Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 32

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 93
  1. Full Papers

    1. Rapid and Controllable Digital Microfluidic Heating by Surface Acoustic Waves

      Richie J. Shilton, Virgilio Mattoli, Marco Travagliati, Matteo Agostini, Andrea Desii, Fabio Beltram and Marco Cecchini

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501130

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      Fast and controllable surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven digital microfluidic temperature changes are demonstrated. Small temperature changes in typical SAW microfluidic conditions and the possibility for rapid and controllable high temperature changes, for use with lab-on-a-chip devices, are shown.

    2. Nucleus-Targeting Gold Nanoclusters for Simultaneous In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging, Gene Delivery, and NIR-Light Activated Photodynamic Therapy

      Raviraj Vankayala, Chien-Lin Kuo, Karthik Nuthalapati, Chi-Shiun Chiang and Kuo Chu Hwang

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502650

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      A unique nucleus-targeting gold nanocluster(TAT peptide–Au NC)-based multifunctional theranostic platform is designed to perform simultaneous in vitro and in vivo cellular fluorescence imaging, gene delivery, and intrinsic near infrared light-activated photodynamic therapy. This is done without the co-presence of organic photosensitizers for the effective cancer cell killing.

    3. Spiro Linkage as an Alternative Strategy for Promising Nonfullerene Acceptors in Organic Solar Cells

      Xiao-Feng Wu, Wei-Fei Fu, Zheng Xu, Minmin Shi, Feng Liu, Hong-Zheng Chen, Jun-Hua Wan and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502413

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      A series of spiro-diketopyrrolopyrroles-based nonfullerene acceptors with X-shape is developed. The substituted alkyl side chains on the acceptors can significantly tailor their crystallinity and bulk heterojunction film morphology. When paring these acceptors with poly(3-hexylthiophene), a dramatic variation of power conversion efficiency from 1.42% to 3.63% is observed.

    4. A Fully Transparent and Flexible Ultraviolet–Visible Photodetector Based on Controlled Electrospun ZnO-CdO Heterojunction Nanofiber Arrays

      Zhi Zheng, Lin Gan, Huiqiao Li, Ying Ma, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg and Tianyou Zhai

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502499

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      A photodetector based on ZnO-CdO heterojunctions with a large photoresponse range and a fast response speed is fabricated. Its comprehensive photoelectric and carrier transport properties at different wavelengths, light intensities, and pressures are investigated. The detector is highly transparent at 400–800 nm and maintains its properties even after 200 bending cycles. This photodetector has a high potential to be used in multicolor optoelectronic devices.

    5. Elastoplastic Inverse Opals as Power-Free Mechanochromic Sensors for Force Recording

      Younghyun Cho, Su Yeon Lee, Lindsay Ellerthorpe, Gang Feng, Gaojian Lin, Gaoxiang Wu, Jie Yin and Shu Yang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502774

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      Power-free and highly sensitive mechanochromic sensors that can quantitatively measure the magnitude of mechanical force are prepared from uncrosslinked SU-8 inverse opals. They can record impact forces by exhibiting different visible colors depending on the amount and rate of the applied forces. Experiments and finite element simulations attribute this to the elastoplastic deformation of the crystals.

    6. TiO2 Microspheres with Controllable Surface Area and Porosity for Enhanced Light Harvesting and Electrolyte Diffusion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Yong Ding, Li Zhou, Li'e Mo, Ling Jiang, Linhua Hu, Zhaoqian Li, Shuanghong Chen and Songyuan Dai

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502224

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      Mesoporous TiO2 microspheres with controllable diameter, pore size, and porosity are synthesized. The porosity of the microspheres can be easily tuned without sacrificing the specific surface area by adjusting the content of ethanol. The large porosity of microspheres shows an abundant dye adsorption, rapid dye regeneration, and sufficient electrolyte diffusion, resulting in a higher efficiency of 11.67%.

    7. Living Cells Directly Growing on a DNA/Mn3(PO4)2-Immobilized and Vertically Aligned CNT Array as a Free-Standing Hybrid Film for Highly Sensitive In Situ Detection of Released Superoxide Anions

      Fang Xin Hu, Yue Jun Kang, Feng Du, Lin Zhu, Yu Hua Xue, Tao Chen, Li Ming Dai and Chang Ming Li

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502341

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      A DNA/Mn3(PO4)2-immobilized and vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array nanostructure is applied as a smart free-standing hybrid film for directly growing living cells and investigating their electrochemical behaviors in response to drug stimulation. This holds a great promise for the fabrication of next-generation biomedical devices for living cell assays, drug screening, and monitoring cell activity in situ.

    8. Efficient Broadband Triplet–Triplet Annihilation-Assisted Photon Upconversion at Subsolar Irradiance in Fully Organic Systems

      Angelo Monguzzi, Sergey Borisov, Jacopo Pedrini, Ingo Klimant, Mario Salvalaggio, Paolo Biagini, Fabio Melchiorre, Clelia Lelii and Francesco Meinardi

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502507

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      Broadband triplet–triplet annihilation-assisted photon upconversion is demonstrated at subsolar irradiance by the simultaneous use of several light harvesters. An unprecedented yield of 10% is obtained under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions in a fully organic system, which allows a dye-sensitized solar cell device to operate by exploiting exclusively sub-bandgap photons.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Recent Advances in Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

      Guoxu Zhao, Xiaohui Zhang, Tian Jian Lu and Feng Xu

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502142

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      Electrospinning has shown great potential for cardiac tissue engineering applications, as a controllable and versatile technique for fabricating nanofibrous scaffolds. An overview of recent advances in various electrospun scaffolds for engineering functional cardiac tissues is provided, with emphasis on the fabrication of advanced electrospun scaffolds and design strategies to improve performance in cardiac tissue engineering applications.

  3. Full Papers

    1. A Graphene-Based Vacuum Transistor with a High ON/OFF Current Ratio

      Gongtao Wu, Xianlong Wei, Zhiyong Zhang, Qing Chen and Lianmao Peng

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502034

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      Graphene-based transistors with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 106 and a subthreshold slope of 120 mV dec−1 are developed by employing a vacuum channel. These transistors exhibit switching performances superior to those of graphene-based transistors with solid-state mediums for carrier transport.

    2. Reversible Switching Phenomenon in Diarylethene Molecular Devices with Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes on Flexible Substrates

      Dongku Kim, Hyunhak Jeong, Wang-Taek Hwang, Yeonsik Jang, Dmytro Sysoiev, Elke Scheer, Thomas Huhn, Misook Min, Hyoyoung Lee and Takhee Lee

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502312

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      The photoswitching characteristics of diarylethene molecular devices with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrodes on flexible substrates are studied. The diarylethene molecular devices with rGO electrodes can be converted from the open state to the closed state or vice versa with UV or visible light. The reversible photoswitching of these devices is successfully demonstrated with UV or visible light illumination.

    3. Magnetically Induced Fog Harvesting via Flexible Conical Arrays

      Yun Peng, Yaxu He, Shuai Yang, Shuang Ben, Moyuan Cao, Kan Li, Kesong Liu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502745

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      A magnetically induced fog collector is fabricated through the integration of cactus-inspired spine structures and magnetically responsive flexible conical arrays. Quasistatic fog water can be spontaneously and continuously captured and directionally transported, driven by the external magnetic field and the Laplace pressure difference. This work opens a new avenue for fog-harvesting systems under windless conditions.

