Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 48

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 127
  1. Full Papers

    1. Noncovalent Polymer-Gatekeeper in Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as a Targeted Drug Delivery Platform

      L. Palanikumar, Eun Seong Choi, Jae Yeong Cheon, Sang Hoon Joo and Ja-Hyoung Ryu

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402755

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      A simple and robust polymer-gatekeeper is developed to load a large mass of hydrophilic drugs inside the nonfunctionalized mesoporous silica. The ligand attached polymer-gatekeeper can target specific cancer cells. Opening the gate inside cells by degradation of crosslinked polymer shell in response to the intracellular glutathione triggers the drug release inside the cancer cells to induce cell death.

    2. Materials and Wireless Microfluidic Systems for Electronics Capable of Chemical Dissolution on Demand

      Chi Hwan Lee, Jae-Woong Jeong, Yuhao Liu, Yihui Zhang, Yan Shi, Seung-Kyun Kang, Jeonghyun Kim, Jae Soon Kim, Na Yeon Lee, Bong Hoon Kim, Kyung-In Jang, Lan Yin, Min Ku Kim, Anthony Banks, Ungyu Paik, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403573

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      Triggerable transient electronics are presented with the use of wireless microfluidics to enable complete dissolution of conventional microelectronic systems on demand in a controlled, programmable manner. Demonstration examples include triggered destruction of home-built metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and commercial microchips in radio-frequency identification device.

    3. Efficient Field Emission from Vertically Aligned Cu2O1-δ(111) Nanostructure Influenced by Oxygen Vacancy

      Suman Nandy, Ranjit Thapa, Mohit Kumar, Tapobrata Som, Nenad Bundaleski, Orlando M. N. D. Teodoro, Rodrigo Martins and Elvira Fortunato

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402910

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      Cu2O1-δ (111) exhibits promising field emission properties with interesting electron tunneling behavior at low turn-on and threshold voltages of 0.8 and 2.4 V μm–1 respectively. DFT suggests that oxygen vacancies enhance the electron ­donating ability because of unshared d-electrons of Cu atoms (nearest to the vacancy site), allowing an impurity energy state (Eim) close to the conduction band.

    4. Effect of Doping Concentration on Microstructure of Conjugated Polymers and Characteristics in N-Type Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

      Chuan Liu, Junhyuk Jang, Yong Xu, Hyo-Jung Kim, Dongyoon Khim, Won-Tae Park, Yong-Young Noh and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402321

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      Performance and air stability is highly improved in n-type organic field-effect transistors by solution-based chemical doping. The doping effects are systematically investigated the relationship between doping concentration and electrical characteristics as well as the evolution in polymer crystallinity revealed by synchrotron X-ray diffractions.

    5. Slowing DNA Transport Using Graphene–DNA Interactions

      Shouvik Banerjee, James Wilson, Jiwook Shim, Manish Shankla, Elise A. Corbin, Aleksei Aksimentiev and Rashid Bashir

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403719

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      Graphene–DNA hydrophobic interactions slow DNA transport through a nanopore. The introduction of graphene layers makes the pore and membrane surface hydrophobic leading to sticking interactions with the ssDNA molecules. On the other hand, dsDNA has far less significant hydrophobic interactions with graphene as nucleobases are shielded in the helical structure.

    6. Understanding the Influence of Lattice Composition on the Photocatalytic Activity of Defect-Pyrochlore-Structured Semiconductor Mixed Oxides

      Larissa Schwertmann, Anna Grünert, Anna Pougin, Chenghua Sun, Michael Wark and Roland Marschall

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403092

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      CsTaWO6 is a unique photocatalyst with two d0 elements, exhibiting a defect-pyrochlore structure. By variation of its lattice composition, the photocatalytic properties of the material are investigated, in pursuit of revealing the active sites for water oxidation and reduction reactions without any cocatalyst, and for the first time oxygen evolution in visible light with CoPi[BOND]CsTaMoO6.

