Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 107
  1. Full Papers

    1. Novel Molybdenum Carbide–Tungsten Carbide Composite Nanowires and Their Electrochemical Activation for Efficient and Stable Hydrogen Evolution

      Peng Xiao, Xiaoming Ge, Haibo Wang, Zhaolin Liu, Adrian Fisher and Xin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403633

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      The well-defined nanowire structure of complex molybdenum carbide–tungsten carbide is realized by a pseudomorphic transformation and exhibits high activity towards hydrogen evolution reaction after electrochemical activation.

    2. Lanthanide Ion Codoped Emitters for Tailoring Emission Trajectory and Temperature Sensing

      Shu-Na Zhao, Lei-Jiao Li, Xue-Zhi Song, Min Zhu, Zhao-Min Hao, Xing Meng, Lan-Lan Wu, Jing Feng, Shu-Yan Song, Cheng Wang and Hong-Jie Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402061

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      Codoped Ln-metal-organic frameworks EuxTb1-xL are synthesized based on the isostructural Ln-metal-organic frameworks using lanthanide ion emitters. With careful adjustment of the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions and the excitation wavelength, the emission trajectory can be modulated, allowing white emission. Furthermore, Eu0.2Tb0.8L allows for the design of a thermometer operating over a wide range, from 40 to 300 K.

    3. The Effect of Protein Fusions on the Production and Mechanical Properties of Protein-Based Materials

      Shang-Pu Tsai, David W. Howell, Zhao Huang, Hao-Ching Hsiao, Yang Lu, Kathleen S. Matthews, Jun Lou and Sarah E. Bondos

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402997

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      A wide range of proteins can be incorporated into protein-based materials via gene fusion, to produce a single polypeptide capable of self-assembly and the function of interest. 24 proteins are fused to Ultrabithorax, a protein which self-assembles in vitro. Whereas the appended proteins determine the solubility and purification yield of the corresponding fusion protein, all fusion proteins self-assemble equally well.

    4. Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles as Nano Floating Gate Electrets for High Performance Nonvolatile Organic Transistor Memory Devices

      Chien-Chung Shih, Yu-Cheng Chiu, Wen-Ya Lee, Jung-Yao Chen and Wen-Chang Chen

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404329

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      A molecular nano-floating gate approach using conjugated polymer nanoparticles is developed for achieving high performance transistor memory devices. The transistor memory device using discrete polyfluorene and poly(fluorene-alt-benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole nanoparticles as the floating gates can effectively trap the electrons and lead to a large memory window, long retention time, and a high ON/OFF ratio of >104.

    5. Mesoporous Colloidal Superparticles of Platinum-Group Nanocrystals with Surfactant-Free Surfaces and Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

      Yongxing Hu, Yuzi Liu and Yugang Sun

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403664

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      Colloidal superparticles consisting of platinum nanocrystals embedded in silver chloride matrix are synthesized through a self-limited coprecipitation on sacrificial substrates of colloidal silver particles. ­Selective dissolution of silver chloride leads to the formation of porous superparticles of platinum with ligand-free surfaces that are beneficial for solution-phase heterogeneous catalysis.

    6. Self-Limited Switching in Ta2O5/TaOx Memristors Exhibiting Uniform Multilevel Changes in Resistance

      Kyung Min Kim, Seung Ryul Lee, Sungho Kim, Man Chang and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403621

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      A self-limited switching circuit for uniformly regulating the resistance states is first suggested. This circuit, which is composed of memristor, switch, and resistor, is successfully established in a Ta2O5/TaOx structure. In this device, low- and high-resistance states, and their intermediate resistance states are precisely regulated, and thus, multilevel switching is successfully achieved.

    7. Ultrafast All-Polymer Electrically Tunable Silicone Lenses

      Luc Maffli, Samuel Rosset, Michele Ghilardi, Federico Carpi and Herbert Shea

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403942

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      Soft and electrically tunable lenses based on dielectric elastomer actuators are fabricated and exhibit settling time below 175 μs. Soft and compliant systems can also display fast response speed by a proper choice of materials and an adequate design. The lens, based on a low-loss commercial silicone, is able to modulate its focal length by 20%.

    8. Transparent, Stimuli-Responsive Films from Cellulose-Based Organogel Nanoparticles

      Yonggui Wang, Lars-Oliver Heim, Yeping Xu, Gerd Buntkowsky and Kai Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403067

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      Novel cellulose-based organogel nanoparticles, called surface-stearoylated cellulose nanoparticles (SS-CNPs), are synthesized after the surface esterification of cellulose fibers under heterogeneous reaction conditions. SS-CNPs form stimuli-responsive organogels and transparent, self-standing films by solvent casting. The films show solvent-responsive surface wettability, responsive shape-memory properties as well as switchable optical colors by forming nanocomposite films containing stearoylated rhodamine spiroamide.

    9. MoS2/Graphene Composite Anodes with Enhanced Performance for Sodium-Ion Batteries: The Role of the Two-Dimensional Heterointerface

      Xiuqiang Xie, Zhimin Ao, Dawei Su, Jinqiang Zhang and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404078

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      MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nano­composites are prepared as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The performance of MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nano­composites is closely related to the heterointerfacial areas. Computational investigations reveal that the 2D MoS2/reduced graphene oxide heterointerface can increase the conductivity of MoS2, adsorb more Na atoms, and maintain high diffusion mobility of Na on MoS2 surface and electron transfer efficiency from Na to MoS2.

    10. Hydrogen-Terminated Si Nanowires as Label-Free Colorimetric Sensors in the Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Detection of Fluoride Anions in Pure Water Phase

      Hui Wang, Pei-Hong Fan, Bin Tong, Yu-Ping Dong, Xue-Mei Ou, Fan Li and Xiao-Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401632

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      A colorimetric sensor for F−1 detection in pure water is investigated by taking advantage of the strong specific binding between F and Si, as well as the color change property of SiNWs with their diameter. The sensor demonstrates ultrasensitivity, high selectivity, and good stability.

    11. Torrent Frog-Inspired Adhesives: Attachment to Flooded Surfaces

      Jagoba Iturri, Longjian Xue, Michael Kappl, Luis García-Fernández, W. Jon P. Barnes, Hans-Jürgen Butt and Aránzazu del Campo

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403751

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      The friction of artificial hexagonal arrays of polydimethyl­siloxane pillars in the presence of water is studied. Arrays consisting of elongated pillars, resembling the structure of the toe pads of torrent frogs, are compared with arrays of hexagonal pillars as found in the toe pads of tree frogs. Elongated pillar patterns show significantly higher friction in a direction perpendicular to the long axis and favor orientation-dependent friction.

    12. Magnetic Helical Microswimmers Functionalized with Lipoplexes for Targeted Gene Delivery

      Famin Qiu, Satoshi Fujita, Rami Mhanna, Li Zhang, Benjamin R. Simona and Bradley J. Nelson

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403891

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      Magnetic helical microswimmers, called artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs), can perform precise 3D navigation in liquid under low-strength rotating magnetic fields, making themselves promising tools for targeted therapies. The ABFs are functionalized with lipoplexes containing plasmid DNA, and the successful wirelessly targeted gene delivery to human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using these functionalized ABFs is demonstrated.

    13. On-Chip Self-Assembly of a Smart Hybrid Nanocomposite for Antitumoral Applications

      Bárbara Herranz-Blanco, Dongfei Liu, Ermei Mäkilä, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Eloy Ginestar, Hongbo Zhang, Vladimir Aseyev, Vimalkumar Balasubramanian, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen and Hélder A. Santos

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404122

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      A multistage drug delivery nanocomposite, comprising porous silicon nanoparticles and micellar pH-responsive polymers, is fabricated by microfluidic nanoprecipitation. The drug-loaded multistage platform shows high cytocompatibility, pH-dependent cell growth inhibition capacity, and reduced internalization by phagocytic macrophage cells. This nanocomposite is a good candidate for further development as a platform for cancer drug delivery.