    4. High-Efficiency Water-Transport Channels using the Synergistic Effect of a Hydrophilic Polymer and Graphene Oxide Laminates

      Kang Huang, Gongping Liu, Jie Shen, Zhenyu Chu, Haoli Zhou, Xuehong Gu, Wanqin Jin and Nanping Xu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502205

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      A bio-inspired membrane, which couples an ultrathin surface water-capturing polymeric layer and graphene oxide laminates, exhibits highly selective water permeation with an excellent water flux of over 10 000 g m−2 h−1. This bio-inspired strategy opens the door to explore nanochannels derived from 2D or 3D materials for highly efficient molecular transport.

    5. Unusual Circularly Polarized Photocatalytic Activity in Nanogapped Gold–Silver Chiroplasmonic Nanostructures

      Changlong Hao, Liguang Xu, Wei Ma, Xiaoling Wu, Libing Wang, Hua Kuang and Chuanlai Xu

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502429

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      Guided by l/d-cysteine, gold-gap-silver nanostructures (GGS NSs) with interior nanogaps, which display exceptionally strong chiroptical activity in the visible light region, are prepared. Based on the fabricated GGS NSs, unexpected circularly polarized photocatalytic activity is discovered under the irradiation with circularly polarized light.

    6. Rapid and Facile Formation of P3HT Organogels via Spin Coating: Tuning Functional Properties of Organic Electronic Thin Films

      Cameron S. Lee, Wen Yin, Adam P. Holt, Joshua R. Sangoro, Alexei P. Sokolov and Mark D. Dadmun

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501707

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      Poly(3-hexylthiophene) organogels offer exploitable electronic properties. These gels agglomerate into 3D percolating networks that span the active layer of a thin-film device. Novel spin-coating conditions that produce organogels in a rapid deposition process are discussed, including the interplay of kinetics and solution thermodynamics in organogel formation, control of the network size, and the correlation of structure to electronic properties.

    7. Van der Waals p–n Junction Based on an Organic–Inorganic Heterostructure

      Fucai Liu, Wai Leong Chow, Xuexia He, Peng Hu, Shoujun Zheng, Xingli Wang, Jiadong Zhou, Qundong Fu, Wei Fu, Peng Yu, Qingsheng Zeng, Hong Jin Fan, Beng Kang Tay, Christian Kloc and Zheng Liu

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502316

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      Through the marriage of MoS2 and rubrene, a novel organic–inorganic van der Waals heterostructure is demonstrated with a gate-tunable rectifying behavior. Good photoresponse properties are also obtained from the heterojunction with a photoresponsitivity of 500 A mW–1 and a fast response time.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modular and Versatile Spatial Functionalization of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds through Fiber-Initiated Controlled Radical Polymerization

      Rachael H. Harrison, Joseph A. M. Steele, Robert Chapman, Adam J. Gormley, Lesley W. Chow, Muzamir M. Mahat, Lucia Podhorska, Robert G. Palgrave, David J. Payne, Shehan P. Hettiaratchy, Iain E. Dunlop and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501277

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      Cell-adhesive and opposing antifouling surfaces are produced within a single construct for use in tissue engineering of biological interfaces. Different functional groups are zonally organized within a continuously electrospun scaffold before postprocessing modification with a versatile, surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization production of an effective antifouling polymer bottlebrush in a predetermined, specific location.

    9. Peptide Length and Dopa Determine Iron-Mediated Cohesion of Mussel Foot Proteins

      Saurabh Das, Nadine R. Martinez Rodriguez, Wei Wei, J. Herbert Waite and Jacob N. Israelachvili

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502256

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      Fe3+-mediated bridging of the mussel foot proteins (mfps) is attributed to two equally influential parameters: peptide architecture and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl­alanine (Dopa) residues in the protein. In addition, serial “hydrogen bonding” and cation–π interactions between the aromatic residues in the protein and a mineral surface are more probable than bidentate H-bonding interactions in adhering mfps to the surface.

    10. A High-Reliability Kevlar Fiber-ZnO Nanowires Hybrid Nanogenerator and its Application on Self-Powered UV Detection

      Lu Zhang, Suo Bai, Chen Su, Youbin Zheng, Yong Qin, Chen Xu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502646

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      A novel approach to combining surface coating and plasma etching techniques is introduced to enhance the mechanical reliability of Kevlar microfiber-ZnO nano­wires hybrid structure. This is successfully applied to fabricate a high-reliability Kevlar fiber-ZnO nanowire hybrid nanogenerator. The nanogenerator can act as a self-powered system to detect the UV intensity quantitatively.

    11. Polyazines and Polyazomethines with Didodecylthiophene Units for Selective Dispersion of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

      Widianta Gomulya, Vladimir Derenskyi, Erika Kozma, Mariacecilia Pasini and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502912

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      A single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) selective dispersion is obtained using polyazines and polyazomethines. Both polymers have didodecylthiophene units with direct nitrogen atoms in their backbone. The additional benzene ring in polyazomethines, which results in a stiffer polymer backbone, triggers different interaction with SWNTs. The high extraction yield of the SWNT dispersion by polyazomethines is essential for large-scale separation of SWNT.

    12. Revisiting Metal Sulfide Semiconductors: A Solution-Based General Protocol for Thin Film Formation, Hall Effect Measurement, and Application Prospects

      Dipak V. Shinde, Supriya A. Patil, Keumnam Cho, Do Young Ahn, Nabeen K. Shrestha, Rajaram S. Mane, Joong Kee Lee and Sung-Hwan Han

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500964

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      A solution-based general protocol for the deposition of large varieties of metal sulfide thin films from an ethanol bath on a variety of conducting and non-conducting substrates is presented. As a proof-of-concept for application, a NiS film is investigated as an example, and it is demonstrated to be an outstanding electrocatalytic counter electrode for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells. It also exhibits potentially good electrocatalyst activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction from water.

    13. Biocompatible and Flexible Chitosan-Based Resistive Switching Memory with Magnesium Electrodes

      Niloufar Raeis Hosseini and Jang-Sik Lee

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502592

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      A transparent and flexible resistive switching memory is fabricated using a natural organic polymer by solution processes. The proposed memory device is based on naturally abundant polymers with a coplanar structure of Mg/Ag-doped chitosan/Mg. The biocompatible and biodegradable memory device shows promising nonvolatile characteristics as a candidate for the next generation of flexible memory applications.

    14. Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbon/Graphene Nano-Sandwiches: Synthesis and Application for Efficient Oxygen Reduction

      Jing Wei, Yaoxin Hu, Yan Liang, Biao Kong, Jin Zhang, Jingchao Song, Qiaoliang Bao, George P. Simon, San Ping Jiang and Huanting Wang

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502311

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      A zeolitic-imidazolate-framework nanocrystal layer-protected carbonization route is developed to prepare N-doped carbon/graphene nano-sandwiches. These act as a highly active and stable nonprecious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction.

