assembled ribbons of a Pt(II) complex are explored for their responsiveness to pressure, friction, and light. The morphology of ultralong flat structures allows to investigate mechano- and photochromism at the nanoscale, and it allows to translate these properties into function: individual ribbons operate as microsystems for data storage and data encryption upon microscopic mechanical and optical stimuli.

    26. Metal-Free Sensitizers Containing Hydantoin Acceptor as High Performance Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Fu-Ling Guo, Zhao-Qian Li, Xue-Peng Liu, Li Zhou, Fan-Tai Kong, Wang-Chao Chen and Song-Yuan Dai

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601305

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      The hydantoin acceptor is introduced into sensitizers as anchoring group and this acceptor indicates much higher electron-injection efficiency and short-circuit current. The hydantoin-based sensitizers show excellent durability and better performances than the traditional carboxyl anchoring group. The results indicate the potential of hydantoin as anchoring group to substitute the traditional carboxyl group for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    27. Flat Helical Nanosieves

      Shengtao Mei, Muhammad Qasim Mehmood, Sajid Hussain, Kun Huang, Xiaohui Ling, Shawn Yohanes Siew, Hong Liu, Jinghua Teng, Aaron Danner and Cheng-Wei Qiu

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601345

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      A nanosieve array is endowed with the abilities of full manipulations of electromagnetic waves. Its phase encoding is especially investigated in beam forming/steering, imaging, and many other significant applications. Based on the double-ring nanosieves, a novel class of helical optical devices is proposed and demonstrated with a (almost) complete set of various designs for vortex generation, multiplexing, interaction, focusing, and interference.

    28. Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Semiconductors as Stable Photoelectrocatalysts for Efficient Hydrogen Peroxide Photosynthesis

      Marie Jakešová, Doǧukan Hazar Apaydin, Mykhailo Sytnyk, Kerstin Oppelt, Wolfgang Heiss, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci and Eric Daniel Głowacki

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601946

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      Semiconductor photoelectrodes for reduction of O2 to H2O2 are reported for the first time, representing an alternative solar-to-chemical concept. This reaction is carried out by commercial organic pigments, widely available at low cost. The materials robustly photosynthesize peroxides, operating in a pH range from 1 to 12.

    29. The Formation and Morphology of Nanoparticle Supracrystals

      Danny Haubold, Annett Reichhelm, Alexander Weiz, Lars Borchardt, Christoph Ziegler, Lydia Bahrig, Stefan Kaskel, Michael Ruck and Alexander Eychmüller

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600186

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      Trigonal supracrystals are an ideal system to investigate the self-assembly of nanoparticles in solution into highly symmetrical structures. The proposed substrate-affected growth mechanism allows determining the size of the crystal seeds built up in solution. The seed size is tuned by the change of the preparation parameters.

    30. Ferroelectric Self-Poling, Switching, and Monoclinic Domain Configuration in BiFeO3 Thin Films

      C. Beekman, W. Siemons, M. Chi, N. Balke, J. Y. Howe, T. Z. Ward, P. Maksymovych, J. D. Budai, J. Z. Tischler, R. Xu, W. Liu and H. M. Christen

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600468

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      Defects formed and charges trapped during growth at the ferroelectric/electrode interface and within the film determine the lowest energy domain configuration and strain state of BiFeO3 films. Polarization reversal thus leads to the formation of an energetically less favorable domain and strain state with smaller monoclinic domains and weaker X-ray diffraction intensity.

    31. MXene Electrode for the Integration of WSe2 and MoS2 Field Effect Transistors

      Jiao Xu, Jaewoo Shim, Jin-Hong Park and Sungjoo Lee

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600771

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      By using Ti2C(OH)xFy as an electrode for the integration of 2D p-FET (WSe2) and n-FET (MoS2), the heights of the hole barriers of WSe2/Ti2C(OH)xFy and MoS2/Ti2C(OH)xFy are determined to be 0.23 eV and 0.19 eV, respectively. A complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor inverter is fabricated, which demonstrates that Ti2C(OH)xFy is a promising electrode for future nanoelectronics applications.

    32. Supramolecular Polymeric Fluorescent Nanoparticles Based on Quadruple Hydrogen Bonds

      Hui-Qing Peng, Cai-Li Sun, Li-Ya Niu, Yu-Zhe Chen, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung and Qing-Zheng Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600593

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      A new set of fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) are fabricated from hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymers. Their preparation is straightforward, and nanoparticles with homogeneous shape and size are obtained. The emission color of the FNPs covers a wide region from blue to near infrared and is easily tunable by excitation energy transfer. These FNPs are successfully used in bioimaging and as fluorescent inks.

    33. Design of Strain-Limiting Substrate Materials for Stretchable and Flexible Electronics

      Yinji Ma, Kyung-In Jang, Liang Wang, Han Na Jung, Jean Won Kwak, Yeguang Xue, Hang Chen, Yiyuan Yang, Dawei Shi, Xue Feng, John A. Rogers and Yonggang Huang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600713

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      A stiff thin film or mesh bonded onto a prestrained, compliant substrate wrinkles upon release of the prestrain. The resulting system has a bilinear stress–strain response with a very sharp transition point. The results have general utility for future work in stretchable electronic systems, particularly those that incorporate inorganic materials for the functional elements.

    34. Charge Transfer to LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces Controlled by Surface Water Adsorption and Proton Hopping

      Sanjay Adhikari, Andrés C. Garcia-Castro, Aldo H. Romero, Hyungwoo Lee, Jung-Woo Lee, Sangwoo Ryu, Chang-Beom Eom and Cheng Cen

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600820

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      Surface water layers strongly affect the 2D electron gas (2DEG) formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. While surface hydrogens and hydroxyls contribute distinct electron donating and charge trapping surface states, the hydrogen bond network generated from molecular water provides an energetically feasible pathway for the proton exchange with the environments and therefore makes the interface 2DEG highly sensitive to thermodynamic processes.