    14. Stretchable Conductive Composites Based on Metal Wools for Use as Electrical Vias in Soft Devices

      Joshua Lessing, Stephen A. Morin, Christoph Keplinger, Alok S. Tayi and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403396

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      Soft devices can be bent, stretched, and compressed reversibly, but conventional wires are rigid. This work describes stretchable composites that are easily fabricated with simple tools and commodity materials, and that can provide a strategy for electrical wiring that meets certain needs of soft devices. The utility of this composite is demonstrated in several devices, including a soft, solderless breadboard.

    15. Regulated Breathing Effect of Silicon Negative Electrode for Dramatically Enhanced Performance of Li-Ion Battery

      Xingcheng Xiao, Weidong Zhou, Youngnam Kim, Ill Ryu, Meng Gu, Chongmin Wang, Gao Liu, Zhongyi Liu and Huajian Gao

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403629

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      Si–C yolk–shell is applied to regulate the breathing effect and one order of magnitude of reduction on thickness changes at the electrode level during cycling is achieved: the electrode thickness variation reduces down to 10%, comparing with 100% in the electrode with Si nanoparticles as active materials.

    16. Biospecific Self-Assembly of a Nanoparticle Coating for Targeted and Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery

      Jinyang Li, Xue Qu, Gregory F. Payne, Cheng Zhang, Yuxin Zhang, Jianbo Li, Jie Ren, Hua Hong and Changsheng Liu

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403636

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      Biology routinely uses nanoparticles to target the delivery of molecular and macro­molecular cargo. Here, biological materials and mechanisms are listed for the fabrication of a nanoparticle coating that: i) self-assembles through biospecific interactions (sugar–lectin binding), ii) confers targeting function (selective cellular uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis), and iii) is triggered to disassemble for cargo release in response to physiologically relevant stimuli (endosomal pH).

    17. Molecular Mechanism of Specific Recognition of Cubic Pt Nanocrystals by Peptides and of the Concentration-Dependent Formation from Seed Crystals

      Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Lingyan Ruan, Yu Huang and Hendrik Heinz

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404136

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      The mechanism of selective peptide recognition of nanocrystals and peptide-directed growth into specific shapes is explained using molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. The adsorption strength of the peptides depends on the spatial location on the surface and on the concentration, in addition to the sequence. Preferences in facet coverage and binding energies correlate with nanocrystal shape, size, and yield.

    18. Enhanced Specificity in Capturing and Restraining Circulating Tumor Cells with Dual Antibody–Dendrimer Conjugates

      Jingjing Xie, Yusheng Lu, Haiyan Dong, Rongli Zhao, Hongning Chen, Weiyu Shen, Patrick J. Sinko, Yewei Zhu, Jichuang Wang, Jingwei Shao, Yu Gao, Fangwei Xie and Lee Jia

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403556

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      Synthesized dual antibody-coated nanomaterial conjugates can specifically capture the rare circulating HepG2 tumor cells mixed with large population of red blood cells and HL-60, resulting in down-regulation of HepG2.

    19. In-Plane Alignment in Organic Solar Cells to Probe the Morphological Dependence of Charge Recombination

      Omar Awartani, Michael W. Kudenov, R. Joseph Kline and Brendan T. O'Connor

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403377

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      The internal quantum efficiency for light absorption in high-order and low-order P3HT aggregates is measured in a single photovoltaic cell, enabled by fabricating devices with polymer in-plane alignment and selective polymer excitation using linearly polarized illumination. The internal quantum efficiency is independent of polarized illumination suggesting losses in disordered films are solely due to charge collection losses.

    20. Unraveling the Gain Mechanism in High Performance Solution-Processed PbS Infrared PIN Photodiodes

      Jae Woong Lee, Do Young Kim and Franky So

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403673

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      High gain solution processed PbS nanocrystals photodetectors with a gain of 187 are demonstrated with infrared sensitivity up to 1500 nm. The photodetectors have a high detectivity of 7 × 1013 Jones, which is even higher than that of a commercial InGaAs photodiode. The gain is due to the enhancement of electron injection through the TAPC electron blocking layer.

    21. Gold Nanoclusters-Based Nanoprobes for Simultaneous Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Photodynamic Therapy with Superior Penetration and Retention Behavior in Tumors

      Chunlei Zhang, Chao Li, Yanlei Liu, Jingpu Zhang, Chenchen Bao, Shujing Liang, Qing Wang, Yao Yang, Hualin Fu, Kan Wang and Daxiang Cui

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403095

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      A novel gold nanoclusters-based Ce6 delivery nano-platform is developed to achieve selective targeting toward cancer cells and tumors combining photodynamic therapy therapy. Systematic in vitro and in vivo experiments evaluate the cellular uptake, light-induced cell apoptosis, biodistribution, as well as FA-directed active tumor targeting and deep-penetration-enhanced photodynamic therapy of the gold nanoclusters-based nanoprobes. The results identify the great potentials of gold nanoclusters for clinical use.

    22. DNA/Tannic Acid Hybrid Gel Exhibiting Biodegradability, Extensibility, Tissue Adhesiveness, and Hemostatic Ability

      Mikyung Shin, Ji Hyun Ryu, Joseph P. Park, Keumyeon Kim, Jae Wook Yang and Haeshin Lee

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403992

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      A new concept in DNA gel preparation using a plant-inspired “molecular glue,” tannic acid (TA), is applied in this study. The gel, named TNA (TA + DNA) hydrogel, exhibits unique characteristics not observed in conventional DNA gels: extensibility, adhesiveness, degradability, and hemostatic ability. The crosslinking mechanism via hydrogen bonds enables the large-scale preparation of TNA gel and the release of encapsulated DNA.

    23. Engineered Proteinticles for Targeted Delivery of siRNA to Cancer Cells

      Eun Jung Lee, So Jin Lee, Yoon-Sik Kang, Ju Hee Ryu, Koo Chul Kwon, Eunji Jo, Ji Young Yhee, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim and Jeewon Lee

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403680

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      An efficient system for targeted siRNA delivery to cancer cells is successfully developed using genetically engineered human ferritin-based proteinticles. The engineered proteinticles display various functional peptides [cationic peptide to capture siRNA, tumor cell targeting and penetrating peptides (CTP and CPP, respectively), and enzymatically cleaved peptide to release small interfering RNA inside tumor cell] on their surface and show no cytotoxicity.

    24. Tunable Near UV Microcavity OLED Arrays: Characterization and Analytical Applications

      Eeshita Manna, Fadzai Fungura, Rana Biswas, Joseph Shinar and Ruth Shinar

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403313

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      Near-UV microcavity CBP-based OLEDs (peak emission ≈385 nm) with Al/Pd anode exhibit increased irradiance and lower turn-on voltage in comparison to other CBP-based OLEDs. The peak emission is well aligned with the narrow 385 nm absorption band of the ubiquitous PtOEP. A tunable microcavity OLED array (peak electroluminescence 370–430 nm) is utilized in an all-organic (OLED/sensing film/OPD) on-chip spectrophotometer.

    25. Does Excess Energy Assist Photogeneration in an Organic Low-Bandgap Solar Cell?

      Tobias Hahn, Johannes Geiger, Xavier Blase, Ivan Duchemin, Dorota Niedzialek, Steffen Tscheuschner, David Beljonne, Heinz Bässler and Anna Köhler

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403784

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      Exciton dissociation in bilayer solar cells is facilitated by exciting into higher-lying, more delocalized excited states of the donor polymer. This is shown by measuring the field dependence of the photocurrent in PCDTBT/C60 cells and in PCPDTBT/C60 cells for different excitation energies and comparing this to the delocalization of the associated excited states as determined by quantum-chemical calculations.

