Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Full Papers

    1. Surface Textured Polymer Fibers for Microfluidics

      Adem Yildirim, Muhammad Yunusa, Fahri Emre Ozturk, Mehmet Kanik and Mehmet Bayindir

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400494

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      On-fiber microfluidics are introduced as a new platform for the fabrication of disposable microfluidic devices. Well-ordered, perfectly aligned microchannels on polymer fibers are obtained using thermal fiber drawing. Spontenous capillary flow along three-dimensional fiber geometries, switch systems that allow precise control on fluid flow, and a proof of concept colorimetric protein assay are demonstrated.

    2. Correlated Donor/Acceptor Crystal Orientation Controls Photocurrent Generation in All-Polymer Solar Cells

      Marcel Schubert, Brian A. Collins, Hannah Mangold, Ian A. Howard, Wolfram Schindler, Koen Vandewal, Steffen Roland, Jan Behrends, Felix Kraffert, Robert Steyrleuthner, Zhihua Chen, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Robert Bittl, Alberto Salleo, Antonio Facchetti, Frédéric Laquai, Harald W. Ade and Dieter Neher

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304216

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      Splitting excitons into free charges can be very efficient at polymer/fullerene interfaces but it becomes a challenging task when the fullerene is replaced by a polymeric acceptor. Here, the structural origin of the photocurrent generation in P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) all-polymer solar cells is investigated. A proper relative orientation of the polymer crystallites is needed to create free charge carriers.

    3. Dynamic Electrochemical Membranes for Continuous Affinity Protein Separation

      Zhiqiang Chen, Tao Chen, Xinghua Sun and Bruce. J. Hinds

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303707

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      A dynamic electrochemical membrane system with nanometer-scale thick electrodes, mimicking the function of cell wall transporters, is reported for continuous affinity protein separation. The system is able to actively capture the affinity protein onto the pore entrance to block other proteins in a sequential/hopping manner, allowing selective transport.

    4. Doping-Free Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Very High Power Efficiency, Simple Device Structure, and Superior Spectral Performance

      Qi Wang, Iain W. H. Oswald, Michael R. Perez, Huiping Jia, Ahmed A. Shahub, Qiquan Qiao, Bruce E. Gnade and Mohammad A. Omary

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400597

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      Undoped yellow-orange and white OLEDs based on a Pt(II)-phosphor [Pt(ptp)2] realize very high power efficiencies of 79.2 ± 0.2 lm W−1 and 49.5 ± 0.1 lm W−1, respectively. The working mechanisms of both devices are studied to unveil the determining factors leading to such high efficiencies.

    5. Ultrathin Polymer Films with Intrinsic Microporosity: Anomalous Solvent Permeation and High Flux Membranes

      Patricia Gorgojo, Santanu Karan, Him Cheng Wong, Maria F. Jimenez-Solomon, João T Cabral and Andrew G. Livingston

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400400

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      Ultrathin PIM-1 membranes are fabricated and applied to organic solvent nanofiltration. A 140 nm thick PIM-1 membrane shows a permeance value for heptane 90 times higher than Starmem240 (a commercial polyimide-based organic solvent nanofiltration membrane). Its mechanical response is found to be robust to nanofiltration pressures of about 10 bar. The performance of even thinner membranes deteriorates due to enhanced packing upon further confinement.

    6. Reversible Soft Top-Contacts to Yield Molecular Junctions with Precise and Reproducible Electrical Characteristics

      Albert Wan, Li Jiang, C. S. Suchand Sangeeth and Christian A. Nijhuis

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304237

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      Molecular electronic devices normally require patterning of the bottom-electrodes resulting in electrode edges at which self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) cannot pack well. Here, a method that is compatible with ultra-flat template-stripped electrodes without the need for patterning of the bottom-electrode is reported. This method generates SAM-based junctions in good yields and reproducibility between top-electrodes and operators with good electrical stability.

    7. Ultrathin Flexible Graphene Film: An Excellent Thermal Conducting Material with Efficient EMI Shielding

      Bin Shen, Wentao Zhai and Wenge Zheng

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400079

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      The graphitization of graphene oxide films can lead to the formation of graphite-like graphene films, which not only display a remarkable combination of excellent electromagnetic interface (EMI) shielding effectiveness and high in-plane thermal conductivity, but also show excellent mechanical flexibility, indicating a novel promising candidate for excellent thermal conducting materials with efficient EMI shielding.

    8. Hybrid Monoliths for Magnetically-Driven Protein Separations

      Telma Barroso, Teresa Casimiro, Ana M. Ferraria, Fábio Mattioli, Ana Aguiar-Ricardo and Ana C. A. Roque

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400022

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      The concept of “magnetically-assisted elution” of antibodies is explored for the first time in this work by employing hybrid composites as the bioseparation matrix. Hybrid composites are deformed during the protein recovery step due to the presence of an external magnet. This greatly accelerated protein elution and increased the yield of protein recovery.

    9. Wearable and Highly Sensitive Graphene Strain Sensors for Human Motion Monitoring

      Yan Wang, Li Wang, Tingting Yang, Xiao Li, Xiaobei Zang, Miao Zhu, Kunlin Wang, Dehai Wu and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400379

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      Flexible and wearable strain sensors are assembled by adhering the graphene woven fabrics on polymer/medical tape composite films. The sensors exhibit high sensitivity with notable resistance changes for any tiny deformation and can be used as electronic skin covering human body to detect weak human motions, including hand clenching, phonation, expression change, blink, breath, and pulse.

    10. Photoinduced Anisotropic Supramolecular Assembly and Enhanced Charge Transport of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Films

      Mincheol Chang, Jiho Lee, Nabil Kleinhenz, Boyi Fu and Elsa Reichmanis

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400523

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      The photoinduced anisotropic supramolecular assembly of P3HT chains in solution is demonstrated. Low intensity UV irradiation enhances intra- and intermolecular ordering of the polymer chains in solution with no discernible polymer degradation, and thereby, results in dramatically enhanced molecular ordering and concomitantly, enhanced charge transport characteristics of corresponding films.

    11. Artificial Light-Harvesting Material Based on Self-Assembly of Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles

      Fang Pu, Li Wu, Enguo Ju, Xiang Ran, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400276

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      A novel light-harvesting material based on coordination polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) is presented. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs between donor and acceptor molecules encapsulated in the CPNs, and the acceptor emission signal is amplified significantly. Photocurrent generation can be realized upon irradiation with visible light. The creation of FRET system provides a platform to mimic dual-channel logic gates.

    12. Three-Dimensional Programmable Assembly by Untethered Magnetic Robotic Micro-Grippers

      Eric Diller and Metin Sitti

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400275

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      A robotic micro-gripper is made from a flexible patterned magnetic composite material. By remotely controlling the magnetization direction of each micro-gripper arm, grasping motion is combined with locomotion for precise transport, orientation, and programmable three-dimensional assembly of micro-parts in remote environments.

    13. Piezoresistive Properties of Ag/Silica Nano-Composite Thin Films Close to the Percolation Threshold

      T. Das Gupta, T. Gacoin and A. C. H. Rowe

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303775

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      The piezoresistance of sol–gel composite coatings with a tunable silver nanoparticle volume fraction is investigated. While the gage factor sharply peaks at the percolation threshold (φ*), so too do the intrinsic resistance fluctuations. By defining a figure-of-merit to account for this, it is shown that conductive composite sensors should be used slightly to the metallic side of φ*.