    35. Strong, Machinable Carbon Aerogels for High Performance Supercapacitors

      Christine H. J. Kim, Dandan Zhao, Gyeonghee Lee and Jie Liu

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601010

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      Strong, machinable carbon aerogels are reported, developed to be not only porous and conductive, but also mechanically robust with high compressibility and fast recovery. The synergistic combination of these properties makes the aerogels promising for high performance supercapacitors that are designed to provide additional functionality for wearable and portable electronics.

    36. Visible Light Triggered CO2 Liberation from Silver Nanocrystals Incorporated Metal–Organic Frameworks

      Haiqing Li, Matthew R. Hill, Christian Doblin, Seng Lim, Anita J. Hill and Paolo Falcaro

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600827

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      A new type of photodynamic carbon capture material with up to 90.5% of CO2 desorption capacity is synthesized via integration of silver nanocrystals with UiO-66 metal–organic frameworks. Such a highly efficient CO2 desorption is driven by the naturally abundant visible light, confirming a promising alternative to low energy regeneration of gas adsorbents.

    37. Photoresponsive Fiber Array: Toward Mimicking the Collective Motion of Cilia for Transport Applications

      Anne Helene Gelebart, Matthew Mc Bride, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning, Christopher N. Bowman and Dirk J. Broer

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601221

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      An easily scalable and modular method is developed to create an array of responsive fibers. The fibers are able to respond to UV light in a concerted way to mimic the natural cilia motion. This efficient collective bending gives a directional transport of floating object by use of light. Such hairy surfaces could be integrated in microfluidic device.

    38. Capacitance Enhancement in a Semiconductor Nanostructure-Based Supercapacitor by Solar Light and a Self-Powered Supercapacitor–Photodetector System

      Minshen Zhu, Yang Huang, Yan Huang, Zengxia Pei, Qi Xue, Hongfei Li, Huiyuan Geng and Chunyi Zhi

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601260

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      The impacts of solar light on the semiconductors-based supercapacitors are thoroughly investigated using the h-WO3-based supercapacitor as an example. The revealed mechanisms show that the proton insertion-based energy storage process is greatly facilitated by the photoexcited electrons, which, moreover, serve as the signals for photodetection, enabling a delicately designed self-powered photodetector system.

    39. Half-Cell and Full-Cell Applications of Highly Stable and Binder-Free Sodium Ion Batteries Based on Cu3P Nanowire Anodes

      Mouping Fan, Yu Chen, Yihao Xie, Tingzhou Yang, Xiaowei Shen, Na Xu, Haiying Yu and Chenglin Yan

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601323

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      An in situ growth followed by phosphidation method is applied to fabricate additive-free Cu3P nanowire (CPNW) anode with highly stable cyclic behavior toward sodium over 260 cycles. Sodiation/desodiation mechanism of CPNW is investigated by examining the intermediate products at different charge/discharge stages using ex situ X-ray diffraction measurements. Na+ full cell application is demonstrated by pairing CPNW anode with Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode.

    40. MoS2 Nanosheets with Widened Interlayer Spacing for High-Efficiency Removal of Mercury in Aquatic Systems

      Kelong Ai, Changping Ruan, Mengxia Shen and Lehui Lu

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601338

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      The first experimental evidence that MoS2 nanosheets with widened interlayer spacing are capable of mercury capture, with an extremely high mercury uptake capacity and the largest distribution coefficient value is provided. A single treatment of mercury-contaminated water with this material could efficiently reduce the mercury concentration (10 000 p.p.b.) below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limits for drinking water standards (2 p.p.b).

    41. BSA-Mediated Synthesis of Bismuth Sulfide Nanotheranostic Agents for Tumor Multimodal Imaging and Thermoradiotherapy

      Yong Wang, Yongyou Wu, Yujing Liu, Jia Shen, Ling Lv, Liubing Li, Liecheng Yang, Jianfeng Zeng, Yangyun Wang, Leshuai W. Zhang, Zhen Li, Mingyuan Gao and Zhifang Chai

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601341

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      BSA-capped Bi2S3 NPs are synthesized in aqueous solution via a pH-mediated biomineralization process for achieving all-in-one biocompatible nanoagents for sensitive photoacoustic imaging and SPECT/CT imaging, and enhanced photothermal- and radiotherapy of tumors.

    42. Tough Hydrogels with Programmable and Complex Shape Deformations by Ion Dip-Dyeing and Transfer Printing

      Xin Peng, Yang Li, Qin Zhang, Cong Shang, Qing-Wen Bai and Huiliang Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601389

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      Tough stimuli-deformable hydrogels can be used to make soft machines, and their bending rate/extent can be programmed by ion dip-dyeing or ion transfer printing. More impressively, by selectively ion transfer printing proper patterns on the hydrogels, the transformations from 1D to 2D, 2D to 3D, and 3D to more complicated 3D shapes can be achieved after swelling.

    43. Mechanoluminescence Color Conversion by Spontaneous Fluorescent-Dye-Diffusion in Elastomeric Zinc Sulfide Composite

      Soon Moon Jeong, Seongkyu Song, Hyunmin Kim, Kyung-Il Joo and Hideo Takezoe

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601461

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      A new strategy is shown for a candy-inspired (left image) mechanoluminescence (ML) color manipulation by combining organic red fluorescent dye and zinc sulfide ML material. A red-dye-diffused elastomeric bilayer film consisting of a color conversion layer and a green ML light source layer emits clear red luminescence by complete color conversion process when it is stretched (right figure).

    44. High Surface Area MoS2/Graphene Hybrid Aerogel for Ultrasensitive NO2 Detection

      Hu Long, Anna Harley-Trochimczyk, Thang Pham, Zirong Tang, Tielin Shi, Alex Zettl, Carlo Carraro, Marcus A. Worsley and Roya Maboudian

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601562

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      Hybrid aerogels made from layered 2D materials can be tuned for high performance. Here, a high surface area graphene scaffold is coated with few-layer MoS2 sheets to give a hybrid aerogel with good electrical and thermal conductivity. When used for NO2 gas detection, the material is ultrasensitive and selective with fast response and recovery time (<1 min).