    26. Novel Biocompatible Polysaccharide-Based Self-Healing Hydrogel

      Zhao Wei, Jian Hai Yang, Zhen Qi Liu, Feng Xu, Jin Xiong Zhou, Miklós Zrínyi, Yoshihito Osada and Yong Mei Chen

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401502

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      A novel biocompatible polysaccharide-based self-healing hydrogel containing dynamic imine and acylhydrazone bonds can be prepared by the dynamic reaction of N-carboxyethyl chitosan, adipic acid dihydrazide with oxidized sodium alginate. The self-healing efficiency can autonomously achieve 95% under physiological conditions, holding great potential for applications in biomedical field.

    27. Superparamagnetic Liposomes for MRI Monitoring and External Magnetic Field-Induced Selective Targeting of Malignant Brain Tumors

      Hélène Marie, Laurent Lemaire, Florence Franconi, Sonia Lajnef, Yves-Michel Frapart, Valérie Nicolas, Ghislaine Frébourg, Michael Trichet, Christine Ménager and Sylviane Lesieur

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402289

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      Long-circulating lipid vesicles entrapping highly concentrated superparamagnetic nanocrystals of maghemite (MFLs) provide a reliable MRI traceable tool for systemic targeting of intracerebral tumors. As experienced here on human glioblastomas implanted in the striatum of mice, the application of a magnetic field gradient significantly and selectively accumulates MFLs in the malignant neoplasms up to the intracellular level, while sparing healthy brain tissues.

    28. Hydrophilic Nanotube Supported Graphene–Water Dispersible Carbon Superstructure with Excellent Conductivity

      Vasilios Georgakilas, Athanasios Demeslis, Evangelos Ntararas, Antonios Kouloumpis, Konstantinos Dimos, Dimitrios Gournis, Mikuláš Kocman, Michal Otyepka and Radek Zbořil

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403801

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      In this work, hydrophilic functionalized carbon nanotubes can stabilize a large amount of pristine graphene nanosheets in pure water without surfactant assistance, affording a stable dispersion at concentrations as high as 15 mg mL−1. The graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid dispersion shows high electrical conductivity with potential application as a conductive ink for inkjet printing.

    29. High Performance 3D Si/Ge Nanorods Array Anode Buffered by TiN/Ti Interlayer for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Chuang Yue, Yingjian Yu, Shibo Sun, Xu He, Binbin Chen, Wei Lin, Binbin Xu, Mingsen Zheng, Suntao Wu, Jing Li, Junyong Kang and Liwei Lin

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403648

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      3D hexagonal Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR arrays as anodes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) present high reversible areal/specific capacity and superior cycling stability even imposed by high current densities. This kind of unique wafer-scale 3D Si-based composite electrode portends a promising future for lab-on-chip micro/nanoSIBs with practical applications in integrated circuit systems, micro/nano­electro mechanical systems, or other smart electronic devices.

    30. Conductive “Smart” Hybrid Hydrogels with PNIPAM and Nanostructured Conductive Polymers

      Ye Shi, Chongbo Ma, Lele Peng and Guihua Yu

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404247

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      Thermal-responsive and conductive hybrid hydrogels are synthesized by the in situ formation of continuous network of conductive polymer hydrogels in poly(N-isopropylcrylamide) matrix. The interpenetrating binary network structure provides the hybrid hydrogels with continuous electron transport path, highly porous microstructure, strong interactions between networks, thus endowing them with a unique combination of high electrical conductivity, high thermal-responsive sensitivity, and good mechanical properties.

    31. Quinoidal Molecules as a New Class of Ambipolar Semiconductor Originating from Amphoteric Redox Behavior

      Hansu Hwang, Dongyoon Khim, Jin-Mun Yun, Eunhwan Jung, Soo-Young Jang, Yun Hee Jang, Yong-Young Noh and Dong-Yu Kim

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402758

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      Quinoidal organic semiconductors containing dichalcogenophene (quinoidal bithiophene and quinoidal biselenophene) are designed and synthesized by facile synthetic route. Due to the extended delocalization of quinoid structure, they show low band gap and amphoteric redox behavior. Compared with common aromatic compounds, such unusual properties of quinoid structure give rise to balanced ambipolar charge transport in the top gate field-effect transistor devices.

    32. A Tumor Targeted Chimeric Peptide for Synergistic Endosomal Escape and Therapy by Dual-Stage Light Manipulation

      Kai Han, Qi Lei, Hui-Zhen Jia, Shi-Bo Wang, Wei-Na Yin, Wei-Hai Chen, Si-Xue Cheng and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403190

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      A MMP-2 responsiveness chimeric peptide is reported to transport the photosensitizer PpIX and DNA to the target cells. Importantly, a dual-stage light irradiation strategy is used to enhance the endosome escape via photochemical internalization. A high therapeutic index is achieved due to the synergistic effect between gene therapy and photodynamic therapy.

    33. Injectable Hydrogels with In Situ Double Network Formation Enhance Retention of Transplanted Stem Cells

      Lei Cai, Ruby E. Dewi and Sarah C. Heilshorn

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403631

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      Shear-thinning hydrogels for injectable encapsulation and long-term delivery (SHIELD) undergo two sequential cross­linking steps: 1) peptide-based, molecular-recognition crosslinking to encapsulate cells, providing protection during injection, and 2) thermoresponsive crosslinking to form a reinforcing network in situ to reduce biodegradation rates and prolong transplanted cell retention. SHIELD is shown to provide significant cell protection using a preclinical model of human adipose-derived stem cell transplantation.

    34. Preparation of Mesoporous Sb-, F-, and In-Doped SnO2 Bulk Powder with High Surface Area for Use as Catalyst Supports in Electrolytic Cells

      Hyung-Suk Oh, Hong Nhan Nong and Peter Strasser

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401919

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      The M-doped tin oxides (M = Sb, F, and In) for use as catalyst supports in electrolytic cells are synthesized, showing high surface area, mesoporous structure, good electrical conductivity, and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, this synthesis method is a very effective way to prepare the metal oxide as electrocatalyst supports.

    35. Ultra-High Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries with Hierarchical CoO Nanowire Clusters as Binder Free Electrodes

      Kangzhe Cao, Lifang Jiao, Yongchang Liu, Huiqiao Liu, Yijing Wang and Huatang Yuan

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403111

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      Hierarchical CoO nanowire clusters comprising ultra-small nanoparticles (≈10 nm) on copper foil are successfully fabricated. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, this binder-free electrode exhibits an ultra-high capacity and excellent rate capability. What is more, the origins of the additional capacity are investigated in detail. Hierarchical core–shell CoO@SiO2 nanowire clusters are also fabricated, to improve cycle stability.

    36. Biodegradable Thin Metal Foils and Spin-On Glass Materials for Transient Electronics

      Seung-Kyun Kang, Suk-Won Hwang, Sooyoun Yu, Jung-Hun Seo, Elise A. Corbin, Jiho Shin, Dae Seung Wie, Rashid Bashir, Zhenqiang Ma and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403469

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      Materials, fabrication strategies, dissolution kinetics, and biocompatibility studies of transient electronics systems built on thin metal foils passivated by layers of spin-on glass (SOG) are presented. Transient electronic components exhibit comparable performances to conventional, nontransient substrates. Dissolution kinetics of the materials cured at different temperatures reveal key aspects of their corrosion chemistry, and in vitro cell cultures demonstrate their biocompatibility.

    37. Ternary Hybrids of Amorphous Nickel Hydroxide–Carbon Nanotube-Conducting Polymer for Supercapacitors with High Energy Density, Excellent Rate Capability, and Long Cycle Life

      Wenchao Jiang, Dingshan Yu, Qiang Zhang, Kunli Goh, Li Wei, Yili Yong, Rongrong Jiang, Jun Wei and Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403354

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      Ternary hybrid: A ternary hybrid material comprising of amorphous Ni(OH)2 deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes wrapped with conductive polymer exhibits an ultrahigh gravimetric specific capacitance of 3262 F g−1. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitors exhibit a high specific energy density of 58.5 W h kg−1 as well as excellent long cycle life (86% capacitance retention after 30 000 cycles).