    14. Mechanism of Crystallization and Implications for Charge Transport in Poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) Thin Films

      Duc T. Duong, Victor Ho, Zhengrong Shang, Sonya Mollinger, Stefan C.B. Mannsfeld, Javier Dacuña, Michael F. Toney, Rachel Segalman and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304247

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      Recrystallization kinetics and its relationship to charge transport in poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) thin films are investigated using a combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and field-effect transistor measurements. These results show that thin film crystallization kinetics is limited by polymer chain reorganization and that charge percolation depends strongly on the edge-to-edge distance between aggregates.

    15. Programmable Arrays of “Micro-Bubble” Constructs via Self-Encapsulation

      Chunhong Ye, Dhaval D. Kulkarni, Hongqi Dai and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400254

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      A novel approach for fabricating self-formed highly ordered arrays of micro-bubble constructs from patterned silk microscopic sheets with self-encapsulation capability is established by confining frontal dissolution of a supporting sacrificial material and encapsulating the material underneath the ultrathin silk coating. The number, dimensions, and shape of the micro-bubbles can be readily controlled by the geometry of the silk sheets.

    16. Dissolution Behaviors and Applications of Silicon Oxides and Nitrides in Transient Electronics

      Seung-Kyun Kang, Suk-Won Hwang, Huanyu Cheng, Sooyoun Yu, Bong Hoon Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304293

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      Studies of the kinetics of hydrolysis of thin films of silicon oxides and nitrides and the use of these materials as encapsulants are presented for applications in water soluble, transient electronic devices. Dissolution rates of various oxides and nitrides depend on the pH and ionic concentration, the temperature of the solution, and the film properties. Encapsulation with these materials prevents water permeation for up to 10 days.

    17. Normally Oriented Adhesion versus Friction Forces in Bacterial Adhesion to Polymer-Brush Functionalized Surfaces Under Fluid Flow

      Jan J. T. M. Swartjes, Deepak H. Veeregowda, Henny C. van der Mei, Henk J. Busscher and Prashant K. Sharma

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400217

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      Bacterial friction forces are involved in the adhesion and immobilization of bacteria to polymer-brush coated surfaces from a flowing carrier fluid. Friction forces are governed by an interplay of the normally oriented adhesion forces and the properties of the surface and are required to cause immobilization of adhering bacteria once they have approached the surface and established contact.

    18. Novel Heterogeneous Integration Technology of III–V Layers and InGaAs FinFETs to Silicon

      Xing Dai, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Yoontae Hwang, Cesare Soci and Shadi A. Dayeh

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400105

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      A new hybrid integration/wafer bonding approach using Nickel silicide allows integration of III–V materials to Si substrates in a fab-compatible process. With this approach, high mobility InGaAs FinFETs on Si are realized for the first time. These advances highlight the potential of Nickel silicide bonding for heterogeneous integration of high speed electronic and optoelectronic systems for data processing and communications.

    19. High Throughput Screening of Dynamic Silk-Elastin-Like Protein Biomaterials

      Qin Wang, Xiaoxia Xia, Wenwen Huang, Yinan Lin, Qiaobing Xu and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304106

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      A combinational library with high throughput screening is established for the synthesis and selection of dynamic silk-elastin-like protein (SELP) materials. Using this approach, 64 different SELPs with different material functions are selected, and new understanding of sequence-function relationships is gained. This study can provide a guide to future SELP library designs, and can be expanded for library construction of other protein materials.

    20. Biodegradable Self-Folding Polymer Films with Controlled Thermo-Triggered Folding

      Vladislav Stroganov, Svetlana Zakharchenko, Evgeni Sperling, Anne K. Meyer, Oliver G. Schmidt and Leonid Ionov

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400176

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      A simple and cheap approach for the fabrication of fully biodegradable and biocompatible self-rolled tubes, whose folding can be triggered by temperature, is developed. Depending on design, the films can either irreversibly fold at elevated temperature, or fold at room temperature and irreversibly unfold at elevated temperature. These films are suitable for the encapsulation of living cells.

    21. Highly Sensitive Non-Classical Strain Gauge Using Organic Heptazole Thin-Film Transistor Circuit on a Flexible Substrate

      Seung Hee Nam, Pyo Jin Jeon, Sung Wook Min, Young Tack Lee, Eun Young Park and Seongil Im

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400139

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      An ultrasensitive organic strain gauge as an inverter-type thin-film transistor (TFT) circuit, which uses heptazole-based organic TFTs, is reported. On a plastic substrate, this non-classical organic strain gauge sensitively measures 2.48% tensile strain by bending, which leads to a minimum radius of 1 mm. Both strain sensitivity and sensing speed of our strain gauge are good enough to be used as a muscle motion sensor attached on a human arm.

    22. Tuning the Au-Free InSb Nanocrystal Morphologies Grown by Patterned Metal–Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

      Andrew Lin, Joshua N. Shapiro, Holger Eisele and Diana L. Huffaker

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303390

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      The morphology of Au-free InSb nano­crystals is extremely sensitive to growth conditions. By controlling the V/III ratio during growth, different InSb nanostructures can be achieved. Using low V/III growth conditions, In droplets start to form and InSb nucleation takes place at the droplet–semiconductor interface only, resulting in vertical, self-catalyzed InSb nanopillars.

    23. Ultrasmall Confined Iron Oxide Nanoparticle MSNs as a pH-Responsive Theranostic Platform

      Meiying Wu, Qingshuo Meng, Yu Chen, Pengfei Xu, Shengjian Zhang, Yaping Li, Lingxia Zhang, Min Wang, Heliang Yao and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400256

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      A pH-responsive theranostic platform based on the ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles confined within a mesopore network is elaborately synthesized via a special physical-vapor-infiltration (PVI) method. The obtained materials exhibit a high T1-weighted MRI performance and a pH-responsive drug-release feature for efficiently enhancing the treatment efficacy to circumvent multidrug resistance (MDR) and to suppress the metastasis of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo.

    24. High-Yield Preparation, Versatile Structural Modification, and Properties of Layered Cobalt Hydroxide Nanocones

      Xiaohe Liu, Renzhi Ma, Yoshio Bando and Takayoshi Sasaki

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400193

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      A new synthetic strategy is demonstrated for high-yield preparation of layered cobalt hydroxide nanocones (NCs) under mild conditions. A new exfoliating procedure is also developed to obtain unilamellar nanosheets by gradually unravelling these NCs. These hydroxide NCs can be modified with various inorganic/organic anions or calicined into corresponding oxides, anticipating new opportunities for fundamental research, as well as technological applications in various fields.

    25. Atomic Layer Deposition Assisted Pattern Multiplication of Block Copolymer Lithography for 5 nm Scale Nanopatterning

      Hyoung-Seok Moon, Ju Young Kim, Hyeong Min Jin, Woo Jae Lee, Hyeon Jin Choi, Jeong Ho Mun, Young Joo Choi, Seung Keun Cha, Se Hun Kwon and Sang Ouk Kim

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304248

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      5-nm-scale line and hole patterning is achieved from low χ block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly synergistically integrated with atomic layer deposition (ALD) assisted pattern multiplication. This approach overcomes the intrinsic thermodunamic limitations of low χ BCPs for sub-10-nm scale downscaling, and eventually achievs a 200-fold enhancement of pattern density from 1 μm wide I-line topographic pattern into 5 nm patterns.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release of Theranostic Agents

      Yucai Wang, Min Suk Shim, Nathanael S. Levinson, Hsing-Wen Sung and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400279

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      Stimuli-responsive carriers can respond to environmental variations and release theranostic cargos in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. The variations can be internal, such as physiological and pathological changes in the target cells/tissues, or caused by external means such as optical and ultrasound radiations.

