Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 152
  1. Full Papers

    1. Full-Color Delayed Fluorescence Materials Based on Wedge-Shaped Phthalonitriles and Dicyanopyrazines: Systematic Design, Tunable Photophysical Properties, and OLED Performance

      In Seob Park, Sae Youn Lee, Chihaya Adachi and Takuma Yasuda

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505106

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      Phthalonitrile and dicyanopyrazine-based donor–acceptor–donor structured molecules display high-efficiency, full-color thermally activated delayed fluorescence. Organic light-emitting diodes with these emitters generate electroluminescence ranging from blue to red, with maximum external quantum efficiencies of up to 18.9%.

    2. Biologically Inspired and Magnetically Recoverable Copper Porphyrinic Catalysts: A Greener Approach for Oxidation of Hydrocarbons with Molecular Oxygen

      César A. Henriques, Auguste Fernandes, Liane M. Rossi, M. Filipa Ribeiro, Mário J. F. Calvete and Mariette M. Pereira

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505405

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      An efficient synthetic method for magnetically recoverable hybrid copper porphyrin based nanomaterials is reported. These prove to be stable and reusable efficient bioinspired oxidation catalysts of olefins and thiols, using molecular oxygen as oxidant, in total absence of reductants and solvents, with the highest turnover number yet achieved for this reaction (≈200 000).

    3. Enhanced Collective Magnetic Properties Induced by the Controlled Assembly of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Chains

      Delphine Toulemon, Mircea V. Rastei, David Schmool, José Sáiz Garitaonandia, Luis Lezama, Xavier Cattoën, Sylvie Bégin-Colin and Benoit P. Pichon

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505086

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      Anisotropic uniaxial assemblies of substrate-bound iron oxide nanoparticles are prepared by “click” chemistry under an external magnetic field. The resulting nanoparticle chains are co-aligned with regular spacing and possess enhanced magnetic collective properties. The novel, highly ordered assembly allows evidencing a first order intrachain dipolar interaction, combined with a second order interchain magnetic coupling.

    4. The Swiss-Army-Knife Self-Assembled Monolayer: Improving Electron Injection, Stability, and Wettability of Metal Electrodes with a One-Minute Proces

      Milan Alt, Malte Jesper, Janusz Schinke, Sabina Hillebrandt, Patrick Reiser, Tobias Rödlmeier, Iva Angelova, Kaja Deing, Tobias Glaser, Eric Mankel, Wolfram Jaegermann, Annemarie Pucci, Uli Lemmer, U. H. F. Bunz, W. Kowalsky, G. Hernandez-Sosa, R. Lovrincic and M. Hamburger

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505386

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      An ambient stable disulfide Self-Assembled Monolayer-forming molecule reduces the work function of metal electrodes by ≈1.2 eV and can be deposited from solution in 1 min. These monolayers have a strong effect on electron injection, improve surface wettability, device life time, and can be processed on printed silver electrodes.

    5. Tailoring Morphology and Structure of Inkjet-Printed Liquid-Crystalline Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends for High-Stability Organic Transistors

      Donghoon Kwak, Hyun Ho Choi, Boseok Kang, Do Hwan Kim, Wi Hyoung Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504786

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      The addition of an insulating polymer, polystyrene, to a semiconducting polymer, poly(didodecylquaterthiophene-alt-didodecylbithiazole) ink, greatly enhances the solubility and stability of the ink for stable inkjet printing. Tailoring solubility-induced phase separation characteristics of the two components leads to a unique self-encapsulated structure that is extremely beneficial for fabricating organic transistors with good environmental and electrical stabilities.

    6. Enhancement of the Power Conversion Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaics by Unveiling the Appropriate Polymer Backbone Enlargement Approach

      Christos L. Chochos, Ranbir Singh, Min Kim, Nicola Gasparini, Athanasios Katsouras, Chandramouli Kulshreshtha, Vasilis G. Gregoriou, Panagiotis E. Keivanidis, Tayebeh Ameri, Christoph J. Brabec, Kilwon Cho and Apostolos Avgeropoulos

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504953

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      An efficient way to enlarge the polymer backbone of an electron donor conjugated polymer toward higher organic photovoltaic performance is presented.

    7. Anisotropic Growth of Nonlayered CdS on MoS2 Monolayer for Functional Vertical Heterostructures

      Wei Zheng, Wei Feng, Xin Zhang, Xiaoshuang Chen, Guangbo Liu, Yunfeng Qiu, Tawfique Hasan, Pingheng Tan and Ping An Hu

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504775

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      A new van der Waals heterostructure consisting of semiconducting CdS nanosheets and MoS2 is epitaxially grown onto a 2D layered crystal via Chemical Vapor Deposition. Photodetectros based on this novel heterostructure show a significant enhancement in photocurrent and photoresponsivity compared to MoS2 photodetectors.

    8. Metal Organic Framework Crystals in Mixed-Matrix Membranes: Impact of the Filler Morphology on the Gas Separation Performance

      Anahid Sabetghadam, Beatriz Seoane, Damla Keskin, Nicole Duim, Tania Rodenas, Salman Shahid, Sara Sorribas, Clément Le Guillouzer, Guillaume Clet, Carlos Tellez, Marco Daturi, Joaquin Coronas, Freek Kapteijn and Jorge Gascon

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505352

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      The effect of different particle morphologies (nanoparticles, nanorods and microneedles) of NH2-MIL-53 on the performance of Mixed-Matrix Membranes based on two different polymers (Matrimid and 6FDA-DAM) is analysed. With an adequate polymer matrix, membranes with a performance above the Robeson limit for the CO2/CH4 gas separation can be obtained.

    9. Antiphotobleaching: A Type of Structurally Rigid Chromophore Ready for Constructing Highly Luminescent and Highly Photostable Europium Complexes

      Huibo Wei, Zifeng Zhao, Chen Wei, Gang Yu, Zhiwei Liu, Bin Zhang, Jiang Bian, Zuqiang Bian and Chunhui Huang

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505040

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      Highly luminescent europium complexes are produced by using a series of 8-hydroxyquinoline derived ligands with an enlarged energy gap and a rigid aromatic structure. The complexes are highly photostable even under high energy UV irradiation, unlike the traditional β-diketone complexes.

    10. Synthesis of Millimeter-Scale Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Single Crystals

      Yongji Gong, Gonglan Ye, Sidong Lei, Gang Shi, Yongmin He, Junhao Lin, Xiang Zhang, Robert Vajtai, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Wu Zhou, Bo Li and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504633

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      Millimeter-scale MoSe2 single crystals, as well as continuous macro-crystalline films, are synthesized via controlling the nucleation density by a scalable chemical vapor deposition approach. The selective growth of monolayers and multilayered MoSe2 films can also be controlled via tuning the growth temperature. This generic synthesis approach is also demonstrated for other TMD layers such as millimeter-scale WSe2 single crystals.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Improvement of Biological Organisms Using Functional Material Shells

      Zhaoming Liu, Xurong Xu and Ruikang Tang

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504480

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      Biological organisms and materials can be integrated artificially via biomineralization-inspired pathways. The resulting core–shell structured hybrids become more robust and even have newly evolved functions, leading to improvements in medical therapy, biological protection, room-temperature storage of organisms, energy generation, and pollution degradation, among others.

  3. Full Papers

    1. High-Performance Flexible Multilayer MoS2 Transistors on Solution-Based Polyimide Substrates

      Won Geun Song, Hyuk-Jun Kwon, Jozeph Park, Junyeob Yeo, Minjeong Kim, Suntak Park, Sungryul Yun, Ki-Uk Kyung, Costas P. Grigoropoulos, Sunkook Kim and Young Ki Hong

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505019

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      A highly flexible high performing thin film transistor array is constructed from a solution-based polyimide substrate with embedded laser-welded silver nanowires, a hybrid organic/inorganic gate insulator, and a multilayer MoS2 channel. Highest achieved μeff and Ion/Ioff are 141 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 5 × 105, respectively, while no apparent degradation under mechanical stress is observed.