    7. Liquid-Crystalline Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Ordered Assemblies of a Mesogen-Containing Carbonate and a Lithium Salt

      Junji Sakuda, Eiji Hosono, Masafumi Yoshio, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takuro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ohno, Haoshen Zhou and Takashi Kato

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402509

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      Thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries is developed. The LC electrolyte is successfully used for lithium-ion batteries. The electrolyte is a mixture of a carbonate-based rod-like molecule and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This is the first demonstration of the applicability of thermotropic LC electrolytes to lithium-ion batteries.

    8. Role of PbSe Structural Stabilization in Photovoltaic Cells

      Demet Asil, Brian J. Walker, Bruno Ehrler, Yana Vaynzof, Alessandro Sepe, Sam Bayliss, Aditya Sadhanala, Philip C. Y. Chow, Paul E. Hopkinson, Ullrich Steiner, Neil C. Greenham and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401816

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      Inorganic treatment of nanocrystals removes traps, increases long-range ordering of the symmetry, and improves stability in solar cells. A combination of optical, electronic, and material characterization tools demonstrates that chloride treatment confers many benefits on photovoltaic materials.

    9. An Advanced Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/Cobalt-Embedded Porous Carbon Polyhedron Hybrid for Efficient Catalysis of Oxygen Reduction and Water Splitting

      Yang Hou, Zhenhai Wen, Shumao Cui, Suqin Ci, Shun Mao and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403657

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      A novel hybrid electrocatalyst consisting of nitrogen-doped graphene/cobalt-embedded porous carbon polyhedron (N/Co-doped PCP//NRGO) is obtained through a simple pyrolysis of graphene oxide-supported cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate-frameworks. The hybrid exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen evolution reactions with good stability. The enhanced performance is correlated with the dual-active-site mechanism originating from synergic ­effects between N/Co-doped PCP and NRGO sheets.

    10. Synthesis of Dumbbell-Like Gold–Metal Sulfide Core–Shell Nanorods with Largely Enhanced Transverse Plasmon Resonance in Visible Region and Efficiently Improved Photocatalytic Activity

      Liang Ma, Shan Liang, Xiao-Li Liu, Da-Jie Yang, Li Zhou and Qu-Quan Wang

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403398

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      A facile method is reported to synthesize dumbbell-like Au–metal sulfide nanorods (including CdS, Bi2S3, ZnS, and CuxS) with highly enhanced visible light absorption and strong local electric field. The double-shell Au–Bi2S3–CdS hetero-nanostructures show efficiently improved photodegradation rate, especially about 2 times than that of Degussa P25 TiO2 (P25).

    11. Polaron Transport and Thermoelectric Behavior in La-Doped SrTiO3 Thin Films with Elemental Vacancies

      Woo Seok Choi, Hyang Keun Yoo and Hiromichi Ohta

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403023

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      Understanding the polaron transport provides a novel route to controlling the thermoelectric properties in complex transition metal oxides. The electron–phonon coupling strength in the perovskite oxide thin films is tuned by the systematic change of the elemental vacancy concentration, which modulates the thermopower as well as the dc conductivity. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of optical spectroscopy in understanding the thermoelectric behavior.

    12. Epindolidiones—Versatile and Stable Hydrogen-Bonded Pigments for Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Light-Emitting Diodes

      Eric Daniel Głowacki, Giuseppe Romanazzi, Cigdem Yumusak, Halime Coskun, Uwe Monkowius, Gundula Voss, Max Burian, Rainer T. Lechner, Nicola Demitri, Günther J. Redhammer, Nevsal Sünger, Gian Paolo Suranna and Serdar Sariciftci

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402539

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      Epindolidiones are H-bonded organic pigment semiconductors with excellent operational stability, including in aqueous media. Their crystal structure, electrochemical properties, and photophysics, which are dominated by excimeric effects, are reported. Transistor and light-emitting devices are demonstrated. Routes for solution processing of epindolidiones using transient solubilizing groups are explored.

