Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 32

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 166
  1. Full Papers

    1. Full Color Emission in ZnGa2O4: Simultaneous Control of the Spherical Morphology, Luminescent, and Electric Properties via Hydrothermal Approach

      Yang Zhang, Zhijian Wu, Dongling Geng, Xiaojiao Kang, Mengmeng Shang, Xuejiao Li, Hongzhou Lian, Ziyong Cheng and Jun Lin

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402092

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      ZnGa2O4: Mn2+/Eu3+ with uniform nanospheric morphology (diameter about 400 nm) are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal approach. The electronic properties, chemical bonding, and mechanisms of electron transitions in ZnGa2O4 and Mn2+/Eu3+-doped ZnGa2O4 systems are studied based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculations from first principles.

    2. Lending Triarylphosphine Oxide to Phenanthroline: a Facile Approach to High-Performance Organic Small-Molecule Cathode Interfacial Material for Organic Photovoltaics utilizing Air-Stable Cathodes

      Wan-Yi Tan, Rui Wang, Min Li, Gang Liu, Ping Chen, Xin-Chen Li, Shun-Mian Lu, Hugh Lu Zhu, Qi-Ming Peng, Xu-Hui Zhu, Wei Chen, Wallace C. H. Choy, Feng Li, Junbiao Peng and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401685

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      The organic molecule Phen-NaDPO that possesses characteristics of a facile synthesis/purification, a high T g, and attactive electron transport, is successfully shown as an promising cathode interlayer to improve the PCE. Consequently, a PCE of 7.5% and 8.56% is reported respectively for Phen-NaDPO/Ag and Phen-NaDPO/Al devices utilizing PTB7:PC71BM active layer, which compares well with that of the Ca/Al device.

    3. Understanding How Processing Additives Tune the Nanoscale Morphology of High Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Blends: From Casting Solution to Spun-Cast Thin Film

      Ming Shao, Jong Kahk Keum, Rajeev Kumar, Jihua Chen, James F. Browning, Sanjib Das, Wei Chen, Jianhui Hou, Changwoo Do, Kenneth C. Littrell, Adam Rondinone, David B. Geohegan, Bobby G. Sumpter and Kai Xiao

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401547

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      A comprehensive suite of characterization techniques and theoretical analyses are used to reveal both the lateral and vertical morphological effects of the processing additive diiodooctane, DIO, on the formation of bulk-heterojunctions and the resulting orgnanic photovoltaic device parameters starting from a donor/acceptor polymer blend PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM in solution, to the spin-cast films.

    4. Polymer Fiber Probes Enable Optical Control of Spinal Cord and Muscle Function In Vivo

      Chi Lu, Ulrich P. Froriep, Ryan A. Koppes, Andres Canales, Vittorio Caggiano, Jennifer Selvidge, Emilio Bizzi and Polina Anikeeva

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401266

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      Flexible polymer fiber probes that integrate optical waveguides and conductive electrodes and maintain their functions under dynamic strain are developed. These probes allow simultaneous optogenetic stimulation and recording of neural activity in the spinal cord, which is accompanied by induced limb movements in vivo.

    5. Electrochemical Cathodic Protection Powered by Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Wenxi Guo, Xiaoyi Li, Mengxiao Chen, Lu Xu, Lin Dong, Xia Cao, Wei Tang, Jing Zhu, Changjian Lin, Caofeng Pan and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401168

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      Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with different operating modes are developed to achieve a special cathodic protection effect for steels, the cathodic potentials of steels can be adjusted by simply changing the external loads of the TENG, which is sufficient to meet the minimum cathodic protection potentials for most of the metals and alloys. An application of marine corrosion prevention is performed by mounting the TENG onto a buoy.

    6. Trichlorosilanes as Anchoring Groups for Phenylene-Thiophene Molecular Monolayer Field Effect Transistors

      Adam V. S. Parry, Kexin Lu, Daniel J. Tate, Barbara Urasinska-Wojcik, Dolores Caras-Quintero, Leszek A. Majewski and Michael L. Turner

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401392

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      A self assembled monolayer field effect transistor is presented. A p-type mesogen is used as the semiconducting core for a trichlorosilane based self-assembled monolayer used in a field effect transistor. Monolayers are formed in less than 10 h and devices are reported with a mobility as high as 1.7 × 10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    7. In Situ Crosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogels for Vasculogenic Induction and Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

      Sue Hyun Lee, Yunki Lee, Young Wook Chun, Spencer W. Crowder, Pampee P. Young, Ki Dong Park and Hak-Joon Sung

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401110

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      Injectable and in situ crosslinkable gelatin hydrogel is developed by conjugating hydroxyphenyl propionic acid to gelatin and used as a delivery platform for mesenchymal stem cells to reveal superior vasculo/angiogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo in a soluble factor-free manner. Its superior bioactivity and ease of production, handling, and application makes it a promising biomaterial for treating vascular diseases.

    8. Ultrasensitive Detection of Mitochondrial DNA Mutation by Graphene Oxide/DNA Hydrogel Electrode

      Liping Sun, Nan Hu, Jian Peng, Liyu Chen and Jian Weng

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402191

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      A hydrogel electrode with ultrasensitive detection is prepared from graphene oxide and fish sperm DNA, and the linear range for mitochondrial DNA detection is from 1.0 × 10−9 to 1.0 × 10−20m with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10−20m. The result is ascribed to the bionic interface and tuneable conductivity of the hydrogel electrode.

    9. Enhancing Output Power of Cylindrical Triboelectric Nanogenerators by Segmentation Design and Multilayer Integration

      Wei Tang, Chi Zhang, Chang Bao Han and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401936

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      The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a newly invented technology that is effective for harvesting ambient mechanical energy. By introducing segmentation and multi-layer integration into the cylindrical TENG, the generator's output is enhanced significantly. It is demonstrated that the segmentation design and the fractal geometry are a perfect self-power-management technique and an effective surface-maximizing way to enhance the TENG's performance.

    10. Extraordinary Macroscale Wear Resistance of One Atom Thick Graphene Layer

      Diana Berman, Sanket A. Deshmukh, Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan, Ali Erdemir and Anirudha V. Sumant

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401755

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      The mechanism of extraordinary wear resistance of just one atom thick graphene layer on steel is revealed. A single layer of graphene is able to reduce steel wear by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The wear-life of graphene significantly increases when tested in hydrogen environment. Hydrogen plays a crucial role in preventing graphene from wear-induced damage by passivating carbon dangling bonds.

    11. Anti-Ferromagnet Controlled Tunneling Magnetoresistance

      Yuyan Wang, Cheng Song, Guangyue Wang, Jinghui Miao, Fei Zeng and Feng Pan

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401659

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      Anti-ferromagnet controlled tunneling magnetoresistance is obtained at room-temperature in a novel perpendicular IrMn/AlOx/IrMn junction, where the magnetoresistance is governed by the relative arrangement of the IrMn moments. In addition to the fundamental significance of the interactions between two anti-ferromagnetic layers, it is promising to achieve high-density anti-ferromagnet spintronics that are far from ferromagnetic stray fields and magnetic field perturbations.

    12. Tailoring the Plasmonic Modes of a Grating-Nanocube Assembly to Achieve Broadband Absorption in the Visible Spectrum

      Jeffrey Geldmeier, Tobias König, Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Mostafa A. El-Sayed and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401559

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      An efficient broadband absorber in the visible wavelength range is constructed from the individual plasmonic resonances of gold nanogratings and silver nanocubes separated from one another by a dielectric spacer. An average 84% absorption in the 450–850 nm wavelength range is ultimately achieved for this unique design.