  3. Full Papers

    1. A Cruciform Electron Donor–Acceptor Semiconductor with Solid-State Red Emission: 1D/2D Optical Waveguides and Highly Sensitive/Selective Detection of H2S Gas

      Hewei Luo, Songjie Chen, Zitong Liu, Chuang Zhang, Zhengxu Cai, Xin Chen, Guanxin Zhang, Yongsheng Zhao, Silvio Decurtins, Shi-Xia Liu and Deqing Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304027

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      A new cruciform D–A molecule (BDFTM) exhibiting both remarkable solid-state red emission and p-type semiconducting behavior is reported. Crystalline microrods and microplates of BDFTM show optical waveguiding behaviors with low optical loss coefficients. Thin films show air-stable p-type semiconducting. Notably, OFETs with thin films of BDFTM can be utilized for highly sensitive and selective detection of H2S gas down to ppb levels.

    2. Spinel ZnMn2O4 Nanocrystal-Anchored 3D Hierarchical Carbon Aerogel Hybrids as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

      Longwei Yin, Zhiwei Zhang, Zhaoqiang Li, Fengbin Hao, Qun Li, Chengxiang Wang, Runhua Fan and Yongxin Qi

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400108

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      Based on the advantages of high surface area, abundant porosity, the good electron transport properties of carbon aerogel (CA) materials, and the good electrochemical properties of nanostructured spinel ZnMn2O4 oxide materials, these 3D interconnected spinel ZnMn2O4/CA hybrids display a significantly improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible specific capacity, specific capacity, and rate capability, as well as excellent cycling performance.

    3. Hierarchical Design for Fabricating Cost-Effective High Performance Supercapacitors

      Nam Dong Kim, D. Bruce Buchholz, Gilberto Casillas, Miguel José-Yacaman and Robert P. H. Chang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304130

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      A hierarchical design and a cost-effective approach to fabricate high performance supercapacitors using high charge density carbon nano-particles (HCDN) are reported. Special arc synthesis method is used to synthesized B, N co-doped HCDN. Subsequent hierarchical optimization and integration processes result in high performance supercapacitor exhibiting very high power density (4.58 kW cm−3) and energy density (2.45 mWh cm−3).

    4. Non-Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low-Cost Thin-Film Flexible Optoelectronics

      Kyusang Lee, Jeramy D. Zimmerman, Tyler W. Hughes and Stephen R. Forrest

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400453

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      Non-destructive wafer recycling method for thin-film flexible optoelectronics is demonstrated by employing a combination of epitaxial lift-off, cold weld bonding, epitaxial protection layers and plasma cleaning techniques. The generality of the process is demonstrated by fabricating photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors that are transferred onto flexible plastic substrates, and the parent wafer is recycled for regrowth.

    5. Atomic Structure and Kinetics of NASICON NaxV2(PO4)3 Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Zelang Jian, Chenchen Yuan, Wenze Han, Xia Lu, Lin Gu, Xuekui Xi, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Wen Chen, Dongfeng Chen, Yuichi Ikuhara and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400173

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      Two different Na sites with different coordination environments co-exist in Na3V2(PO4)3. When Na is extracted from Na3V2(PO4)3, Na occupying the M2 site is extracted and the rest of the Na remains at M1 sites, meanwhile keeping the skeleton structure. Na+ ions at the M1 site in Na3V2(PO4)3 tend to remain immobilized, suggesting a direct M2*-to-M2 conduction pathway.

    6. Photoresponsive Protein–Graphene–Protein Hybrid Capsules with Dual Targeted Heat-Triggered Drug Delivery Approach for Enhanced Tumor Therapy

      Shang-Hsiu Hu, Ren-Hong Fang, Yu-Wei Chen, Bang-Jie Liao, I-Wei Chen and San-Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400080

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      Core–shell photoresponsive protein–graphene–protein capsules supported on a reduced graphene oxide substrate and one-single component of protein display targeted chemotherapy with synergistic hyperthermia effects, eradicating not only the targeted cells but also cancerous cells omitted near infrared irradiation in vivo and in vitro.

    7. Toward Macroscale, Isotropic Carbons with Graphene-Sheet-Like Electrical and Mechanical Properties

      Marcus A. Worsley, Supakit Charnvanichborikarn, Elizabeth Montalvo, Swanee J. Shin, Elijah D. Tylski, James P. Lewicki, Art J. Nelson, Joe H. Satcher Jr., Juergen Biener, Theodore F. Baumann and Sergei O. Kucheyev

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400316

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      High-density, machinable, 3D graphene with properties approaching those observed in individual graphene sheets is presented. Synthesis relies upon sp2 carbon cross-linking between partially restacked graphene sheets to achieve densities of ≈1 g cm-3. The resulting material possesses electrical and mechanical properties 3-6 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported 3D graphene assemblies, and exceeds the properties of much denser commercial graphite.

    8. Tailoring the Void Size of Iron Oxide@Carbon Yolk–Shell Structure for Optimized Lithium Storage

      Hongwei Zhang, Liang Zhou, Owen Noonan, Darren J. Martin, Andrew K. Whittaker and Chengzhong Yu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400178

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      Iron oxide@carbon yolk–shell structures with tunable void space are prepared and applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The relationship between the size of void and the electrochemical performance is systematically studied. The results show that with an optimized void size, the iron oxide @carbon yolk–shell structure exhibits the best cycling stability.

    9. High-Performance Nonvolatile Transistor Memories of Pentacence Using the Green Electrets of Sugar-based Block Copolymers and Their Supramolecules

      Yu-Cheng Chiu, Issei Otsuka, Sami Halila, Redouane Borsali and Wen-Chang Chen

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304297

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      Sugar-based block copolymers, maltoheptaose-block-polystyrene (MH-b-PS), and their supramolecules are employed as electrets toward a high-performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory, where the morphological transformation of polyhydroxylated MH cylinders surrounded by the PS matrix dominate the electrical switching characteristics of the OFET memory.

    10. Lithium Titanate Tailored by Cathodically Induced Graphene for an Ultrafast Lithium Ion Battery

      Yingchang Yang, Binghan Qiao, Xuming Yang, Laibing Fang, Chengchi Pan, Weixin Song, Hongshuai Hou and Xiaobo Ji

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304263

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      Defect-free cathodically induced graphene (CIG) is exploited to tailor the electrical conductivity and Li+ diffusion coefficient of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The as-tuned LTO/CIG exhibits excellent cycling stability (capacity retention ratio after 500 cycles at 0.5 C is 96.2%) and a remarkable rate capability (162 mAh g−1 at 10 C, 126 mAh g−1 at 100C).

    11. Electrospun Polyaniline Fibers as Highly Sensitive Room Temperature Chemiresistive Sensors for Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide Gases

      Yuxi Zhang, Jae Jin Kim, Di Chen, Harry L. Tuller and Gregory C. Rutledge

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400185

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      Electrospun polyaniline fibers are fabricated and evaluated as chemiresistive gas sensors. The fibers exhibit remarkable changes in measured resistances for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide sensing, with short characteristic response times. A time-dependent reaction-diffusion model is used to extract physical parameters from fitting experimental data, and to illustrate the selection of optimal material design parameters for gas sensing by nanofibers.

    12. High Performance Mg2(Si,Sn) Solid Solutions: a Point Defect Chemistry Approach to Enhancing Thermoelectric Properties

      Guangyu Jiang, Jian He, Tiejun Zhu, Chenguang Fu, Xiaohua Liu, Lipeng Hu and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400123

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      A new point defect chemistry approach is proposed for enhancing thermoelectric properties, and demonstrated in typical Mg2(Si,Sn) based thermoelectric materials via synergistically implementing the point defects of Sb dopants, Mg vacancies, and Mg interstitials. High doping ratio of Sb facilitates the formation of Mg vacancies, which act as both acceptors and phonon scatters, and significantly reduce the lattice thermal conductivity.