    45. Graphdiyne: An Efficient Hole Transporter for Stable High-Performance Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

      Zhiwen Jin, Mingjian Yuan, Hui Li, Hui Yang, Qing Zhou, Huibiao Liu, Xinzheng Lan, Mengxia Liu, Jizheng Wang, Edward H. Sargent and Yuliang Li

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601570

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      The novel large π-conjugated carbon hole transporting material, graphdiyne (GD) is used as anode buffer layer in PbS CQD solar cells. GD increases carrier lifetime and reduces carrier recombination inside the PbS CQD solar cells. Notably, a high power conversion efficiency of 10.64% is achieved, and the device also shows high long-term stability in ambient air.

    46. Dual Effect of ITO-Interlayer on Inverted Top-Illuminated Polymer Solar Cells: Wetting of Polyelectrolyte and Tuning of Cavity

      Wan Jae Dong, Jae Yong Park, Juyoung Ham, Gwan Ho Jung, Illhwan Lee and Jong-Lam Lee

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601764

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      Flexible inverted top-illuminated polymer solar cells (IT-PSCs) are fabricated on metallic substrate by designing a microcavity structure. The ITO layer allows the wetting of cathode interlayer of polyelectrolyte on Ag reflector. The spectral tuning of absorption spectrum is simultaneously demonstrated by employing the ITO interlayer. The optimized IT-PSCs shows high-efficiency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and air-stability.

    47. High Hole Mobility in Long-Range Ordered 2D Lead Sulfide Nanocrystal Monolayer Films

      Man Zhao, Fangxu Yang, Chao Liang, Dawei Wang, Defang Ding, Jiawei Lv, Jianqi Zhang, Wenping Hu, Chenguang Lu and Zhiyong Tang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601735

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      Long-range ordered monolayer thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals (NCs) are obtained by in situ exchanging native oleic acid ligands with halogen ions at the liquid–air interface. Further treatments on these films with dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, or their mixture greatly enhance the coupling between NCs. The films exhibit good p-type transport property from field effect transistors measurement with high hole mobility of 0.224 cm2 V−1 s−1, representing the best thin film devices from PbS NCs.

    48. A Versatile Solid Photosensitizer: Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas with Ruthenium Tris(bipyridine) Complexes Embedded in the Pore Walls

      Hiroyuki Takeda, Masataka Ohashi, Yasutomo Goto, Tetsu Ohsuna, Takao Tani and Shinji Inagaki

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601587

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      Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) containing large amounts of ruthenium(II) (Ru) tris(bipyridine) complexes within the pore walls are synthesized as a solid photosensitizer. Ru-PMOs loaded with platinum metal or iridium oxide provide efficient photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution or water oxidation, respectively, under irradiation with visible light up to 600 nm in the presence of sacrificial agents.

    49. Stable Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells without Hole-Conductor Layer Achieved via Cell Structure Design and Contact Engineering

      Zhenhua Yu, Bolei Chen, Pei Liu, Changlei Wang, Chenhao Bu, Nian Cheng, Sihang Bai, Yanfa Yan and Xingzhong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504564

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      To mitigate the instability of perovskite solar cells via device structure design and contact engineering, a hole-conductor layer-free structure of device and a unique bi-layer hybrid carbon back contact are adopted. The cells not only achieve an enhanced efficiency of 13.6% from the initial 11.3% after 100 °C treatment, but also exhibit excellent moist and thermal stability.

    50. Site-Selective In Situ Grown Calcium Carbonate Micromodels with Tunable Geometry, Porosity, and Wettability

      Seung Goo Lee, Hyundo Lee, Ankur Gupta, Sehoon Chang and Patrick S. Doyle

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600573

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      Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) micro­models are fabricated by a photolithographic technique and by a subsequent in situ growth of CaCO3. The fast and selective growth of CaCO3 on the multiple CaCO3 posts in a microchannel requires providing well-controlled Ca2+, CO32− ions rich/supersaturated solutions.

    51. Multiscale Wrinkled Microstructures for Piezoresistive Fibers

      Yong Wei, Song Chen, Xue Yuan, Pingping Wang and Lan Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600580

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      Highly stretchable and conductive core–shell fibers are prepared by coating silver nanowires/waterborne polyurethane (WPU) composites layer on prestrained commercial PU fibers and multiscale wrinkled microstructures are built, which are twisted to construct piezoresistive fibers that show high sensitivity to pressure and bending deformations. The proposed flexible piezoresistive fibers will be robust candidates to wearable devices, robotic systems, smart fabrics, etc.

    52. The Role of Ionized Impurity Scattering on the Thermoelectric Performances of Rock Salt AgPbmSnSe2+m

      Lin Pan, Sunanda Mitra, Li-Dong Zhao, Yawei Shen, Yifeng Wang, Claudia Felser and David Berardan

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600623

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      Polycrystalline AgPbmSnSe2+m(m =, 100, 50, 25) samples with a rock salt structure have been successfully synthesized. The inclusion of faint amount of AgSnSe2 in the PbSe matrix synergistically improves the electrical and thermal properties, leading to a strong increase of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT up to 1.3 at 889 K.

    53. Modulation of Hypoxia in Solid Tumor Microenvironment with MnO2 Nanoparticles to Enhance Photodynamic Therapy

      Wenwen Zhu, Ziliang Dong, Tingting Fu, Jingjing Liu, Qian Chen, Yonggang Li, Ran Zhu, Ligeng Xu and Zhuang Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600676

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      Multifunctional chlorine e6 (Ce6)-loaded MnO2 nanoparticles with surface polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification (Ce6@MnO2-PEG) are formulated for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and enhanced tumor-specific photodynamic therapy via regulating the intratumoral hypoxia. The results highlight the promise of modulating unfavorable tumor microenvironment with nanotechnology to overcome current limitations of cancer therapies.