    15. Induction of Potent Antitumor Immunity by Sustained Release of Cationic Antigen from a DNA-Based Hydrogel with Adjuvant Activity

      Yuka Umeki, Kohta Mohri, Yohji Kawasaki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Rei Takahashi, Yuki Takahashi, Yoshinobu Takakura and Makiya Nishikawa

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502139

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      An immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel-based sustained release system using cationized antigen that can electrostatically interact with DNA is developed. This system can induce antigen-specific immune responses, which leads to effective inhibition of antigen-positive tumor growth in mice. This provides experimental evidence for future clinical applications of this system to induce potent antitumor immunity.

    16. Metal (Ni, Co)-Metal Oxides/Graphene Nanocomposites as Multifunctional Electrocatalysts

      Xien Liu, Wen Liu, Minseong Ko, Minjoon Park, Min Gyu Kim, Pilgun Oh, Sujong Chae, Suhyeon Park, Anix Casimir, Gang Wu and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502217

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      A new class of multifunctional electrocatalysts composed of Co-CoO/N-rGO and Ni-NiO/N-rGO, via a pyrolysis of graphene oxide and cobalt or nickel salts is synthesized. The two catalysts show excellent activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), or oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In particularly, Co-CoO/N-rGO shows comparable performance to Pt/C in zinc-air batteries.

    17. A High-Power Symmetric Na-Ion Pseudocapacitor

      Zelang Jian, Vadivukarasi Raju, Zhifei Li, Zhenyu Xing, Yong-Sheng Hu and Xiulei Ji

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502433

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      A novel symmetric Na-ion pseudocapacitor that operates on oxidation–reduction reactions occurring on both electrodes with an identical active material, viz., Na3V2(PO4)3 encapsulated inside nano­porous carbon, is designed. When used in a full-cell utilizing highly reversible, high-rate, and cost-effective Na-ion intercalational pseudocapacitance, this device can bridge the performance gap between batteries and supercapacitors.

    18. pH-Responsive Round-Way Motions of a Smart Device through Integrating Two Types of Chemical Actuators in One Smart System

      Lingling Yu, Mengjiao Cheng, Mengmeng Song, Dequn Zhang, Meng Xiao and Feng Shi

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502447

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      To improve the intelligence of smart devices and realize round-way smart motions, a smart device is fabricated with two types of actuators of magnesium–acid system and platinum-hydrogen-peroxide system at the opposite ends. Under acidic conditions, the magnesium reacts with acid to propel the device forward; changing to alkaline, the device stops motion; adding hydrogen peroxide, it moves back.

    19. A Multiple-Functional Ag/SiO2/Organic Based Biomimetic Nanocomposite Membrane for High-Stability Protein Recognition and Cell Adhesion/Detachment

      Yilin Wu, Ming Yan, Jiuyun Cui, Yongsheng Yan and Chunxiang Li

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502465

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      Multiple-functional Ag/SiO2/organic based molecularly imprinted membranes (ASO-MIMs) are prepared for high-stability protein recognition and cell adhesion/detachment. Because of the high affinity of ASO-MIMs (comparable to that of the natural receptor) and the innocuity to bioprotein (compared to covalent interactions), the approach reported is a promising candidate for large-scale applications in protein recognition and cell-based regenerative medicine.

    20. Unconventional Aluminum Ion Intercalation/Deintercalation for Fast Switching and Highly Stable Electrochromism

      Yuyu Tian, Weikun Zhang, Shan Cong, Yuanchuan Zheng, Fengxia Geng and Zhigang Zhao

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502638

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      Using Al3+ as insertion ions in electrochromic applications allows for fast switching, high-contrast, and highly stable electrochromic behavior. It also makes it possible to overcome the existing problems encountered by the conventional insertion ions. The new, low-cost insertion ion is beneficial for the fabrication of more stable and economical electrochromic devices.

    21. Near-Infrared Light-Absorptive Stealth Liposomes for Localized Photothermal Ablation of Tumors Combined with Chemotherapy

      Menghuan Li, Cathleen Teh, Chung Yen Ang, Si Yu Tan, Zhong Luo, Qiuyu Qu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Vladimir Korzh and Yanli Zhao

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502469

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      NIR light-absorptive stealth liposomes are developed by incorporating an NIR-absorptive heptamethine indocyanine dye IR825 into thermoresponsive liposomes, which can be further loaded with doxorubicin for photothermal/chemo combined cancer therapy in vivo.

    22. Chinese-Noodle-Inspired Muscle Myofiber Fabrication

      Yuhui Li, Chi Tat Poon, Moxiao Li, Tian Jian Lu, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy and Feng Xu

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502018

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      C2C12 muscle myofibers within hydrogel fibers are successfully generated using a simple, facile, and high-throughput method that is inspired by the fabrication process of Chinese noodles. The effect of mechanical tensile strain on cell viability, spreading, and proliferation is also investigated. Such an approach holds potential to create functional tissue constructs and provides insight into the mechanobiological responses of cells in three dimensions.

    23. Quantifying the Energy Barriers and Elucidating the Charge Transport Mechanisms across Interspherulite Boundaries in Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Thin Films

      Anna K. Hailey, Szu-Ying Wang, Yuanzhen Chen, Marcia M. Payne, John E. Anthony, Vitaly Podzorov and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501666

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      The impact of interspherulite boundaries (ISBs) on charge transport in organic semiconductor thin films is explored using gated four-probe transistor measurements on triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (TES ADT). Quantification of the densities and energy levels of shallow traps at these boundaries suggests TES ADT's ISBs to be akin to the connected boundaries between crystallites in polymer semiconductor thin films.

    24. Filling the Gaps between Graphene Oxide: A General Strategy toward Nanolayered Oxides

      Yoshitaka Saito, Xi Luo, Chunsong Zhao, Wei Pan, Chengmeng Chen, Jianghong Gong, Hidetoshi Matsumoto, Jie Yao and Hui Wu

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501358

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      Graphene oxide (GO) provides an ideal 2D space which offers opportunity to confine a chemical reaction. By combining GO gap and sol–gel synthesis, 2D oxide nanolayers are successfully synthesized for a variety of metal oxides that do not naturally have layer molecular architecture.

    25. Remote Steering of Self-Propelling Microcircuits by Modulated Electric Field

      Rachita Sharma and Orlin D. Velev

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502129

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      The direction of self-propulsion of diodes floating on water surface, powered by external alternating (AC) electric fields, can be controlled on-demand by electronically modifying the symmetry of the applied AC waveform. Changes in the duty cycle of the signal inducing short-lasting DC fields can be used to remotely reverse its direction of motion or make it move sideways.

    26. Micro-/Nanostructured Highly Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Films for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Applications

      Mehmet Yilmaz, Mehmet Ozdemir, Hakan Erdogan, Ugur Tamer, Unal Sen, Antonio Facchetti, Hakan Usta and Gokhan Demirel

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502151

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      A simple and versatile approach for the fabrication of novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms based on vertically oriented micro-/nanostructured 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films via an oblique-angle vapor deposition is demonstrated. Remarkable SERS responses are achieved demonstrating the first example of a π-conjugated small-molecule based SERS platform with excellent detection characteristics. Our results indicate that organic semiconductors hold great promise for future SERS applications.