    13. Controlled Assembly of Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Managing the Disorder to Order Transition on the Nano- through Meso-Scales

      Dalsu Choi, Mincheol Chang and Elsa Reichmanis

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403708

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      Mechanistic elucidation of P3HT molecular assembly is presented based on experimental demonstration of controlled P3HT nanorod fabrication. The 2-step crystallization model comprises nucleation and growth steps, and is successfully adopted to interpret P3HT assembly into mesoscale entities. Systematic control of nucleation and growth allows formation of P3HT nanostructures exhibiting enhanced charge transport performance.

    14. Control of the Oxygen and Cobalt Atoms Diffusion through Co Nanoparticles Differing by Their Crystalline Structure and Size

      Zhijie Yang, Nailiang Yang, Jianhui Yang, Johanna Bergström and Marie-Paule Pileni

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403617

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      Size-dependent Kirkendall effect is studied by using Co nanoparticles. The nano­particles self-assembled into 2D superlattices and differing by their nano­crystallinities are subjected to oxygen. Different performances in size effect are attributed to the change in the control of the inward flow of oxygen atoms and the outward flow of Co atoms with the crystalline structures of cobalt nanoparticles.

    15. Reversibly Compressible, Highly Elastic, and Durable Graphene Aerogels for Energy Storage Devices under Limiting Conditions

      Jin-Yong Hong, Bo Mee Bak, Jeong Jae Wie, Jing Kong and Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403273

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      Reversibly compressible graphene-based aerogels are demonstrated for energy storage where volume and mass must be limited. Taking advantage of the poly­mer-assisted self-assembly and cross-linking, high porosity and low density yet mechanical durability and elasticity are achieved in cross-linked reduced graphene oxide (x-rGO) aerogels. They are compressible while maintaining 3D interconnecting networked pathways for applications in ultra-compact electrochemical capacitors.

    16. Gold Core-DNA-Silver Shell Nanoparticles with Intense Plasmonic Chiroptical Activities

      Xiaoling Wu, Liguang Xu, Wei Ma, Liqiang Liu, Hua Kuang, Wenjing Yan, Libing Wang and Chuanlai Xu

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403161

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      Au core-DNA-Ag shell nanoparticles are successfully fabricated for the first time. They exhibit very intense circular dichroism activities in the visible range, with the highest g-factor value for the individual NPs with chiroplasmonic activity. The plasmonic mechanism is explored, which is from the induction of DNA-plasmon interaction and further amplification by the electromagnetic coupling of the core–shell structure.

    17. Top-Coat Dewetting for the Highly Ordered Lateral Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains in Thin Films

      Eunkyoung Yoon, Eunjin Kim, Daeheum Kim and Jeong Gon Son

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403046

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      Extremely straight and laterally aligned cylindrical microdomains of block copolymer (BCP) films have been prepared by simply covering the BCP films with a top coat and dewetting the latter via thermal annealing to generate shear flow in the BCP underlayer. This alignment is at least 150 μm long and the aspect ratio is higher than 15 000:1.

    18. Surface Charge Reversal Method for High-Resolution Inkjet Printing of Functional Water-Based Inks

      Raiden Cobas, Susset Muñoz-Pérez, Sean Cadogan, Mark C. Ridgway and Xavier Obradors

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401638

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      Surface charge reversal method for high-resolution inkjet printing of functional water-based inks is revealed. The proposed approach modifies the surface energy of hydrophobic substrates by coating with a polyelectrolyte layer in order to overcome dewetting effects as well as to improve adhesion and printing resolution. A suitable metal complex ink is formulated, which can be processed via inkjet printing.