    13. Photoacoustic Imaging Guided Near-Infrared Photothermal Therapy Using Highly Water-Dispersible Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns as Theranostic Agents

      Daiqin Chen, Chao Wang, Xin Nie, Shumu Li, Ruimin Li, Mirong Guan, Zhuang Liu, Chunying Chen, Chunru Wang, Chunying Shu and Lijun Wan

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401560

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      SWNHs/C18PMH-PEG with high stability and biocompatibility is prepared for photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal therapy. The boundary of the tumor in mice after intravenously injected with SWNHs/C18PMH-PEG is clearly visualized and the subsequent phototherapy is highly efficient under the guidance of photoacoustic imaging.

    14. Nanoscale Resistive Switching in Amorphous Perovskite Oxide (a-SrTiO3) Memristors

      Hussein Nili, Sumeet Walia, Sivacarendran Balendhran, Dmitri B. Strukov, Madhu Bhaskaran and Sharath Sriram

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401278

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      High performance CMOS/CMOL compatible memristive arrays based on amorphous SrTiO3 thin films with engineered oxygen deficiencies are presented. Isolated nano-switches are found to be responsible for the excellent switching performance of a-STO memory cells. Nanoscale electromechanical investigations highlight the assistive role of mechanical stress in nanoionics based conduction and resistive switching in a-STO devices and confirm their ultimate scalability.

    15. Towards van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on Si using a Graphene Buffer Layer

      Yazeed Alaskar, Shamsul Arafin, Darshana Wickramaratne, Mark A. Zurbuchen, Liang He, Jeff McKay, Qiyin Lin, Mark S. Goorsky, Roger K. Lake and Kang L. Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400960

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      Van der Waals growth of GaAs on silicon using graphene as a lattice mismatch/thermal expansion coefficient mismatch relieving vdW buffer layer is reported. The growth of GaAs thin films on graphene is a potential route towards heteroepitaxial integration of GaAs on silicon. An ultrasmooth morphology for GaAs films with a strong (111) oriented fiber-texture on graphene/Si using quasi van der Waals epitaxy is presented.

    16. Influence of Direct Laser Written 3D Topographies on Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells: Towards Improved Implant Surfaces

      Judith K. Hohmann and Georg von Freymann

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401390

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      Proliferation and differentiation can be influenced via three-dimensional designer topographies. This systematic study shows how osteoblast-like cells grow on different well-defined structures, fabricated by direct laser writing. Proliferation is significantly increased (170%) on particular structures compared to unstructured surfaces (100%) with identical chemical composition. The results might lead to novel implants with decreased implant failure rates.

    17. Single Ho3+-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles for High-Performance T2-Weighted Brain Tumor Diagnosis and MR/UCL/CT Multimodal Imaging

      Dalong Ni, Wenbo Bu, Shengjian Zhang, Xiangpeng Zheng, Ming Li, Huaiyong Xing, Qingfeng Xiao, Yanyan Liu, Yanqing Hua, Liangping Zhou, Weijun Peng, Kuaile Zhao and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401609

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      The first example of T2-weighted MR imaging of the sensitizer (Yb3+) and activator (Ho3+) in UCNPs is presented. These could also be simultaneously used for UCL and CT imaging, thus enabling the high performance multimodal MRI/UCL/CT imaging in single UCNPs. Impressively, the remarkable T2-MRI capability of the Ho3+-doped UCNPs favors the accurate early diagnosis of brain tumor.

    18. Exceptional Oxygen Sensing Properties of New Blue Light-Excitable Highly Luminescent Europium(III) and Gadolinium(III) Complexes

      Sergey M. Borisov, Roland Fischer, Robert Saf and Ingo Klimant

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401754

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      New Eu(III) and Gd(III) complexes combine efficient excitation with blue light, strong emission, and efficient oxygen quenching capabilities. They are used in advanced oxygen sensing materials including planar optodes and nanosensors.

    19. A Versatile Approach towards Multifunctional Robust Microcapsules with Tunable, Restorable, and Solvent-Proof Superhydrophobicity for Self-Healing and Self-Cleaning Coatings

      Gang Wu, Jinliang An, Xiu-Zhi Tang, Yong Xiang and Jinglei Yang

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401473

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      A variety of chemical-filled multifunctional robust microcapsules exhibiting superior shell tightness against solvents and heat, and possessing widely tunable, multiple self-restorable, and solvent-proof superhydrophobicity are prepared by an easily modifiable and highly versatile method. The biomimetic multifunctional smart coatings for self-healing anticorrosion and self-cleaning antifouling applications are easily fabricated by directly dispersing the microcapsules into and onto a polymer resin.

    20. Nanoparticles with Precise Ratiometric Co-Loading and Co-Delivery of Gemcitabine Monophosphate and Cisplatin for Treatment of Bladder Cancer

      Lei Miao, Shutao Guo, Jing Zhang, William Y. Kimb and Leaf Huang

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401076

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      A novel nano-platform with ratiometric loading and delivery of multiple hydrophilic drug moieties is demonstrated. Hydrophilic cisplatin and gemcitabine monophosphate are standardized to a similar hydrophobicity through loading into lipid-coated calcium phosphate and cisplatin cores, respectively. Precise ratio-controlled loading and delivery is achieved by incorporating these cores into PLGA NPs. These ratiometric combinations lead to the maximal synergistic anticancer effect.

    21. High-Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence-Active Novel Poly(4-Cyanotriphenylamine)

      Jia-Hao Wu and Guey-Sheng Liou

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401608

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      A high-performance electrofluorochromic (EFC) device of poly(4-cyanotriphenyl­amine)(CN-PTPA) as active layer is readily fabricated and exhibits high photo­luminescent (PL) quantum yield of 21.9% in film state, high PL contrast ratio (I off/I on) of 242 from a fluorescent neutral state to a non-fluorescent oxidized state, rapid response time less than 0.4 s, and excellent EFC stability longer than 9000 s.

    22. Single Crystal Gallium Nitride Nanomembrane Photoconductor and Field Effect Transistor

      Kanglin Xiong, Sung Hyun Park, Jie Song, Ge Yuan, Danti Chen, Benjamin Leung and Jung Han

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401438

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      Large-area, free-standing and single-crystalline GaN nanomembranes with an excellent electron mobility are prepared by electrochemical etching from epitaxial layers. The interaction of carriers with surface states is investigated by UV-assisted Hall measurement and photo­conductance. Normally-off enhancement-type GaN nanomembrane MOS transistors are demonstrated, suggesting that GaN could be used in flexible electronics for high power and high frequency applications.

    23. Ordered Honeycomb Structure Surface Generated by Breath Figures for Liquid Reprography

      Liping Heng, Jie Li, Muchen Li, Dongliang Tian, Li-Zhen Fan, Lei Jiang and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401342

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      Photoelectric cooperative induced patterned wetting is demonstrated on a hydrophobic ordered polymeric honeycomb structure surface, which is prepared by BF method; finally, photoelectric cooperative induced patterned wetting is used for liquid reprography.

    24. Gold-Cobalt Nanoparticle Alloys Exhibiting Tunable Compositions, Near-Infrared Emission, and High T2 Relaxivity

      Lauren E. Marbella, Christopher M. Andolina, Ashley M. Smith, Michael J. Hartmann, Andrew C. Dewar, Kathryn A. Johnston, Owen H. Daly and Jill E. Millstone

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400988

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      The synthesis of gold-cobalt nanoparticle alloys with tunable magnetic susceptibility and near-infrared emission is presented. The particles are synthesized in water at room temperature and exhibit compositions ranging from 0–100% Co, while maintaining the same size and surface chemistry. This is in contrast to bulk behavior, where Au and Co exhibit no miscibility across all composition space below 400 °C.