    2. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

      Pushpa Raj Pudasaini, Joo Hyon Noh, Anthony T. Wong, Olga S. Ovchinnikova, Amanda V. Haglund, Sheng Dai, Thomas Zac Ward, David Mandrus and Philip D. Rack

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505274

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      Field induced activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide is demonstrated for flexible transparent thin film transistor applications. The activation process is controlled by field induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. Field-induced activation shows potential as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.

    3. Folic-Acid-Mediated Functionalized Gold Nanocages for Targeted Delivery of Anti-miR-181b in Combination of Gene Therapy and Photothermal Therapy against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

      Shengnan Huang, Shaofeng Duan, Jing Wang, Shijin Bao, Xiaojing Qiu, Chunming Li, Ying Liu, Lijuan Yan, Zhenzhong Zhang and Yurong Hu

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504912

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      Gold nanocages (AuNCs), after chemical modification with polyethyleneimine, PEG, and lipoic acid, efficiently deliver anti-miR-181b into target sites to suppress tumor growth, and considerably decreases tumor volumes in SMMC-7721 tumor-bearing nude mice under near-infrared radiation. Thus, the anti-miR-181b/PTPAuNCs-mediated synergistic therapeutic strategy would be of great potential use in future cancer therapy.

    4. Silicon-Modified Rare-Earth Transitions—A New Route to Near- and Mid-IR Photonics

      Manon A. Lourenço, Mark A. Hughes, Khue T. Lai, Imran M. Sofi, Willy Ludurczak, Lewis Wong, Russell M. Gwilliam and Kevin P. Homewood

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504662

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      Strong redshifting of Eu electronic transitions to the IR is achieved by the direct involvement of silicon band edges. This leads to super enhanced electroluminescence and the extension of silicon detectors from the near-IR to the important mid-IR region with detectivities comparable to current state of the art. This pushes silicon's reach into significant high-value societal, environmental, security, and health applications.

    5. Harnessing Structure–Property Relationshipsfor Poly(alkyl thiophene)–Fullerene Derivative Thin Filmsto Optimize Performance in Photovoltaic Devices

      Nabankur Deb, Bohao Li, Maximilian Skoda, Sarah Rogers, Yan Sun, Xiong Gong, Alamgir Karim, Bobby G. Sumpter and David G. Bucknall

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502653

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      The detailed 3D phase morphology of the bulk heterojunction thin films is determined in active organic photovoltaic devices consisting of model poly(alkyl thiophene)–fullerene blends. The observed segregation behavior of the fullerene to the electrodes shows direct correlations with the device performance, in particular the short-circuit current.

    6. A Highly Stretchable ZnO@Fiber-Based Multifunctional Nanosensor for Strain/Temperature/UV Detection

      Xinqin Liao, Qingliang Liao, Zheng Zhang, Xiaoqin Yan, Qijie Liang, Qinyu Wang, Minghua Li and Yue Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505223

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      A stretchable and multifunctional sensor for the application in wearable monitoring devices and multiparametric sensing platforms is developed. Being prepared by a scalable process, the sensor allows rapid and efficient monitoring of strain, temperature, or UV light. With its soft characteristic, light weight, and fiber geometry, it holds prospects to simplify the structure of multifunctional sensing devices.

    7. Incorporating Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4) Quantum Dots into Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells Leads to Efficiency Enhancement

      Xiang Chen, Qing Liu, Qiliang Wu, Pingwu Du, Jun Zhu, Songyuan Dai and Shangfeng Yang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505321

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      Introducing the “rising star” photocatalyst into polymer solar cells: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is applied in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells for the first time by doping g-C3N4 quantum dots (QDs) in the P3HT:PC61BM, PBDTTT-C:PC71BM or PTB7-Th:PC71BM active layer, resulting in obvious efficiency enhancement. Thus, a novel application of g-C3N4 in energy conversion, beyond the commonly used photocatalyst, is demonstrated.

    8. Highly Flexible Organic Nanofiber Phototransistors Fabricated on a Textile Composite for Wearable Photosensors

      Moo Yeol Lee, Jayeon Hong, Eun Kwang Lee, Hojeong Yu, Hyoeun Kim, Jea Uk Lee, Wonoh Lee and Joon Hak Oh

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503230

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      Highly flexible organic nanofiber phototransistors are prepared using a poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite and photoresponsive electrospun polymer nano­fibers as flexible substrate and photo­active layers, respectively. The devices show stable electrical performance under extreme bending conditions; and flexible 10 × 10 photosensor arrays exhibit high-resolution photosignal mapping, which have a high potential for applications as wearable photosensors.

    9. Upconversion Luminescent Chemodosimeter Based on NIR Organic Dye for Monitoring Methylmercury In Vivo

      Huiran Yang, Chunmiao Han, Xingjun Zhu, Yi Liu, Kenneth Yin Zhang, Shujuan Liu, Qiang Zhao, Fuyou Li and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504501

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      A new near-infrared chemodosimeter FUC-1 exhibits a unique anti-Stokes frequency luminescence emission property, which means that upon illumination with long wavelength light (808 nm), FUC-1 can emits short wavelength light at 745 nm. Utilizing this amazing upconversion luminescence property, we successfully realize its application in sensing and bioimaging methylmercury in living cells and in living animals.

    10. 20.0% Efficiency Si Nano/Microstructures Based Solar Cells with Excellent Broadband Spectral Response

      Zengguang Huang, Xiaomin Song, Sihua Zhong, Haiyuan Xu, Wenxing Luo, Xudong Zhu and Wenzhong Shen

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503553

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      A 20.0%-efficiency, large-size silicon nano/microstructure (N/M-Strus)-based solar cell with excellent broadband spectral response is successfully fabricated by employing the simultaneous stack SiO2/SiNx passivation for the front N/M-Strus based n+-emitter and the rear surface. This high-performance screen-printed Si N/M-Strus based solar cell is a very promising way towards the commercial mass production of Si-based high-efficiency solar cells.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Based Immunoassays-on-Chip: Materials Synthesis, Surface Functionalization, and Cancer Cell Screening

      Ying Zhu, Katsiaryna Kekalo, Christian NDong, Yu-Yen Huang, Fridon Shubitidze, Karl E. Griswold, Ian Baker and John X. J. Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504176

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      The synthesis and surface engineering of magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed alongside their applications in immunomagnetic assays for rare cancer cell screening. A model is introduced to illustrate how the morphology and interactions of nanoparticles influence magnetization.

  5. Full Papers

    1. FeSe2-Decorated Bi2Se3 Nanosheets Fabricated via Cation Exchange for Chelator-Free 64Cu-Labeling and Multimodal Image-Guided Photothermal-Radiation Therapy

      Liang Cheng, Sida Shen, Sixiang Shi, Yuan Yi, Xiaoyong Wang, Guosheng Song, Kai Yang, Gang Liu, Todd E. Barnhart, Weibo Cai and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504810

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      Upon addition of Bi(NO3)3, pre-made FeSe2 nanoparticles are gradually converted into Bi2Se3 nanosheets via cation exchange, obtaining FeSe2 decorated Bi2Se3 (FeSe2/Bi2Se3) multifunctional nano­structures. Utilizing the intrinsic physical properties of FeSe2/Bi2Se3, in vivo tetra-modal imaging and photothermal and radiation combination therapy is realized. This work presents a new class of 2D composite-nanostructure with highly integrated functions interesting in cancer theranostics.

    2. CoFe2O4 and CoFe2O4-SiO2 Nanoparticle Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy for Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Applications

      Derya Erdem, Nicholas S. Bingham, Florian J. Heiligtag, Nicolas Pilet, Peter Warnicke, Laura J. Heyderman and Markus Niederberger

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504538

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      Thin films for magnetic and magneto-optical applications are prepared from CoFe2O4 and SiO2 nanoparticle dispersions. Variation of the CoFe2O4-to-SiO2 ratio enabled the fine-tuning of the optical and magneto-optical properties. In-plane tensile stresses associated with constrained sintering conditions resulted in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    3. Understanding the Stability for Li-Rich Layered Oxide Li2RuO3 Cathode

      Biao Li, Ruiwen Shao, Huijun Yan, Li An, Bin Zhang, Hang Wei, Jin Ma, Dingguo Xia and Xiaodong Han

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504836

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      For lithium-rich materials, the additional lithium atoms in the transition metal layer result in a flexible structure. This allows the formation of O22−-like species, which cannot be realized in conventional layered oxides without lithium ions in the metal layer.