    38. One-Pot, Facile, and Versatile Synthesis of Monolayer MoS2/WS2 Quantum Dots as Bioimaging Probes and Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

      Shengjie Xu, Dian Li and Peiyi Wu

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403863

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      A facile, low cost, and versatile way to prepare monolayer MoS2/WS2 quantum dots on a large scale with fluorescent properties is proposed via the combination of sonication and solvothermal treatment of MoS2/WS2 powder. The prepared MoS2/WS2 quantum dots exhibit low cytotoxicity and good cell permeability in living cells as well as excellent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction.

    39. Edge-Fluorinated Graphene Nanoplatelets as High Performance Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

      In-Yup Jeon, Myung Jong Ju, Jiantie Xu, Hyun-Jung Choi, Jeong-Min Seo, Min-Jung Kim, In Taek Choi, Hong Mo Kim, Jae Cheon Kim, Jae-Joon Lee, Hua Kun Liu, Hwan Kyu Kim, Shixue Dou, Liming Dai and Jong-Beom Baek

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403836

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      Edge-selectively fluorinated graphene nanoplatelets (FGnPs) are prepared by simple mechanochemical ball-milling graphite in the presence of fluorine/argon (20/80, v/v). The FGnPs demonstrate superb electrochemical performance with excellent stability/cycle life in dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. State-of-the-Art Progress in Diverse Heterostructured Photocatalysts toward Promoting Photocatalytic Performance

      Haijin Li, Yong Zhou, Wenguang Tu, Jinhua Ye and Zhigang Zou

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401636

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      This Feature Article concisely summarizes and highlights the state-of-the-art progress of semiconductor/semiconductor heterostructured photocatalysts with diverse models, including type-I and type-II heterojunctions, Z-scheme system, p–n heterojunctions, and homojunction band alignments, which were explored for effective improvement of photocatalytic activity through increase of the visible-light absorption, promotion of separation and transportation of the photoinduced charge carries, and enhancement of the photocatalytic stability.

  3. Full Papers

    1. HPbI3: A New Precursor Compound for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

      Feng Wang, Hui Yu, Haihua Xu and Ni Zhao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404007

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      HPbI3is introduced as a novel precursor to solve the non-uniformity problem of formamidium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite films from one-step solution-­processed method. Interestingly, the FAPbI3 films exhibit high crystallinity with (110) plane orientation and the corresponding devices yield an average photo­voltaic efficiency of 15.4% under 1 sun illumination. Present results demonstrate that precursor engineering is an effective approach to produce perovskites with attractive properties.

    2. Impact of Blend Morphology on Interface State Recombination in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

      Benjamin Bouthinon, Raphaël Clerc, Jérôme Vaillant, Jean-Marie Verilhac, Jérôme Faure-Vincent, David Djurado, Irina Ionica, Gabriel Man, Antoine Gras, Georges Pananakakis, Romain Gwoziecki and Antoine Kahn

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401633

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      The predominance of the band tail states reorganization, characterized by spectral response measurement, in the improvement of the solar cell performances during the annealing step of the active layer is discussed. This energetic reorganization leads to a lowering of the recombinations assisted by trap state (efficiency improvement) and a decrease of the thermal generation from trap states (reverse dark current).

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dual-Mechanism Antimicrobial Polymer–ZnO Nanoparticle and Crystal Violet-Encapsulated Silicone

      Sacha Noimark, Jonathan Weiner, Nuruzzaman Noor, Elaine Allan, Charlotte K. Williams, Milo S. P. Shaffer and Ivan P. Parkin

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402980

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      Using a simple dipping strategy to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles and crystal violet dye in a silicone polymer, a versatile and potent antimicrobial surface is reported to demonstrate high kills under both dark and light conditions, against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    4. Synthetic Asymmetric-Shaped Nanodevices with Symmetric pH-Gating Characteristics

      Huacheng Zhang, Xu Hou, Jue Hou, Lu Zeng, Ye Tian, Lin Li and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403693

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      Inspired by asymmetric ion channels with symmetric pH gating features, a bio­inspired asymmetric shaped nanodevice is reported that shows symmetric pH-gating ion transport features based on an asymmetric-polyelectrolyte-functionalized asymmetric hourglass nanochannel. This work, as an example, demonstrates the feasibility of using the asymmetric chemical modification method to achieve symmetric pH gating behaviors inside the asymmetric nanochannels.

    5. Ultrahigh Tunability of Room Temperature Electronic Transport and Ferromagnetism in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor and PMN-PT Single-Crystal-Based Field Effect Transistors via Electric Charge Mediation

      Qiu-Xiang Zhu, Ming-Min Yang, Ming Zheng, Ren-Kui Zheng, Li-Jie Guo, Yu Wang, Jin-Xing Zhang, Xiao-Min Li, Hao-Su Luo and Xiao-Guang Li

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403763

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      High-quality ZnO:Mn semiconductor thin films are successfully integrated with high-performance (111)-oriented perovskite Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals. Unprecedented room temperature charge-mediated electric-field-control of electronic transport and magnetism is demonstrated for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single-crystal-based oxide heterostructures in which the relative importance of the strain effect and the interfacial charge effect can be tuned by appropriately adjusting the charge carrier density of the films.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Modeling of Organic Light Emitting Diodes: From Molecular to Device Properties

      Pascal Kordt, Jeroen J. M. van der Holst, Mustapha Al Helwi, Wolfgang Kowalsky, Falk May, Alexander Badinski, Christian Lennartz and Denis Andrienko

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403004

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      Multiscale ansatz for modeling of organic light emitting diodes: single-molecule-based first principle calculations, parameterization of microscopic and coarse-grained models, simulation of IV characteristics. OLED properties can be predicted without fitting parameters, starting from chemical structures of compounds.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Facile One-Step Micropatterning Using Photodegradable Gelatin Hydrogels for Improved Cardiomyocyte Organization and Alignment

      Kelly M. C. Tsang, Nasim Annabi, Francesca Ercole, Kun Zhou, Daniel J. Karst, Fanyi Li, John M. Haynes, Richard A. Evans, Helmut Thissen, Ali Khademhosseini and John S. Forsythe

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403124

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      A photodegradable hydrogel comprising a gelatin methacrylamide and an o-nitrobenzyl PEG crosslinker is utilized to create patterned substrates for tissue engineering. Photodegradation enables a facile method of creating striped patterns onto the gels. Patterned hydrogels are shown to improve the degree of alignment and beating regularity of cultured cardiomyocytes, showing promise for culture platforms with spatiotemporal control capabilities.

    2. Improved Thermoelectric Performance of Silver Nanoparticles-Dispersed Bi2Te3 Composites Deriving from Hierarchical Two-Phased Heterostructure

      Qihao Zhang, Xin Ai, Lianjun Wang, Yanxia Chang, Wei Luo, Wan Jiang and Lidong Chen

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402663

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      A hierarchical two-phased heterostructure derving from silver nanoparticles and Bi2Te3 is constructed through a bottom-up chemical route, which causes strong scattering of phonons across integrated length scales, significantly reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the power factor is improved due to the combination of low-energy electron filtering and excellent electrical transport property of silver itself.

    3. Electronic Structures and Photoconversion Mechanism in Perovskite/Fullerene Heterojunctions

      Ming-Fai Lo, Zhi-Qiang Guan, Tsz-Wai Ng, Chiu-Yee Chan and Chun-Sing Lee

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402692

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      While perovskites/fullerene is commonly assumed to form a type II P–N junction with its internal E-field facilitates exciton dissociation, it is found that perovskite/C60 (PCBM) junction is a charge inert type I N–N junction. Devices with such a junction show photovoltaic effects effectively, thus photogenerated excitons can indeed dissociate to free carriers in the perovskite film.