    27. Solar Water Splitting by TiO2/CdS/Co–Pi Nanowire Array Photoanode Enhanced with Co–Pi as Hole Transfer Relay and CdS as Light Absorber

      Guanjie Ai, Hongxing Li, Shaopei Liu, Rong Mo and Jianxin Zhong

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502461

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      A smart hybridization paradigm is proposed by hierarchically assembling CdS shell and Co–Pi electrocatalyst on vertically aligned TiO2 nanowires, aiming to simultaneously enhance the light absorption, charge separation/transport, and surface water oxidation reaction for solar water splitting. The multifunctional heterostructure delivers superior photoelectrochemical conversion efficiency and stability in nonsacrificial electrolyte, thus casting new light on developing advanced photoelectrochemical cell.

    28. Metallic Glass as a Mechanical Material for Microscanners

      Yu-Ching Lin, Yao-Chuan Tsai, Takahito Ono, Pan Liu, Masayoshi Esashi, Thomas Gessner and Mingwei Chen

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502456

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      A metallic glass-based microscanner exhibits, for the first time, an ultralarge rotating angle of 146° with power consumption lowered to the microwatt range, as well as a smaller driving force and better actuation performance than conventional single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon. This development opens a new field of low-powered microelectromechanical systems with extreme actuation and enhanced sensing.

    29. Metallic 1T-WS2 for Selective Impedimetric Vapor Sensing

      Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Adriano Ambrosi, Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Zdeněk Sofer and Martin Pumera

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502223

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      The impedance phase spectra of metallic 1T-WS2 present specific resonant frequencies for methanol and water vapors, meaning that using the same 1T-WS2 platform is possible to detect methanol and water vapors by selecting specific frequencies (1 Hz for methanol and 1 kHz for water).

    30. Linking Group Influences Charge Separation and Recombination in All-Conjugated Block Copolymer Photovoltaics

      Jorge W. Mok, Yen-Hao Lin, Kevin G. Yager, Aditya D. Mohite, Wanyi Nie, Seth B. Darling, Youngmin Lee, Enrique Gomez, David Gosztola, Richard D. Schaller and Rafael Verduzco

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502623

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      All-conjugated block copolymers have significant potential for use in photovoltaic active layers, but the role of the linking group between donor and acceptor blocks is poorly understood. An analysis of linking group chemistry is presented, revealing that proper design of the linking group is essential for producing viable block copolymer photovoltaic devices.

    31. Triphenylphosphonium-Conjugated Poly(ε-caprolactone)-Based Self-Assembled Nanostructures as Nanosized Drugs and Drug Delivery Carriers for Mitochondria-Targeting Synergistic Anticancer Drug Delivery

      Dong Youl Cho, Hana Cho, Kiyoon Kwon, Minjong Yu, Eunji Lee, Kang Moo Huh, Don Haeng Lee and Han Chang Kang

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501422

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      Amphiphilic triphenyphosphonium (TPP)-poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)-TPP (TPP-PCL-TPP, TPCL) polymers are synthesized and self-assembled to form nanovesicles and nanofibers. TPCL nanoparticles (NPs) themselves exhibit cancer-killing properties, and can carry either hydrophilic drugs or hydrophobic drugs. Anticancer drug-loaded TPCL NPs show synergistically strong anticancer effects via a combination of the loaded chemical drugs and TPCL-based NPs.

    32. m-Indolocarbazole Derivative as a Universal Host Material for RGB and White Phosphorescent OLEDs

      Cheng-Chang Lai, Min-Jie Huang, Ho-Hsiu Chou, Chuang-Yi Liao, Pachaiyappan Rajamalli and Chien-Hong Cheng

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502079

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      Three new indolocarbazole-based host materials ICDP, 4ICPPy, and 4ICDPy are synthesized and used as hosts for various color phosphorescent organic light-­emitting diodes. The blue, green, and red devices using 4ICDPy as host all exhibit very high device efficiencies. In addition, a two-color white device shows an external quantum efficiency of 20.3% and power efficiency of 50.9 lm W−1 with excellent color stability.

    33. Structural Origins for Tunable Open-Circuit Voltage in Ternary-Blend Organic Solar Cells

      Petr P. Khlyabich, Andrey E. Rudenko, Barry C. Thompson and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502287

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      The first direct structural study of ternary-blend bulk heterojunction active layers in solar cells that demonstrate tunable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is performed. Physical mixing of the polymer donors—quantified by the square of the square-root difference in surface energies—leads to ensemble-average electronic character that results in composition-dependent Voc when these blends are incorporated in solar cells.

    34. Significant Enhancement of Triboelectric Charge Density by Fluorinated Surface Modification in Nanoscale for Converting Mechanical Energy

      Hua Yang Li, Li Su, Shuang Yang Kuang, Cao Feng Pan, Guang Zhu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502318

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      An effective, general, straightforward, and area-scalable approach to surface modification of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is developed via inductive-coupled plasma etching. The modification significantly promotes triboelectric property of the PET, making it a superior material for fabricating high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators. Chemical fluorination and physical bombardment both play vitally important roles in the modification.

    35. Etching-Free Epitaxial Growth of Gold on Silver Nanostructures for High Chemical Stability and Plasmonic Activity

      Hongpo Liu, Tingzhuo Liu, Lei Zhang, Lu Han, Chuanbo Gao and Yadong Yin

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502366

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      Ag@Au core/shell nanostructures are synthesized by epitaxial growth of Au on Ag nanostructures, with the anisotropic ones such as nanoplates showing Ag-like plasmonic properties and high stability. Sulfite plays a critical role in preventing galvanic replacement and oxidative etching of the Ag nanostructures. The resulting nanocrystals may find broad use in many plasmon-based applications for superior activities and durability.

    36. Copper(I) Iodide as Hole-Conductor in Planar Perovskite Solar Cells: Probing the Origin of JV Hysteresis

      Gaveshana A. Sepalage, Steffen Meyer, Alexander Pascoe, Andrew D. Scully, Fuzhi Huang, Udo Bach, Yi-Bing Cheng and Leone Spiccia

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502541

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      Planar perovskite/copper(I) iodide solar cells with near to no J–V hysteresis, made by employing thin CuI and perovskite layers, result in a record conversion efficiency of 7.5%. The magnitude of dielectric polarization at the perovskite/hole-conductor interface is proposed to influence the degree of J–V hysteresis.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Oxygen Diffusion in SrTiO3 and Related Perovskite Oxides

      R. A. De Souza

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500827

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      Methods of studying diffusion in oxides are reviewed. Oxygen diffusion coefficients extracted from the literature for SrTiO3 and related titanate, zirconate and cerate perovskites are compared.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Rational Construction of a Functionalized V2O5 Nanosphere/MWCNT Layer-by-Layer Nanoarchitecture as Cathode for Enhanced Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Bin Sun, Kai Huang, Xiang Qi, Xiaolin Wei and Jianxin Zhong

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502382

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      A layer-by-layer nanoarchitecture as cathode is successfully fabricated, assembled by alternating the positively charged V2O5 nanospheres and the negatively charged terminated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) solutions. The V2O5 nanospheres are closely intercalated between the adjacent MWCNT layers, minimizing disadvantagageous voids and improving overall conductivity, leading to an enhanced cycling durability as well as improved rate capability.