    4. Emerging Parallel Dual 2D Composites: Natural Clay Mineral Hybridizing MoS2 and Interfacial Structure

      Kang Peng, Liangjie Fu, Jing Ouyang and Huaming Yang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504942

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      MoS2/montmorillonite (MoS2/MMT) composite nanosheets have been successfully synthesized with MoS2 in situ formed on the surface of MMT via hydrogen bonds. The enhanced catalytic activi­ty of MoS2/MMT can be attributed to the large surface area, more reactive sites, dispersibility, and the synergistic adsorption property of MMT. Further DFT calculations indicate the preferred adsorption configurations of MoS2 cluster on MMT.

    5. Dragonfly-Eye-Inspired Artificial Compound Eyes with Sophisticated Imaging

      Zefang Deng, Feng Chen, Qing Yang, Hao Bian, Guangqing Du, Jiale Yong, Chao Shan and Xun Hou

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504941

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      A large-scale artificial compound eye, with a total of 30 000 ommatidia, is successfully fabricated by a high-efficiency strategy that combines single-pulse femtosecond laser wet etching with thermal embossing. The optical properties of the artificial compound eyes are investigated; the results confirm that the eye demonstrates comparable imaging quality, an exceptionally wide FOV of up to 140°, and low aberration.

    6. Tribotronic Phototransistor for Enhanced Photodetection and Hybrid Energy Harvesting

      Chi Zhang, Zhao Hua Zhang, Xiang Yang, Tao Zhou, Chang Bao Han and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504919

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      A tribotronic phototransistor is proposed by coupling a field-effect phototransistor and a triboelectric nanogenerator, for ­enhancing the photodetection characte­ristics. As an alternative design, a ­coupled energy-harvester is fabricated for enhancing the solar energy conversion by simultaneously scavenging the wind ­energy. This work has greatly expanded the ­functionality of tribotronics in photodetection and hybrid energy harvesting.

    7. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Thin Film for Flexible Resistive Memory Applications

      Kai Qian, Roland Yingjie Tay, Viet Cuong Nguyen, Jiangxin Wang, Guofa Cai, Tupei Chen, Edwin Hang Tong Teo and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504771

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      Ultrathin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) film (≈3 nm) is fabricated via chemical vapor deposition for flexible resistive memory applications. The as-fabricated Ag TE/hBN/Cu foil memory device shows excellent performances, and, contrary to the conventional electrochemical metallization theory, physical evidence is provided to show that the filament growth commences from the anode to cathode.

    8. Stiff and Transparent Multilayer Thin Films Prepared Through Hydrogen-Bonding Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Graphene and Polymer

      Fangming Xiang, Dorsa Parviz, Tara M. Givens, Ping Tzeng, Eric M. Davis, Christopher M. Stafford, Micah J. Green and Jaime C. Grunlan

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504758

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      Polymer/graphene nanocomposites are produced using hydrogen-bonding assisted layer-by-layer assembly. A multilayer thin film with 3.9 vol% of highly exfoliated, parallel aligned, and structurally intact graphene exhibits a 322% increase in elastic modulus (from 1.41 to 4.81 GPa), while maintaining high visible light transmittance.

    9. Achieving Above 60% External Quantum Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using ITO-Free Low-Index Transparent Electrode and Emitters with Preferential Horizontal Emitting Dipoles

      Chun-Yang Lu, Min Jiao, Wei-Kai Lee, Chien-Yu Chen, Wei-Lung Tsai, Chun-Yu Lin and Chung-Chih Wu

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505312

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      A combination of low-index transparent electrodes and preferentially horizontal dipole emitters realizes organic light-emitting devices with ≈64% external quantum efficiency (EQE). In addition to suppressing waveguided modes, low-index electrodes also effectively suppress surface plasmon modes with larger emitter-to-metal distances yet with better immunity to accompanied increase of competing waveguided modes, resulting in enhanced coupling efficiencies into substrates and EQEs.

    10. High-Throughput Topographic, Mechanical, and Biological Screening of Multilayer Films Containing Mussel-Inspired Biopolymers

      Ana I. Neto, Natália L. Vasconcelos, Sara M. Oliveira, Daniel Ruiz-Molina and João F. Mano

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505047

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      Inspired by the structure of mussel adhesive proteins, layer-by-layer coatings are developed. Many combinations of multilayers films are individually disposed on isolated transparent spots, patterned onto biomimetic superhydrophobic substrates. The adhesion properties of the coatings are analyzed in a high-throughput way. In vitro tests are carried out to evaluate the biological performance of the multilayer films that can be useful in distinct biomedical applications.

    11. Microwave-Assisted Preparation of White Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots as a Novel Phosphor for Enhanced White-Light-Emitting Diodes

      Zhimin Luo, Guangqin Qi, Keyu Chen, Min Zou, Lihui Yuwen, Xinwen Zhang, Wei Huang and Lianhui Wang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505044

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      Graphene quantum dots with white fluorescence are synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. A solution-processed white-light-emitting diode (WLED) is developed using white-light-emitting graphene quantum dots as a single-phase phosphor, which may open up a new avenue to develop the environmentally friendly WLEDs toward their practical application in solid-state lighting.

    12. Architecture of Conjugated Donor–Acceptor (D–A)-Type Polymer Films with Cross-Linked Structures

      Jin Huang, Bangan Peng, Weina Wang, Hanxu Ji, Linling Li, Kai Xi, Wenyong Lai, Xinwen Zhang and Xudong Jia

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503379

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      A series of new donor–acceptor-type semiconducting conjugated polymers with hydrogen bonding cross-linked structure is reported. They are a potential candidate as multifunctional materials applied in the field of optoelectronic devices because of their excellent electronic transmission, photoluminescence, and electroluminescent properties.

    13. Beyond Creation of Mesoporosity: The Advantages of Polymer-Based Dual-Function Templates for Fabricating Hierarchical Zeolites

      Qiwei Tian, Zhaohui Liu, Yihan Zhu, Xinglong Dong, Youssef Saih, Jean-Marie Basset, Miao Sun, Wei Xu, Liangkui Zhu, Daliang Zhang, Jianfeng Huang, Xiangju Meng, Feng-Shou Xiao and Yu Han

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504888

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      Hierarchical zeolites with varied framework types and compositions are fabricated, among which 1D fibrous zeolite structures and hierarchical zeolite-coated bulk zeolite structures are reported for the first time. Furthermore, the advantages of nonsurfactant polymers over conventional surfactant-based templates in fabricating hierarchical zeolites are systematically demonstrated.

    14. Fine Tuned Nanolayered Metal/Metal Oxide Electrode for Semitransparent Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

      Xiaoliang Zhang, Carl Hägglund, Malin B. Johansson, Kári Sveinbjörnsson and Erik M. J. Johansson

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504038

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      A semitransparent nanolayered metal/metal oxide electrode is presented for a semitransparent PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cell to increase the light transmission and power conversion efficiency. The solar cell shows an efficiency of 5.4% and average visible transmittance of 24.1%, increased by 28.6% and 59.6%, respectively, compared to the device with a standard Au film as the electrode.

    15. Template-Based Engineering of Carbon-Doped Co3O4 Hollow Nanofibers as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Chunshuang Yan, Gang Chen, Xin Zhou, Jingxue Sun and Chade Lv

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504695

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      Carbon-doped Co3O4 hollow nanofibers are synthesized, displaying excellent Li+ ion storage properties including high specific capacity, long-term cycling stability, and outstanding rate capacity. Density functional theory calculations reveal a larger delocalization of the band structure as being responsible for the enhanced conductivity observed.