    4. On-Demand Wrinkling Patterns in Thin Metal Films Generated from Self-Assembling Liquid Crystals

      Laurens T. de Haan, Philippe Leclère, Pascal Damman, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning and Michael G. Debije

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403399

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      Unique wrinkling patterns with oscillating amplitudes in any arbitrarily complex fashion are generated by controlling the alignment director of a liquid crystal network using photoalignment layers in combination with photomasks. The wrinkled gold surfaces are strikingly visual which is interesting for applications ranging from diffractive elements to fine jewelry. Image adapted with permission. Copyright 1973, Pink Floyd Music Ltd.

    5. Noncovalent Polymer-Gatekeeper in Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as a Targeted Drug Delivery Platform

      L. Palanikumar, Eun Seong Choi, Jae Yeong Cheon, Sang Hoon Joo and Ja-Hyoung Ryu

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402755

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      A simple and robust polymer-gatekeeper is developed to load a large mass of hydrophilic drugs inside the nonfunctionalized mesoporous silica. The ligand attached polymer-gatekeeper can target specific cancer cells. Opening the gate inside cells by degradation of crosslinked polymer shell in response to the intracellular glutathione triggers the drug release inside the cancer cells to induce cell death.

    6. Materials and Wireless Microfluidic Systems for Electronics Capable of Chemical Dissolution on Demand

      Chi Hwan Lee, Jae-Woong Jeong, Yuhao Liu, Yihui Zhang, Yan Shi, Seung-Kyun Kang, Jeonghyun Kim, Jae Soon Kim, Na Yeon Lee, Bong Hoon Kim, Kyung-In Jang, Lan Yin, Min Ku Kim, Anthony Banks, Ungyu Paik, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403573

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      Triggerable transient electronics are presented with the use of wireless microfluidics to enable complete dissolution of conventional microelectronic systems on demand in a controlled, programmable manner. Demonstration examples include triggered destruction of home-built metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and commercial microchips in radio-frequency identification device.

    7. Efficient Field Emission from Vertically Aligned Cu2O1-δ(111) Nanostructure Influenced by Oxygen Vacancy

      Suman Nandy, Ranjit Thapa, Mohit Kumar, Tapobrata Som, Nenad Bundaleski, Orlando M. N. D. Teodoro, Rodrigo Martins and Elvira Fortunato

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402910

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      Cu2O1-δ (111) exhibits promising field emission properties with interesting electron tunneling behavior at low turn-on and threshold voltages of 0.8 and 2.4 V μm–1 respectively. DFT suggests that oxygen vacancies enhance the electron ­donating ability because of unshared d-electrons of Cu atoms (nearest to the vacancy site), allowing an impurity energy state (Eim) close to the conduction band.

    8. Effect of Doping Concentration on Microstructure of Conjugated Polymers and Characteristics in N-Type Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

      Chuan Liu, Junhyuk Jang, Yong Xu, Hyo-Jung Kim, Dongyoon Khim, Won-Tae Park, Yong-Young Noh and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402321

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      Performance and air stability is highly improved in n-type organic field-effect transistors by solution-based chemical doping. The doping effects are systematically investigated the relationship between doping concentration and electrical characteristics as well as the evolution in polymer crystallinity revealed by synchrotron X-ray diffractions.

    9. Slowing DNA Transport Using Graphene–DNA Interactions

      Shouvik Banerjee, James Wilson, Jiwook Shim, Manish Shankla, Elise A. Corbin, Aleksei Aksimentiev and Rashid Bashir

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403719

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      Graphene–DNA hydrophobic interactions slow DNA transport through a nanopore. The introduction of graphene layers makes the pore and membrane surface hydrophobic leading to sticking interactions with the ssDNA molecules. On the other hand, dsDNA has far less significant hydrophobic interactions with graphene as nucleobases are shielded in the helical structure.

    10. Understanding the Influence of Lattice Composition on the Photocatalytic Activity of Defect-Pyrochlore-Structured Semiconductor Mixed Oxides

      Larissa Schwertmann, Anna Grünert, Anna Pougin, Chenghua Sun, Michael Wark and Roland Marschall

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403092

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      CsTaWO6 is a unique photocatalyst with two d0 elements, exhibiting a defect-pyrochlore structure. By variation of its lattice composition, the photocatalytic properties of the material are investigated, in pursuit of revealing the active sites for water oxidation and reduction reactions without any cocatalyst, and for the first time oxygen evolution in visible light with CoPi[BOND]CsTaMoO6.

    11. Liquid-Crystalline Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Ordered Assemblies of a Mesogen-Containing Carbonate and a Lithium Salt

      Junji Sakuda, Eiji Hosono, Masafumi Yoshio, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takuro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ohno, Haoshen Zhou and Takashi Kato

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402509

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      Thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries is developed. The LC electrolyte is successfully used for lithium-ion batteries. The electrolyte is a mixture of a carbonate-based rod-like molecule and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This is the first demonstration of the applicability of thermotropic LC electrolytes to lithium-ion batteries.

    12. Role of PbSe Structural Stabilization in Photovoltaic Cells

      Demet Asil, Brian J. Walker, Bruno Ehrler, Yana Vaynzof, Alessandro Sepe, Sam Bayliss, Aditya Sadhanala, Philip C. Y. Chow, Paul E. Hopkinson, Ullrich Steiner, Neil C. Greenham and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401816

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      Inorganic treatment of nanocrystals removes traps, increases long-range ordering of the symmetry, and improves stability in solar cells. A combination of optical, electronic, and material characterization tools demonstrates that chloride treatment confers many benefits on photovoltaic materials.

    13. An Advanced Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/Cobalt-Embedded Porous Carbon Polyhedron Hybrid for Efficient Catalysis of Oxygen Reduction and Water Splitting

      Yang Hou, Zhenhai Wen, Shumao Cui, Suqin Ci, Shun Mao and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403657

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      A novel hybrid electrocatalyst consisting of nitrogen-doped graphene/cobalt-embedded porous carbon polyhedron (N/Co-doped PCP//NRGO) is obtained through a simple pyrolysis of graphene oxide-supported cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate-frameworks. The hybrid exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen evolution reactions with good stability. The enhanced performance is correlated with the dual-active-site mechanism originating from synergic ­effects between N/Co-doped PCP and NRGO sheets.

    14. Synthesis of Dumbbell-Like Gold–Metal Sulfide Core–Shell Nanorods with Largely Enhanced Transverse Plasmon Resonance in Visible Region and Efficiently Improved Photocatalytic Activity

      Liang Ma, Shan Liang, Xiao-Li Liu, Da-Jie Yang, Li Zhou and Qu-Quan Wang

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403398

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      A facile method is reported to synthesize dumbbell-like Au–metal sulfide nanorods (including CdS, Bi2S3, ZnS, and CuxS) with highly enhanced visible light absorption and strong local electric field. The double-shell Au–Bi2S3–CdS hetero-nanostructures show efficiently improved photodegradation rate, especially about 2 times than that of Degussa P25 TiO2 (P25).

    15. Polaron Transport and Thermoelectric Behavior in La-Doped SrTiO3 Thin Films with Elemental Vacancies

      Woo Seok Choi, Hyang Keun Yoo and Hiromichi Ohta

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403023

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      Understanding the polaron transport provides a novel route to controlling the thermoelectric properties in complex transition metal oxides. The electron–phonon coupling strength in the perovskite oxide thin films is tuned by the systematic change of the elemental vacancy concentration, which modulates the thermopower as well as the dc conductivity. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of optical spectroscopy in understanding the thermoelectric behavior.