    13. Understanding and Controlling the Self-Folding Behavior of Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide) Microgel-Based Devices

      Xue Li and Michael J. Serpe

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400201

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      Self-folding polymer-based materials are fabricated by depositing a humidity responsive polymer layer on plastic substrates of various dimensions. A mathematical model is developed to describe and predict the self-folding characteristics of these devices. Using this model, it is possible to design materials that self-fold into predetermined three-dimensional structures of varying complexities.

    14. Development and Simulation of Sulfur-doped Graphene Supported Platinum with Exemplary Stability and Activity Towards Oxygen Reduction

      Drew Higgins, Md Ariful Hoque, Min Ho Seo, Rongyue Wang, Fathy Hassan, Ja-Yeon Choi, Mark Pritzker, Aiping Yu, Jiujun Zhang and Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400161

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      Platinum supported on sulfur doped graphene (Pt/SG) is found to provide excellent oxygen reduction activity and stability. Experimental investigations indicate that utilizing SG as a support significantly improves the activity and stability of platinum nanoparticles in comparison to pure graphene, and commercial carbon supported platinum. Complementary computational simulations highlight the interactions between platinum and graphene are enhanced significantly by sulfur-doping.

    15. Highly Bright and Compact Alloyed Quantum Rods with Near Infrared Emitting: a Potential Multifunctional Nanoplatform for Multimodal Imaging In Vivo

      Duyang Gao, Pengfei Zhang, Zonghai Sheng, Dehong Hu, Ping Gong, Chi Chen, Qian Wan, Guanhui Gao and Lintao Cai

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304225

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      Near-infrared quantum rods (QRs) with tunable emission and aspect ratio are synthesized as nano-platforms for engineering multifunctional nanoprobes. The as-prepared QRs exhibit great stability and little nonspecific binding. Paramagnetic gadolinium ions can be easily assembled on the QRs to produce multi­functional contrast agents for in vivo lymph node fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual-modal imaging. It provides a general method for designing rod-shape multifunctional nanostructure.

    16. Unveiling the Atomic Structure of Single-Wall Boron Nanotubes

      Jens Kunstmann, Viktor Bezugly, Hauke Rabbel, Mark H. Rümmeli and Gianaurelio Cuniberti

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304146

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      Single-wall boron nanotubes are shown to be stable at the experimentally reported synthesis temperature of 870 °C by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic structure of the nanotube's walls consist of different mixed triangular–hexagonal structural motives. This substantiates the importance of mixed triangular–hexagonal morphologies as a structural paradigm for atomically thin boron.

    17. Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy

      Can Bayram, John A. Ott, Kuen-Ting Shiu, Cheng-Wei Cheng, Yu Zhu, Jeehwan Kim, Manijeh Razeghi and Devendra K. Sadana

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304062

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      Thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity GaN is integrated on CMOS Si (100) substrates. A new mask-free local-area epitaxy is introduced, resolving the issue of lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and Si. A novel U-shaped nano-groove pattern is proposed, enabling polarization-free cubic phase GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures on such polarization-free GaN/Si templates offer an ideal roadmap for (integrated) photonic devices.

    18. Study of Physically Transient Insulating Materials as a Potential Platform for Transient Electronics and Bioelectronics

      Handan Acar, Simge Çınar, Mahendra Thunga, Michael R. Kessler, Nastaran Hashemi and Reza Montazami

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304186

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      Programmable polymer composite platforms provide a means for the design and fabrication of transient electronic devices and bioelectronics with precise control over transiency rate. The chemical composition of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer films is manipulated to achieve desired mechanical properties and solubility rates for specific applications ranging from transient electronics to bioelectronics.

    19. Molecular Gelation-Induced Functional Phase Separation in Polymer Film for Energy Transfer Spectral Conversion

      Hirokuni Jintoku, Miho Yamaguchi, Makoto Takafuji and Hirotaka Ihara

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304081

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      A new strategy for spectral conversion through efficient energy transfer in a phase-separated nano-sized domain is demonstrated. This approach can be defined as utilization of a highly oriented nano-sized phase separation in a polymer matrix using a self-assembling technique. The power-conversion efficiency of a CIGS solar cell is improved by addition of an spectral conversion coating.

    20. Multifunctional Graphene Oxide-based Triple Stimuli-Responsive Nanotheranostics

      Yu Chen, Pengfei Xu, Zhu Shu, Meiying Wu, Lianzhou Wang, Shengjian Zhang, Yuanyi Zheng, Hangrong Chen, Jin Wang, Yaping Li and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400221

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      A triple-functional biocompatible stimuli-responsive nanosystem based on the functionalized nanographene oxides is developed by a novel and efficient double redox strategy. This elaborately designed nanographene oxide-based nanoplatform exhibits the unique triple stimuli-responsivenesses for biomedical engineering, including pH-responsive drug release to inhibit the metastasis and reverse the multidrug resistance of cancer cells, pH-/redox-responsive magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic field-responsive hyperthermia of cancer.

    21. Turning ZnO into an Efficient Energy Upconversion Material by Defect Engineering

      Jan E. Stehr, Shula L. Chen, Nandanapalli Koteeswara Reddy, Charles W. Tu, Weimin M. Chen and Irina A. Buyanova

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400220

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      ZnO can be engineered via a common intrinsic defect into an efficient energy upconversion material. This finding paves the way for designing ZnO devices in which the energy upconversion can be exploited for improved and new photonic and photovoltaic applications.

    22. Composite Living Fibers for Creating Tissue Constructs Using Textile Techniques

      Mohsen Akbari, Ali Tamayol, Veronique Laforte, Nasim Annabi, Alireza Hassani Najafabadi, Ali Khademhosseini and David Juncker

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303655

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      Composite living fibers (CLFs) are fabricated to create tissue constructs using weaving, knitting, braiding, winding, and embroidering. The CLFs are formed from a core load-bearing synthetic polymer and one or multiple layers of cell- or drug-loaded hydrogels. This strategy lays the foundation for engineering complex 3D tissue-like constructs by using textile processes.

    23. Anodized ITO Thin-Film Transistors

      Yang Shao, Xiang Xiao, Longyan Wang, Yang Liu and Shengdong Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400263

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      Electrical, optical, and structural properties of ITO film are significantly modulated by an anodization process. The anodized ITO TFT technology results in an ideal homo-junction structure with source/drain/pixel electrodes and channel region all made of one single ITO layer. The room temperature fabricated TFT shows an on/off ratio over 108, a mobility of 29.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 and subthreshold swing of 0.20 V per decade. This technology also allows a feasible VT adjustment and muti-VT implementation.

    24. Engineering the Substitution Position of Diphenylphosphine Oxide at Carbazole for Thermal Stability and High External Quantum Efficiency Above 30% in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Mounggon Kim and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304072

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      Excellent thermal stability and high quantum efficiency above 30% in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are achieved using a high triplet energy host material with two electron withdrawing substituents at asymmetric positions of carbazole.

    25. Size Dependence of Resistive Switching at Nanoscale Metal-Oxide Interfaces

      Jiechang Hou, Stephen S. Nonnenmann, Wei Qin and Dawn A. Bonnell

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304121

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      Size dependent resistive switching is demonstrated across nanoscale metal-SrTiO3 interfaces ranging from 20 to 200 nm. The size dependent resistance of the high resistance state results from changes in both the interfacial area and Schottky barrier. The low resistant state exhibits size independent resistances due to the dominant fast conductive path induced by electroforming.