    54. Prussian Blue@C Composite as an Ultrahigh-Rate and Long-Life Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode

      Yinzhu Jiang, Shenglan Yu, Baoqi Wang, Yong Li, Wenping Sun, Yunhao Lu, Mi Yan, Bin Song and Shixue Dou

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600747

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      To understand vacancy-impacted sodium storage and Na-inserted reaction kinetics, a PB@C composite is demonstrated as a sodium ion battery cathode with an ultrahigh rate and long life. The electrochemical activity and reaction kinetics are closely associated with the [Fe(CN)6] vacancies and Na intercalation. Such electrochemical relationship gives new insight into designing high-performance PB-based cathodes for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    55. Efficient Cementing of CH3NH3PbBr3 Nanoparticles to Upconversion Nanoparticles Visualized by Confocal Microscopy

      Laura Francés-Soriano, Soranyel Gonzalez-Carrero, Enrique Navarro-Raga, Raquel E. Galian, María González-Béjar and Julia Pérez-Prieto

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600786

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      Upconversion and perovskite nanoparticles are efficiently assembled by using the portals of cucurbit[7]uril to anchor the nanoparticles firmly and closely, as shown by the energy transfer efficiency to the perovskite nanoparticle after near-infrared excitation of the nanohybrid. A commercial multiphoton laser scanning confocal microscope allows the evaluation of the assembly and the verification of the homogeneity of the sample.

    56. Porous NIR Photoluminescent Silicon Nanocrystals-POSS Composites

      Dongzhi Chen, Wei Sun, Chenxi Qian, Laura M. Reyes, Annabelle P. Y. Wong, Yuchan Dong, Jia Jia, Kenneth K. Chen and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601251

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      An innovative strategy is described for synthesizing a new class of porous near infrared photoluminescent organic–inorganic hybrid materials by chemically incorporating hydrogen-terminated silicon nanocrystals into porous polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) frameworks while maintaining the integrity of both the POSS cages and silicon nanocrystals intact, an advance that bodes well for applications in the fields of advanced materials, gas adsorption media, and biomedicine.

    57. Understanding Origin of Voltage Hysteresis in Conversion Reaction for Na Rechargeable Batteries: The Case of Cobalt Oxides

      Haegyeom Kim, Hyunchul Kim, Hyungsub Kim, Jinsoo Kim, Gabin Yoon, Kyungmi Lim, Won-Sub Yoon and Kisuk Kang

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601357

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      The large hysteresis in charge/discharge profiles results from the different thermodynamic paths of conversion and reconversion reactions. It is demonstrated that the formation of an intermediate phase only occurring during the charge process is the root cause of the hysteresis, which is attributable to the mobility gap among three inter-diffusing species.

    58. Fullerene Additives Convert Ambipolar Transport to p-Type Transport while Improving the Operational Stability of Organic Thin Film Transistors

      Michael J. Ford, Ming Wang, Hung Phan, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601294

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      By using fullerene derivatives as additives in ambipolar polymer semiconductor field-effect transistors, the suppression of an undesirable double-slope in the Id1/2 versus Vg plots, improved ION/IOFF, and stable VT and hole μ through bias stress are observed. These findings also provide a convenient route to fabricate p-type organic field-effect transistors from ambipolar semiconductors.

    59. Optimization of Prussian Blue Coated NaDyF4:x%Lu Nanocomposites for Multifunctional Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy

      Yuxin Liu, Quanwei Guo, Xingjun Zhu, Wei Feng, Lu Wang, Liyi Ma, Ge Zhang, Jing Zhou and Fuyou Li

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601478

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      From the MR, CT, and PT properties of PB-coated NaDyF4:x% Lu nanocomposites with controlled size, NaDyF4:50%Lu@PB nanocomposites with good imaging properties and treatment effect are selected as the optimal materials for T1T2 dual model magnetic resonanse, computed tomography, photothermal imaging-guided photothermal therapy of tumors in small-animal model.

    60. Multilayer Graphene with a Rippled Structure as a Spacer for Improving Plasmonic Coupling

      Khang June Lee, Daewon Kim, Byung Chul Jang, Da-Jin Kim, Hamin Park, Dae Yool Jung, Woonggi Hong, Tae Keun Kim, Yang-Kyu Choi and Sung-Yool Choi

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601850

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      Plasmonic coupling is studied in rippled nanoparticles/Graphene/nanoparticles structures, in which single layer or multilayer graphene act as spacer between nanoparticles. The plasmonic coupling effect in the multilayer graphene spacer increases with shrinkage, depending on the nanoparticles size. For the single layer graphene, the enhancement effect arises mostly from the coupling through its thin thickness, rather than by rippling the structure.

    61. Downscaling and Charge Transport in Nanostructured Ferroelectric Memory Diodes Fabricated by Solution Micromolding

      Thomas Lenz, Matteo Ghittorelli, Frank Simon Benneckendorf, Kamal Asadi, Christian Kasparek, Gunnar Glasser, Paul W. M. Blom, Fabrizio Torricelli and Dago M. de Leeuw

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601224

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      Ferroelectric polymer memory diodes are fabricated by solution micromolding. The lateral feature size is scaled down from 2 μm to 500 nm. The charge transport is explained by 2D numerical simulations. Since the dependence of polarization on electric field is explicitly taken into account, entire J–V characteristics can for the first time be described quantitatively.

    62. Precisely Controlled Hydration Water for Performance Improvement of Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells

      Li Ling, Sijian Yuan, Pengfei Wang, Huotian Zhang, Li Tu, Jiao Wang, Yiqiang Zhan and Lirong Zheng

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601557

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      The content of hydration water is carefully controlled in precursor solution. The findings reveal that the hydration water has played an essential role in the formation of perovskite film. With an optimum amount of hydration water, a high quality perovskite film with better uniformity and smoother surface is formed. Based on it, an efficient perovskite solar cell is fabricated.