    16. Epindolidiones—Versatile and Stable Hydrogen-Bonded Pigments for Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Light-Emitting Diodes

      Eric Daniel Głowacki, Giuseppe Romanazzi, Cigdem Yumusak, Halime Coskun, Uwe Monkowius, Gundula Voss, Max Burian, Rainer T. Lechner, Nicola Demitri, Günther J. Redhammer, Nevsal Sünger, Gian Paolo Suranna and Serdar Sariciftci

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402539

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      Epindolidiones are H-bonded organic pigment semiconductors with excellent operational stability, including in aqueous media. Their crystal structure, electrochemical properties, and photophysics, which are dominated by excimeric effects, are reported. Transistor and light-emitting devices are demonstrated. Routes for solution processing of epindolidiones using transient solubilizing groups are explored.

    17. Controlled Assembly of Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Managing the Disorder to Order Transition on the Nano- through Meso-Scales

      Dalsu Choi, Mincheol Chang and Elsa Reichmanis

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403708

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      Mechanistic elucidation of P3HT molecular assembly is presented based on experimental demonstration of controlled P3HT nanorod fabrication. The 2-step crystallization model comprises nucleation and growth steps, and is successfully adopted to interpret P3HT assembly into mesoscale entities. Systematic control of nucleation and growth allows formation of P3HT nanostructures exhibiting enhanced charge transport performance.

    18. Control of the Oxygen and Cobalt Atoms Diffusion through Co Nanoparticles Differing by Their Crystalline Structure and Size

      Zhijie Yang, Nailiang Yang, Jianhui Yang, Johanna Bergström and Marie-Paule Pileni

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403617

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      Size-dependent Kirkendall effect is studied by using Co nanoparticles. The nano­particles self-assembled into 2D superlattices and differing by their nano­crystallinities are subjected to oxygen. Different performances in size effect are attributed to the change in the control of the inward flow of oxygen atoms and the outward flow of Co atoms with the crystalline structures of cobalt nanoparticles.

    19. Reversibly Compressible, Highly Elastic, and Durable Graphene Aerogels for Energy Storage Devices under Limiting Conditions

      Jin-Yong Hong, Bo Mee Bak, Jeong Jae Wie, Jing Kong and Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403273

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      Reversibly compressible graphene-based aerogels are demonstrated for energy storage where volume and mass must be limited. Taking advantage of the poly­mer-assisted self-assembly and cross-linking, high porosity and low density yet mechanical durability and elasticity are achieved in cross-linked reduced graphene oxide (x-rGO) aerogels. They are compressible while maintaining 3D interconnecting networked pathways for applications in ultra-compact electrochemical capacitors.

    20. Gold Core-DNA-Silver Shell Nanoparticles with Intense Plasmonic Chiroptical Activities

      Xiaoling Wu, Liguang Xu, Wei Ma, Liqiang Liu, Hua Kuang, Wenjing Yan, Libing Wang and Chuanlai Xu

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403161

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      Au core-DNA-Ag shell nanoparticles are successfully fabricated for the first time. They exhibit very intense circular dichroism activities in the visible range, with the highest g-factor value for the individual NPs with chiroplasmonic activity. The plasmonic mechanism is explored, which is from the induction of DNA-plasmon interaction and further amplification by the electromagnetic coupling of the core–shell structure.

    21. Top-Coat Dewetting for the Highly Ordered Lateral Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains in Thin Films

      Eunkyoung Yoon, Eunjin Kim, Daeheum Kim and Jeong Gon Son

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403046

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      Extremely straight and laterally aligned cylindrical microdomains of block copolymer (BCP) films have been prepared by simply covering the BCP films with a top coat and dewetting the latter via thermal annealing to generate shear flow in the BCP underlayer. This alignment is at least 150 μm long and the aspect ratio is higher than 15 000:1.

    22. Surface Charge Reversal Method for High-Resolution Inkjet Printing of Functional Water-Based Inks

      Raiden Cobas, Susset Muñoz-Pérez, Sean Cadogan, Mark C. Ridgway and Xavier Obradors

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401638

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      Surface charge reversal method for high-resolution inkjet printing of functional water-based inks is revealed. The proposed approach modifies the surface energy of hydrophobic substrates by coating with a polyelectrolyte layer in order to overcome dewetting effects as well as to improve adhesion and printing resolution. A suitable metal complex ink is formulated, which can be processed via inkjet printing.

    23. Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Using a Double-Role Circular Peptide for the Controlled and Target-Preferential Release of Doxorubicin in CXCR4-Expresing Lymphoma Cells

      Cristina de la Torre, Isolda Casanova, Gerardo Acosta, Carmen Coll, María José Moreno, Fernando Albericio, Elena Aznar, Ramón Mangues, Miriam Royo, Félix Sancenón and Ramón Martínez-Máñez

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403822

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      A new CXCR4-targeteddelivery system using mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the circular peptide T22 analogue is reported. In this design, the peptide guides nanoparticles to B-NHL cells and facilitates their uptake via the CXCR4 receptor. Once there, nanoparticles are opened by endosomal proteolytic enzymes releasing doxorubicin. This synthetic strategy could inspire other improved gated delivery systems for specific diseases.

    24. Multidimensional Vascularized Polymers using Degradable Sacrificial Templates

      Ryan C. R. Gergely, Stephen J. Pety, Brett P. Krull, Jason F. Patrick, Thu Q. Doan, Anthony M. Coppola, Piyush R. Thakre, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403670

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      Sacrificial templates of 0D to 3D are fabricated and used to create vascular and porous architectures. Embedded sacrificial templates are removed using a thermal treatment process, vaporization of sacrificial components (VaSC), leaving behind an inverse replica. The effectiveness of VaSC is verified both ex situ and in situ, and the resulting structures are validated via flow rate testing.

    25. Bioinspired Magnetite Crystallization Directed by Random Copolypeptides

      Jos J. M. Lenders, Harshal R. Zope, Ayana Yamagishi, Paul H. H. Bomans, Atsushi Arakaki, Alexander Kros, Gijsbertus de With and Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403585

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      A bioinspired slow precursor-based magnetite coprecipitation method is combined with the use of designer copolypeptides to control the size and the magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals as well as their dispersibility and organization in aqueous medium. Colloidally stable superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic dispersions can both be obtained by this green one-pot synthesis through optimization of the amino acid composition.

    26. MRI/SPECT/Fluorescent Tri-Modal Probe for Evaluating the Homing and Therapeutic Efficacy of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat ischemic Stroke Model

      Yaohui Tang, Chunfu Zhang, Jixian Wang, Xiaojie Lin, Lu Zhang, Yi Yang, Yongting Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Jeff W. M. Bulte and Guo-Yuan Yang

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402930

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      An MRI/SPECT/fluorescent tri-modal probe is synthesized and used for labeling and quantitive tracking of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted intracerebrally or intravenously into stroked rats. About 35% of intracerebrally implanted mesenchymal stem cells migrate from the injection sites and accumulate in the lesion area. While mesenchymal stem cells injected intravenously are primarily trapped in the lung, both injection routes improved brain function.

    27. Electrical Manipulation of Orbital Occupancy and Magnetic Anisotropy in Manganites

      Bin Cui, Cheng Song, Gillian A. Gehring, Fan Li, Guangyue Wang, Chao Chen, Jingjing Peng, Haijun Mao, Fei Zeng and Feng Pan

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403370

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      The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of (La,Sr)MnO 3 films are manipulated by gate voltage in a reversible and quantitative manner, accompanied with the electronic phase transition. Positive and negative gate voltage increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that are initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively.

    28. Controlled Nanopatterning of a Polymerized Ionic Liquid in a Strong Electric Field

      Vera Bocharova, Alexander L. Agapov, Alexander Tselev, Liam Collins, Rajeev Kumar, Stefan Berdzinski, Veronika Strehmel, Alexander Kisliuk, Ivan I. Kravchenko, Bobby G. Sumpter, Alexei P. Sokolov, Sergei V. Kalinin and Evgheni Strelcov

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402852

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      The current work represents an important step in a search for novel materials and experimental techniques that would allow for controllable and inexpensive methods of surface patterning with nanoscale resolution. The novelty of the presented nanopatterning approach lies in a combination of a new ion-containing material, a polymerized ionic liquid, and a strong localized electric field.