    16. Light and Strong SiC Networks

      Claudio Ferraro, Esther Garcia-Tuñon, Victoria G. Rocha, Suelen Barg, Maria Dolores Fariñas, Tomas E. Gomez Alvarez-Arenas, Giorgio Sernicola, Finn Giuliani and Eduardo Saiz

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504051

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      Ultralight SiC networks are assembled through the directional freezing of microfiber suspensions. The networks are stable at high temperature and have a unique hierarchical architecture that promotes high specific strengths and stiffness. They are thermally insulating but electrically conductive. The approach opens new opportunities for the fabrication of ultralight structures with unique mechanical and functional properties in practical dimensions.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Controlling Phase Assemblage in a Complex Multi-Cation System: Phase-Pure Room Temperature Multiferroic (1−x)BiTi(1−y)/2FeyMg(1−y)/2O3xCaTiO3

      Pranab Mandal, Michael J. Pitcher, Jonathan Alaria, Hongjun Niu, Marco Zanella, John B. Claridge and Matthew J. Rosseinsky

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504911

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      Phase-pure bulk samples of the room temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic (1−x)BiTi(1−y)/2FeyMg(1−y)/2O3xCaTiO3 are prepared by a synthetic route that balances reaction pathway, starting material reactivity and the loss of volatile Bi2O3.

    18. Hyperbranched Polymers with High Transparency and Inherent High Refractive Index for Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Qiang Wei, Robert Pötzsch, Xiaoling Liu, Hartmut Komber, Anton Kiriy, Brigitte Voit, Paul-Anton Will, Simone Lenk and Sebastian Reineke

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504914

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      Hyperbranched polyvinylsulfides with high refractive indices (up to 1.7839) are used as light out-coupling layer in phosphorescent monochrome OLEDs, allowing external quantum efficiencies >20%. Refractive index matching of polymers and OLED materials opens a pathway toward alternative, low-cost, and scalable out-coupling concepts.

    19. Nanoparticle-Based Antivirulence Vaccine for the Management of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

      Fei Wang, Ronnie H. Fang, Brian T. Luk, Che-Ming J. Hu, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Diana Dehaini, Pavimol Angsantikul, Ashley V. Kroll, Zhiqing Pang, Weiwei Gao, Weiyue Lu and Liangfang Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505231

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      A nanoparticle-based strategy is employed to effectively neutralize and retain bacterial toxins, enabling safe delivery in vivo for antivirulence vaccination. The ability of this approach to elicit potent antitoxin immune responses and protect against live bacterial infection is studied using a murine model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infection with α-hemolysin as the toxin of interest.

    20. Graphene Doping Improved Device Performance of ZnMgO/PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

      Long Hu, Deng-Bing Li, Liang Gao, Hua Tan, Chao Chen, Kanghua Li, Min Li, Jun-Bo Han, Haisheng Song, Huan Liu and Jiang Tang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505043

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      ZnMgO/PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovotaics are constructed through incorporating graphene into the lead sulfide (PbS) CQD layer to improve the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the device, resulting in a 9.0 ± 0.1% improvement. These devices also possess the advantages of ambient processing and high stability. The incorporation of 2D materials into PbS CQD film opens a new avenue for efficiency improvement of CQD photovoltaics.

    21. Efficiency and Stability Enhancement in Perovskite Solar Cells by Inserting Lithium-Neutralized Graphene Oxide as Electron Transporting Layer

      Antonio Agresti, Sara Pescetelli, Lucio Cinà, Dimitrios Konios, George Kakavelakis, Emmanuel Kymakis and Aldo Di Carlo

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504949

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      Lithium-neutralized graphene oxide (GO-Li) as electron transporting layer in perovskite solar cells is reported. The proposed device conjugates the extraordinary conduction properties of graphene based materials with the exceptional harvesting behavior of organoleadtrihalide compounds and shows enhanced power conversion efficiency and improved long term stability under operative conditions.

    22. Novel Strategy to Develop Exciplex Emitters for High-Performance OLEDs by Employing Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials

      Wei Liu, Jia-Xiong Chen, Cai-Jun Zheng, Kai Wang, Dong-Yang Chen, Fan Li, Yu-Ping Dong, Chun-Sing Lee, Xue-Mei Ou and Xiao-Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505014

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      A new type of high-performance exciplex thermally activated delayed fluorescence TADF emitter is demonstrated by introducing single-molecule TADF emitter as one of the constituting materials. The OLED based on the novel emitter shows a low turn-on voltage of 2.4 V and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.8% with mild efficiency roll-off, which offers a new strategy for designing efficient exciplex emitters.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Magnetic Nanoparticle Facilitated Drug Delivery for Cancer Therapy with Targeted and Image-Guided Approaches

      Jing Huang, Yuancheng Li, Anamaria Orza, Qiong Lu, Peng Guo, Liya Wang, Lily Yang and Hui Mao

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504185

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      Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have emerged as a promising theranostic tool in biomedical applications, including diagnostic imaging, drug delivery and novel therapeutics. An overview of recent advances in development and application of MNPs for drug delivery is provided with a focus on strategies for targeted and image-guided drug delivery. MNP carrier fabrication, delivery mechanisms, active targeting approaches, and image-guided drug deliveries are reviewed. Concluding remarks and future perspectives for MNP drug delivery are presented.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Smart Ferrofluid with Quick Gel Transformation in Tumors for MRI-Guided Local Magnetic Thermochemotherapy

      Koichiro Hayashi, Wataru Sakamoto and Toshinobu Yogo

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504215

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      A biocompatible smart ferrofluid that transforms into a gel immediately after injection into tumors has the potential to facilitate a combination of magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy, under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic thermochemotherapy using the smart ferrofluid shows significantly greater therapeutic efficacy than chemotherapy alone or magnetic hyperthermia alone.

    2. Liquid-Exfoliated Black Phosphorous Nanosheet Thin Films for Flexible Resistive Random Access Memory Applications

      Chunxue Hao, Fusheng Wen, Jianyong Xiang, Shijun Yuan, Bingchao Yang, Lei Li, Wenhong Wang, Zhongming Zeng, Limin Wang, Zhongyuan Liu and Yongjun Tian

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504187

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      Environmental stable nonvolatile resistive random access memory devices are fabricated with liquid-exfoliated black phosphorous (BP) nanosheets. Exposure to ambient conditions induces an amorphous top degraded layer with insulating properties in BP-nanosheet-based film. Resulting BP memory devices exhibit a bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high ON/OFF current ratio up to ~3 × 105 and an excellent retention ability over 105 s.

    3. Engineering of Spin Injection and Spin Transport in Organic Spin Valves Using π-Conjugated Polymer Brushes

      Rugang Geng, Anandi Roy, Wenbo Zhao, Ram Chandra Subedi, Xiaoguang Li, Jason Locklin and Tho Duc Nguyen

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504201

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      A large magnetoresistance (MR) of 70% at 20 K is reported in an organic spin valve device fabricated using surface grafted π-conjugated poly-3-methylthiophene brushes from La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) bottom electrode. Surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation generates covalently attached polymer brushes. Covalent attachment and the brush morphology provide a unique spinterface allowing control over LSMO/brush interfacial resistance and spacer mobility, enhancing the MR response.

    4. High Responsivity Phototransistors Based on Few-Layer ReS2 for Weak Signal Detection

      Erfu Liu, Mingsheng Long, Junwen Zeng, Wei Luo, Yaojia Wang, Yiming Pan, Wei Zhou, Baigeng Wang, Weida Hu, Zhenhua Ni, Yumeng You, Xueao Zhang, Shiqiao Qin, Yi Shi, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hongtao Yuan, Harold Y. Hwang, Yi Cui, Feng Miao and Dingyu Xing

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504408

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      High responsivity phototransistors based on few-layer rhenium disulfide (ReS2) are presented. The maximum attainable photoresponsivity can reach as high as 88 600 A W−1. Such high photoresponsivity is attributed to the increased light absorption as well as the gain enhancement. It further enables the detection of weak signals. Our studies underscore ReS2 as a promising material for future sensitive optoelectronic applications.