    63. Highly Emissive Nd3+-Sensitized Multilayered Upconversion Nanoparticles for Efficient 795 nm Operated Photodynamic Therapy

      Feng Lu, Lin Yang, Yujie Ding and Jun-Jie Zhu

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600464

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      Nd3+-sensitized multilayered upconversion nanoparticles excitable at 795 nm, can provide six times enhanced upconversion luminescence comparing with traditional NaYF4:Yb,Er@NaYF4. A highly PEGylated mesoporous silica layer with covalently bonded photosensitizers is coated on them to fabricate a colloidal stable and non-leaking nanoplatform for photodynamic therapy with high penetration depth and low overheating.

    64. Ternary Oxide Nanocrystals: Universal Laser-Hydrothermal Synthesis, Optoelectronic and Electrochemical Applications

      Muchen Rui, Xiaoming Li, Lin Gan, Tianyou Zhai and Haibo Zeng

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600785

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      Various ternary oxide nanocrystals can easily be prepared by this universal synthesis procedure. The synthesis combines laser ablation in liquid (LAL) with short-time hydrothermal growth. LAL generates highly reactive precursors that facilitate the formation of various ternary oxide nanocrystals in the subsequent fast hydrothermal process. The absence of chemical additives during the whole process results in a highly clean surface, which greatly improves the electron transport among the nanocrystals.

    65. Freestanding Graphitic Carbon Nitride Photonic Crystals for Enhanced Photocatalysis

      Lu Sun, Meijia Yang, Jianfeng Huang, Dingshan Yu, Wei Hong and Xudong Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600894

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      Freestanding graphitic carbon nitride photonic crystals are synthesized by crack-free, highly ordered colloid crystals templating and exhibit an order of magnitude superior photocatalytic activity to the bulk graphitic carbon nitride in photodegradation and hydrogen evolution under visible light due to the 3D interconnected network, slow photon effects, and depressed photoluminescence within the stop band region.

    66. Unique Necklace-Like Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Nanofibers: Scalable Templating Synthesis, Casting Films, and Their Superhydrophobic Property

      Xin Wang, Ming-Qian Zhang, Ran Kou, Lei-Lei Lu, Yang Zhao, Xue-Wei Xu, Guang-Ming Liu, Yong-Mei Zheng and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600907

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      Necklace-like phenol formaldehyde resin nanofibers with controllable morphologies can be synthesized on a large scale by a template-directed hydrothermal method (see the figure), which exhibits great application for constructing robust superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of substrates.

    67. Cobalt-Doping in Molybdenum-Carbide Nanowires Toward Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Huanlei Lin, Ning Liu, Zhangping Shi, Yulin Guo, Yi Tang and Qingsheng Gao

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600915

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      Cobalt-doping into Mo2C increases the electron density of Mo and optimizes the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution over Mo2C nanowires. With an optimal Co/Mo ratio, the Co-Mo2C nanowires exhibit high activity and good stability in both acidic and basic electrolytes, performing among the best of current noble-metal-free electrocatalysts.

    68. High-Mobility Naphthalene Diimide and Selenophene-Vinylene-Selenophene-Based Conjugated Polymer: n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Structure–Property Relationship

      Min Jae Sung, Alessandro Luzio, Won-Tae Park, Ran Kim, Eliot Gann, Francesco Maddalena, Giuseppina Pace, Yong Xu, Dario Natali, Carlo de Falco, Long Dang, Christopher R. McNeill, Mario Caironi, Yong-Young Noh and Yun-Hi Kim

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601144

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      Promisingly air-stable, low-temperature solution processed n-type field-effect transistors with mobility up to 2.4 cm2 V−1 s−1 are demonstrated thanks to the synthesis of a naphthalene diimide and selenophene-vinylene-selenophene-based conjugated copolymer. A temperature induced, remarkable 3D crystallinity of thin films is unveiled. Interestingly however, transport is dominated by the interconnectivity of a segregated, edge-on polymer phase where charge follows orientational domains rather insensitive to annealing conditions.

    69. Ultrafast Discharge/Charge Rate and Robust Cycle Life for High-Performance Energy Storage Using Ultrafine Nanocrystals on the Binder-Free Porous Graphene Foam

      Gyu Heon Lee, Jung Woo Lee, Ji IL Choi, Sang Jun Kim, Yong-Hoon Kim and Jeung Ku Kang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601355

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      A hierarchical architecture fabricated by integrating ultrafine (≈6 nm) TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the binder-free macroporous graphene (PG) network foam for high-performance energy storage enabling ultrafast rate and robust cycle life is reported, where the mesoporous open channels created by ultrafine NPs and also the binder-free conductive PG network facilitate fast ionic transfer during Li-ion insertion/extraction.

    70. Organometal Halide Perovskite Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

      Wei Deng, Xiuzhen Xu, Xiujuan Zhang, Yedong Zhang, Xiangcheng Jin, Liang Wang, Shuit-Tong Lee and Jiansheng Jie

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601054

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      Organometal halide perovskite quantum dot (OHP-QDs)-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are developed using a simple dip-coating method. The OHP-QDs-based LEDs show multicolor emission from blue, green to red by tuning the composition or size of the OHP-QDs. The packaged devices also exhibit robust stability under continuous bias in air for at least 7 d.

    71. Nanostructure/Swelling Relationships of Bulk and Thin-Film PFSA Ionomers

      Ahmet Kusoglu, Thomas J. Dursch and Adam Z. Weber

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600861

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      Phase separation in ion-conducting polymers drives their functionality. Here, the impact of chemistry, including equivalent weight and side-chain length, is systematically explored to elucidate the underlying fundamental drivers and results of phase separation across critical lengthscales found in devices from micrometer bulk membranes to nanometer thin films. The origin and results of hydration-induced swelling are revealed.

    72. Self-Healing Properties of Protein Resin with Soy Protein Isolate-Loaded Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) Microcapsules

      Joo Ran Kim and Anil N. Netravali

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600465

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      A green, self-healing thermoset soy protein resin is developed using soy protein isolate-loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microcapsules and glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results show that two fracture surfaces are bridged by the healant released from microcapsules when microcracks are formed under stress. The healing efficiency of up to 48% is obtained according to the fracture toughness test.