    19. Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Using a Double-Role Circular Peptide for the Controlled and Target-Preferential Release of Doxorubicin in CXCR4-Expresing Lymphoma Cells

      Cristina de la Torre, Isolda Casanova, Gerardo Acosta, Carmen Coll, María José Moreno, Fernando Albericio, Elena Aznar, Ramón Mangues, Miriam Royo, Félix Sancenón and Ramón Martínez-Máñez

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403822

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      A new CXCR4-targeteddelivery system using mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the circular peptide T22 analogue is reported. In this design, the peptide guides nanoparticles to B-NHL cells and facilitates their uptake via the CXCR4 receptor. Once there, nanoparticles are opened by endosomal proteolytic enzymes releasing doxorubicin. This synthetic strategy could inspire other improved gated delivery systems for specific diseases.

    20. Multidimensional Vascularized Polymers using Degradable Sacrificial Templates

      Ryan C. R. Gergely, Stephen J. Pety, Brett P. Krull, Jason F. Patrick, Thu Q. Doan, Anthony M. Coppola, Piyush R. Thakre, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403670

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      Sacrificial templates of 0D to 3D are fabricated and used to create vascular and porous architectures. Embedded sacrificial templates are removed using a thermal treatment process, vaporization of sacrificial components (VaSC), leaving behind an inverse replica. The effectiveness of VaSC is verified both ex situ and in situ, and the resulting structures are validated via flow rate testing.

    21. Bioinspired Magnetite Crystallization Directed by Random Copolypeptides

      Jos J. M. Lenders, Harshal R. Zope, Ayana Yamagishi, Paul H. H. Bomans, Atsushi Arakaki, Alexander Kros, Gijsbertus de With and Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403585

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      A bioinspired slow precursor-based magnetite coprecipitation method is combined with the use of designer copolypeptides to control the size and the magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals as well as their dispersibility and organization in aqueous medium. Colloidally stable superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic dispersions can both be obtained by this green one-pot synthesis through optimization of the amino acid composition.

    22. MRI/SPECT/Fluorescent Tri-Modal Probe for Evaluating the Homing and Therapeutic Efficacy of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat ischemic Stroke Model

      Yaohui Tang, Chunfu Zhang, Jixian Wang, Xiaojie Lin, Lu Zhang, Yi Yang, Yongting Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Jeff W. M. Bulte and Guo-Yuan Yang

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402930

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      An MRI/SPECT/fluorescent tri-modal probe is synthesized and used for labeling and quantitive tracking of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted intracerebrally or intravenously into stroked rats. About 35% of intracerebrally implanted mesenchymal stem cells migrate from the injection sites and accumulate in the lesion area. While mesenchymal stem cells injected intravenously are primarily trapped in the lung, both injection routes improved brain function.

    23. Electrical Manipulation of Orbital Occupancy and Magnetic Anisotropy in Manganites

      Bin Cui, Cheng Song, Gillian A. Gehring, Fan Li, Guangyue Wang, Chao Chen, Jingjing Peng, Haijun Mao, Fei Zeng and Feng Pan

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403370

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      The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of (La,Sr)MnO 3 films are manipulated by gate voltage in a reversible and quantitative manner, accompanied with the electronic phase transition. Positive and negative gate voltage increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that are initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively.

    24. Controlled Nanopatterning of a Polymerized Ionic Liquid in a Strong Electric Field

      Vera Bocharova, Alexander L. Agapov, Alexander Tselev, Liam Collins, Rajeev Kumar, Stefan Berdzinski, Veronika Strehmel, Alexander Kisliuk, Ivan I. Kravchenko, Bobby G. Sumpter, Alexei P. Sokolov, Sergei V. Kalinin and Evgheni Strelcov

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402852

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      The current work represents an important step in a search for novel materials and experimental techniques that would allow for controllable and inexpensive methods of surface patterning with nanoscale resolution. The novelty of the presented nanopatterning approach lies in a combination of a new ion-containing material, a polymerized ionic liquid, and a strong localized electric field.