    5. A Dendrimer-Based Electropolymerized Microporous Film: Multifunctional, Reversible, and Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Probe

      Hongwei Ma, Feng Li, Peng Li, Hailong Wang, Ming Zhang, Guang Zhang, Martin Baumgarten and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504692

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      A dendrimer PYTPAG2 is studied as an electroactive precursor to prepare microporous fluorescent films upon electropolymerization (EP), which could be obtained not only on substrates but also as free-standing films. Further, these fluorescent EP films are studied as the multifunctional fluorescent probe to trinitrotoluene vapor, iron (III) (Fe3+) ion, and benzene vapor with rapid response, high sensitivity and selectivity, and excellent reusability.

    6. Lithium–Iron Fluoride Battery with In Situ Surface Protection

      Wentian Gu, Oleg Borodin, Bogdan Zdyrko, Huan-Ting Lin, Hyea Kim, Naoki Nitta, Jiaxin Huang, Alexandre Magasinski, Zoran Milicev, Gene Berdichevsky and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504848

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      In situ formation of an effective protective surface layer on iron fluoride (FeF2)-based composite cathodes prevents the cathode dissolution and allows for 1000 stable cycles in high energy density Li–FeF2 cells. Quantum chemistry calculations and postmortem analyses provide insights into the mechanisms of the protective layer formation and the performance boost.

    7. Chloride and Indium-Chloride-Complex Inorganic Ligands for Efficient Stabilization of Nanocrystals in Solution and Doping of Nanocrystal Solids

      Vladimir Sayevich, Chris Guhrenz, Maria Sin, Volodymyr M. Dzhagan, Alexander Weiz, Daniel Kasemann, Eike Brunner, Michael Ruck, Dietrich R. T. Zahn, Karl Leo, Nikolai Gaponik and Alexander Eychmüller

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504767

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      The chemical incorporation of chlorine and indium species into nanocrystal solids via solution ligand exchange is demonstrated. The nanocrystals formed by this method possess efficient electronic surface passivation and form stable dispersions. Moreover, strong control over the charge carrier density in the nanocrystal arrays is achieved, an attractive characteristic for solution-processable cutting-edge electronics.

    8. Graphene Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Networks for Wearable Strain Sensors

      Jidong Shi, Xinming Li, Huanyu Cheng, Zhuangjian Liu, Lingyu Zhao, Tingting Yang, Zhaohe Dai, Zengguang Cheng, Enzheng Shi, Long Yang, Zhong Zhang, Anyuan Cao, Hongwei Zhu and Ying Fang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504804

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      In-situ graphene hybridization is applied to enhance the structural strength in carbon nanotube (CNT) networks under high mechanical load. The CNT–graphene hybrids effectively resist the buckling deformation of CNT network due to strong interaction and effective load transfer within the hybridized films, and could be applied in wearable and implantable electronics.

    9. Optimization and Analysis of Conjugated Polymer Side Chains for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cells

      Ji-Hoon Kim, Sebastian Wood, Jong Baek Park, Jessica Wade, Myungkwan Song, Sung Cheol Yoon, In Hwan Jung, Ji-Seon Kim and Do-Hoon Hwang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504093

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      Optimization and analysis of conjugated polymer side chains for high-performance organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) reveals a critical relationship between the chemical structure of the side chains and the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction OPVs. In particular, the impact of the alkyl side chain length on the π-bridging thienothiophene (TT) unit is considered, by designing and synthesizing a series of copolymers, PBDT(T)-(R2)ttTPD.

    10. Emergent Noncentrosymmetry and Piezoelectricity Driven by Oxygen Octahedral Rotations in n = 2 Dion–Jacobson Phase Layer Perovskites

      Megan E. Strayer, Arnab Sen Gupta, Hirofumi Akamatsu, Shiming Lei, Nicole A. Benedek, Venkatraman Gopalan and Thomas E. Mallouk

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504046

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      Oxygen octahedral rotations lower the symmetry in the Dion–Jacobson family of layered oxide perovskites, A′LaB2O7 (A′ = Rb, Cs; B = Nb, Ta). Loss of centrosymmetry below a critical temperature is evidenced by optical second harmonic generation and by the appearance of superlattice reflections in X-ray diffraction patterns.

    11. A Moisture- and Oxygen-Impermeable Separator for Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries

      Byung Gon Kim, Joo-Seong Kim, Jaeyun Min, Yong-Hee Lee, Jeong Hoon Choi, Min Chul Jang, Stefan A. Freunberger and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504437

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      A poreless polyurethane (PU) separator is implemented in Li–O2 batteries to protect Li metal anodes from continuous oxygen and water crossover from air-cathodes. The PU separator allows decent Li ion conductivity via interchain wetting of electrolyte. This approach is applicable to many upcoming high-energy rechargeable batteries using metal anodes with vulnerable interfaces.

    12. Mechanically Drawable Thermochromic and Mechanothermochromic Polydiacetylene Sensors

      Songa Chae, Jong Pil Lee and Jong-Man Kim

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504845

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      Hand-writable colorimetric polydiacetylene (PDA)–wax composite sensors are readily fabricated by using a simple mixing-molding polymerization method. Images, mechanically drawn using these PDA–wax composites on a paper substrate, display thermochromism and mechnothermochromism. The thermochromic transition temperature can be precisely controlled by the melting point of the wax used.

    13. Vertical Phase Separation in Small Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Thin Film Transistors Can Be Dynamically Controlled

      Kui Zhao, Olga Wodo, Dingding Ren, Hadayat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Rizwan Niazi, Hanlin Hu, Maged Abdelsamie, Ruipeng Li, Er. Qiang Li, Liyang Yu, Buyi Yan, Marcia M. Payne, Jeremy Smith, John E. Anthony, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Sigurdur T. Thoroddsen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503943

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      Trilayer stratification (organic semiconductor/polymer/organic semiconductor) is the thermodynamically favored configuration. However, it is shown - using a combination of in situ experiments and phase field simulations - that formation of the buried organic semiconductor layer can be kinetically controlled. Formation of a high quality buried semiconductor layer is induced using careful control. It yields unusually high mobility > 2 cm2 V−1 s−1 in the bottom-gate top-contact configuration.

    14. Nanoscale Graphene Doped with Highly Dispersed Silver Nanoparticles: Quick Synthesis, Facile Fabrication of 3D Membrane-Modified Electrode, and Super Performance for Electrochemical Sensing

      Yang Li, Panpan Zhang, Zhaofei Ouyang, Mingfa Zhang, Zhoujun Lin, Jingfeng Li, Zhiqiang Su and Gang Wei

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504533

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      Nanofibrous 3D membrane-modified electrode (MME) for H2O2 detection are successfully fabricated by electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibrous membrane doped with nanoscale graphene/silver nanoparticle hybrids based on electrospinning technique. With a freestanding porous 3D structure, the MME has super large surface area that can enhance the adsorption of electrolytes and the diffusion of reactants and it has an excellent performance for H2O2.

    15. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogels Enable Rod Photoreceptor Survival and Maturation In Vitro through Activation of the mTOR Pathway

      Nikolaos Mitrousis, Roger Y. Tam, Alexander E. G. Baker, Derek van der Kooy and Molly S. Shoichet

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504024

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      A hydrogel that can maintain isolated photoreceptors alive in vitro is developed. Toward deciphering its mechanism of action, stiffness and hyaluronic acid presence are investigated. This platform can be used for basic and translational research.

    16. Red Blood Cell-Facilitated Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer Treatment

      Wei Tang, Zipeng Zhen, Mengzhe Wang, Hui Wang, Yen-Jun Chuang, Weizhong Zhang, Geoffrey D Wang, Trever Todd, Taku Cowger, Hongmin Chen, Lin Liu, Zibo Li and Jin Xie

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504803

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      Red blood cell(RBC)-facilitated photodynamic therapy (PDT), or RBC-PDT, harnesses RBC, an O2 transporter, as a photosensitizer carrier. This measure makes it possible to efficiently generate 1O2 even under low oxygen conditions. RBC-PDT addresses the oxygen defficiency limitation that is constantly encountered in conventional PDT and is expected to find wide applications in modern oncology.