    25. Inkjet Printing of MoS2

      Jiantong Li, Maziar M. Naiini, Sam Vaziri, Max C. Lemme and Mikael Östling

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400984

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      An efficient inkjet printing technology is developed for direct and reliable writing of uniform patterns of high-quality MoS2 nanosheets at a resolution of tens of micro­meters. It provides a facile method for massive and cost-effective production of a variety of electronic and photonic devices, such as thin film transistors, photoluminescence patterns, and photodetectors.

    26. Uncovering Buried Structure and Interfaces in Molecular Photovoltaics

      James B. Gilchrist, Toby. H. Basey-Fisher, Sharon C'E. Chang, Frank Scheltens, David W. McComb and Sandrine Heutz

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400345

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      The local structure and composition within a photovoltaic assembly based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C60 is resolved using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. A methodology to prepare cross-sections with minimum damage is presented. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy unambiguously identifies the interfaces by mapping the chemical composition.

    27. 18.45%-Efficient Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Novel Nanoscale Pseudo-Pyramid Texture

      Xiaoya Ye, Shuai Zou, Kexun Chen, Jianjiang Li, Jie Huang, Fang Cao, Xusheng Wang, Lingjun Zhang, Xue-Feng Wang, Mingrong Shen and Xiaodong Su

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401589

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      18.45% efficient multi-crystalline silicon solar cells with nanoscale pseudo-pyramid texture are fabricated by using a metal-catalyzed chemical etching plus a post alkaline etching. The improved efficiency is mainly ascribed to its enhanced light absorption and acceptable passivation quality, that is, the short-circuit current density has an increase of ≈300 mA cm–2, while the open-circuit voltage has only a slight decrease of ≈1 mV.

    28. Improved Operational Stability of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowire Electrode Through Pre-Bias Conditioning Treatment

      Yonghee Lee, Minwon Suh, Donghyuk Kim, Dongchan Lee, Hyein Chang, Ho Seok Lee, Yeon Won Kim, TaeYoung Kim, Kwang S. Suh and Duk Young Jeon

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401197

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      Highly emissive and flexible polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes with improved operational stability is demonstrated. Fluctuating features of leakage current become stabilized and the device performance is improved in the resulted PLEDs after simply running the devices once in reverse bias. Works to examine the morphological change of AgNW film are conducted in this work.

    29. Gradual Controlling the Work Function of Metal Electrodes by Solution-Processed Mixed Interlayers for Ambipolar Polymer Field-Effect Transistors and Circuits

      Dang Xuan Long, Kang-Jun Baeg, Yong Xu, Seok-Ju Kang, Myung-Gil Kim, Geon-Woong Lee and Yong-Young Noh

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401154

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      A gradual control of the metal electrode's work function (Φ) by incorporating solution-processed mixed contact interlayer of transition metal salts (Cs2CO3 and V2O5). Low-cost Mo electrode with Φ = 4.5 eV is finely modulated between 4.2 eV and 4.8 eV by controlling mixed concentration, which are used as common source/drain electrodes in high-mobility ambipolar polymer semiconductor OFETs and complementary-like inverter circuit.

    30. Carbon Nanotube-Encapsulated Noble Metal Nanoparticle Hybrid as a Cathode Material for Li-Oxygen Batteries

      Xin Huang, Hong Yu, Huiteng Tan, Jixin Zhu, Wenyu Zhang, Chengyuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Yuxi Wang, Yunbo Lv, Zhi Zeng, Dayong Liu, Jun Ding, Qichun Zhang, Madhavi Srinivasan, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Huey Hoon Hng and Qingyu Yan

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400921

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      Encapsulation of noble metal nanoparticles significantly strengthens the surface electron density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without causing regional enrichment of electron density on CNT surface. Accordingly, the entire surfaces of CNTs serve as catalytic regions for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which ensures uniform covering of Li2O2 nanocrystals on the CNT surface, thus facilitating the decomposition of Li2O2 with low charge overpotential.

    31. Dual Roles of Graphene Oxide in Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adult Stem Cells: Cell-Adhesion Substrate and Growth Factor-Delivery Carrier

      Hee Hun Yoon, Suk Ho Bhang, Taeho Kim, Taekyung Yu, Taeghwan Hyeon and Byung-Soo Kim

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400793

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      Graphene oxide can be used as both a cell-adhesion substrate and a growth factor delivery carrier for the chondrogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.

    32. Large-Area Synthesis of Continuous and Uniform MoS2 Monolayer Films on Graphene

      Kathleen M. McCreary, Aubrey T. Hanbicki, Jeremy T. Robinson, Enrique Cobas, James C. Culbertson, Adam L. Friedman, Glenn G. Jernigan and Berend T. Jonker

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401511

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      Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of monolayer MoS2 on graphene are synthesized using chemical vapor deposition. Large-area, continuous, and uniform MoS2 monolayers are grown directly on graphene, resulting in heterostructure samples on the centimeter scale with the possibility for even larger lateral dimensions. Atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron, and Raman spectroscopies demonstrate uniform single-layer growth of stoichiometric MoS2.

    33. Nanoshuttered OLEDs: Unveiled Invisible Auxiliary Electrode

      Yong Sub Shim, Ju Hyun Hwang, Hyun Jun Lee, Kyung Bok Choi, Kyu Nyun Kim, Cheol Hwee Park, Sun-Gyu Jung, Young Wook Park and Byeong-Kwon Ju

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401253

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      An invisible nanosized stripe auxiliary electrode layer (nSAEL) for OLEDs that can avoid the shortcomings of conventional microsized layers while maintaining high optical uniformity due to the improved conductivity of the electrode is proposed. An additional advantage is that the structure of the nSAEL increases light extraction by utilizing the microcavity (MC) effect and the outcoupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode.

    34. Unraveling the Influence of Lanthanide Ions on Intra- and Inter-Molecular Electronic Processes in Fe10Ln10 Nano-Toruses

      Amer Baniodeh, Yu Liang, Christopher E. Anson, Nicola Magnani, Annie K. Powell, Andreas-Neil Unterreiner, Simon Seyfferle, Michael Slota, Martin Dressel, Lapo Bogani and Karin Goß

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400336

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      Inter- and intra-molecular electron-transport processes are studied for a family of lanthanide-based molecular toruses using ultrafast-optical and electron-transport techniques. A relationship between trap efficiency and gaps is found; charge-hopping and surface-limited transport are dominant. Comparison between intra- and inter-molecular processes highlights the importance of excited electronic states, showing the influence of Kramers' parity on mobility.

    35. Ground State Bleaching at Donor–Acceptor Interfaces

      Christian Schwarz, Felix Milan, Tobias Hahn, Markus Reichenberger, Stephan Kümmel and Anna Köhler

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400297

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      Charge separation at the donor–acceptor interface in organic solar cells may be assisted by interfacial charge transfer type complexes that prevail already in the ground state. In bilayer solar cells, a reduced absorption that correlates with solar cell efficiency is observed and attributed to the formation of interfacial ground state charge transfer complexes.

    36. Systematic Investigation of Side-Chain Branching Position Effect on Electron Carrier Mobility in Conjugated Polymers

      Jin-Hu Dou, Yu-Qing Zheng, Ting Lei, Shi-Ding Zhang, Zhi Wang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Jie-Yu Wang and Jian Pei

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401822

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      Six BDPPV-based polymers with various side-chain branching positions were synthesized and characterized in details. All the polymers exhibit ambient-stable n-type transporting behaviors with the highest electron mobility up to 1.40 cm2 V−1 s−1. By means of multiple characterization methods, film morphology, and microstructure of all the six polymers were systematically investigated.

    37. Invisible Photonic Prints Shown by Deformation

      Siyun Ye, Qianqian Fu and Jianping Ge

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401562

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      An effective photonic printing method is developed to create patterns and background with very close photonic structures but different mechanochromic capabilities, so that the invisible photonic patterns in relaxed state can be revealed under deformation due to the nonuniform change in photonic structure. The patterns can be instantly and reversibly shown or hidden for many times, which could be a useful encryption or antifraud material in daily life.