    25. Orientation Mediated Enhancement on Magnetic Hyperthermia of Fe3O4 Nanodisc

      Yong Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Yunbo Lv, Tun Seng Herng, Xianhui Xu, Weixing Xia, Taishi Zhang, Jie Fang, Wen Xiao and Jun Ding

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402764

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      Highly uniform Fe3O4 nanodiscs are synthesized via a two-step chemical approach. Comparing with isotropic nanoparticles, the nanodisc exhibits much better hyperthermia performance. The good agreement between experimental result and micromagnetic simulation confirms that such enhancement on hyperthermia performance is attributed to the parallel alignment of the nanodisc with respect to the AC magnetic field.

    26. Discotic Liquid Crystal-Functionalized Gold Nanorods: 2- and 3D Self-Assembly and Macroscopic Alignment as well as Increased Charge Carrier Mobility in Hexagonal Columnar Liquid Crystal Hosts Affected by Molecular Packing and π–π Interactions

      Xiang Feng, Lydia Sosa-Vargas, S. Umadevi, Taizo Mori, Yo Shimizu and Torsten Hegmann

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401844

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      Tiny amount, big effect: Gold nanorods capped with discotic liquid crystal motifs self-assemble into nanorod ribbons several hundred nanometer long, and can be macroscopically aligned in the parent discotic liquid crystal. At only 1% by weight, these nanorods affect the packing of the host phase leading to an increase in charge carrier mobility in the columnar phase.

    27. Highly Fluorescent Thienoviologen-Based Polymer Gels for Single Layer Electrofluorochromic Devices

      Amerigo Beneduci, Sante Cospito, Massimo La Deda and Giuseppe Chidichimo

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403611

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      A single layer ITO/EFC/ITO device is presented where the electrofluorochromic layer is a polymer gel containing the fluorescent thienoviologen dication 4,4′-(2,2′-bithiophene-5,5′-diyl)bis(1-nonylpridinium). Its reduction allows to switch the fluorescence between a high fluorescence off state and a quenched on state in the 470–800 nm spectral range. This device exhibits high fluorescence contrasts, short switching times and high cycling lifetime.

    28. Topological Effects on Globular Protein-ELP Fusion Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

      Guokui Qin, Matthew J. Glassman, Christopher N. Lam, Dongsook Chang, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer and Bradley D. Olsen

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403453

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      Self-assembly of fusion proteins containing a folded globular protein into solid nanomaterials is demonstrated for the first time. Using model molecules containing ELP and mCherry, the ability to tune nanostructure is demonstrated through control over the fusion topology. As fully biosynthetic analogues to protein-polymer conjugates, the mCherry-ELP fusions provide an efficient route to introduce complex biological functionality into supramolecular assemblies.

    29. Improved Thermal Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Incorporating Porphyrins

      Sisi Wang, Yunpeng Qu, Sijun Li, Feng Ye, Zhaobin Chen and Xiaoniu Yang

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403018

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      An effective strategy involving the introduction of porphyrin and the formation of the supramolecular interactions between porphyrin and PC61BM is proposed to prevent PC61BM from thermal-driven aggregation. The device based on the P3HT:PC61BM:BL blend film shows enhanced morphological stability, good ability to maintain the electron mobility, and most importantly, excellent thermal stability (10.5% of power conversion efficiency decreases at 130 °C for 48 h).

    30. Controlling Polymorphism in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) through Addition of Ferrocene for Enhanced Charge Mobilities in Thin-Film Transistors

      Brandon H. Smith, Michael B. Clark Jr., Hao Kuang, Christopher Grieco, Alec V. Larsen, Chenhui Zhu, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, John B. Asbury, Michael J. Janik and Enrique D. Gomez

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403089

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      The electrical performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin-film transistors increases with addition of ferrocene. Intermediate-to-high concentrations of ferrocene included in poly(3-hexylthiophene) spin casting solutions produces transistors demonstrating roughly three times higher source-drain current and charge mobility than neat components. Interactions between the polymer and metallocene lead to the formation of polymorphs with closer π-stacking that decreases the charge hopping distance.