    26. Stable SiOC/Sn Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Outstanding Cycling Stability

      Jan Kaspar, Caglar Terzioglu, Emanuel Ionescu, Magdalena Graczyk-Zajac, Stefania Hapis, Hans-Joachim Kleebe and Ralf Riedel

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303828

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      Enhanced lithium storage stability of single-source precursor-derived SiOC/Sn nanocomposites is demonstrated. The nanocomposites comprise an amorphous SiOC matrix and in-situ formed Sn precipitates. Capacity measurements outline different final Li–Sn alloy stages, depending on the matrix. Galvanostatic cycling shows a first cycle reversible capacity of 566 mAhg−1 for SiOCMK/Sn and 651 mAhg−1 for SiOCRD/Sn.

    27. Novel Insights into Combating Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance Using a Plasmonic Nanocarrier: Enhancing Drug Sensitiveness and Accumulation Simultaneously with Localized Mild Photothermal Stimulus of Femtosecond Pulsed Laser

      Liming Wang, Xiaoying Lin, Jing Wang, Zhijian Hu, Yinglu Ji, Shuai Hou, Yuliang Zhao, Xiaochun Wu and Chunying Chen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400015

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      A novel strategy is developed to combat drug resistance using the plasmonic feature-based photothermal properties. Irradiation at a mild laser power density, this photothermal effect induces the heat shock factor (HSF-1) trimers and depresses the expression of Pgp and mutant p53 so significantly that both drug accumulation and their sensitiveness to drugs can be greatly enhanced.

    28. Optimization of the Power Conversion Efficiency of Room Temperature-Fabricated Polymer Solar Cells Utilizing Solution Processed Tungsten Oxide and Conjugated Polyelectrolyte as Electrode Interlayer

      Lie Chen, Chen Xie and Yiwang Chen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304256

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      Solution processed polymer solar cell with outstanding efficiency and stability is fabricated at room temperature. Spin-coating conjugated polyelectrolyte-ionic liquid-crystal complex at cathode and tungsten oxide together with ter(ethyleneoxide)-substituted PBDTT-TT-TEG at anode achieves optimized efficiency 7.8%, which further increases to 8.5% after inserting ZnO as cathode interlayer. This is best PCE for PBDTTT-C-T:PC70BM-based cells with solution processed interlayers reported to date.

    29. 3D Stack Integrated Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Vibration Energy

      Weiqing Yang, Jun Chen, Qingshen Jing, Jin Yang, Xiaonan Wen, Yuanjie Su, Guang Zhu, Peng Bai and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304211

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      A 3D stack integrated TENG is rationally designed to harvest ambient vibration energy. With superior operation synchronization, the 3D-TENG produces a remarkable peak power density of 104.6 Wm−2. The capability of harvesting kinetic energy when people play various kinds of ball sports is demonstrated. And large amount of these self-powered balls can also be woven into webs for ocean wave energy harvesting, which can be potentially applied to large-scale energy generation.

    30. Copper-Stabilized Sulfur-Microporous Carbon Cathodes for Li–S Batteries

      Shiyou Zheng, Feng Yi, Zhipeng Li, Yujie Zhu, Yunhua Xu, Chao Luo, Junhe Yang and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304156

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      A rational design of Cu-stablized S-microporous carbon composite cathodes for Li–S batteries was presented in this study. By the combination of physical restriction for S/polysulfids from MC and chemical restriction from nano-Cu, the MC-Cu-S cathode with high S loading shows excellent electrochemical performance in low-cost carbonate solvent-based electrolyte.

    31. Tetrahydro[5]helicene-Based Nanoparticles for Structure-Dependent Cell Fluorescent Imaging

      Meng Li, Li-Heng Feng, Hai-Yan Lu, Shu Wang and Chuan-Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400199

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      A new kind of tetrahydro[5]helicene based fluorescent dyes with three-primary emission colors (blue-green-red) are synthesized, and the multicolor organic nanoparticles are then prepared. The nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity, excellent photostability, and high quantum yields. Interestingly, the stained regions of these nanoparticles from membrane to cytoplasm for HeLa cells show obvious structure-dependent properties.

    32. An Effective Approach for the Development of Reliable YBCO Bulk Cryomagnets with High Trapped Field Performances

      Driss Kenfaui, Pierre-Frédéric Sibeud, Eric Louradour, Xavier Chaud and Jacques G. Noudem

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304083

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      High-performance YBa2Cu3O7-δbulk superconductors with improved reliability and thermal transfer ability are fabricated in short time. The approach taken here is based on the insertion of a metal wires network into the holes of YBa2Cu3O7-δ drilled single grains progressively annealed at high temperature under oxygen pressure. The achieved microstructure is pore-free and crack-free, and the thermal exchange markedly fostered inside the superconductor.

    33. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

      I. T. Sachs-Quintana, Thomas Heumüller, William R. Mateker, Darian E. Orozco, Rongrong Cheacharoen, Sean Sweetnam, Christoph J. Brabec and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304166

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      Thermal degradation near operating temperatures occurs at the metal-organic interface if the polymer T g is near the operating temperature. The degradation is reversed by peeling off and reapplying the metal electrode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adheres to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. Using an inverted device suppresses degradation.

    34. Synthesis, Structure Transformation, and Electrochemical Properties of Li2MgSi as a Novel Anode for Li-lon Batteries

      Yongfeng Liu, Ruijun Ma, Yanping He, Mingxia Gao and Hongge Pan

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304287

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      A novel hexagonal Li2MgSi is successfully synthesized through a hydrogen-driven chemical reaction technique, which exhibits significantly improved cycling stability with respect to that of Mg2Si as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Ball milling induces a polymorphic transformation of Li2MgSi from the hexagonal phase to the cubic phase and further improves the electrochemical lithium storage properties.

    35. Engineering of Mixed Host for High External Quantum Efficiency above 25% in Green Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Device

      Bo Seong Kim and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303730

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      High quantum efficiency above 25% in thermally activated delayed fluorescence device is achieved using mixed hosts without any exciplex formation between host materials. A combination of mCP and BmPyPb is effective to improve the quantum efficiency up to 28.6%.

    36. Simultaneous Realization of Phase/Size Manipulation, Upconversion Luminescence Enhancement, and Blood Vessel Imaging in Multifunctional Nanoprobes Through Transition Metal Mn2+ Doping

      Songjun Zeng, Zhigao Yi, Wei Lu, Chao Qian, Haibo Wang, Ling Rao, Tianmei Zeng, Hongrong Liu, Huijing Liu, Bin Fei and Jianhua Hao

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304270

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      A transition metal Mn2+ doping method for the simultaneous phase/size control, multicolor output from green to red, and remarkably enhanced red emissions in NaLnF4 upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) is demonstrated. In vivo UC and X-ray bioimaging reveal that these UCNPs are ideal probes for in vivo multi-modal bioimaging with high contrast, deeper tissue penetration, and improved detection of pulmonary vascular diseases.

    37. Hierarchical Graphene–Carbon Fiber Composite Paper as a Flexible Lateral Heat Spreader

      Qing-Qiang Kong, Zhuo Liu, Jian-Guo Gao, Cheng-Meng Chen, Qiang Zhang, Guangmin Zhou, Ze-Chao Tao, Xing-Hua Zhang, Mao-Zhang Wang, Feng Li and Rong Cai

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304144

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      Flexible graphene–carbon fiber composite paper with an ultra-high thermal diffusivity of 5458 mm2 s−1, a very large thermal conductivity of 977 W m−1 K−1, and a tensile strength of 15.3 MPa is fabricated through facile filtration route, in which the close packed graphene nanosheets provide high thermal conductivity, while carbon fiber acts as the structural scaffold to render excellent mechanical properties.