    38. Plasmonic Nanocavity Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Significantly Enhanced Light Extraction, Contrast, Viewing Angle, Brightness, and Low-Glare

      Wei Ding, Yuxuan Wang, Hao Chen and Stephen Y. Chou

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400964

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      A new organic LED structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a novel plasmonic nanocavity, termed “plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array” (PlaCSH), to significantly enhance over conventional LEDs: i) 1.57-fold higher external quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency (55% and 60%); ii) 2.5-fold higher ambient light absorption over 400 nm band; iii) a contrast of fivefold higher; and others.

    39. Highly Uniform Trilayer Molybdenum Disulfide for Wafer-Scale Device Fabrication

      Alexey Tarasov, Philip M. Campbell, Meng-Yen Tsai, Zohreh R. Hesabi, Janine Feirer, Samuel Graham, W. Jud Ready and Eric M. Vogel

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401389

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      A temperature-dependent synthesis study of large-area MoS2 by direct sulfurization of evaporated Mo thin films is presented. The resulting film quality is similar to geological MoS2. An unprecedented uniformity of inline image nm over a large area (>10 cm2) is achieved with trilayer MoS2. The estimated intrinsic field-effect mobility is approximately 6.5 ± 2.2 cm2 V–1 s–1.

    40. Printable, Transparent, and Flexible Touch Panels Working in Sunlight and Moist Environments

      Tiina Vuorinen, Mari Zakrzewski, Satu Rajala, Donald Lupo, Jukka Vanhala, Karri Palovuori and Sampo Tuukkanen

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401140

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      Fabrication and functionality of transparent, flexible, and water-proof touch panel is reported. Graphene-based transparent electrodes are solution-processed on a piezoelectric polymer, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), which works as a functional substrate material. Use of solution-processed electrodes allows the low-cost and high throughput panel manufacturing. Also, the transparent touch panel shows very small pyroelectric response under exposure to light.

    41. Multifunctional Three-Dimensional T-Junction Graphene Micro-Wells: Energy-Efficient, Plasma-Enabled Growth and Instant Water-Based Transfer for Flexible Device Applications

      Shailesh Kumar, Timothy van der Laan, Amanda Evelyn Rider, Lakshman Randeniya and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400992

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      Energy-efficient plasma-enabled chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis is described, as well as a simple instant chemical-free water-assisted decoupling and a transfer process of unique three-dimensional T-junction graphene microwells structures. The structures deposited on a copper foil are then transferred without any significant damage, in de-ionized or tap water at room temperature, into virtually any, including flexible transparent substrates, for their multifunctional device applications.

    42. Complementary Co-assembling Peptides: From In Silico Studies to In Vivo Application

      Andrea Raspa, Gloria A. A. Saracino, Raffaele Pugliese, Diego Silva, Daniela Cigognini, Angelo Vescovi and Fabrizio Gelain

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400956

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      New co-assembling peptides for neural tissue engineering are developed with a “full” bottom-up approach. LKLK12, LDLD12, and KLPGWSG-LDLD12 are simulated in silico, synthesized and characterized to assess aggregate secondary structures, morphological features of the assembled nanofibers and biomechanical properties of hydrogels. The biological influence on viability and differentiation of neural stem cells is tested and the neuroregenerative potential in complete spinal cord transections is verified.

    43. Tunable Enhancement of Raman Scattering in Graphene-Nanoparticle Hybrids

      Kannan Balasubramanian, Laura Zuccaro and Klaus Kern

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401796

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      A systematic investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in graphene-nanoparticle-hybrids is obtained by a versatile electrochemical procedure. The evolution of Raman enhancement is followed by varying nanoparticle size and density at the same location. The magnitude of SERS enhancement is found to be dependent on the vibrational mode of graphene with both electromagnetic and chemical contributions.

    44. Regulating Water Adhesion on Superhydrophobic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

      Ziying Hu, Xuming Zhang, Zhaoyue Liu, Kaifu Huo, Paul K Chu, Jin Zhai and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401462

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      Two extreme superhydrophobic states with adhesive forces of ≈4.4 and ≈89.6 μN are realized on chemically modified TiO2 nanotubular arrays. The water droplet rolls off the low adhesive surface quickly, whereas it is pinned on the high adhesive surface at a tilted angle of 180°. The regulated water adhesion shows application for no-loss liquid transfer, anti-icing and self-cleaning.

    45. Layer-by-Layer Controlled Perovskite Nanocomposite Thin Films for Piezoelectric Nanogenerators

      Younghoon Kim, Keun Young Lee, Sun Kak Hwang, Cheolmin Park, Sang-Woo Kim and Jinhan Cho

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401599

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      Perovskite nanoparticle-based nanocomposites tailored using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in organic media are successfully synthesized. Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity of multilayers composed of BaTiO3 nanoparticles and poly(acrylic acid) can be controlled by altering the bilayer number, inserted polymer type, and nanoparticle size. These LbL can increase the quantity of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, resulting in the enhancement of electric power output from the piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    46. Trap-Assisted Recombination via Integer Charge Transfer States in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics

      Qinye Bao, Oskar Sandberg, Daniel Dagnelund, Simon Sandén, Slawomir Braun, Harri Aarnio, Xianjie Liu, Weimin M. Chen, Ronald Österbacka and Mats Fahlman

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401513

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      The large variation in open circuit voltage for regioregular-poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ) devices that yield a roughly constant effective donor ionization potential to acceptor electron affinity energy difference at the donor–acceptor interface is found to be a consequence of trap-assisted recombination via integer charge transfer states. Based on the results, novel design rules for organic BHJ photovoltaics are proposed.

    47. Engineering of Multifunctional Nano-Micelles for Combined Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy Under the Guidance of Multimodal Imaging

      Hua Gong, Ziliang Dong, Yumeng Liu, Shengnan Yin, Liang Cheng, Wenyao Xi, Jian Xiang, Kai Liu, Yonggang Li and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401451

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      Multifunctional polymeric nano-micelles containing a photosensitizer, which at the same time serves as a chelating agent for Gd(III), together with a near-infrared absorbing dye, are fabricated. Utilizing these theranostic nano-micelles, combined photothermal and photodynamic therapy, which is guided under triple-modal magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and photoacoustic imaging, is conducted, achieving a synergistic anti-tumor effect in a mouse model.

    48. Reversible Switching of Liquid Crystalline Order Permits Synthesis of Homogeneous Populations of Dipolar Patchy Microparticles

      Xiaoguang Wang, Daniel S. Miller, Juan J. de Pablo and Nicholas L. Abbott

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400911

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      Switching of the internal configurations of micrometer-sized droplets of liquid crystal is used to uniformly position colloids on their surfaces, thus enabling formation of homogeneous populations of patchy microdroplets. The method is generalizable and, when combined with photo-polymerization of the droplets, can be utilized for synthesis of solid “Janus-like” microparticles or functional patchy microparticles with dipolar symmetry, including magnetically responsive systems.

    49. Control of Ambipolar and Unipolar Transport in Organic Transistors by Selective Inkjet-Printed Chemical Doping for High Performance Complementary Circuits

      Dongyoon Khim, Kang-Jun Baeg, Mario Caironi, Chuan Liu, Yong Xu, Dong-Yu Kim and Yong-Young Noh

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400850

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      Local molecular doping via inkjet printing of dopants on a pre-coated ambipolar semiconductors is demonstrated to unipolarize and optimize complementary transistors. The mobility and turn-on voltages both for electrons and holes are precisely modulated by doping. Finally, high performance complementary ambipolar inverters are achieved by the selective inkjet printing of n- and p-type dopant.