    29. Orientation Mediated Enhancement on Magnetic Hyperthermia of Fe3O4 Nanodisc

      Yong Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Yunbo Lv, Tun Seng Herng, Xianhui Xu, Weixing Xia, Taishi Zhang, Jie Fang, Wen Xiao and Jun Ding

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402764

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      Highly uniform Fe3O4 nanodiscs are synthesized via a two-step chemical approach. Comparing with isotropic nanoparticles, the nanodisc exhibits much better hyperthermia performance. The good agreement between experimental result and micromagnetic simulation confirms that such enhancement on hyperthermia performance is attributed to the parallel alignment of the nanodisc with respect to the AC magnetic field.

    30. Discotic Liquid Crystal-Functionalized Gold Nanorods: 2- and 3D Self-Assembly and Macroscopic Alignment as well as Increased Charge Carrier Mobility in Hexagonal Columnar Liquid Crystal Hosts Affected by Molecular Packing and π–π Interactions

      Xiang Feng, Lydia Sosa-Vargas, S. Umadevi, Taizo Mori, Yo Shimizu and Torsten Hegmann

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401844

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      Tiny amount, big effect: Gold nanorods capped with discotic liquid crystal motifs self-assemble into nanorod ribbons several hundred nanometer long, and can be macroscopically aligned in the parent discotic liquid crystal. At only 1% by weight, these nanorods affect the packing of the host phase leading to an increase in charge carrier mobility in the columnar phase.

    31. Highly Fluorescent Thienoviologen-Based Polymer Gels for Single Layer Electrofluorochromic Devices

      Amerigo Beneduci, Sante Cospito, Massimo La Deda and Giuseppe Chidichimo

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403611

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      A single layer ITO/EFC/ITO device is presented where the electrofluorochromic layer is a polymer gel containing the fluorescent thienoviologen dication 4,4′-(2,2′-bithiophene-5,5′-diyl)bis(1-nonylpridinium). Its reduction allows to switch the fluorescence between a high fluorescence off state and a quenched on state in the 470–800 nm spectral range. This device exhibits high fluorescence contrasts, short switching times and high cycling lifetime.

    32. Topological Effects on Globular Protein-ELP Fusion Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

      Guokui Qin, Matthew J. Glassman, Christopher N. Lam, Dongsook Chang, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer and Bradley D. Olsen

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403453

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      Self-assembly of fusion proteins containing a folded globular protein into solid nanomaterials is demonstrated for the first time. Using model molecules containing ELP and mCherry, the ability to tune nanostructure is demonstrated through control over the fusion topology. As fully biosynthetic analogues to protein-polymer conjugates, the mCherry-ELP fusions provide an efficient route to introduce complex biological functionality into supramolecular assemblies.

    33. Improved Thermal Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Incorporating Porphyrins

      Sisi Wang, Yunpeng Qu, Sijun Li, Feng Ye, Zhaobin Chen and Xiaoniu Yang

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403018

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      An effective strategy involving the introduction of porphyrin and the formation of the supramolecular interactions between porphyrin and PC61BM is proposed to prevent PC61BM from thermal-driven aggregation. The device based on the P3HT:PC61BM:BL blend film shows enhanced morphological stability, good ability to maintain the electron mobility, and most importantly, excellent thermal stability (10.5% of power conversion efficiency decreases at 130 °C for 48 h).

    34. Porous Silicon Nanodiscs for Targeted Drug Delivery

      Hashim Alhmoud, Bahman Delalat, Roey Elnathan, Anna Cifuentes-Rius, Arnaud Chaix, Mary-Louise Rogers, Jean-Olivier Durand and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403414

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      The fabrication of disc-shaped porous silicon nanoparticles through nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching is described. The presented method provides a facile approach to controlling the shape and size of the resulting porous silicon nanoparticles. The targeted delivery of an anticancer drug to cancer cells is undertaken to demonstrate the potential of these particles as drug nanocarriers.

    35. Vibration-Induced Deagglomeration and Shear-Induced Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Air

      Morteza Miansari, Aisha Qi, Leslie Y. Yeo and James R. Friend

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402976

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      A uniquely simple, dry, rapid, and chemical-free approach is developed for the deagglomeration and shear-induced alignment of commercially-sourced, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes in air. The surface acoustic waves (SAW) in a piezoelectric substrate are used to generate extremely large accelerations of ≈10 Mm/s2 that, together with the electric field on the substrate, deagglomerates the nanotubes in tens of seconds, without affecting their chemical structure.

    36. Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control

      Antony P. Peter, Koen Martens, Geert Rampelberg, Michael Toeller, James M. Ablett, Johan Meersschaut, Daniel Cuypers, Alexis Franquet, Christophe Detavernier, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Marc Schaekers, Sven Van Elshocht, Malgorzata Jurczak, Christoph Adelmann and Iuliana P. Radu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402687

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      It is shown how nanoscale morphology of VO2 films can be controlled to realize smooth ultrathin (<10 nm) crystalline films or nanoparticles with atomic layer deposition, opening doors to practical VO2 metal-insulator transition (MIT) nanoelectronics. The films and particles possess both a structural and an electronic transition. Film resistivity changes by more than two orders of magnitude across the MIT.

    37. Multiple Layer-by-Layer Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Improved FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy in Pancreatic Tumor Models

      Feng Li, Xiao Zhao, Hai Wang, Ruifang Zhao, Tianjiao Ji, He Ren, Gregory J. Anderson, Guangjun Nie and Jihui Hao

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401583

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      Novel multiple layer-by-layer lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles with targeting capability are used to encapsulate the three active antitumor constituents of the FOLFIRINOX regimen in the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer. Relative to nanoparticles consisting of polymer alone, these novel nanocarriers have a long half-life in vivo and a higher stability in serum. These innovative drug-loaded nanoparticles achieved higher antitumor efficacy and showed minimal side effects compared with the FOLFIRINOX regimen alone.

    38. Monolayer MoS2 Growth on Au Foils and On-Site Domain Boundary Imaging

      Jianping Shi, Yang Yang, Yu Zhang, Donglin Ma, Wei Wei, Qingqing Ji, Yanshuo Zhang, Xiuju Song, Teng Gao, Cong Li, Xinhe Bao, Zhongfan Liu, Qiang Fu and Yanfeng Zhang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403659

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      The monolayer molybdenum disulfide growth process is proposed to be mediated by two competitive effects with hydrogen acting as both a reduction promoter for efficient sulfurization of MoO3 and an etching reagent of resulting molybdenum disulfide flakes. By using low-energy electron microscopy/diffraction, the crystal orientations and domain boundaries of molybdenum disulfide flakes are identified directly on Au foils for the first time.

    39. Self-Powered Trace Memorization by Conjunction of Contact-Electrification and Ferroelectricity

      Xiangyu Chen, Mitsumasa Iwamoto, Zhemin Shi, Limin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403577

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      The output voltage produced by the contact-electrification during motion can polarize the dipole moments in the ferroelectric thin film. This mechanism can be used to design a novel self-powered memory system for recording the mechanical displacements in both 1D and 2D regions. The study shows that this memory system has good resolution, high sensitivity, and many possible applications.

    40. Fabrication of All-Water-Based Self-Repairing Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on UV-Responsive Microcapsules

      Kunlin Chen, Shuxue Zhou, Shu Yang and Limin Wu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403496

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      An environmentally benign, all-water-based self-repairing superhydrophobic coating based on UV-responsive microcapsules is fabricated, which exhibits excellent self-healing and self-cleaning ability in an outdoor environment, and after mechanical damage and contamination by organics.