    38. In situ Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticle Biointeractions Using BrightSilica

      Daniela Drescher, Ingrid Zeise, Heike Traub, Peter Guttmann, Stephan Seifert, Tina Büchner, Norbert Jakubowski, Gerd Schneider and Janina Kneipp

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304126

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      BrightSilica nanoparticles have a silica surface and a gold core. They provide information about their interaction with biological cells via three different approaches: 1) surface-enhanced Raman scattering for characterization of the biomolecular species interacting with the silica sub-/surface; 2) quantification of the uptake of silica-like nanostructures by mass spectrometric micromapping, and; 3) understanding the 3D subcellular interaction using synchrotron X-ray nanotomography.

    39. Carbonized Polyacrylonitrile-Stabilized SeSx Cathodes for Long Cycle Life and High Power Density Lithium Ion Batteries

      Chao Luo, Yujie Zhu, Yang Wen, Jingjing Wang and Chunsheng Wang

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303909

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      Selenium sulfide/carbonized polyacrylonitrile composites (SeSx/CPAN) are synthesized by annealing a mixture of SeS2 and polyacrylonitrile at 600 °C under vacuum. SeSx/CPAN composites exhibit a high specific capacity, long cycle life, and superior rate capability. At a current density of 600 mA g−1, it maintains a reversible capacity of 780 mAh g−1 for 1200 cycles.

    40. Biocompatible Electromechanical Actuators Composed of Silk-Conducting Polymer Composites

      Isabella S. Romero, Nathan P. Bradshaw, Jesse D. Larson, Sean Y. Severt, Sandra J. Roberts, Morgan L. Schiller, Janelle M. Leger and Amanda R. Murphy

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303292

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      Durable, biocompatible materials capable of controlled movements are sought after for a variety of drug delivery, surgical, and tissue engineering applications. Methods to synthesize films composed of an interpenetrating network of the biopolymer silk fibroin and poly(pyrrole) are described, and the ability of these materials to function as electromechanical actuators in a biologically relevant environment are demonstrated.

    41. Enhancing Field-Effect Mobility of Conjugated Polymers Through Rational Design of Branched Side Chains

      Boyi Fu, Jose Baltazar, Ashwin Ravi Sankar, Ping-Hsun Chu, Siyuan Zhang, David M. Collard and Elsa Reichmanis

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304231

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      5-Decylheptadecyl (5-DH), 2-tetradecyl (2-DT), and n -octadecyl (OD) side chains are substituted into pTBTD polymer backbone. The branching position is remote or close to pTBTD in 5-DH and 2-DT. 5-DH merges advantages of branched units (2-DT) for improving solubility with those of linear chains (OD) in providing effective π–π intermolecular interactions. 5-DH substituted pTBTD exhibits a field-effect hole mobility reaching 2.95 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    42. Pulsed Laser Ablation Based Synthesis of PbS-Quantum Dots-Decorated One-Dimensional Nanostructures and Their Direct Integration into Highly Efficient Nanohybrid Heterojunction-Based Solar Cells

      I. Ka, B. Gonfa, V. Le Borgne, D. Ma and M. A. El Khakani

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304191

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      Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is advantageously used to decorate TiO2-nano rods (TiO2-NRs) with PbS-quantum dots (PbS-QDs) to achieve highly efficient nanohybrid-heterojunctions (NH-HJ) solar cells. By optimizing the characteristics of both PLD-deposited PbS-QDs and TiO2-NRs, while introducing MoO3 hole extracting layer and single-wall carbon nanotubes efficient charge carrier, NH-HJ PV-devices exhibit power conversion efficiencies as high as 5.3% (under AM1.5 solar illumination).

    43. Scaling Behavior of Resistive Switching in Epitaxial Bismuth Ferrite Heterostructures

      Abhimanyu Rana, Haidong Lu, Kashinath Bogle, Qi Zhang, Rama Vasudevan, Vishal Thakare, Alexei Gruverman, Satishchandra Ogale and Nagarajan Valanoor

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400110

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      Resistive switching of (001) epitaxial multi­ferroic BiFeO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures is investigated for varying lengths scales in both the thickness and lateral directions. Macroscale current–voltage analyses in conjunction with local conduction atomic force microscopy reveal that whilst both the local and global resistive states are strongly driven by polarization direction, the type of conduction mechanism is different for each distinct thickness regime.

    44. Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation of a Europium(III) Metal–Organic Framework Producing a Multi-responsive Luminescent Sensor

      Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Shu-Na Zhao, Zhao-Min Hao, Min Zhu, Xing Meng, Lan-Lan Wu and Hong-Jie Zhang

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303986

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      Multi-responsive fluorescent sensing is achieved using a Eu metal–organic framework (EuMOF). Accessible Lewis-base sites and coordinated water molecules are successfully anchored on the EuMOF-based sensor for the recognition of different analytes at the molecular level. This strategy paves the way for the practical application of luminescent MOF sensors in pollutant-detection.

    45. Highly Efficient Multifunctional Supramolecular Gene Carrier System Self-Assembled from Redox-Sensitive and Zwitterionic Polymer Blocks

      Yuting Wen, Zhongxing Zhang and Jun Li

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303687

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      A convenient supramolecular strategy is demonstrated for building a highly efficient multifunctional gene carrier system. The system is self–assembled and integrated from two polymeric building blocks via host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin and adamantyl moieties, possessing the functions of disulfide bond based reduction-responsive degradation, and zwitterionic phosphorylcholine based extracellular stabilization and favorable cellular uptake.

    46. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Networks for High Energy Density Supercapacitors Derived from Polyaniline Coated Bacterial Cellulose

      Conglai Long, Dongping Qi, Tong Wei, Jun Yan, Lili Jiang and Zhuangjun Fan

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304269

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      An asymmetric supercapacitor based on nitrogen-doped porous carbon networks and 3D flower-like MnO2 as the negative and positive electrode materials, respectively, exhibits a considerably high energy density of 63 Wh kg−1 and an excellent cycling performance with 92% specific capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. Those results offer a low-cost, eco-friendly design of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

    47. Dielectric Relaxation Processes, Electronic Structure, and Band Gap Engineering of MFU-4-type Metal-Organic Frameworks: Towards a Rational Design of Semiconducting Microporous Materials

      Pit Sippel, Dmytro Denysenko, Alois Loidl, Peter Lunkenheimer, German Sastre and Dirk Volkmer

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400083

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      Electrical properties of MFU-4 and Co-MFU-4 metal-organic frameworks are investigated by temperature-dependent broad-band dielectric and optical spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations performed for framework and cluster model compounds give a detailed picture of the frameworks' electronic structures and confirm experimental band gap values. The combined results enable a systematic engineering of MFU-4-type semiconducting microporous materials.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Based Fibers and Their Future Use in Electrical Wiring

      Agnieszka Lekawa-Raus, Jeff Patmore, Lukasz Kurzepa, John Bulmer and Krzysztof Koziol

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303716

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      Carbon nanotubes, with their unique properties, could make electrical conductors of unprecedented performance, which could revolutionize energy transport globally. Is it feasible to produce macroscopic conductors from nanoscale structures? This Feature Article presents both the most recent results of a highly promising research program in this area and the key challenges that need to be overcome.

  5. Full Papers

    1. A Novel Wound Dressing Based on Ag/Graphene Polymer Hydrogel: Effectively Kill Bacteria and Accelerate Wound Healing

      Zengjie Fan, Bin Liu, Jinqing Wang, Songying Zhang, Qianqian Lin, Peiwei Gong, Limin Ma and Shengrong Yang

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel application range of graphene hydrogel in wound dressing is exploited. The hydrogels are composed of Ag–graphene composite, AA, and BIS. When the mass ratio of Ag to graphene is 5:1, the hydrogel (Ag5G1) shows strong antibacterial activity, large swelling ratio, excellent biocompatibility, and good extensibility, and it can significantly accelerate the healing rate of artificial wounds in rats.