    2. Organic Tribotronic Transistor for Contact-Electrification-Gated Light-Emitting Diode

      Chi Zhang, Jing Li, Chang Bao Han, Li Min Zhang, Xiang Yu Chen, Li Duo Wang, Gui Fang Dong and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502450

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      An organic tribotronic transistor and a contact-electrification-gated light-emitting diode (CG-LED) are proposed, in which the operating current and light-emission intensity can be tuned/controlled by an external force-induced contact electrification. Different from the conventional organic light-emitting transistor controlled by an electrical signal, the CG-LED can realize the direct interaction between the external environment/stimuli and the electroluminescence device.

    3. Probing Molecular and Crystalline Orientation in Solution-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

      Wenchao Huang, Fuzhi Huang, Eliot Gann, Yi-Bing Cheng and Christopher R. McNeill

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502553

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      Using a combination of GIWAXS and NEXAFS spectroscopy, the orientational alignment of CH3NH3PbI3 crystallites and CH3NH3+ cations are separately probed. The orientation of CH3NH3PbI3 crystallites is sensitive to film thickness, solvent evaporation rate, and the underlying TiO2 morphology. However, CH3NH3+ cations exhibit a random molecular orientation independent of the TiO2 architecture and the perovskite film thickness.

    4. Stretchable Chemical Patterns for the Assembly and Manipulation of Arrays of Microdroplets with Lensing and Micromixing Functionality

      John J. Bowen, Jay M. Taylor, Christopher P. Jurich and Stephen A. Morin

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502174

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      Chemically patterned silicone films drive the assembly of microdroplets into ordered arrays. These microdroplets can be “stretched”—a capability that was used to drive mixing in the droplets and to change the lensing characteristics of the array. Synthesizing “stretchable” chemical patterns of different geometries and functional groups provides a method to explore soft, mechanoresponsive surfaces with rapidly reversible properties unavailable in hard systems.

    5. Functional Organic Semiconductors Assembled via Natural Aggregating Peptides

      Galen L. Eakins, Rishi Pandey, Jonathan P. Wojciechowski, Han Yue Zheng, James E. A. Webb, Céline Valéry, Pall Thordarson, Natalie O. V. Plank, Juliet A. Gerrard and Justin M. Hodgkiss

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502255

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      Natural aggregating peptide sequences are used as tectons to assemble organic semiconducting molecules. An 8-mer peptide derived from inspection of protein–protein interfaces in the peroxiredoxin family is attached in various modes to perylene imides. Self-assembling hybrid materials with strong electronic coupling and long-range order are created, culminating with the fabrication of a bio-organic field-effect transistor device.

    6. Perfluorinated Ionomer-Modified Hole-Injection Layers: Ultrahigh-Workfunction but Nonohmic Contacts

      Dagmawi Belaineh, Jun-Kai Tan, Rui-Qi Png, Pei-Fang Dee, Yi-Min Lee, Bao-Nguyen Nguyen Thi, Nur-Sabrina Ridzuan and Peter K. H. Ho

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500784

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      The ultrahigh workfunctions of PEDT:PSSH:PFI blends result from a dipolar surface layer associated with surface segregation of PFI chains. Despite their higher workfunctions, their hole contacts to organic semiconductors with ionization potentials deeper than 5.2 eV remain nonohmic. Workfunction matching through the use of an insulating dipolar layer is not efficient for providing ohmic contacts.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tuneable Singlet Exciton Fission and Triplet–Triplet Annihilation in an Orthogonal Pentacene Dimer

      Steven Lukman, Andrew J. Musser, Kai Chen, Stavros Athanasopoulos, Chaw K. Yong, Zebing Zeng, Qun Ye, Chunyan Chi, Justin M. Hodgkiss, Jishan Wu, Richard H. Friend and Neil C. Greenham

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501537

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      An orthogonal covalently bonded pentacene dimer (DP-Mes) shows nearly quantitative singlet exciton fission in sub-ps within the nuclear relxation time scale. By applying geometrical constraints, the fate of triplet–triplet annihilation is altered. These properties closely depend on molecular geometry and suggest a role for nuclear relaxation in controlling singlet exciton fission and triplet–triplet annihilation.

    8. Fully Printed Foldable Integrated Logic Gates with Tunable Performance Using Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

      Le Cai, Suoming Zhang, Jinshui Miao, Zhibin Yu and Chuan Wang

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502367

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      Carbon nanotube thin film transistors and integrated logic gates with tunable performance are fabricated on an ultrathin polyimide substrate by an inkjet-like printing process. Thanks to the excellent flexibility of the hybrid dielectric layer, the devices can survive thousands of bending cycles with curvature radii down to 1 mm and very aggressive folding tests.

    9. Protein Fragment Reconstitution as a Driving Force for Self-Assembling Reversible Protein Hydrogels

      Na Kong and Hongbin Li

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502277

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      Reversible self-assembling protein hydrogels from protein fragment reconstitution: using protein fragment reconstitution as a novel driving force for crosslinking, reversible self-assembling protein hydrogels are engineered. These novel protein hydrogels are responsive to temperature and exhibit superb stability against erosion in excess buffer.

    10. Large-Area, Periodic, Hexagonal Wrinkles on Nanocrystalline Graphitic Film

      Yanpeng Liu, Kenry, Yufeng Guo, Surabhi Sonam, Seul Ki Hong, Mui Hoon Nai, Chang Tai Nai, Libo Gao, Jianyi Chen, Byung Jin Cho, Chwee Teck Lim, Wanlin Guo and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502010

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      A unique hexagonal wrinkled pattern is generated on nanocrystalline graphitic films grown on polished c-plane sapphire substrate via a simple delamination–buckling process. The dimensional features of the wrinkles can be manipulated by adjusting the thickness of deposited films. In addition, a high-fidelity dry transfer method for transfer of wrinkled films onto arbitrary substrates is developed for further applications.

    11. Thin-Sheet Carbon Nanomesh with an Excellent Electrocapacitive Performance

      Huanjing Wang, Lei Zhi, Kaiqiang Liu, Liqin Dang, Zonghuai Liu, Zhibin Lei, Chang Yu and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502025

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      Growth of thin-sheet carbon nanomesh (CNM) on MgAl-layered double oxides, with controllable in-plane pore structure, is reported. The large mesopores with pore size varying from 10 to 50 nm offer additional ion channels that greatly promote ion kinetics across the 2D CNM plane, leading to an improved capacitive performance with much shortened relaxation time constant.

    12. Large Upconversion Enhancement in the “Islands” Au–Ag Alloy/NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+/Er3+ Composite Films, and Fingerprint Identification

      Xu Chen, Wen Xu, Lihang Zhang, Xue Bai, Shaobo Cui, Donglei Zhou, Ze Yin, Hongwei Song and Dong-Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502419

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      The “islands” Au–Ag/NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+ composite film is prepared by an organic self-assembly and removal template method. The Au–Ag alloy not only has the stable and repeatable properties but exhibits super-broad surface plasmon resonance band extending to 1100 nm, and obtained ≈180-fold enhancement of upconversion luminescence for fingerprint identification.