    31. Porous Silicon Nanodiscs for Targeted Drug Delivery

      Hashim Alhmoud, Bahman Delalat, Roey Elnathan, Anna Cifuentes-Rius, Arnaud Chaix, Mary-Louise Rogers, Jean-Olivier Durand and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403414

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      The fabrication of disc-shaped porous silicon nanoparticles through nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching is described. The presented method provides a facile approach to controlling the shape and size of the resulting porous silicon nanoparticles. The targeted delivery of an anticancer drug to cancer cells is undertaken to demonstrate the potential of these particles as drug nanocarriers.

    32. Vibration-Induced Deagglomeration and Shear-Induced Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Air

      Morteza Miansari, Aisha Qi, Leslie Y. Yeo and James R. Friend

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402976

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      A uniquely simple, dry, rapid, and chemical-free approach is developed for the deagglomeration and shear-induced alignment of commercially-sourced, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes in air. The surface acoustic waves (SAW) in a piezoelectric substrate are used to generate extremely large accelerations of ≈10 Mm/s2 that, together with the electric field on the substrate, deagglomerates the nanotubes in tens of seconds, without affecting their chemical structure.

    33. Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control

      Antony P. Peter, Koen Martens, Geert Rampelberg, Michael Toeller, James M. Ablett, Johan Meersschaut, Daniel Cuypers, Alexis Franquet, Christophe Detavernier, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Marc Schaekers, Sven Van Elshocht, Malgorzata Jurczak, Christoph Adelmann and Iuliana P. Radu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402687

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      It is shown how nanoscale morphology of VO2 films can be controlled to realize smooth ultrathin (<10 nm) crystalline films or nanoparticles with atomic layer deposition, opening doors to practical VO2 metal-insulator transition (MIT) nanoelectronics. The films and particles possess both a structural and an electronic transition. Film resistivity changes by more than two orders of magnitude across the MIT.

    34. Multiple Layer-by-Layer Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Improved FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy in Pancreatic Tumor Models

      Feng Li, Xiao Zhao, Hai Wang, Ruifang Zhao, Tianjiao Ji, He Ren, Gregory J. Anderson, Guangjun Nie and Jihui Hao

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401583

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      Novel multiple layer-by-layer lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles with targeting capability are used to encapsulate the three active antitumor constituents of the FOLFIRINOX regimen in the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer. Relative to nanoparticles consisting of polymer alone, these novel nanocarriers have a long half-life in vivo and a higher stability in serum. These innovative drug-loaded nanoparticles achieved higher antitumor efficacy and showed minimal side effects compared with the FOLFIRINOX regimen alone.

    35. Graphene Foam with Switchable Oil Wettability for Oil and Organic Solvents Recovery

      Haiguang Zhu, Dongyun Chen, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He and Jianmei Lu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403864

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      The pH-responsive material based on graphene foam coated poly(2-vinylpyridine) and polyhexadecyl acrylate is successfully prepared for removing oil and organic solvents from water. It can switch its adsorption and desorption of oil and organic solvents in response to the change of pH. In addition, it exhibits high adsorption capacity and excellent reusability.

    36. Monolayer MoS2 Growth on Au Foils and On-Site Domain Boundary Imaging

      Jianping Shi, Yang Yang, Yu Zhang, Donglin Ma, Wei Wei, Qingqing Ji, Yanshuo Zhang, Xiuju Song, Teng Gao, Cong Li, Xinhe Bao, Zhongfan Liu, Qiang Fu and Yanfeng Zhang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403659

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      The monolayer molybdenum disulfide growth process is proposed to be mediated by two competitive effects with hydrogen acting as both a reduction promoter for efficient sulfurization of MoO3 and an etching reagent of resulting molybdenum disulfide flakes. By using low-energy electron microscopy/diffraction, the crystal orientations and domain boundaries of molybdenum disulfide flakes are identified directly on Au foils for the first time.