  6. Highlights

    1. Photo-Insensitive Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Integrated with a Plasmonic Filter for Transparent Electronics

      Seongpil Chang, Yun Seon Do, Jong-Woo Kim, Bo Yeon Hwang, Jinnil Choi, Byung-Hyun Choi, Yun-Hi Lee, Kyung Cheol Choi and Byeong-Kwon Ju

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-based application with stable switching characteristics under negative bias illumination is shown. Metallic nanohole-based plasmonic filters are used for tuning the spectrum of the ambient light source, and the photosensitivity of the a-IGZO-TFT is investigated within a selectively controlled spectral range. The suggested thin-film transistors show greatly improved stability even in a negative bias illumination stress environment.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Vapor Phase Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon

      Owen J. Hildreth and Daniel R. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304129

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      To overcome non-uniformity and microporous silicon generation seen in traditional liquid-phase metal-assisted chemical etching, vapor-phase metal-assisted chemical etching (VP-MaCE) is used instead. The etch rate is evaluated as a function of catalyst, time, and substrate temperature.

    2. Polylactide-block-Polypeptide-block-Polylactide Copolymer Nanoparticles with Tunable Cleavage and Controlled Drug Release

      Robert Dorresteijn, Nils Billecke, Mischa Schwendy, Sabine Pütz, Mischa Bonn, Sapun H. Parekh, Markus Klapper and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Triblock copolymer nanoparticle with tunable drug release. Nanocarriers based on PLLA-b-peptide-b-PLLA copolymers prove to have exceptional material properties for controlled drug release in response to MMP-2-dependent peptide cleavage. Comparison specimens demonstrate the tunable bioactivity of these nanocarriers based on polymer constitution. As MMP-2 is selectively overexpressed in tumor tissues, this is a promising system for solid tumor cancer therapy.

    3. Three-Dimensional Co3O4@MnO2 Hierarchical Nanoneedle Arrays: Morphology Control and Electrochemical Energy Storage

      Dezhi Kong, Jingshan Luo, Yanlong Wang, Weina Ren, Ting Yu, Yongsong Luo, Yaping Yang and Chuanwei Cheng

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304206

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      Highly ordered Co3O4@MnO2 hierachical core–shell arrays on Ni foam are fabricated by a facile, stepwise hydrothermal approach and further investigated as anodes for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries (LIBs), which present greatly improved performance.

    4. Nanopatterned Polymer Brushes for Triggered Detachment of Anchorage-Dependent Cells

      Qian Yu, Leah M. Johnson and Gabriel P. López

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304274

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      Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes are nanopatterned via interferometric lithography and surface-initiated polymerization to support mammalian cell harvesting. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), collapsed PNIPAAm brushes expose extracellular matrix proteins on the underlying substrate to support cellular attachment. As the temperature decreases below the LCST, swollen, extended PNIPAAm nanopatterned brushes readily release attached cells.

    5. Polyethylene Imine as an Ideal Interlayer for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

      Young-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hee Han, Himchan Cho, Sung-Yong Min, Chang-Lyoul Lee and Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304163

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      Efficient and air-stable inverted polymer-light emitting diodes (IPLEDs) can be realized by using insulating polymer electron-injecting interlayers (ILs), branched polyethyleneimine (PEI), and polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE), giving highest current efficiencies of 13.5 cd A-1 and 12 cd A-1, respectively. Polymer ILs can facilitate electron injection into emitting layer as well as block the exciton quenching.

    6. Liquid Metal/Metal Oxide Frameworks

      Wei Zhang, Jian Zhen Ou, Shi-Yang Tang, Vijay Sivan, David D. Yao, Kay Latham, Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Arnan Mitchell, Anthony P. O'Mullane and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304064

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      A new platform described as the liquid metal/metal oxide (LM/MO) framework is introduced. The constituent spherical structures of these frameworks are made of micro- to nanosized liquid metal spheres and nanosized metal oxides. These LM/MO frameworks demonstrate high sensitivity towards low concentrations of heavy metal ions and enhanced solar light driven photocalalytic activities.

    7. Fabrication and Spatially Resolved Functionalization of 3D Microstructures via Multiphoton-Induced Diels–Alder Chemistry

      Alexander S. Quick, Hannah Rothfuss, Alexander Welle, Benjamin Richter, Joachim Fischer, Martin Wegener and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304030

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A light-induced Diels–Alder reaction is employed for the fabrication and the spatially resolved surface patterning of 3D microstructures using a direct laser writing setup. Woodpile photonic crystals with a lateral rod spacing of 700–500 nm are fabricated and characterized via SEM, FIB milling, and transmission/reflection spectroscopy. Covalent surface patterning of the KIT-logo is verified using ToF-SIMS.

    8. Ultrasmall Dispersible Crystalline Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles as High-Performance Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Splitting

      Ksenia Fominykh, Johann M. Feckl, Johannes Sicklinger, Markus Döblinger, Sebastian Böcklein, Jürgen Ziegler, Laurence Peter, Jiri Rathousky, Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt, Thomas Bein and Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303600

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultrasmall, crystalline, and dispersible NiO nanoparticles are prepared for the first time using a solvothermal reaction in tert-butanol. These nanocrystals can be prepared with sizes tunable from 2.5 to 5 nm and are highly efficient catalysts for electrochemical oxygen generation.

    9. Magnetite Crystal Orientation in Magnetosome Chains

      André Körnig, Michael Winklhofer, Jens Baumgartner, Teresa Perez Gonzalez, Peter Fratzl and Damien Faivre

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303737

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      2D-X-ray diffraction analyses of aligned magnetotactic bacteria reveal [111] and [100] fiber textures along the chain direction as a function of cell species. The [100] axis appears unfavorable because it represents a magnetic hard axis in magnetite. Calculations show how this can be turned into an effective easy axis for a given particle elongation.

    10. Bio-Inspired Multifunctional Metallic Foams Through the Fusion of Different Biological Solutions

      Xu Jin, Bairu Shi, Lichen Zheng, Xiaohan Pei, Xiyao Zhang, Ziqi Sun, Yi Du, Jung Ho Kim, Xiaolin Wang, Shixue Dou, Kesong Liu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inspired by the optimized biological solutions from the lotus leaf with superhydrophobic self-cleaning, the water strider leg with durable and robust superhydrophobicity, and the lightweight bird bone with hollow structures, multifunctional metallic foams with multiscale structures are fabricated, demonstrating low adhesive superhydrophobic self-cleaning, striking loading capacity, stable corrosion resistance, and oil/water separation.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Improved Exciton Dissociation at Semiconducting Polymer:ZnO Donor:Acceptor Interfaces via Nitrogen Doping of ZnO

      Kevin P. Musselman, Sebastian Albert-Seifried, Robert L. Z. Hoye, Aditya Sadhanala, David Muñoz-Rojas, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303994

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      Nitrogen doping of ZnO is shown to dramatically improve exciton dissociation at the interface between ZnO and a conjugated polymer. The improvements in exciton dissociation and device photocurrent follow from a reduction in the ZnO electron concentration and enhanced light-induced de-trapping of electrons from the surface of the nitrogen-doped ZnO.

    12. Efficient Self-Assembly Synthesis of Uniform CdS Spherical Nanoparticles-Au Nanoparticles Hybrids with Enhanced Photoactivity

      Sancan Han, Linfeng Hu, Nan Gao, Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400012

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      The CdS SNPs-Au NPs hybrids are firstly fabricated through gold-sulfur bonding interaction, which meets the needs for reliable interfacial contact between the semiconductor and Au NPs. This facile strategy can be extended to the synthesis of other binary semiconductor hybrids. The as-fabricated CdS SNPs-Au NPs hybrids are very promising for application in degradation of organic pollutants.