    50. Microflotronics: A Flexible, Transparent, Pressure-Sensitive Microfluidic Film

      Ruya Li, Baoqing Nie, Philip Digiglio and Tingrui Pan

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401527

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      A flexible, transparent, and pressure-sensitive microfluidic film, referred to as a microflotronic, is reported for large-area dynamic pressure mapping applications. Utilizing a continuous microfluidic layer as the sensing elements, the microflotronic devices offer an alternative approach to the solid-state pressure sensors, by offering an unprecedented sensitivity and ultrafast response time in a completely transparent, flexible, and adaptive platform.

    51. Hierarchical Composite Electrodes of Nickel Oxide Nanoflake 3D Graphene for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors

      Chundong Wang, Junling Xu, Muk-Fung Yuen, Jie Zhang, Yangyang Li, Xianfeng Chen and Wenjun Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401216

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      Hierarchical nickel oxide nanoflake 3D graphene electrodes are developed by growing NiO nanoflakes atop 3D architecture of graphene on Ni foam. The optimum structure enables the 3-electrode pseudocapacitors and 2-electrode full cells to deliver outstanding electrochemical performance. In a full cell configuration, the achieved power density is much higher than that of commercially available asymmetric capacitors.

    52. High Throughput, Polymeric Aqueous Two-Phase Printing of Tumor Spheroids

      Ehsan Atefi, Stephanie Lemmo, Darcy Fyffe, Gary D. Luker and Hossein Tavana

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401302

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      Utilizing polymeric aqueous two-phase systems, an aqueous drop containing cancer cells within an immiscible, immersion aqueous phase is microprinted to facilitate aggregation of cells into a viable tumor spheroid, and the utility of this approach is demonstrated for high throughput, quantitative drug screening with 3D cultures of cells.

    53. Light-modulated TiOx Interlayer Dipole and Contact Activation in Organic Solar Cell Cathodes

      Antonio Guerrero, Sylvain Chambon, Lionel Hirsch and Germà Garcia-Belmonte

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401233

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      Light-modulated dipole (electron accumulation) present at TiO x interlayer accounts for the S-shaped characteristics of organic solar cells. UV-light activation tunes the selectivity of the cathode contact to electrons. Activated devices do not exhibit light-dependent interface dipole. By using capacitance–voltage measurements a complete picture of the contact energetics is drawn.

    54. Intracellularly Degradable Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Capsules

      Kristian Kempe, Sher Leen Ng, Sylvia T. Gunawan, Ka Fung Noi and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401397

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      Low-fouling, redox-responsive polymer capsules based on functional poly(2-oxazoline)s are assembled. These capsules are shown to degrade under simulated intracellular conditions as well as intracellularly. Their low-fouling properties make them promising for the delivery and triggered release of therapeutics.

    55. Multifunctional Barium Titanate Coated Carbon Fibers

      Christopher Bowland, Zhi Zhou and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401417

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      Barium titanate is synthesized on carbon fiber through a two-step hydrothermal reaction to create a multifunctional fiber. The mechanical strength of the carbon fiber is preserved while adding functionality from the ferroelectric properties of barium titanate. Ferroelectric property characterization and power harvesting tests are performed on these novel multifunctional fibers.

    56. Pressure Sensitive Adhesion of an Elastomeric Protein Complex Extracted From Squid Ring Teeth

      Abdon Pena-Francesch, Bulent Akgun, Ali Miserez, Wenpeng Zhu, Huajian Gao and Melik C. Demirel

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401534

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      A protein-based adhesives extracted from squid ring teeth is introduced. Underwater adhesion strength of the protein film is approximately 1.5–2.5 MPa. This reusable and recyclable bioelastomers could potentially have a wide range of applications in wet bioadhesive development including dental resins, bandages for wound healing, and surgical sutures in the body, all of which require wet adhesion.

    57. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks

      Masoud Mahjouri-Samani, Ryan Gresback, Mengkun Tian, Kai Wang, Alexander A. Puretzky, Christopher M. Rouleau, Gyula Eres, Ilia N. Ivanov, Kai Xiao, Michael A. McGuire, Gerd Duscher and David B. Geohegan

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401440

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      Novel synthesis techniques to rapidly explore the properties of new 2D layered materials, beyond graphene, are of significant current interest. Here, it is demonstrated that pulsed laser deposition (PLD) can be used to synthesize functional gallium selenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by spatial confinement of the ablation plume to preserve the stoichiometric transfer of material while providing sufficient kinetic energy for surface diffusion.

    58. In Situ Study of Nanostructure and Electrical Resistance of Nanocluster Films Irradiated with Ion Beams

      Weilin Jiang, Jennifer A. Sundararajan, Tamas Varga, Mark E. Bowden, You Qiang, John S. McCloy, Charles. H. Henager Jr. and Robert O. Montgomery

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400553

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      An in situ study on the nanostructural evolution and electrical resistance variation of Fe3O4 and Fe-Fe3O4 core-shell nanocluster films under ion irradiation is presented. Grain growth, phase transition, particle aggregation, and formation of nanowire-like network with nanopores are observed. The electrical resistance exhibits a super-exponential decay with dose. This type of films may have potential as a sensing material for fast neutron monitoring.

    59. Stress and Damage Mitigation from Oriented Nanostructures within the Radular Teeth of Cryptochiton stelleri

      Lessa Kay Grunenfelder, Enrique Escobar de Obaldia, Qianqian Wang, Dongsheng Li, Brian Weden, Christopher Salinas, Richard Wuhrer, Pablo Zavattieri and David Kisailus

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401091

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      The teeth of the chiton are hard and abrasion resistant. Local and global chemical and ultrastructural features of the teeth, as well as chemical and structural gradients which enhance fracture mitigation, are reported. Lessons obtained can be used towards the development of abrasion resistant materials for tooling and machining applications, as well as coatings for equipment and medical implants.

    60. Highly Efficient TADF OLEDs: How the Emitter–Host Interaction Controls Both the Excited State Species and Electrical Properties of the Devices to Achieve Near 100% Triplet Harvesting and High Efficiency

      Vygintas Jankus, Przemyslaw Data, David Graves, Callum McGuinness, Jose Santos, Martin R. Bryce, Fernando B. Dias and Andrew P. Monkman

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400948

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      New emitters harvesting triplets to give 100% internal efficiency are required to replace Ir based phosphors in OLEDs. Here, it is shown that a D–A molecule in the solid state emits via an intramolecular charge transfer excited state and via exciplex states, and OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence achieve >14% external electroluminescence yield and 100% efficient triplet harvesting.

    61. Measuring Reduced C60 Diffusion in Crosslinked Polymer Films by Optical Spectroscopy

      Florian Fischer, Tobias Hahn, Heinz Bässler, Irene Bauer, Peter Strohriegl and Anna Köhler

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401153

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      The diffusion of fullerenes such as C60 and PCBM in organic semiconductors can be measured using a novel simple optical method based on photoluminescence quenching. When the mobility of the polymer chains is reduced by chemical crosslinking, the diffusion coefficient of C60 can be reduced by up to three orders of magnitude.

    62. Helicity Control of π-Stacked Assemblies of Oligo(para-phenylene) Derivatives Using Photoresponsive Chiral Moieties at Terminal Sites

      Benedict A. San Jose, Tomoki Ashibe, Naoki Tada, Shinichi Yorozuya and Kazuo Akagi

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401453

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      Oligo(para-phenylene) (OPP) derivatives bearing photoresponsive chiral dithienyl­ethene (DE*) terminal moieties are synthesized. Photoisomerization of the chiral DE* terminal moieties prior to assembly, from the open to closed form, changes the handedness of the helically π-stacked structures in the assembled state. Furthermore, the chiral transcription of racemic poly(bithiophenethiophene) by the assembled chiral OPP is demonstrated.