    37. Orthogonal Molecular Structure for Better Host Material in Blue Phosphorescence and Larger OLED White Lighting Panel

      Lei Ding, Shou-Cheng Dong, Zuo-Quan Jiang, Hua Chen and Liang-Sheng Liao

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403402

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      Over 25% external quantum efficiency in blue phosphorescence by spiro-bipolar host diphenyl(10-phenyl-10H-spiro[acridine-9,9′-fluoren]-2′-yl)phosphine oxide is achieved and over 75 lm W-1 large white organic light-emitting diodes lighting panel is fabricated.

    38. Ambient-Stable, Annealing-Free, and Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Solution-Processable Poly(2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-alt-2,5-divinylthiophene) without Long Alkyl Side Chains

      Chi-Jui Chiang, Jyh-Chien Chen, Hsiang-Yen Tsao, Kuan-Yi Wu and Chien-Lung Wang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403428

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      An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor based on a solution-processable conjugated polymer, CF3-PBTV, is developed. The solution-processability is achieved without long alkyl side chains. The organic field-effect transistor shows well-equivalent ambipolarity with hole mobility of 0.065 cm2 V−1 s−1 and electron mobility of 0.078 cm2 V−1 s−1 in air. This annealing-free OFET also demonstrates very high on/off ratio (≈107) and excellent ambient-stability over 90 days.

    39. Self-Powered Trace Memorization by Conjunction of Contact-Electrification and Ferroelectricity

      Xiangyu Chen, Mitsumasa Iwamoto, Zhemin Shi, Limin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403577

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      The output voltage produced by the contact-electrification during motion can polarize the dipole moments in the ferroelectric thin film. This mechanism can be used to design a novel self-powered memory system for recording the mechanical displacements in both 1D and 2D regions. The study shows that this memory system has good resolution, high sensitivity, and many possible applications.

    40. Shear-Thinning Supramolecular Hydrogels with Secondary Autonomous Covalent Crosslinking to Modulate Viscoelastic Properties In Vivo

      Christopher B. Rodell, John W. MacArthur Jr., Shauna M. Dorsey, Ryan J. Wade, Leo L. Wang, Y. Joseph Woo and Jason A. Burdick

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403550

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      Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogels with high target site retention, tunable properties, and potential for percutaneous delivery are developed through a tandem crosslinking approach. Supramolecular crosslinking provides initial hydrogel formation and shear-thinning delivery, while secondary covalent crosslinking stabilizes the hydrogel in situ. Material properties and treatment of myocardial infarct are examined.

    41. Facile Synthesis of Hematite Quantum-Dot/Functionalized Graphene-Sheet Composites as Advanced Anode Materials for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

      Hui Xia, Caiyun Hong, Bo Li, Bin Zhao, Zixia Lin, Mingbo Zheng, Serguei V. Savilov and Serguei M. Aldoshin

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403554

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      Hematite quantum-dot/functionalized graphene-sheet composites are prepared and the composite electrode can reach a maximum specific capacitance of 347 F g−1, which is much larger than the reported values for the Fe2O3-based electrodes in neutral aqueous electrolyte. A high-performance 2 V asymmetrical supercapacitor is fabricated using Fe2O3/FGS as anode and MnO2/FGS as cathode in 1 m Na2SO4 electrolyte.

    42. Fabrication of All-Water-Based Self-Repairing Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on UV-Responsive Microcapsules

      Kunlin Chen, Shuxue Zhou, Shu Yang and Limin Wu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403496

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      An environmentally benign, all-water-based self-repairing superhydrophobic coating based on UV-responsive microcapsules is fabricated, which exhibits excellent self-healing and self-cleaning ability in an outdoor environment, and after mechanical damage and contamination by organics.

    43. A Timely Synthetic Tailoring of Biaxially Extended Thienylenevinylene-Like Polymers for Systematic Investigation on Field-Effect Transistors

      Dohyuk Yoo, Benjamin Nketia-Yawson, Seok-Ju Kang, Hyungju Ahn, Tae Joo Shin, Yong-Young Noh and Changduk Yang

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403527

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      A tactically chosen set of DPP-TVT-n polymers involving biaxially extended thienylenevinylene (TVT) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units, by tuning the thiophene-to-vinylene ratio in the backbone, is synthesized. This in-depth study uncovers that the degrees of the paracrystalline nature and the (h00) plane distribution, rather than densely packed organization, play a critical role in facilitating charge transport.