    41. Effective Photothermal Killing of Pathogenic Bacteria by Using Spatially Tunable Colloidal Gels with Nano-Localized Heating Sources

      Chun-Wen Hsiao, Hsin-Lung Chen, Zi-Xian Liao, Radhakrishnan Sureshbabu, Hsu-Chan Hsiao, Shu-Jyuan Lin, Yen Chang and Hsing-Wen Sung

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403478

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      The injected polymer solution exhibits a rapid nanostructure transformation over a narrow range of pH values and forms a colloidal gel at the site of the abscess, providing tunable spatial stabilization. The formed colloidal gel converts near-infrared (NIR) light energy into heat and causes thermal lysis of the bacteria, reducing thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

    42. Relating the Physical Structure and Optoelectronic Function of Crystalline TIPS-Pentacene

      Sahar Sharifzadeh, Cathy Y. Wong, Hao Wu, Benjamin L. Cotts, Leeor Kronik, Naomi S. Ginsberg and Jeffrey B. Neaton

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403005

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      A combination of micro-spectroscopy and many-body perturbation theory reveals the inter-grain orientation within polycrystalline TIPS-pentacene films and the relationship of the physical structure to opto-electronic properties.

    43. High Performance Three-Dimensional Chemical Sensor Platform Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Formed on High Aspect-Ratio Micro-Pillars

      Le Thai Duy, Duck-Jin Kim, Tran Quang Trung, Vinh Quang Dang, Bo-Yeong Kim, Hock Key Moon and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401992

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      A possibility of sensing enhancement of chemiresistor gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (R-GO) through extension of device channel geometry by using three-dimensional (3D) SU-8 micro-pillar array is discussed. The combination of controllable 3D structure and easily modifiable R-GO reveals a good premise to maximize the advantages of the multi-scale hybridization of R-GO for contemporary and future sensing devices.

  6. Highlights

    1. Current Understanding of Van der Waals Effects in Realistic Materials

      Alexandre Tkatchenko

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403029

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      Van der Waals interactions arise from correlated electronic fluctuations in matter and are therefore present in all materials. Our current understanding of these ubiquitous quantum-mechanical forces is summarized, and their effects in a wide variety of realistic materials are highlighted, ranging from molecular assemblies to solids with and without defects, nanostructures of varying size and dimensionality, as well as interfaces between inorganic and organic materials.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Mechanical Surface Modification of Lithium Metal: Towards Improved Li Metal Anode Performance by Directed Li Plating

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Yong Min Lee, Yunju Lee, Martin Winter and Peter Bieker

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402953

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      The simple, scalable, and cost-efficient surface treatment technique for Li metal is developed. With a simple rolling process, the micro-needles create inverse micro-needles pattern over wide area of Li metal surface, which remarkably enhances the power capabilities and cycle retention abilities to those of the bare Li metal.

    2. Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces

      Jianxiong Li, Shuqi Chen, Haifang Yang, Junjie Li, Ping Yu, Hua Cheng, Changzhi Gu, Hou-Tong Chen and Jianguo Tian

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403669

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      A radially polarized beam is generated based on proposed plasmonic metasurfaces that allow simultaneous manipulation of the polarization and phase of the transmitted light. Arbitrary spatial field distribution of the optical phase and polarization direction are obtained by accordingly designed plasmonic metasurfaces. The multifunctional metasurfaces are also validated by demonstrating a broadband near-perfect anomalous refraction with controllable linear polarization.

    3. Controlling the Dominant Length Scale of Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation in Spin-coated Organic Semiconductor Films

      Jacobus J. van Franeker, Daniel Westhoff, Mathieu Turbiez, Martijn M. Wienk, Volker Schmidt and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403392

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      Droplet formation occurs in many solution-processed organic semiconductor blends due to liquid–liquid phase separation. The combination of in situ measurements, a simple numerical spin coating model, and advanced image analysis on transmission electron micrographs show that the dominant length scale scales with a normalized drying rate, which is defined as the solvent evaporation rate divided by the dry layer thickness.

    4. Enzyme-Responsive Release of Doxorubicin from Monodisperse Dipeptide-Based Nanocarriers for Highly Efficient Cancer Treatment In Vitro

      He Zhang, Jinbo Fei, Xuehai Yan, Anhe Wang and Junbai Li

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403119

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      Cationic diphenylalanine (CDP) can assemble into biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarriers through cross-linkage of glutaraldehyde (GA). The nanocarriers can be biodegraded under the action of tyrisin. Importantly, after loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) the nanocarriers also show a desired enzyme-responsive property and the release of DOX can be easily achieved in PBS (pH 7.2) with tyrisin.

    5. FeO0.7F1.3/C Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yong-Ning Zhou, Mahsa Sina, Nathalie Pereira, Xiqian Yu, Glenn G. Amatucci, Xiao-Qing Yang, Frederic Cosandey and Kyung-Wan Nam

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403241

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      A high-capacity cathode for a sodium battery is presented. FeO0.7F1.3/C nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 496 mAh g−1 in a sodium cell at 50 °C. A reversible capacity of 360 mAh g−1 is retained at the 50th cycle, demonstrating superior cycleability. Both intercalation and conversion reactions are revealed during the discharge-charge process of the FeO0.7F1.3/C – Na cell.

    6. Recapillarity: Electrochemically Controlled Capillary Withdrawal of a Liquid Metal Alloy from Microchannels

      Mohammad R. Khan, Chris Trlica and Michael D. Dickey

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403042

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      The mechanistic details of a method to control the withdrawal of a liquid metal alloy, eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), from microfluidic channels, are described. Recapillarity is a technique to repeatably toggle on and off the capillary behavior of a liquid metal by electrochemically reducing its surface oxide. It can control the shape of liquid metal in microchannels for reconfigurable circuits.

    7. Charge Separation Dynamics and Opto-Electronic Properties of a Diaminoterephthalate-C60 Dyad

      Stefano Pittalis, Alain Delgado, Jörg Robin, Lena Freimuth, Jens Christoffers, Christoph Lienau and Carlo Andrea Rozzi

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402316

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      Photoinduced charge separation occurs on a 100 fs time scale in a diaminoterephthalate-C60 dyad. Quantum simulations are performed to study the excited state dynamics of a new dyad. The chemical flexibility and optical properties of the chromophore moiety make this system a particularly useful model to study the early steps in the photovoltaic energy conversion. The simulations clarify the influence of electron-nuclei coupling and molecular conformation on the charge separation efficiency of the molecule.

    8. Enhanced Vertical Charge Transport in a Semiconducting P3HT Thin Film on Single Layer Graphene

      Vasyl Skrypnychuk, Nicolas Boulanger, Victor Yu, Michael Hilke, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Michael F. Toney and David R. Barbero

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403418

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      The crystallinity and the electrical properties of thin films of the semiconducting polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene are investigated on a single layer of graphene. Enhanced vertical charge transport and a much higher charge carrier mobility are measured in thicker films due to the face-on orientation induced by the graphene substrate and the formation of an interconnected path of crystallites.

    9. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters

      Reinder Coehoorn, Harm van Eersel, Peter Bobbert and René Janssen

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402532

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to mechanistically analyze the influence of the organic semiconductor materials properties on the luminance decay due to degradation processes in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes. A relationship is established between the lifetime and the efficiency roll-off with increasing current density, assuming triplet-polaron quenching processes as the root-cause of the degradation, and design rules regarding the energy levels are developed.

    10. The Effect of Large Compositional Inhomogeneities on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells: A Numerical Study

      Davide Bartesaghi and L. Jan Anton Koster

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402260

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      A three-dimensional model is presented to relate the efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells to the morphology of the active layer. With this, the effect of the occurrence of large acceptor domains dispersed in a mixed phase is quantified. The total current is split up in two contributions, both of which are calculated also with a one-dimensional drift–diffusion model.

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