    17. Enzyme-Catalyzed Formation of Supramolecular Hydrogels as Promising Vaccine Adjuvants

      Huaimin Wang, Zichao Luo, Youzhi Wang, Tao He, Chengbiao Yang, Chunhua Ren, Linsha Ma, Changyang Gong, Xingyi Li and Zhimou Yang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505188

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      Short peptides and the protein antigen can coassemble into supramolecular hydrogels capable of raising both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

    18. Difluorobenzothiadiazole-Based Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells with 8.7% Efficiency by Tuning of π-Conjugated Spacers and Solvent Vapor Annealing

      Jin-Liang Wang, Fei Xiao, Jun Yan, Zhuo Wu, Kai-Kai Liu, Zheng-Feng Chang, Ru-Bo Zhang, Hui Chen, Hong-Bin Wu and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505020

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      A series of wide-bandgap small-molecules are synthesized and the effect of the various π-conjugated spacers and of an additional solvent–vapor annealing process on their photovoltaic properties is demonstrated. The devices based on BIT4FTh (with thiophene as a spacer) shows an outstanding PCE of 8.7% (with an impressive FF of 0.75), which is among the highest efficiencies reported for devices based on wide-bandgap small-molecules.

    19. Earth-Abundant and Durable Nanoporous Catalyst for Exhaust-Gas Conversion

      Takeshi Fujita, Hideki Abe, Toyokazu Tanabe, Yoshikazu Ito, Tomoharu Tokunaga, Shigeo Arai, Yuta Yamamoto, Akihiko Hirata and Mingwei Chen

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504811

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      An earth-abundant and durable nanoporous catalyst is developed for exhaust-gas conversion. The nanoporous NiCuMnO catalyst obtained by one-step dealloying exhibits high catalytic activity and durability for NO reduction and CO oxidation. The catalytically active Cu/CuO regions are tangled with a stable nanoporous NiMnO network, indicating a new catalyst design. The nanoporous catalysts may be a rational alternative to traditional precious-metal catalysts.

    20. Theoretical Study of Cellular Piezoelectret Generators

      Wenbo Li, Nan Wu, Junwen Zhong, Qize Zhong, Sheng Zhao, Bo Wang, Xiaofeng Cheng, Suling Li, Kang Liu, Bin Hu and Jun Zhou

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503704

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      A theoretical study of cellular piezoelectret generators (CPGs) is presented, focusing on the enhancement of their dynamic performance. An effective means to optimize the output characteristics of CPGs is found. This discovery will enhance performance and application range of future devices.

    21. Energy Quantization in Solution-Processed Layers of Indium Oxide and Their Application in Resonant Tunneling Diodes

      John G. Labram, Neil D. Treat, Yen-Hung Lin, Claire H. Burgess, Martyn A. McLachlan and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503732

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      The existence of quantized energy states in ultrathin, solution-processed layers of indium oxide is demonstrated. For layers below a critical thickness threshold a widening of the optical band gap is observed experimentally and in calculations. Sequential deposition of indium oxide and gallium oxide layers forms double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes that exhibit negative differential conductance under reverse and forward biases.

    22. Mesoporous Silica as Nanoreactors to Prepare Gd-Encapsulated Carbon Dots of Controllable Sizes and Magnetic Properties

      Hongmin Chen, Geoffrey D. Wang, Xilin Sun, Trever Todd, Fan Zhang, Jin Xie and Baozhong Shen

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504177

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      Mesoporous silica nanoparticles serve as nanoreactors for the synthesis of Gd-Encapsulated carbon dots (Gd@C-dots) from Gd-complexes by calcination. Since the dimension of the silica cavity limits growth, the size distribution of the Gd@C-dots is narrow. The Gd@C-dots are successfully appied in MRI imaging.

    23. Free-Standing Functionalized Graphene Oxide Solid Electrolytes in Electrochemical Gas Sensors

      Gaopeng Jiang, Maciej Goledzinowski, Felix J. E. Comeau, Hadis Zarrin, Gregory Lui, Jared Lenos, Alicia Veileux, Guihua Liu, Jing Zhang, Sahar Hemmati, Jinli Qiao and Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504604

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      An new type of electrochemical gas sensor, employing a free-standing film of sulfonic acid functionalized graphene oxide (fSGO) as the solid electrolyte, is developed. Based on the design of alcohol fuel cell sensors (AFCSs), the developed sensor detects alcohol with excellent sensor response, linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity, promising its implementation into portable devices.

    24. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Photoexcitations in Organometal Trihalide Perovskites

      Yaxin Zhai, ChuanXiang Sheng, Chuang Zhang and Zeev Valy Vardeny

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505115

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      The room temperature broadband ultrafast transient response of photoexcitations has been studied in three perovskite films: MAPbI3, MAPbI1.1Br1.9, and MAPbI3−xClx (MA = CH3NH3). This work shows that the exciton binding energy in the hybrid perovskites is a crucial parameter that determines the branching ratio between the photogenerated exciton and free carriers following the thermalization process.

    25. Dealloyed AuNi Dendrite Anchored on a Functionalized Conducting Polymer for Improved Catalytic Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing in Living Cells

      Malenahalli Halappa Naveen, Nanjanagudu Ganesh Gurudatt, Hui-Bog Noh and Yoon-Bo Shim

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504506

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      A terthiophene polymer-supported dealloyed AuNi dendrite (AuNi@pTBA) is designed by a simple electrochemical approach. This stable and active electrocatalyst is formed through complexation between the metal ions and the carboxylic acid groups of the polymer. Electrodes based on this material possess excellent catalytic properties, which surpass those of commercial Pt/C electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction, and are good candidates for the sensitive detection of H2O2 release from living cells.

    26. Noninvasive Transdermal Vaccination Using Hyaluronan Nanocarriers and Laser Adjuvant

      Ki Su Kim, Hyemin Kim, Yunji Park, Won Ho Kong, Seung Woo Lee, Sheldon J. J. Kwok, Sei Kwang Hahn and Seok Hyun Yun

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504879

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      A highly effective, noninvasive transdermal vaccination system is demonstrated using laser adjuvant and hyaluronan (HA) nanocarrier. Topically applied HA–OVA conjugates penetrate the intact skin efficiently and establish strong humoral (IgG) and mucosal (IgA) responses at ovalbumin (OVA) doses as small as 1 mg kg−1 in mice. The transdermal immunization efficiency is higher than intramuscular injection of OVA and similar to intramuscular injection of HA–OVA.

    27. Multigaps Embedded Nanoassemblies Enhance In Situ Raman Spectroscopy for Intracellular Telomerase Activity Sensing

      Liguang Xu, Sen Zhao, Wei Ma, Xiaoling Wu, Si Li, Hua Kuang, Libing Wang and Chuanlai Xu

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504587

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      In situ distinguishing between cancerous and normal cells can easily be carried out using Raman spectroscopy to determine the telomerase activity within the cells. The pyramid-like structures are used for sensing intracellular telomerase activity in live cells without complicated extraction procedures. The analytical ability of this method is more sensitive than that of fluorescence assays.

    28. Strain Modulation in Graphene/ZnO Nanorod Film Schottky Junction for Enhanced Photosensing Performance

      Shuo Liu, Qingliang Liao, Shengnan Lu, Zheng Zhang, Guangjie Zhang and Yue Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503905

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      Strain modulation in graphene/ZnO film Schottky junction is investigated. Utilizing the piezopotential generated in ZnO under compressive strain, 17% enhanced photosensing performance is achieved when applying −0.349% strain. The results here provide a facile approach to boost the optoelectronic performance of graphene/ZnO heterostructures, which may also be applied to other Schottky junction-based hybrid devices.

    29. Large Area Artificial Spin Ice and Anti-Spin Ice Ni80Fe20 Structures: Static and Dynamic Behavior

      Xue Zhou, Geng-Li Chua, Navab Singh and Adekunle O. Adeyeye

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505165

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      The nanofabrication of large area artificial spin ice and anti-spin ice structures by using deep ultraviolet lithography at 193 nm exposure wavelength is reported. The method allows to arrange the magnetic elements in three different lattice configurations. It is demonstrated that the static and dynamic behaviors of these structures are highly tunable. The results are validated using micromagnetic simulations.