    63. Creation of Superhydrophobic Electrospun Nonwovens Fabricated from Naturally Occurring Poly(Amino Acid) Derivatives

      Hiroaki Yoshida, Doris Klee, Martin Möller and Mitsuru Akashi

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401423

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      Superhydrophobic, biodegradable nonwovens are fabricated by electrospinning from a naturally occurring poly(amino acid). The nonwovens exhibit a petal-type superhydrophobicity and water droplet sticks to the surface even after it is turned over. The material design and processing is applicable to different biopolymers, and such functional materials can be useful for biomedical and environmental applications.

    64. Fermi Level Pinning and Orbital Polarization Effects in Molecular Junctions: The Role of Metal Induced Gap States

      Colin Van Dyck, Victor Geskin and Jérôme Cornil

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400809

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      The Fermi level alignment in molecular junctions can be either affected (S = 1) or unaffected (S = 0) by the modification of the ionization potential of the contacted molecule. Here, it is shown that a transition between these two behaviors is achievable by a simple substitution, while the key role of metal induced gap states (MIGS) in the alignment and orbital polarization processes is further highlighted.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Back to Basics: Exploiting the Innate Physico-chemical Characteristics of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications

      Chor Yong Tay, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, Jianping Xie, Wolfgang J. Parak and David Tai Leong

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401664

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      Physicochemical properties of nanomaterials dictate how cells “feel” and respond to nanomaterials by eliciting distinct nanospecific bio-interactions that can be exploited for nanomedicine. Myriad cellular responses can be invoked for medicinal applications via precise tailoring of the size, shape, surface charge, and protein corona formation on the nanomaterial surface.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Aptamer-Functionalized Multidimensional Conducting-Polymer Nanoparticles for an Ultrasensitive and Selective Field-Effect-Transistor Endocrine-Disruptor Sensors

      Jun Seop Lee, Sung Gun Kim, Jaemoon Jun, Dong Hoon Shin and Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401166

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      A multidimensional system comprising conjugated-polymer nanoparticles, whose surfaces are decorated to increase surface area and allow further polymerization, is fabricated and functionalized with an aptamer. The resulting multidimensional nanoparticles are used in field-effect transistors (FETs) that can act as sensors of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). The aptamer FET sensors exhibit ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity toward BPA, and their lifetime is expected to exceed that of other FET biosensors.

    2. Hierarchical Free-Standing Carbon-Nanotube Paper Electrodes with Ultrahigh Sulfur-Loading for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Zhe Yuan, Hong-Jie Peng, Jia-Qi Huang, Xin-Yan Liu, Dai-Wei Wang, Xin-Bing Cheng and Qiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401501

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      A hierarchical free-standing paper electrode is fabricated using short multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and super-long CNTs. The MWCNTs function as a short-range electrical conductive framework for sulfur accommodation, while super-long CNTs act as both a long-range conductive network and mechanical scaffold.

    3. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of 3D Tissue Constructs with Functionalized Graphene

      Su Ryon Shin, Behnaz Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Xiguang Gao, Mehdi Nikkhah, Sung Mi Jung, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Sang Bok Kim, Sun Min Kim, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Xiaowu (Shirley) Tang and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401300

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      A multilayered cardiac tissue is fabricated by interfacing poly-l-lysine graphene oxide particles on the surface of each cell layer using a layer-by-layer technique. The particles embedded within the multilayer cardiac constructs improve cardiac cell organization, maturation, and cell–cell electrical coupling. Multilayer cardiac tissue shows strong spontaneous beating and frequency-dependent opening/closing actuation under a low external electric field.

    4. An Inkjet-Printed Field-Effect Transistor for Label-Free Biosensing

      Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Carme Martínez-Domingo, Eloi Ramon and Arben Merkoçi

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401180

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      A flexible BioFET for label-free biosensing is reported. It is based on an inkjet-printed organic thin-film transistor whose insulator is functionalized with specific antibodies for protein recognition. As proof-of-concept, the BioFET is evaluated for quantification of human immunoglobulin G (HIgG).

    5. Improved CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Basic Sites, Charge Gradients, and Missing Linker Defects on Nickel Face Cubic Centered MOFs

      Elena López-Maya, Carmen Montoro, Valentina Colombo, Elisa Barea and Jorge A. R. Navarro

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400795

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      A boosting of CO2 capture properties in a series of functional MOF materials can be achieved by post-synthetic treatment with KOH ethanolic solutions, leading to linker removal and the concomitant creation of highly active surface sites for the adsorption of acidic gases.

    6. Gram-Scale Synthesis of Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Nanowires and their Aspect Ratio-Dependent Photocatalytic Activity

      Jincheng Liu, Olivier Margeat, Walid Dachraoui, Xianjie Liu, Mats Fahlman and Jorg Ackermann

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401261

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      A new top-down synthesis of ultrathin W18O49 nanowires using alcohol-assisted solvothermal decomposition of tungstic acid is presented which allows controlling both diameter and length of the wires in a simple way. It is found that the photocatalytic activity is controlled by the length to width ratio of the ultrathin W18O49 nanowires leading to the highest efficiency and fastest degradation kinetics in the case of the largest aspect ratio.

    7. Spontaneous Counterion-Induced Vesicle Formation: Multivalent Binding to Europium(III) for a Wide-Range Optical pH Sensor

      Gaocan Li, Shiyong Zhang, Ningjie Wu, Yangyang Cheng and Jingsong You

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400569

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      A counterion-directed molecular design strategy for the spontaneous formation of stable vesicles via readily available imidazolium salts with the EDTA counteranion in aqueous media is proposed. Importantly, the unusual counterion-induced vesicle-like sphere aggregates can further chelate metal ions to enhance the europium-centered emission in aqueous media and make it viable for an optical pH sensor.

    8. Droplet and Fluid Gating by Biomimetic Janus Membranes

      Xuelin Tian, Hua Jin, Jani Sainio, Robin H. A. Ras and Olli Ikkala

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400714

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      Inspired by passive transport across cell membranes, macroscopic hydrophilic/hydrophobic Janus-type membranes involving chemically asymmetric skin-layer structures are prepared, which show directional and selective “liquid gating” behavior, i.e., transport or blockage of liquids depending on the direction of the membrane and whether the liquid droplets are aqueous or oil.

    9. Three-Dimensional Structures of MoS2 Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Water Reduction

      Xiumei Geng, Wei Wu, Ning Li, Weiwei Sun, Johnathan Armstrong, Alaa Al-hilo, Matthew Brozak, Jingbiao Cui and Tar-pin Chen

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401328

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      A robust and highly active system is demonstrated for the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution by developing MoS2 nanosheet arrays vertically aligned on graphene-mediated 3D Ni networks. The catalytic activity of the 3D MoS2 nanostructures is found to increase by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the Ni networks without MoS2.

    10. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Selective Surface Functionalization for Optimal Relaxometric and Drug Loading Performances

      Meryem Bouchoucha, René C.-Gaudreault, Marc-André Fortin and Freddy Kleitz

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400524

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      A selective surface functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with MRI probe molecule and polyethylene glycol is a straightforward and efficient strategy that leads to the design of potential theranostic nanoparticles without porosity loss and with high drug loading capacity. These nanoparticles not only have a remarkable MRI positive contrast enhancement but also allow a controlled drug release in physiological conditions.

    11. Toward Full Exposure of ‘Active Sites’: Nanocarbon Electrocatalyst with Surface Enriched Nitrogen for Superior Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactivity

      Gui-Li Tian, Qiang Zhang, Bingsen Zhang, Yu-Guang Jin, Jia-Qi Huang, Dang Sheng Su and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401264

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      Nitrogen-doped coaxial carbon nano­cables with most of the active sites fully exposed on the surface are developed. The accessible and efficient utilization of the integrated N atoms enriched on the surface combined with the undestroyed intact inner walls afford the nanocarbon electrocatalysts with much enhanced electrocatalytic activity for both oxygen reduction and evolution reaction.