    13. Vertical Orientation of Nanodomains on Versatile Substrates through Self-Neutralization Induced by Star-Shaped Block Copolymers

      Sangshin Jang, Kyuseong Lee, Hong Chul Moon, Jongheon Kwak, Jicheol Park, Gumhye Jeon, Won Bo Lee and Jin Kon Kim

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502006

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      Vertically oriented lamellar and cylindrical nanodomains are developed by employing 18 arm star-shaped (PMMA-b-PS)18 through self-neutralization concept. Without a solvent annealing or neutralization process of the substrate, vertically oriented lamellar and cylindrical nanodomains are successfully achieved on various substrates, ranging from semiconductors (Si, SiOx) to metal (Au), polymer-brushed substrates, and flexible polymer substrates.

    14. Fabrication of Fischer–Tropsch Catalysts by Deposition of Iron Nanocrystals on Carbon Nanotubes

      Marianna Casavola, Justus Hermannsdörfer, Niels de Jonge, A. Iulian Dugulan and Krijn P. de Jong

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501882

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      Colloidal iron oxide nanocrystals assembled on carbon nanotube supports are fabricated as model heterogeneous catalysts for the direct conversion of synthesis gas into lower olefins. The catalyst structure is optimized to achieve tunable metal nanocrystal size and metal loading, homogeneous nanocrystal dispersion throughout the support, leading to stable and active catalysts with controllable catalytic properties.

    15. Carbon-Stabilized High-Capacity Ferroferric Oxide Nanorod Array for Flexible Solid-State Alkaline Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid Device with High Environmental Suitability

      Ruizhi Li, Yimeng Wang, Cheng Zhou, Chong Wang, Xin Ba, Yuanyuan Li, Xintang Huang and Jinping Liu

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502265

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      A carbon-protected ferroferric oxide nanorod array exhibits remarkably enhanced cycleability in alkaline electrolyte, and is then further assembled with a carbon nanotube cathode into a flexible solid-state rechargeable alkaline battery–supercapacitor hybrid device. The device demonstrates high environmental suitability in terms of substantially bending, high mechanical pressure and elevated temperature.

    16. Enhanced Performance of Self-Assembled Monolayer Field-Effect Transistors with Top-Contact Geometry through Molecular Tailoring, Heated Assembly, and Thermal Annealing

      Nathan Cernetic, Tobias Weidner, Joe E. Baio, Hao Lu, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501263

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      High-performance self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) are fabricated based on heated assembly, thermal annealing, and the addition of a functional terminal group to the sel-assembled monolayer molecular design. Optimized conditions are then utilized to fabricate low-voltage SAMFETs on a HfO2 dielectric to enable hole mobility of up to 0.015 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    17. “Chemical Weathering” Exfoliation of Atom-Thick Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Ultrafast Saturable Absorption Properties

      Gang Zhao, Shuo Han, Aizhu Z. Wang, Yongzhong Z. Wu, Mingwen W. Zhao, Zhengping P. Wang and Xiaopeng P. Hao

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501972

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      Inspired by the natural weathering exfoliation of seaside rocks, a “chemical weathering” concept is proposed for fabricating atom-thick 2D materials from their bulk counterparts. Chemical weathering-assisted exfoliation is a simple and efficient method of preparing atom-thick MoS2 and WS2 monolayers. The as-prepared monolayers exhibit excellent saturable absorption and mode-locking properties in all-solid-state lasers because of intermediate states resulting from S-vacancy defects.

    18. Nano-Self-Assembly of Nucleic Acids Capable of Transfection without a Gene Carrier

      Kwang Suk Lim, Daniel Y. Lee, Gabriel M. Valencia, Young-Wook Won and David A. Bull

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502067

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      Zn2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ are able to assemble nucleic acids into a nanocluster capable of spontaneous internalization into cells. Zn2+ shows superior gene transfection efficiency among the three divalent metal ions tested. Various endocytosis mechanisms are involved in the cellular uptake of the Zn/DNA cluster. This study represents a new platform for carrier-free gene delivery.

    19. Motif-Designed Peptide Nanofibers Decorated with Graphene Quantum Dots for Simultaneous Targeting and Imaging of Tumor Cells

      Zhiqiang Su, Huiyan Shen, Haixia Wang, Jinhui Wang, Jingfeng Li, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Li Shang and Gang Wei

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502506

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      Peptide nanofibers decorated with graphene quantum dots for simultaneous targeting and imaging of tumor cells are successfully fabricated based on noncovalent interactions. The nanohybrids possess the properties of strong fluorescence, good biocompatibility, and show the capability of labeling live tumor cells specially and efficiently.

    20. Face-to-Face Contact and Open-Void Coinvolved Si/C Nanohybrids Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Extremely Long Cycle Life

      Shilong Jing, Hao Jiang, Yanjie Hu, Jianhua Shen and Chunzhong Li

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502330

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      The design of a 3D silicon loaded graphene/CNTs aerogels (Si/CAs) architecture with ideal Si/C face-to-face contact interface and balanced open void is demonstrated with new insights. The as-obtained Si/CAs nanohybrids are highly stable anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (no obvious capacity decline even after 2000 cycles at 10 000 mA g−1) with a high reversible discharge capacity and excellent rate capability.

    21. Measured Output Voltages of Piezoelectric Devices Depend on the Resistance of Voltmeter

      Yewang Su, Canan Dagdeviren and Rui Li

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502280

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      Experimental studies find that the measured voltages for piezoelectric devices depend on the resistance of the voltmeter, which is contrary to the established knowledge that the measurement results are independent of the instruments used. A theoretical model considering the finite value of the resistance is established and reveals the mechanism and physics of this phenomenon.

    22. High-Performance Broadband Circularly Polarized Beam Deflector by Mirror Effect of Multinanorod Metasurfaces

      Zhaocheng Liu, Zhancheng Li, Zhe Liu, Jianxiong Li, Hua Cheng, Ping Yu, Wenwei Liu, Chengchun Tang, Changzhi Gu, Junjie Li, Shuqi Chen and Jianguo Tian

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502046

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      A high-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector is demonstrated based on multirod metasurfaces. The distinct high efficiency and broadband characteristics of the metasurfaces are theoretically and experimentally shown to result from the plasmonic hybridization. Determination of the polarization degree of the incident light based on Poincaré sphere is shown to be easy.

    23. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Nanosized Carbon Nitride Nanosheet onto a Zirconium Metal–Organic Framework for Enhanced Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction

      Li Shi, Tao Wang, Huabin Zhang, Kun Chang and Jinhua Ye

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502253

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      A novel carbon nitride nanosheet heterogeneous photocatalyst is fabricated via a facile electrostatic self-assembly method. Electrons from the photoexcited carbon nitride nanosheets can transfer to UiO-66, which can substantially suppress electron–hole pair recombination in the carbon nitride nanosheet, as well as supply long-lived electrons for the reduction of CO2 molecules adsorbed in UiO-66.

    24. Rational Design of Spider Silk Materials Genetically Fused with an Enzyme

      Ronnie Jansson, Christophe M. Courtin, Mats Sandgren and My Hedhammar

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501833

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      Two recombinant spider silk modules, 4RepCT and CT, are genetically fused to the enzyme xylanase and produced as soluble enzyme-silk fusion proteins. Self-assembly is used to make enzyme-silk materials in the form of fibers, 2D surface coatings and 3D foams, which all show retained enzymatic activity from the added xylanase domain. Activity is shown for batch and continuous enzymatic reactions.