    30. An Interface Engineered Multicolor Photodetector Based on n-Si(111)/TiO2 Nanorod Array Heterojunction

      Tao Ji, Qian Liu, Rujia Zou, Yangang Sun, Kaibing Xu, Liwen Sang, Meiyong Liao, Yasuo Koide, Li Yu and Junqing Hu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504464

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      A multicolor photodetector based on a n-Si(111)/TiO2 nanorod array heterojunction is developed by utilizing interface engineering, responding to both ultraviolet and visible light by changing the applied bias.

    31. Hierarchical Carbon Nanotubes with a Thick Microporous Wall and Inner Channel as Efficient Scaffolds for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Kan Mi, Yong Jiang, Jinkui Feng, Yitai Qian and Shenglin Xiong

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504835

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      Micro/mesoporous carbonaceous nanotubes (HMMCNTs) are synthesized and proven to be an appropriate sulfur scaffold for lithium–sulfur batteries. Benefiting from the attractive hierarchical micro/mesoporous configuration, these nanocomposite sulfur cathodes indicate a good cycling stability and excellent reversible capacity even at high rates.

    32. Dopant-Free Spiro-Triphenylamine/Fluorene as Hole-Transporting Material for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Efficiency and Stability

      Ya-Kun Wang, Zhong-Cheng Yuan, Guo-Zheng Shi, Yong-Xi Li, Qian Li, Fei Hui, Bao-Quan Sun, Zuo-Quan Jiang and Liang-Sheng Liao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504245

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      A dopant-free hole-transporting material (HTM), N2,N2,N2′,N2′,N7,N7,N7′,N7′-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-10-phenyl-10H-spiro[acridine-9,9′-fluorene]-2,2′,7,7′-tetraamine (SAF-OMe), is developed and implemented for use in perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieved by using SAF-OMe as HTM is 12.39%, more than two times the reference 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD).

    33. Interface Engineering and Controlling the Friction and Wear of Ultrathin Carbon Films: High sp3 Versus High sp2 Carbons

      Neeraj Dwivedi, Reuben J. Yeo, Zheng Zhang, Chetna Dhand, Sudhiranjan Tripathy and Charanjit S. Bhatia

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503731

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      Film–substrate (FS) interface engineering of high sp3- and high sp2-bonded ultrathin carbon films is performed by tuning the carbon energetics and utilizing a silicon nitride interlayer. FS-interface engineering substantially reduces the wear of ultrathin carbon films while maintaining/reducing the friction. This approach can potentially alleviate friction and wear issues that hinder the advancement of many technologies where tribological coatings are required.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Structure and Properties of Nanocomposites Formed by the Occlusion of Block Copolymer Worms and Vesicles Within Calcite Crystals

      Yi-Yeoun Kim, Mona Semsarilar, Joseph D. Carloni, Kang Rae Cho, Alexander N. Kulak, Iryna Polishchuk, Coit T. Hendley IV, Paul J. M. Smeets, Lee A. Fielding, Boaz Pokroy, Chiu C. Tang, Lara A. Estroff, Shefford P. Baker, Steven P. Armes and Fiona C. Meldrum

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504292

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      A bioinspired one-pot method is presented which generates nanocomposites comprising copolymer vesicles and worms occluded within calcite single crystals. Detailed characterization of the nanocomposites shows that the microstructures of the host crystals are controlled by size, shape, and surface chemistry of their copolymer occlusions, giving rise to hardnesses comparable to many calcite biominerals.

    35. Epitaxy of Radial High-Energy-Facetted Ultrathin TiO2 Nanosheets onto Nanowires for Enhanced Photoreactivities

      Haifeng Lin and Xun Wang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504850

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      1D TiO2 hierarchitectures with epitaxial {100} and {010} high-energy-facetted ultrathin nanosheets have been constructed for the first time. The hierarchitectures exhibit superior characteristics compared to nanoparticles, nanowires, and the physical mixture of nanosheets and nanowires: surface area, number of active sites, and separation of electron–hole pairs are significantly increased. In consequence, the photocatalytic performance is much superior.

    36. Side Chain Optimization of Naphthalenediimide–Bithiophene-Based Polymers to Enhance the Electron Mobility and the Performance in All-Polymer Solar Cells

      Wonho Lee, Changyeon Lee, Hojeong Yu, Dong-Jun Kim, Cheng Wang, Han Young Woo, Joon Hak Oh and Bumjoon J. Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504191

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      The effect of side chain modification of naphthalenediimide–bithiophene (NDI-T2)-based n-type polymers on their structural and electronic properties has been investigated. The P(NDI2HD-T2)-based all-polymer solar cells produce much better performance than other NDI-T2-based devices (i.e., P(NDI2OD-T2) (Polyera Activink N2200)) irrespective of the electron donor due to superb electron transport ability of P(NDI2HD-T2).

    37. Wetting-Assisted Crack- and Wrinkle-Free Transfer of Wafer-Scale Graphene onto Arbitrary Substrates over a Wide Range of Surface Energies

      Hyun Ho Kim, Seong Kyu Lee, Seung Goo Lee, Eunho Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504551

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      During transfer of graphene films defects, such as folds and cracks, are generated by wrinkles in the supporting polymer layer. Transfer by a low-surface tension organic liquid prevents this wrinkle formation, resulting in high-quality and uniform graphene on arbitrary substrates.

    38. Low-Overpotential Li–O2 Batteries Based on TFSI Intercalated Co–Ti Layered Double Oxides

      Shu-Mao Xu, Qian-Cheng Zhu, Jie Long, Hong-Hui Wang, Xing-Fei Xie, Kai-Xue Wang and Jie-Sheng Chen

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504128

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      Investigation on the compatibility at the interface between a highly active catalyst and the electrolyte is crucial for lithium–oxygen battery cathodes with excellent ­cycling stability. A strategy is developed to achieve balance between the catalytic activity and the electrochemical stability by the intercalation of bistrifluoromethane sulfonamide (TFSI) anions into ­interlayers of a cobalt–titanium-layered double oxide.

    39. Toward Biodegradable Mg–Air Bioelectric Batteries Composed of Silk Fibroin–Polypyrrole Film

      Xiaoteng Jia, Caiyun Wang, Chen Zhao, Yu Ge and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503498

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      A partially biodegradable bilayer-structured film composed of silk fibroin and polypyrrole demonstrates an 82% mass loss after 15 d incubation in buffered protease XIV solution. It can offer an energy density of ≈4.70 mW h cm−2 when coupled with Mg alloy in phosphate buffered saline. This battery system may provide appropriate power for temporary implantable electronics coupled with the required degradation profile.

    40. A Large-Area, Flexible, and Flame-Retardant Graphene Paper

      Liye Dong, Chuangang Hu, Long Song, Xianke Huang, Nan Chen and Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504470

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      A flame-retardant piece of free ­standing graphene paper is developed by ­using graphene oxide and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene. The graphene paper shows efficient flame retardant properties in combustion. The improved thermal stability of graphene opens new possibilities for various applications, including the use as civil, military, and aerospace flame retardant.

    41. Manipulating Electronic Energy Disorder in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Enhanced Charge Carrier Transport

      Sangjin Lee, David Zhitomirsky and Jeffrey C. Grossman

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504816

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      Disorder in localized energy states in colloidal quantum dot materials largely degrades their charge carrier mobility. Rearrangements of colloidal quantum dot solids effectively modify the charge transport trends, including easing the mobility drop even in high polydisperse cases. Doubled charge carrier mobility presents an avenue toward enhanced charge extractions in photovoltaic devices.