    73. All-Solution-Processed Random Si Nanopyramids for Excellent Light Trapping in Ultrathin Solar Cells

      Sihua Zhong, Wenjie Wang, Yufeng Zhuang, Zengguang Huang and Wenzhong Shen

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505538

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      An all-solution-processed method to form Si nanopyramids is proposed. The method is simple and cost-effective. The success lies in the transfer of generation site of H2 bubbles from Si surface to Ag nanoparticles. The resultant random Si nanopyramids provide superior broadband light trapping effect, even better than its periodic counterpart, achieving near-Lambertian light absorption in thin-film c-Si.

    74. Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy of CoPi on BiVO4: The Function of CoPi during Water Oxidation

      Yimeng Ma, Andreas Kafizas, Stephanie R. Pendlebury, Florian Le Formal and James R. Durrant

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600711

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      Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate charge carrier dynamics in CoPi-modified BiVO4 photoanodes for water oxidation under simulated working condition. The quantity of oxidized CoPi by BiVO4 holes is found to be low and incapable of driving efficient water oxidation. Therefore, almost no catalytic function from the CoPi layer is present in CoPi-modified BiVO4 under working photoelectrochemical conditions.

    75. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Toward Flexible Spintronics: Perpendicularly Magnetized Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Thin Films and Nanowires on Polyimide Substrates

      T. Vemulkar, R. Mansell, A. Fernández-Pacheco and R. P. Cowburn

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505138

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      Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) thin films with interlayer exchange coupling are technologically relevant for the next generation of magnetic memory and logic devices. Despite the extreme sensitivity of the magnetic properties to substrate roughness conditions, PMA CoFeB single magnetic layers, and synthetic antiferromagnetic thin films and nanowires, are successfully fabricated on polyimide substrates, and are magnetically robust under bending.

    76. Elastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Meets Tellurium Nanowires: A Binder- and Collector-Free Electrode for Li-Te Batteries

      Jie Xu, Sen Xin, Jian-Wei Liu, Jin-Long Wang, Yong Lei and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600640

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      Two types of binder/collector-free Te cathodes (TeNW/CNT cathode and Te@CNT cathode) are constructed from a bifunctional and elastic carbon nanotube aerogel and Te nanowires, and are used for high-energy Li-Te batteries. The Te@CNT cathode exhibits excellent high-rate stability in an extended cycling test at 1 C.

    77. Light-Responsive, Singlet Oxygen-Triggered On-Demand Drug Release from Photosensitizer-Doped Mesoporous Silica Nanorods for Cancer Combination Therapy

      Guangbao Yang, Xiaoqi Sun, Jingjing Liu, Liangzhu Feng and Zhuang Liu

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600722

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      CMSNR-B-PEG acts as a drug delivery carrier to load with either small drug molecules or larger macromolecules. This work develops a novel approach to engineer smart on-demand drug delivery/release systems responsive to long-wavelength light with a rather low optical power, interesting not only for anti-cancer chemotherapy, but also potentially for gene therapy or immunotherapy toward cancer or other diseases.

    78. Rational Design of Highly Porous SnO2 Nanotubes Functionalized with Biomimetic Nanocatalysts for Direct Observation of Simulated Diabetes

      Ji-Soo Jang, Seon-Jin Choi, Sang-Joon Kim, Meggie Hakim and Il-Doo Kim

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600797

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      Highly mesoporous SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with large pores and bioinspired catalysts (Pt-PS_SnO2 NTs) are simply synthesized as an ideal nanostructure of sensing layers by using biotemplating route and diffusion of SnO2 effect. Pt-PS_SnO2 NTs exhibit dramatically enhanced acetone sensing performance; especially, they can clearly distinguish the exhaled breath of healthy people and diabetics.

    79. Enhancing the Sensitivity of Percolative Graphene Films for Flexible and Transparent Pressure Sensor Arrays

      Zhuo Chen, Tian Ming, Mahomed Mehdi Goulamaly, Heming Yao, Daniel Nezich, Marek Hempel, Mario Hofmann and Jing Kong

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503674

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      The performance of graphene-based percolative strain gauges is investigated and guidelines to improve the durability and sensitivity of graphene films as sensing elements are developed. The enhanced graphene strain gauges are encapsulated in micrometer-thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and integrated into flexible and transparent pressure sensor arrays that exhibit high reproducibility and sensitivity.

    80. Thermoresponsive Nanogel-Encapsulated PEDOT and HSP70 Inhibitor for Improving the Depth of the Photothermal Therapeutic Effect

      Dongdong Liu, Liyi Ma, Yanxin An, Yu Li, Yuxin Liu, Lu Wang, Jin Guo, Jianhua Wang and Jing Zhou

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600031

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      A new kind of thermo-responsive photothermal agent (Nanogel+phenylethynesulfonamide (PES)) is fabricated by using (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (a thermo-responsive polymer shell) to encapsulate PES (an effective heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibitor) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (a widely used photothermal agent). As a result, PES can be released upon irradiation and interferes with HSP70, and results in improving the depth of photothermal therapeutic effect.

    81. Effect of Donor Molecular Structure and Gate Dielectric on Charge-Transporting Characteristics for Isoindigo-Based Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymers

      Won-Tae Park, Gyoungsik Kim, Changduk Yang, Chuan Liu and Yong-Young Noh

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504908

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      The effect of the molecular structure of three different donor units, naphthalene (Np), bithiophene (BT), and thiophene–vinylene–thiophene (TVT), in isoindigo (IIG)-based donor–acceptor conjugated polymers on the charge carrier mobility of organic field-effect transistors is investigated. PIIG–BT OFETs shows 50 times higher hole mobility (0.63 cm2 V−1 s−1) than IIG–TVT and IIG–Np ones of ≈ 0.01 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    82. Surface Structural Transition Induced by Gradient Polyanion-Doping in Li-Rich Layered Oxides: Implications for Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

      Ying Zhao, Jiatu Liu, Shuangbao Wang, Ran Ji, Qingbing Xia, Zhengping Ding, Weifeng Wei, Yong Liu, Peng Wang and Douglas G. Ivey

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600576

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      A gradient polyanion-doping strategy associated with surface structural transition is developed to improve the electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered oxide (LLO) cathodes. This strategy integrates the advantages of both bulk doping and surface modification as the oxygen close-packed structure of LLOs is stabilized by polyanion doping, and the LLO cathodes are protected from steady corrosion induced by electrolytes.