    25. Genesis of “Solitary Cations” Induced by Atomic Hydrogen

      Giorgio Pettinari, Francesco Filippone, Antonio Polimeni, Giuseppe Mattioli, Amalia Patanè, Vladim Lebedev, Mario Capizzi and Aldo Amore Bonapasta

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501858

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      Fundamental properties of nitrides are changed through deep modifications of the chemistry of their constituent atoms induced by atomic hydrogen. In InN, for example, an In cation is isolated from its crystalline environment by the cooperative action of four hydrogen atoms that locally screen the crystal potential, thus generating a “solitary cation” (In*) that remarkably increases the InN fundamental band-gap energy.

    26. Antimony Induced {112}A Faceted Triangular GaAs1−xSbx/InP Core/Shell Nanowires and Their Enhanced Optical Quality

      Xiaoming Yuan, Philippe Caroff, Fan Wang, Yanan Guo, Yuda Wang, Howard E. Jackson, Leigh M. Smith, Hark Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501467

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      GaAs1−xSbx/InP core/shell nanowires are grown coherently with perfectly twin-free zinc blende crystal structure. An unusual triangular InP shell with predominantly {112}A facets is observed.

    27. Directly Coating Hydrogel on Filter Paper for Effective Oil–Water Separation in Highly Acidic, Alkaline, and Salty Environment

      Jun-Bing Fan, Yongyang Song, Shutao Wang, Jingxin Meng, Gao Yang, Xinglin Guo, Lin Feng and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501066

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      A exceedingly simple strategy for fabricating hydrogel coated filter paper having the capacity to resist highly acidic, alkaline and salty environment is demonstrated. The resulting multiple crosslinked networks enable the hydrogel coated filter paper to separate various oil-water mixtures in a range of highly acidic, alkaline and salty environment with high separation efficiency.

    28. Biocompatible PEG-Chitosan@Carbon Dots Hybrid Nanogels for Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging, Near-Infrared Light/pH Dual-Responsive Drug Carrier, and Synergistic Therapy

      Hui Wang, Jing Di, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu, Zengyan Wei, Hiroshi Matsui, Alejandra del C. Alonso and Shuiqin Zhou

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501524

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      One-pot, surfactant-free synthesis of biocompatible and multifunctional hybrid nanogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol), chitosan, and carbon dots is reported. Such hybrid nanogels demonstrate a great promise for in vivo medical diagnosis and synergistic therapy because they can realize simultaneous pH and near-infrared light dual-responsive drug release and two-photon fluorescence cellular imaging.

    29. Magnetite Nanostructured Porous Hollow Helical Microswimmers for Targeted Delivery

      Xiaohui Yan, Qi Zhou, Jiangfan Yu, Tiantian Xu, Yan Deng, Tao Tang, Qian Feng, Liming Bian, Yan Zhang, Antoine Ferreira and Li Zhang

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502248

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      Porous hollow helical microswimmers composed of spindle-like magnetite nanoparticles are developed using a new method of fabrication based on biotemplated synthesis. Due to the unique micro-/nanostructures, the as-fabricated microswimmers are characterized with multiple properties desired by targeted diagnosis and therapy, thus suggesting a novel microrobotic tool for potential biomedical applications.

    30. A Hybrid Silica Nanoreactor Framework for Encapsulation of Hollow Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles of Superior T1 Magnetic Resonance Relaxivity

      Benedict You Wei Hsu, Michael Ng, Yu Zhang, Siew Yee Wong, Kishore Bhakoo, Xu Li and John Wang

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501269

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      A hybrid silica nanoreactor is designed for preparing hollow manganese oxide nanoparticles (MONs) under highly controlled conditions. Well-defined hollow MONs exhibit high r1 relativity of up to 2.58 mm−1 s−1 when multiple MONs are encapsulated within the framework. The formation of hollow MONs is due to surface stabilization by acetate ions, followed by acidic etching of the core in a sporadic manner.

    31. Painting and Direct Writing of Silver Nanostructures on Phosphate Glass with Electron Beam Irradiation

      Kyle E. Jacobs and Placid M. Ferreira

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501965

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      Direct writing of silver nanoparticles in a solid-state superionic conductor is performed using an electron beam. Smaller nanoparticles produced at low beam fluence interact plasmonically to produce vivid coloration to the otherwise transparent substrate. Increased beam fluence results in the extraction of bulk-like silver particles in the shape of the beam-irradiated region.

    32. Temperature Dependence of the Piezophototronic Effect in CdS Nanowires

      Ruomeng Yu, Xingfu Wang, Wenzhuo Wu, Caofeng Pan, Yoshio Bando, Naoki Fukata, Youfan Hu, Wenbo Peng, Yong Ding and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501986

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      The piezophototronic effect is the use of piezoelectric polarization charges for tuning/controlling charge carrier generation, separation, recombination, and transport process. The piezophototronic effect is enhanced by over 550% under lower temperature due to the increased effective piezoelectric polarization surface/interface charges resulted from the reduced screening effect by decreased mobile charge carriers in CdS nanowires.

    33. Influence of Molecular Geometry of Perylene Diimide Dimers and Polymers on Bulk Heterojunction Morphology Toward High-Performance Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells

      Chen-Hao Wu, Chu-Chen Chueh, Yu-Yin Xi, Hong-Liang Zhong, Guang-Peng Gao, Zhao-Hui Wang, Lilo D. Pozzo, Ten-Chin Wen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501971

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      Suitable selection of perylene diimide dimer (di-PDI)-based acceptors and polymer donors is essential to optimize the bulk heterojunction morphology. When blended with the 2D polymer, PTB7-Th, the rigidly hydrazine-linked di-PDI affords the recorded power conversion efficiency of 6.4% due to excellent miscibility for efficient exciton dissociation and appropriate percolation pathways for charge transport.

    34. Functional Mesoporous Carbon-Coated Separator for Long-Life, High-Energy Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Juan Balach, Tony Jaumann, Markus Klose, Steffen Oswald, Jürgen Eckert and Lars Giebeler

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502251

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      A functional mesoporous carbon-coated separator is developed for lithium–sulfur batteries, which exhibit significant enhancements in their performance: high capacities, long cycle life, and low capacity fading at different current rates. These improvements highlight the importance of the rational design of modified separators with mesoporous carbon structures and this proof of concept will bring reliability for advanced high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries.

    35. Virus-Inspired Mimics Based on Dendritic Lipopeptides for Efficient Tumor-Specific Infection and Systemic Drug Delivery

      Zhijun Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yunkun Li, Yachao Li, Dan Zhong, Yiyan He and Zhongwei Gu

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502049

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      Dendritic lipopeptide–based mimics of viral architectures and infections can serve as versatile nanoplatform for tumor-specific targeting delivery. Virus-inspired mimics largely enhance in vitro and in vivo tumor suppression of antitumor drugs, as well as hold great potentials to reduce side effects and decrease tumor metastasis after systemic administration.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Resistive Switching in Mott Insulators and Correlated Systems

      Etienne Janod, Julien Tranchant, Benoit Corraze, Madec Querré, Pablo Stoliar, Marcelo Rozenberg, Tristan Cren, Dimitri Roditchev, Vinh Ta Phuoc, Marie-Paule Besland and Laurent Cario

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500823

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      The different types of resistive switching encountered in Mott insulators or correlated systems are discussed. Resistive switching that is well explained by insulator-to-metal transitions driven by doping or temperature is first described. The new mechanism of resistive switching driven by electric field recently unveiled in canonical Mott insulators is also addressed.