    42. Large-Area Ultrathin Graphene Films by Single-Step Marangoni Self-Assembly for Highly Sensitive Strain Sensing Application

      Xinming Li, Tingting Yang, Yao Yang, Jia Zhu, Li Li, Fakhr E. Alam, Xiao Li, Kunlin Wang, Huanyu Cheng, Cheng-Te Lin, Ying Fang and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504717

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      An environment-friendly and cost-effective method to fabricate large-area ultrathin graphene films is proposed for highly sensitive flexible strain sensing applications. This simple Marangoni-effect-based fabrication makes it a novel approach to applications in electronic skin, wearable sensors, and health monitoring platforms.

    43. Plasmonic Nanoparticles as a Physically Unclonable Function for Responsive Anti-Counterfeit Nanofingerprints

      Alison F. Smith, Paul Patton and Sara E. Skrabalak

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503989

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      An optical physically unclonable function using a random distribution of Au nanoparticles is presented, with the additional functionality of refractive index based environmental sensing using both Au and Ag nanoparticles. This system provides facile fabrication of anti-counterfeit labels, with total dimensions on the microscale for applications in pharmaceutical and electronic counterfeit prevention.

    44. Spray Deposition of Titania Films with Incorporated Crystalline Nanoparticles for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using P3HT

      Lin Song, Weijia Wang, Volker Körstgens, Daniel Moseguí González, Yuan Yao, Norma K. Minar, Johann M. Feckl, Kristina Peters, Thomas Bein, Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Gonzalo Santoro, Stephan V. Roth and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504498

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      All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell performance is tuned by the addition of presynthesized crystalline titania nanoparticles. Films with 50 wt% nano­particles possess the network morphology best suited for poly(3-hexylthiophene) infiltration. Due to optimal crystal size and highest conductivity, the corresponding solar cells show the best photovoltaic performance.

    45. Efficiency Roll-Off in Blue Emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Carbazole Host Materials

      Chaoyu Xiang, Xiangyu Fu, Wei Wei, Rui Liu, Yong Zhang, Viktor Balema, Bryce Nelson and Franky So

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504357

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      The efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using different carbazole compounds as the host is studied. While there is no significant difference in device efficiency, OLEDs using ter-carbazole as the host show a reduction in efficiency roll-off at high luminance. Low triplet–triplet and triplet–polaron interactions are identified as the main cause of the suppressed roll-off.

    46. Native Defect-Induced Hysteresis Behavior in Organolead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Hui Yu, Haipeng Lu, Fangyan Xie, Shuang Zhou and Ni Zhao

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504997

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      The origin of the currentvoltage hysteresis is studied by fine-tuning the precursor ratio of methylammonium lead iodide and thus varying the native defects in the material. The lower activation energy of the “PbI2 excess” and “stoichiometric” samples indicates that the presence of MA vacancies may provide a favorable pathway for the migration of iodide ions.

    47. Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium Cobaltite Films

      Jonathan R. Petrie, Chandrima Mitra, Hyoungjeen Jeen, Woo Seok Choi, Tricia L. Meyer, Fernando A. Reboredo, John W. Freeland, Gyula Eres and Ho Nyung Lee

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504868

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      The application of epitaxial strain to perovskite-based cobaltites is shown to allow oxygen stoichiometries not possible before in highly oxidizing conditions, resulting in the precise control of functional oxygen defects at reduced temperatures (≤300 °C). Due to the additional oxygen vacancies created through tensile strain, epitaxial SrCoOx films can be tuned from a ferromagnetic metal to an antiferromagnetic insulator in the same environment, enhancing the functionality of such oxides independent of the operating conditions.

    48. Scaffolded Thermally Remendable Hybrid Polymer Networks

      Gayla Berg Lyon, Austin Baranek and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505368

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      Two distinct networks, one fixed and one reversible, are reacted simultaneously to create a “scaffolded” thermally remendable polymer. At elevated temperature, the Diels–Alder network depolymerizes and can flow into damaged regions, while the polyurethane network maintains the permanent shape of the sample. The catalyst-free, solvent-free process can be performed repeatedly without concern of depleting the Diels–Alder monomers.

  8. Feature Articles

    1. Predicting the Self-Assembly of Superparamagnetic Colloids under Magnetic Fields

      Jordi Faraudo, Jordi S. Andreu, Carles Calero and Juan Camacho

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504839

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      Recent theoretical advances allow quantitative predictions of self-assembly of superparamagnetic colloids under magnetic fields. This article describes how to employ self-assembly thermodynamics to predict the possible assembled structures from the properties of the colloidal suspension (particle, size, magnetization, concentration, temperature). Quantitative prediction of kinetics is also discussed for the cases in which equilibrium theory is not relevant.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Near-Infrared Plasmonic 2D Semimetals for Applications in Communication and Biology

      Zhengfeng Zhu, Yousheng Zou, Weida Hu, Yuebin Li, Yu Gu, Bingqiang Cao, Nan Guo, Lin Wang, Jizhong Song, Shengli Zhang, Haoshuang Gu and Haibo Zeng

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504884

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      Novel near-infrared plasmonic properties are discovered in thickness- and width-controlled 2D TiS2 nanosheets. These properties can be harnessed to improve the photodetection performance in the spectral communication window (1200–1600 nm). Additionally, the biologically accessible spectral window (700–1200 nm) can be therapeutically employed to generate a photothermal temperature rise of 50 °C.

    2. 3D Hierarchical Co/CoO-Graphene-Carbonized Melamine Foam as a Superior Cathode toward Long-Life Lithium Oxygen Batteries

      Peng Zhang, Rutao Wang, Mu He, Junwei Lang, Shan Xu and Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503907

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      Core–shell structured Co/CoO with high LiO2 adsorption energy is proven to be a superior preservative for carbon-based Li-O2 batteries. The design is based on a 3D Co/CoO-graphene-carbonized polymer foam. The preservative reduces the side reaction and improves the cycle stability of Li-O2 batteries by inducing Li2O2 growth on itself instead of the carbon surfaces.

  10. Feature Articles

    1. The Transient Localization Scenario for Charge Transport in Crystalline Organic Materials

      Simone Fratini, Didier Mayou and Sergio Ciuchi

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502386

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      Charge transport in crystalline organic semiconductors is intrinsically limited by the presence of large thermal molecular motions. These lead to an original regime of transport called transient localization, sharing features of both localized and itinerant electron systems. Here, an overview of recent theoretical descriptions of the phenomenon is provided, alongside their experimental implications.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Substrate-Induced and Thin-Film Phases: Polymorphism of Organic Materials on Surfaces

      Andrew O. F. Jones, Basab Chattopadhyay, Yves H. Geerts and Roland Resel

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503169

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      Substrate-induced phases are polymorphs with a molecular packing distinct from the bulk, forming in the vicinity of a solid substrate. Predominantly known for organic semiconducting molecules such as pentacene, they are found to be an intrinsic material property, forming due to the inherent structural anisotropy of organic systems. Their origins may be traced to the substrate geometry and the structure of any underlying wetting or monolayers.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Manipulation of Disodium Rhodizonate: Factors for Fast-Charge and Fast-Discharge Sodium-Ion Batteries with Long-Term Cyclability

      Chengliang Wang, Yaoguo Fang, Yang Xu, Liying Liang, Min Zhou, Huaping Zhao and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504537

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      Factors determining the performance of sodium-ion batteries are investigated. To achieve improved cyclability, control of solubility through molecular design, proper determination of the electrochemical window and binder selection are shown to be essential. Moreover, decent charge transport and ionic diffusion are demonstrated to be favorable for fast-charge and fast-discharge.

    2. Polymorphism and Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Dicyano-Distyrylbenzene Derivative with Multiple Trifluoromethyl Substituents: Intermolecular Interactions in Play

      Shinto Varghese, Sang Kyu Park, Santiago Casado, Roland Resel, Reinhold Wannemacher, Larry Lüer, Soo Young Park and Johannes Gierschner

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503371

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      Stimulated emission in the polymorphs CN-TFPA is investigated. Delicate interplay between the intermolecular interactions leads to polymorphs with distinctly different emission behavior. Only the blue form displays light amplification with low threshold, while the green form does not. These suffice the fact that the intermolecular interactions are decisive in the optical, electronic, and light amplification properties in organic materials.


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