    83. Capacitance Characterization of Elastomeric Dielectrics for Applications in Intrinsically Stretchable Thin Film Transistors

      Desheng Kong, Raphael Pfattner, Alex Chortos, Chien Lu, Allison C. Hinckley, Chao Wang, Wen-Ya Lee, Jong Won Chung and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600612

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      A charging measurement technique is introduced as a universal approach to quantify the capacitance of elastomeric dielectrics. It reveals elastomers may either behave as conventional rigid polymer dielectrics or solid-state electrolyte, with distinctive capacitance values and scaling relations. The development allows the mobility values of corresponding thin film transistors to be accurately determined, which is essential for the development of instrinsically stretchable transistors.

    84. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fibrillar Elastomeric Micropatterns Create Tunable Adhesion Even to Rough Surfaces

      Viktoriia Barreau, René Hensel, Nathalie K. Guimard, Animangsu Ghatak, Robert M. McMeeking and Eduard Arzt

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600652

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      The influence of surface roughness on the adhesion strength of elastomeric pillar arrays is systematically studied. The results reveal novel adhesive and non-adhesive states depending on the micropillar geometry relative to the surface roughness profile.

    85. Fe3O4-Decorated Co9S8 Nanoparticles In Situ Grown on Reduced Graphene Oxide: A New and Efficient Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Jing Yang, Guoxing Zhu, Yuanjun Liu, Jiexiang Xia, Zhenyuan Ji, Xiaoping Shen and Shikui Wu

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600674

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      A new Fe3O4@Co9S8/rGO composite is developed as a high-performance oxygen evolution catalyst, which provides a small overpotential of 0.34 V for 10 mA cm−2 current density. It is proposed that the electron transfer trend from Fe species to Co9S8 promotes the breaking of the Co[BOND]O bond in the stable configuration (Co[BOND]O[BOND]O superoxo group), attributing to the excellent catalytic activity.

    86. Layered Orthorhombic Nb2O5@Nb4C3Tx and TiO2@Ti3C2Tx Hierarchical Composites for High Performance Li-ion Batteries

      Chuanfang (John) Zhang, Seon Joon Kim, Michael Ghidiu, Meng-Qiang Zhao, Michel W. Barsoum, Valeria Nicolosi and Yury Gogotsi

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600682

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      The oxidation of Nb4C3Tx MXene in CO2 results in a hierarchical T-Nb2O5@Nb4C3Tx layered composite, that combines the high capacity of the external orthorhombic T-Nb2O5, coupled with the high electrical conductivity of the interior unoxidized Nb4C3Tx and the electron bridge effect of the disordered carbon. This composite exhibits high capacity at high rate when used as Li-ion battery anode.

    87. Physical Mechanisms behind the Field-Cycling Behavior of HfO2-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors

      Milan Pešić, Franz Paul Gustav Fengler, Luca Larcher, Andrea Padovani, Tony Schenk, Everett D. Grimley, Xiahan Sang, James M. LeBeau, Stefan Slesazeck, Uwe Schroeder and Thomas Mikolajick

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600590

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      The impact of the complex interplay of mobile defects, charge trapping, and phase transitions on the macroscopic ferroelectric switching behavior of a doped HfO2-based dielectric is discussed. The interaction of the oxygen vacancy intergrain diffusion and the observed phase transitions is unambiguously linked with a built-in bias removal and opening of the hysteresis within the doped HfO2 thin films.

    88. Engineering Substrate Interactions for High Luminescence Efficiency of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

      Yifei Yu, Yiling Yu, Chao Xu, Yong-Qing Cai, Liqin Su, Yong Zhang, Yong-Wei Zhang, Kenan Gundogdu and Linyou Cao

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600418

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      Luminescence efficiency in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers can be improved by orders of magnitude through engineering the interaction with substrates. The luminescence efficiency of the monolayers is mainly affected through doping and facilitating nonradiative exciton recombination. Since the doping effect significantly depends on the kind of substrate, choosing the right type of substrates is a crucial step toward maximizing efficiency.

    89. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks: The Influence of Individual Tube–Tube Contacts on the Large-Scale Conductivity of Polymer Composites

      Oana A. Bârsan, Günter G. Hoffmann, Leendert G. J. van der Ven and Gijsbertus de With

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600435

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      Developed from and validated by experiments on single-walled carbon nanotube networks, a simple model shows that direct, low-resistance contacts are mainly responsible for the conductivity of a polymer composite, while in their presence tunneling contacts contribute insignificantly. Therefore, preparing polymer composites as conductive as their equivalent pure carbon nanotube networks is realistic, but only if direct contacts can be ensured.

    90. Electric Field Tunable Interlayer Relaxation Process and Interlayer Coupling in WSe2/Graphene Heterostructures

      Yang Li, Jing-Kai Qin, Cheng-Yan Xu, Jian Cao, Zhao-Yuan Sun, Lai-Peng Ma, Ping An Hu, Wencai Ren and Liang Zhen

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505412

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      It is demonstrated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties and interlayer coupling in WSe2/graphene heterostructures can be tuned by an electric field. PL intensity in monolayer WSe2/graphene is modulated 40 times. Additionally, it is discovered that the interlayer coupling between monolayer WSe2 and graphene is enhanced under high electric field, inducing the enhanced Raman scattering of defects in graphene.

    91. Benchtop Fluorination of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds on a Preparative Scale: Toward Unusually Hydrophilic Bright Particles

      Jan Havlik, Helena Raabova, Michal Gulka, Vladimira Petrakova, Marie Krecmarova, Vlastimil Masek, Petr Lousa, Jan Stursa, Hans-Gerd Boyen, Milos Nesladek and Petr Cigler

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504857

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      Hydrophilic fluorinated nanodiamonds with stabilized fluorescence from nitrogen-vacancy centres are presented. A high-yielding decarboxylative fluorination performed in acqueous environment creates a unique mixed C–F/C–OH surface. In contrast to other fluorine-based diamond terminations, it retains the colloidal stability of nanodiamonds and boosts the fluorescence of NV centers at the same time. This nonetching one-step approach can be easily performed on the benchtop without special safety precautions.