    2. Physics of the Switching Kinetics in Resistive Memories

      Stephan Menzel, Ulrich Böttger, Martin Wimmer and Martin Salinga

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500825

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      Highly non-linear switching kinetics can overcome the voltage-time dilemma in resistive switching memory devices: while information can be written very fast using high voltages, data retention is excellent over long times under application of lower read voltages. The two time scales can be up to 15 orders of magnitude apart for voltages spanning only around one order of magnitude.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Realization of Boolean Logic Functionality Using Redox-Based Memristive Devices

      Anne Siemon, Thomas Breuer, Nabeel Aslam, Sebastian Ferch, Wonjoo Kim, Jan van den Hurk, Vikas Rana, Susanne Hoffmann-Eifert, Rainer Waser, Stephan Menzel and Eike Linn

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500865

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      Resistive switching devices enable sequential logic-in-memory operations. The feasibility of 14 of 16 two input Boolean logic functions is proven experimentally for: redox-based resistive switching cells (ReRAMs), ReRAMs offering inherent threshold switching, ReRAMs offering complementary switching (CS), and complementary resistive switching (CRS) cells. Moreover, it is shown that CS and CRS cells also enable the two remaining functions, XOR and XNOR.

  8. Feature Articles

    1. Microscopic Complexity in Phase-Change Materials and its Role for Applications

      Volker L. Deringer, Richard Dronskowski and Matthias Wuttig

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500826

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      The property contrast of phase-change materials (PCMs), used to encode “ones” and “zeroes” in digital memories, originates on the atomic scale. This Feature Article reviews unconventional structural, bonding, and transport properties of seemingly simple PCMs. This intriguing microscopic complexity can be exploited for new applications in data storage and beyond.

  9. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Low-Temperature Transport in Crystalline Ge1Sb2Te4

      Hanno Volker, Peter Jost and Matthias Wuttig

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500830

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      The phase-change material Ge1Sb2Te4 displays a strong annealing effect in its electronic properties. It is shown that even an insulator-to-metal transition in the zero-temperature limit takes place. The low-temperature transport on the insulating side can be described by Mott's hopping law. A crossover to a different transport mechanism at even lower temperatures is investigated.

    2. Redox Reactions at Cu,Ag/Ta2O5 Interfaces and the Effects of Ta2O5 Film Density on the Forming Process in Atomic Switch Structures

      Tohru Tsuruoka, Ilia Valov, Stefan Tappertzhofen, Jan van den Hurk, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Rainer Waser and Masakazu Aono

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500853

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      Redox reactions at the Ag,Cu/Ta2O5 interfaces and the impacts of Ta2O5 film density on the electroforming process of Ag,Cu/Ta2O5/Pt structures are clarified. When the density of the Ta2O5 film is decreased, the redox current is enhanced and the forming voltage is reduced. This finding contributes to a detailed understanding and control of the resistive switching behavior of oxide-based atomic switches.

    3. Disorder-Induced Localization in Crystalline Pseudo-Binary GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys between Ge3Sb2Te6 and GeTe

      Peter Jost, Hanno Volker, Annika Poitz, Christian Poltorak, Peter Zalden, Tobias Schäfer, Felix R. L. Lange, Rüdiger M. Schmidt, Bernd Holländer, Matti R. Wirtssohn and Matthias Wuttig

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500848

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      Disorder-induced insulator-to-metal transitions govern the charge transport in the crystalline states of the pseudo-binary GeTe-Sb2Te3 compounds. In contrast to former investigations, which rely on the annealing temperature for controlling the degree of disorder, this work explores the impact of stoichiometry and demonstrates that the stoichiometry can be employed as an alternative control parameter for the metal–insulator transition.

    4. Atomic Structure of Antiphase Nanodomains in Fe-Doped SrTiO3 Films

      Hongchu Du, Chun-Lin Jia, Joachim Mayer, Juri Barthel, Christian Lenser and Regina Dittmann

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500852

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      Atomic structure of antiphase nano­domains in Fe-doped SrTiO3 films is revealed by aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The crystallographic translation vector between the antiphase nanodomains and the matrix is found to be a/2 [0 1 1]. The antiphase boundaries lie mostly in the {1 0 0} planes and partially in the {1 1 0} planes forming chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra.

    5. Formation and Movement of Cationic Defects During Forming and Resistive Switching in SrTiO3 Thin Film Devices

      Christian Lenser, Annemarie Koehl, Ivetta Slipukhina, Hongchu Du, Marten Patt, Vitaliy Feyer, Claus M. Schneider, Marjana Lezaic, Rainer Waser and Regina Dittmann

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500851

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      A low binding energy component of the Sr 3d photoemission line is observed in Fe-doped SrTiO3 memristive devices and assigned to inline image defect complexes by ab initio calculations. Since this Sr component can be reversibly affected by an electrical bias, the movement of both oxygen and Sr vacancies and the formation of inline image defect complexes during resistive switching are suggested.

    6. Resistive Switching of a Quasi-Homogeneous Distribution of Filaments Generated at Heat-Treated TiO2 (110)-Surfaces

      Maciej Rogala, Gustav Bihlmayer, Wolfgang Speier, Zbigniew Klusek, Christian Rodenbücher and Krzysztof Szot

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500855

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      The resistive switching of TiO2 crystals is studied. The phenomena occurring in this material prospective to memory devices are related to nanofilamentary structures generated by the thermal treatment. Experimental evidence is given that the observed nanofilaments may originate from the linear agglomeration of oxygen vacancies as predicted by theory and confirmed by presented ab initio calculations and electrical simulations.

    7. Crystallization Properties of the Ge2Sb2Te5 Phase-Change Compound from Advanced Simulations

      Ider Ronneberger, Wei Zhang, Hagai Eshet and Riccardo Mazzarello

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500849

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      The crystallization properties of the phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) at high temperature are investigated by advanced ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The crystal growth processes from both a quasi-spherical nucleus and a planar amorphous–crystalline interface are considered. The obtained growth velocities are compatible with recent experiments. The simulations elucidate the fast crystal growth of the phase change GST compound at the atomistic level.

    8. Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control

      Antony P. Peter, Koen Martens, Geert Rampelberg, Michael Toeller, James M. Ablett, Johan Meersschaut, Daniel Cuypers, Alexis Franquet, Christophe Detavernier, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Marc Schaekers, Sven Van Elshocht, Malgorzata Jurczak, Christoph Adelmann and Iuliana P. Radu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402687

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      It is shown how nanoscale morphology of VO2 films can be controlled to realize smooth ultrathin (<10 nm) crystalline films or nanoparticles with atomic layer deposition, opening doors to practical VO2 metal-insulator transition (MIT) nanoelectronics. The films and particles possess both a structural and an electronic transition. Film resistivity changes by more than two orders of magnitude across the MIT.

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