    12. An Easily Sintered, Chemically Stable, Barium Zirconate-Based Proton Conductor for High-Performance Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Wenping Sun, Zhen Shi, Mingfei Liu, Lei Bi and Wei Liu

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401478

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      An easily sintered and chemically stable proton conductor BaZr0.8Y0.15In0.05O3–δ is developed. The fuel cell with a 12-μm-thick BaZr0.8Y0.15In0.05O3-δ electrolyte film delivers a peak power density of as high as 379 mW cm−2 at 700 °C. The result demonstrates that Y and In co-doping is an effective strategy for exploring sintering active and chemically stable BaZrO3-based proton conductors for high performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells.

    13. Bio-Inspired All-Organic Soft Actuator Based on a π–π Stacked 3D Ionic Network Membrane and Ultra-Fast Solution Processing

      Ravi Kumar Cheedarala, Jin-Han Jeon, Chang-Doo Kee and Il-Kwon Oh

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401136

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      This article describes the construction of π–π stacked alternate hydrophilic-hydrophobic nanochannels inside a sulfonated polyimide membrane. Atomic level regio-specific interaction of cations and anions in an ionic liquid with hydrophilic-hydrophobic co-blocks of a sulfonated polyimide block copolymer (SPI) matrix is utilized for constructing a self-assembled 3D networked polymer with continuous and interconnected ion transport nanochannels for high-performance bio-inspired all-organic soft actuators.

    14. A Solution-Processed UV-Sensitive Photodiode Produced Using a New Silicon Nanocrystal Ink

      Tao Lin, Xin Liu, Bin Zhou, Zhiyong Zhan, Alexander N. Cartwright and Mark T. Swihart

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400600

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      A new nanoink consisting of silicon nanocrystals capped with short allyl disulfide ligands, dispersed in allyl disulfide, is used to fabricate a single-Schottky-junction photodiode by solution-phase processing in air. The unpackaged photo­diode exhibits a peak photoresponse of 0.02 A W−1 to UV light in air, within an order of magnitude of the response of commercially available photodetectors.

    15. Three-Dimensional Silver Nanoparticle Formation Using Femtosecond Laser Irradiation in Phosphate Glasses: Analogy with Photography

      N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, P. Mounaix, T. Cardinal and L. Canioni

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401103

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      This first true 3D-patterning of nanocomposite materials is achieved in silver-containing zinc-phosphate glasses. In a first step, silver clusters are structured in space by means of a near-infrared femtosecond laser. A subsequent thermal treatment allows the space-selective growth of silver nanoparticles. This direct approach opens new routes towards the processing of plasmonic devices for sensing, photonics, and metamaterials applications.

    16. Tetradentate Platinum Complexes for Efficient and Stable Excimer-Based White OLEDs

      Tyler Fleetham, Liang Huang and Jian Li

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401244

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      A series of tetradentate platinum complexes that exhibit both efficient monomer and excimer emission are developed. Devices of these emitters demonstrate peak external quantum efficiencies of 22% to 27% at all tested concentrations. The halogen-free molecular design affords a high device operational lifetime of 80% of initial luminance estimated at 200–400 h at 1000 cd m–2 for the various complexes.

    17. Engineering Efficiency Roll-Off in Organic Light-Emitting Devices

      Nicholas C. Erickson and Russell J. Holmes

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401009

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      Engineering efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting devices. The efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices is investigated as a function of device architecture. The loss processes responsible for the roll-off, namely triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching, are found to depend strongly on device architecture and specifically, the spatial extent of the exciton recombination zone. Devices designed to have a broader recombination zone show a predictable reduction in the severity of the efficiency roll-off.

    18. Integration of Self-Assembled Epitaxial BiFeO3–CoFe2O4 Multiferroic Nanocomposites on Silicon Substrates

      Dong Hun Kim, Nicolas M. Aimon, Xue Yin Sun, Lior Kornblum, Fred. J. Walker, Charles. H. Ahn and Caroline A. Ross

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401458

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      CoFe2O4 pillars in a BiFeO3 matrix are grown on (001) Si with two types of buffer layers to form epitaxial BiFeO3–CoFe2O4 nanocomposites. When the buffered Si substrates are smooth, the same crystallographic orientation and morphology are observed as that on single crystal SrTiO3. On rough substrates, a few CFO pillars are rotated 45°.

    19. The Influence of Solubilizing Chain Stereochemistry on Small Molecule Photovoltaics

      Raghida Bou Zerdan, Nathan T. Shewmon, Yu Zhu, John P. Mudrick, Kyle J. Chesney, Jiangeng Xue and Ronald K. Castellano

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401030

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      In π-conjugated materials research, the 2-ethylhexyl solubilizing group is commonly used but its stereochemistry (associated with a single chiral carbon) is typically ignored. For a small molecule semiconductor SMDPPEH [2,5-di-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-bis-(5′-n-hexyl-[2,2′,5′,2′′]terthiophen-5-yl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione), the morphology, absorption properties, and optimum processing conditions of thin films used as photovoltaic device active layers are found to be strongly dependent on stereoisomer choice and composition.

    20. Carbon-Doped Boron Nitride Nanosheets with Ferromagnetism above Room Temperature

      Chong Zhao, Zhi Xu, Hao Wang, Jiake Wei, Wenlong Wang, Xuedong Bai and Enge Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401149

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      Room temperature ferromagnetism is demonstrated in carbon-doped boron nitride (BN) nanosheets with a substantial degree of doping. Notably, the ferromagnetic response disappears upon the controlled removal of carbon dopants from the BN lattice, indicating that the observed magnetism originates from effects of substitutional carbon-doping rather than from extrinsic magnetic impurities.

    21. Polymer-Coated Radioluminescent Nanoparticles for Quantitative Imaging of Drug Delivery

      Thomas L. Moore, Fenglin Wang, Hongyu Chen, Stuart W. Grimes, Jeffrey N. Anker and Frank Alexis

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400949

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      Using X-ray excited optical luminescent nanoparticles (XEOL NPs), it is possible to quantitatively measure intracellular drug release. Specifically, XEOL NPs, or radioluminescent NPs, are loaded with the photoactive drug protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The overlap between the XEOL NP emission and the PpIX absorption enables a quantitative approach to measure drug loading and release kinetics in both buffer solution and into cells.

    22. Effect of Nano-Porosity on High Gain Permeable Metal-Base Transistors

      Hyeonggeun Yu, Jong H. Kim, Wenchao Chen, Doyoung Kim, Jing Guo and Franky So

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400634

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      High-performance organic permeable metal-base transistors (PMBTs) are demonstrated. By controlling the Al-base porosity, current gain up to 476 is achieved with output current saturation. Due to the 20 nm-sized pores, potential-pinning at the pore regions induces the current saturation in the common-emitter measurement. This technology is also applicable to fabricate high-performance solution-processed NiO-based inorganic PMBTs.

    23. Light Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Using Large-Scale Nanopillar Arrays

      Xuyong Yang, Kapil Dev, Jianxiong Wang, Evren Mutlugun, Cuong Dang, Yongbiao Zhao, Shuwei Liu, Yuxin Tang, Swee Tiam Tan, Xiao Wei Sun and Hilmi Volkan Demir

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400190

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      With a layer of large-scale, periodic ZnO nanopillar arrays grown using a simple, efficient method of non-wetting templates as an optical outcoupling medium, a record high current efficiency (CE) of 26.6 cd A-1 is achieved in quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). This study is the first account of QLEDs offering detailed insight into their light-extraction efficiency enhancement.