    92. Contactless and Rapid Discrimination of Improvised Explosives Realized by Mn2+ Doping Tailored ZnS Nanocrystals

      Zhaofeng Wu, Chaoyu Zhou, Baiyi Zu, Yushu Li and Xincun Dou

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600592

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      A chemiresistive sensing scheme to sensitively and rapidly detect the vapors of the constituents relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) at room temperature is achieved by tailoring the sensing properties of ZnS nanocrystals. The resulting differential identification capability toward explosives makes the on-the-spot detection of IEDs possible.

    93. Theranostic Oxygen Reactive Polymers for Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

      Julia Xu, Menko Ypma, Peter A. Chiarelli, Joshua Park, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Patrick S. Stayton, Pierre D. Mourad, Donghoon Lee, Anthony J. Convertine and Forrest M. Kievit

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504416

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      Oxygen reactive polymers (ORP) can accumulate in damaged brain in mouse models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and be visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. Accumulation and retention of ORP is accompanied by reduced neurodegeneration and gliosis, indicators of TBI severity. ORP should help further the understanding of nanomaterial interaction with TBI and hopefully leads to improved outcome for brain injury patients.

    94. A Versatile Self-Organization Printing Method for Simplified Tandem Organic Photovoltaics

      Seok Kim, Hongkyu Kang, Soonil Hong, Jinho Lee, Seongyu Lee, Byoungwook Park, Junghwan Kim and Kwanghee Lee

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505161

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      Efficient and simplified tandem organic solar cells are demonstrated through a new self-assembly printing technique using a spontaneous vertical phase separation. A bilayer of interfacial and photoactive layers is simultaneously printed by improving vertical self-organization characteristics. A high tandem efficiency of 9.1% is obtained with a four-layer tandem structure.

    95. Lightweight Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting and Sensing Tiny Mechanical Motion

      Tao Li, Ying Xu, Magnus Willander, Fei Xing, Xia Cao, Ning Wang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600279

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      A novel strategy to enhance the performance of triboelectric nanogenerators by combining a carbon material with nanowire films is proposed. The device has a mass less than 0.1 g and can harvest mechanical energy from light finger tapping. The determination limit of acceleration for such device was as low as 0.25 m s−2.

    96. Epitaxy of Layered Orthorhombic SnS–SnSxSe(1−x) Core–Shell Heterostructures with Anisotropic Photoresponse

      Jing Xia, Dandan Zhu, Xuanze Li, Lei Wang, Lifeng Tian, Jing Li, Jingyuan Wang, Xing Huang and Xiang-Min Meng

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600699

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      Layered orthorhombic SnS–SnSxSe(1−x) core–shell heterostructures are successfully synthesized via an epitaxial growth method. Due to the structural characteristic of the components, the heterostructures are able to show a strong polarization-dependent photoresponse, which will facilitate developing novel functional optoelectronic devices beyond conventional materials.

    97. Fully Transparent Nanocomposite Coating with an Amorphous Alumina Matrix and Exceptional Wear and Scratch Resistance

      Matjaz Valant, Uroš Luin, Mattia Fanetti, Andraž Mavrič, Kateryna Vyshniakova, Zdravko Siketić and Mitjan Kalin

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600213

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      The strain-induced high-temperature stabilization of amorphous alumina is obtained by dispersion of rigid globular polycarbosilane macromolecules within the alumina matrix. This nanocomposite is a base for a new facile and inexpensive coating for mechanical protection of glass surfaces. The nanocomposite coating is characterized by a full optical transparency and exceptional tribological characteristics.

    98. The Effects of Electronic Impurities and Electron–Hole Recombination Dynamics on Large-Grain Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Photovoltaic Efficiencies

      Jean-Christophe Blancon, Wanyi Nie, Amanda J. Neukirch, Gautam Gupta, Sergei Tretiak, Laurent Cognet, Aditya D. Mohite and Jared J. Crochet

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505324

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      The local dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in “large-grain hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites” is presented. Under illumination conditions relevant for photovoltaics, a suppressed recombination of free carriers is observed where electronic impurities play a negligible role in the overall kinetics. This study provides a microscopic model for low defect large-grain hybrid perovskites where non-Langevin recombination results in superior photovoltaic performance.

    99. Mussel-Inspired Conductive Cryogel as Cardiac Tissue Patch to Repair Myocardial Infarction by Migration of Conductive Nanoparticles

      Leyu Wang, Junzi Jiang, Wenxi Hua, Ali Darabi, Xiaoping Song, Chen Song, Wen Zhong, Malcolm M. Q. Xing and Xiaozhong Qiu

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505372

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      An engineered cardiac patch (ECP) is shown for the effective in vivo repair of infarcted heart tissue. The ECP is based on a mussel-inspired conductive cryogel incorporating a multifuntional dopamine crosslinker, gelatin, and polypyrrole nanoparticles. The hydrogel shows super-elasticity and conductivity, which promotes the adhesion and migration of cardiomyocytes.

    100. Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces that Prevent Microbial Surface Fouling and Kill Non-Adherent Pathogens in Surrounding Media: A Controlled Release Approach

      Uttam Manna, Namrata Raman, Michael A. Welsh, Yashira M. Zayas-Gonzalez, Helen E. Blackwell, Sean P. Palecek and David M. Lynn

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505522

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      Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) that prevent colonization by microbial pathogens and also kill non-adherent organisms in surrounding media are reported. The approach exploits the polymer and liquid phases in these materials to sustain the release of an antimicrobial agent. This approach improves the inherent anti-fouling properties of SLIPS, is general in scope, and expands the potential utility of SLIPS in fundamental and applied contexts.

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