    13. Eleven-Membered Fused-Ring Low Band-Gap Polymer with Enhanced Charge Carrier Mobility and Photovoltaic Performance

      Yongxi Li, Kai Yao, Hin-Lap Yip, Fei-Zhi Ding, Yun-Xiang Xu, Xiaosong Li, Yu Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303953

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      A multi-ring, ladder-type low band-gap polymer (PIDTCPDT-DFBT) is developed to show enhanced light harvesting, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. The rigidified polymer provides lower reorganizational energy, resulting in one order higher hole mobility than the reference polymer. The device made from PIDTCPDT-DFBT also shows a quite promising power conversion efficiency of 6.46%.

    14. Towards High Efficiency and Low Roll-Off Orange Electrophosphorescent Devices by Fine Tuning Singlet and Triplet Energies of Bipolar Hosts Based on Indolocarbazole/1, 3, 5-Triazine Hybrids

      Dongdong Zhang, Lian Duan, Yilang Li, Haoyuan Li, Zhengyang Bin, Deqiang Zhang, Juan Qiao, Guifang Dong, Liduo Wang and Yong Qiu

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303926

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      A series of indolocarbazole/1, 3, 5-triazine hybrids are designed and prepared as hosts for phosphorescent orange-emitting diodes. Singlet-triplet splitting and carrier injection/transporting are adjusted by introducing moieties with different electronegativity. By harmonizing the optical and electrical properties, high efficiency with ultra-low roll-off is realized in the device.

    15. Systematic Doping Control of CVD Graphene Transistors with Functionalized Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers

      Nathan Cernetic, Sanfeng Wu, Joshua A. Davies, Benjamin W. Krueger, Daniel O. Hutchins, Xiaodong Xu, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303952

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      A series of functionalized aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used to systemically control the doping of CVD graphene transistors. A direct correlation between the predicted SAM dipole determined via density functional theory and the charge neutrality point of graphene transistors is found when doping effects due to the metal electrode contacts are taken into account.

    16. Creation of Bifunctional Materials: Improve Electron-Transporting Ability of Light Emitters Based on AIE-Active 2,3,4,5-Tetraphenylsiloles

      Long Chen, Yibin Jiang, Han Nie, Ping Lu, Herman H. Y. Sung, Ian D. Williams, Hoi Sing Kwok, Fei Huang, Anjun Qin, Zujin Zhao and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303867

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      Grafting dimesitylboryl groups onto 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsiloles generates efficient bifunctional materials that can simultaneously serve as light emitters and electron transporters in OLEDs. Remarkably high electroluminescence efficiencies up to 13.9 cd A−1, 4.35% and 11.6 lm W−1 are attained from the double-layer OLEDs based on them.

    17. Direct-Current Triboelectric Generator

      Ya Yang, Hulin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304295

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      The first direct-current triboelectric generator (DC-TEG) for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion is reported. The DC-TEG consists of two rotating wheels and one belt for connecting them, which are made of different triboelectric materials. The DC-TEG can be utilized to light up 1020 commercial LEDs and the produced energy can also be stored in a capacitor for other uses.

    18. A Smart Nanoassembly for Multistage Targeted Drug Delivery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Zhenhua Li, Kai Dong, Sa Huang, Enguo Ju, Zhen Liu, Meili Yin, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303662

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      A multistage continuous targeting strategy (targeting from tumor tissue, cancer cell to organelle) based on magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles, to achieve nucleus-targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy while simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal tissue, is demonstrated. In addition, this smart nanoassembly can be used as predominant contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    19. Sponge-Templated Preparation of High Surface Area Graphene with Ultrahigh Capacitive Deionization Performance

      Zhi-Yu Yang, Lin-Jian Jin, Guo-Qian Lu, Qing-Qing Xiao, Yu-Xia Zhang, Lin Jing, Xiao-Xue Zhang, Yi-Ming Yan and Ke-Ning Sun

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304091

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      Sponge-templated graphene sheets (STGS) with high specific surface area, wide pore size distribution, and low internal resistance are prepared through a simple annealing method. The as-prepared STGS exhibits promising CDI performance with an ultrahigh electrosorptive capacity of 4.95 mg g−1 and fast desorption rate of 25 min.

    20. Arrayed rGOSH/PMASH Microcapsule Platform Integrating Surface Topography, Chemical Cues, and Electrical Stimulation for Three-Dimensional Neuron-Like Cell Growth and Neurite Sprouting

      Heng-Wen Liu, Wei-Chen Huang, Chih-Sheng Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu, Chia-Hsin Liao, You-Yin Chen and San-Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303853

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      The stimulus-responsive, well-ordered rGOSH/PMASH microcapsules are arrayed into a 3-D ECM-mimic flexible substrate to accelerate the proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells by controlling NGF release and manipulating rGOSH/PMASH microcapsule interfaces. A combination of surface topography, chemical cues, and electrical stimulation not only has positive effects on cell viability but also strongly enhances the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells.

    21. Healable, Stable and Stiff Hydrogels: Combining Conflicting Properties Using Dynamic and Selective Three-Component Recognition with Reinforcing Cellulose Nanorods

      Jason R. McKee, Eric A. Appel, Jani Seitsonen, Eero Kontturi, Oren A. Scherman and Olli Ikkala

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303699

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      Nanocomposite hydrogels are prepared by combining ‘hard’ functionalised cellulose nanocrystals with ‘soft’ functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) via dynamic and selective three-component host–guest chemistry. The ensuing supramolecular hydrogels synergistically combine rapid hydrogel recovery (within a few seconds) from the processable sol state to the relaxed gel state; suppressed passivation in self-healing, even after several months' storage, and; a high storage modulus.

    22. Porous Silicon Resonant Microcavity Biosensor for Matrix Metalloproteinase Detection

      Fransiska S. H. Krismastuti, Stephanie Pace and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304053

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      An optical biosensor based on functionalized porous silicon resonance microcavity (pSiRM) using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) substrate containing a fluorophor and a quencher is demonstrated. The presence of MMP cleaves the substrate leaving the fluorophor on the pSiRM matrix which is now emitting the fluorescence. This biosensor sensitively and selectively detects the MMP in buffer solution and human wound fluid.

    23. Highly Improved Sb2S3 Sensitized-Inorganic–Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells and Quantification of Traps by Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy

      Yong Chan Choi, Dong Uk Lee, Jun Hong Noh, Eun Kyu Kim and Sang Il Seok

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304238

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      The light-harvesting Sb2S3 surface on mesoporous-TiO2 in inorganic–organic heterojunction solar cells is sulfurized with thioacetamide. Through such a simple treatment, the cell records an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.5% under simulated illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm−2) and the performance enhancement is mainly attributed to the extinction of trap sites by deep-level transient spectroscopy analysis.

    24. Spatial Mapping of Morphology and Electronic Properties of Air-Printed Pentacene Thin Films

      Shaurjo Biswas, Yongsoo Yang, Christian M. Schlepütz, Nadav Geva, Randall L. Headrick, Ron Pindak, Roy Clarke and Max Shtein

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303983

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      Guard flow-enhanced organic vapor jet printing technique enables additive patterning of organic thin films in air, without the use of solvents. During deposition in air, ambient oxygen and moisture are incorporated in the film's “wing” region. This work relates the degree of air exposure to pentacene film's morphology and electronic properties via synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thin-film transistor measurements, respectively.