    24. Performance and Stability Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells by Al Doping of TiO2

      Sandeep K. Pathak, A. Abate, P. Ruckdeschel, B. Roose, Karl C. Gödel, Yana Vaynzof, Aditya Santhala, Shun-Ichiro Watanabe, Derek J. Hollman, Nakita Noel, Alessandro Sepe, Ullrich Wiesner, Richard Friend, Henry J. Snaith and Ullrich Steiner

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401658

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      Reversible, photo-induced performance deterioration in TiO2-containing devices is reported in an inert environment. This phenomenon is correlated with the activation of deep trap sites in the metal oxide due to astoichiometry. Substitutional incorporation of Al in the anatase lattice, “permanently” passivating electronic trap sites in the bulk and at the surface of the TiO2, results in improved device efficiencies and operational device stability in inert atmospheres.

    25. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Biosensor for Ammonia Operating under Harsh Physiological Conditions

      Tatikonda Anand Kumar, Eyal Capua, Maria Tkachev, Samuel N. Adler and Ron Naaman

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401331

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      A molecularly controlled semiconductor resistor coated with a thin polymer film is applied for detecting ammonia in physiological solutions. The detection of ammonia in gastric fluids is possible by covering the device with a dialysis membrane, thus enabling the diffusion of only small molecules to the sensing area. Analytical expression is given describing the response of the device both on the pH of the solution and the ammonia concentration.

    26. Interpenetrated Gel Polymer Binder for High-Performance Silicon Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

      Jiangxuan Song, Mingjiong Zhou, Ran Yi, Terrence Xu, Mikhail L. Gordin, Duihai Tang, Zhaoxin Yu, Michael Regula and Donghai Wang

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401269

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      A PAA–PVA gel polymer binder with a deformable polymer network and strong adhesion on silicon particles can effectively accommodate the large volume change of silicon anodes upon lithiation/delithiation, leading to an excellent cycling stability and high Coulombic efficiency even at high current densities or high mass loading.

    27. Towards Novel Multifunctional Pillared Nanostructures: Effective Intercalation of Adamantylamine in Graphene Oxide and Smectite Clays

      Konstantinos Spyrou, Georgia Potsi, Evmorfia K. Diamanti, Xiaoxing Ke, Eleni Serestatidou, Ioannis I. Verginadis, Anastasia P. Velalopoulou, Angelos M. Evangelou, Yiannis Deligiannakis, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Dimitrios Gournis and Petra Rudolf

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400975

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      A new type of multifunctional pillared, layered material synthesized by the intercalation of cage-shaped adamantylamine molecules into the interlayer space of graphite oxide and layered aluminosilicate nanoclays is developed, exhibiting antiproliferative activity for cells, as well as high adsorption ability to small organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

    28. All-Natural Oil-Filled Microcapsules from Water-Insoluble Proteins

      Emmanouela Filippidi, Ashok R. Patel, Elisabeth C. M. Bouwens, Panayiotis Voudouris and Krassimir P. Velikov

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400359

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      A stable, all-natural, edible, core–shell microcapsule from zein, a protein of corn, and oil is synthesized in a one-step process without the use of any stabilizers or surfactants. The zein shell thickness can be controlled and imparts functionality, controlling the rate of hydrolysis of the encapsulated oil (triacylglycerides). The capsules pass the gastric phase and break down in the intestine.

    29. Microstructural Control of Charge Transport in Organic Blend Thin-Film Transistors

      Simon Hunter, Jihua Chen and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401087

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      A bandgap state explanation for the performance of organic thin film transistors based on a blend of small molecule and polymer semiconductors is introduced. Organic blend transistors with a range of compositions and mobilities up to 3 cm2/Vs are investigated by means of conductive atomic force microscopy and low temperature electrical measurements, highlighting the requirements for high performance transistors.

    30. Highly Biocompatible Carbon Nanodots for Simultaneous Bioimaging and Targeted Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro and In Vivo

      Yuri Choi, Seongchan Kim, Myung-Ho Choi, Soo-Ryoon Ryoo, Jongnam Park, Dal-Hee Min and Byeong-Su Kim

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400961

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      Targeted delivery of a photosensitizer and a therapeutic photodynamic effect are achieved by folic acid (FA)-conjugated carbon dots (CDs), used as carriers of the zinc photosensitizer phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The CDs prepared by thermal decomposition of α-cyclodextrin are biocompatible, highly fluorescent, and water dispersible. The ZnPc-loaded FA-conjugated CDs show excellent efficacy as a photodynamic therapy, targeting cancer cells upon irradiation.

    31. DNA-Templated Biomimetic Enzyme Sheets on Carbon Nanotubes to Sensitively In situ Detect Superoxide Anions Released from Cells

      Xiaoqing Ma, Weihua Hu, Chunxian Guo, Ling Yu, Lixia Gao, Jiale Xie and Chang Ming Li

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401443

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      A Mn3(PO4)2 nanosheet, a biomimetic enzyme-based biosensor, is synthesized and further architected on the nanoscale using DNA as a template. The biosensor sensitively, specifically, and durably detects O2 in situ. This work provides a powerful platform built on low-cost and highly durable artificial enzymes for in situ and sensitive live-cell assay and drug therapy effect screening.

    32. Lithium Phenolate Complexes with a Pyridine-Containing Polymer for Solution-Processable Electron Injection Layers in PLEDs

      Takayuki Chiba, Yong-Jin Pu, Shogo Takahashi, Hisahiro Sasabe and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401060

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      Solution-processed multilayer polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) are fabricated using a mixture of poly(vinylpyridine)s and lithium 8-qninolate (Liq) as the thick electron injection layer. Poly[4-(4-vinylphenyl)pyridine] (PVPh4Py):Liq exhibits higher efficiencies than the layer of Liq alone and of Liq with the other polymer binders because of interactions between the Li atoms and the pyridine units of PVPh4Py.

    33. Tenogenic Induction of Human MSCs by Anisotropically Aligned Collagen Biotextiles

      Mousa Younesi, Anowarul Islam, Vipuil Kishore, James M. Anderson and Ozan Akkus

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400828

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      Electrophoretically aligned collagen threads are woven as mechanically robust biotextiles. Mechanical properties of the scaffold approached those of the native tendon. Porosity enabled mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeding throughout the scaffold. Cells proliferated and became elongated within the woven collagen artifacts. Topographical cues provided by the aligned collagen threads induced the MSCs to undergo tenogenic differentiation without growth factor supplementation.

    34. Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of High-Aspect-Ratio Carbon Nanotube Arrays using Amorphous Silicon Carbide Coatings

      R. H. Poelma, Bruno Morana, Sten Vollebregt, Erik Schlangen, H. W. van Zeijl, Xuejun Fan and Guo Qi Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400693

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      The effects of nanoscale conformal coatings of amorphous silicon carbide on the mechanical properties of CNT pillars are investigated. Several interesting mechanical failure modes such as “bamboo” and brittle-like composite rupture are observed as the coating thickness increases. A remarkable increase in strength, makes the fast growing coated CNT arrays useful as structural material for high-aspect-ratio 3D micro-architectures.

    35. Highly Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrid Yarn

      Javad Foroughi, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Dennis Antiohos, Azadehsadat Mirabedini, Sanjeev Gambhir, Gordon G. Wallace, Shaban R. Ghorbani, Germanas Peleckis, Mikhail E. Kozlov, Marcio D. Lima and Ray H. Baughman

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401412

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      Highly conductive hybrid multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene yarn have been produced in a continuous, scalable process. Graphene dispersions are deposited onto the MWNT sheets by electrospinning to form a composite structure that is transformed by twist insertion into yarn filaments. The novel hybrid yarns will be useful in wearable electronic textiles applications such as batteries, high-performance supercapacitors, high current capable cables, and artificial muscles.

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