    44. Effective Photothermal Killing of Pathogenic Bacteria by Using Spatially Tunable Colloidal Gels with Nano-Localized Heating Sources

      Chun-Wen Hsiao, Hsin-Lung Chen, Zi-Xian Liao, Radhakrishnan Sureshbabu, Hsu-Chan Hsiao, Shu-Jyuan Lin, Yen Chang and Hsing-Wen Sung

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403478

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      The injected polymer solution exhibits a rapid nanostructure transformation over a narrow range of pH values and forms a colloidal gel at the site of the abscess, providing tunable spatial stabilization. The formed colloidal gel converts near-infrared (NIR) light energy into heat and causes thermal lysis of the bacteria, reducing thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

    45. Intratumoral Thermal Reading During Photo-Thermal Therapy by Multifunctional Fluorescent Nanoparticles

      Elisa Carrasco, Blanca del Rosal, Francisco Sanz-Rodríguez, Ángeles Juarranz de la Fuente, Patricia Haro Gonzalez, Ueslen Rocha, Kagola Upendra Kumar, Carlos Jacinto, José García Solé and Daniel Jaque

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403653

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      The unique ability of Neodymium doped LaF3 nanoparticles for simultaneous heating and temperature sensing is used here for the development of efficient and damage-free photo-thermal treatment of cancer tumors with real time intratumoral thermal reading.

    46. Enhanced Light-Harvesting by Integrating Synergetic Microcavity and Plasmonic Effects for High-Performance ITO-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Cells

      Kai Yao, Xu-Kai Xin, Chu-Chen Chueh, Kung-Shih Chen, Yun-Xiang Xu and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403297

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      Highly efficient ITO-free, flexible polymer solar cells (PSCs) are successfully demon­strated by integrating the plasmonic effect into microcavity-based devices. By carefully controlling the embedded Ag nanoprisms sizes, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices can be significantly enhanced to as high as 9.4% on both glass and flexible (PET) substrates.

    47. Relating the Physical Structure and Optoelectronic Function of Crystalline TIPS-Pentacene

      Sahar Sharifzadeh, Cathy Y. Wong, Hao Wu, Benjamin L. Cotts, Leeor Kronik, Naomi S. Ginsberg and Jeffrey B. Neaton

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403005

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      A combination of micro-spectroscopy and many-body perturbation theory reveals the inter-grain orientation within polycrystalline TIPS-pentacene films and the relationship of the physical structure to opto-electronic properties.

    48. Epoxy Toughening with Low Graphene Loading

      Yong Tae Park, Yuqiang Qian, Clement Chan, Taewon Suh, Mehrdad Ghasemi Nejhad, Christopher W. Macosko and Andreas Stein

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402553

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      Epoxy toughening by graphene is demonstrated at graphene loadings as low as 0.02 wt%. Functionalization of graphene can further improve the toughening effect at such a small loading level. A mechanism based on the formation and coalescence of microcracks generated by graphene is proposed to explain the fracture behavior of epoxy/graphene nanocomposites.

    49. High Performance Three-Dimensional Chemical Sensor Platform Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Formed on High Aspect-Ratio Micro-Pillars

      Le Thai Duy, Duck-Jin Kim, Tran Quang Trung, Vinh Quang Dang, Bo-Yeong Kim, Hock Key Moon and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401992

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      A possibility of sensing enhancement of chemiresistor gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (R-GO) through extension of device channel geometry by using three-dimensional (3D) SU-8 micro-pillar array is discussed. The combination of controllable 3D structure and easily modifiable R-GO reveals a good premise to maximize the advantages of the multi-scale hybridization of R-GO for contemporary and future sensing devices.

    50. A Bio-inspired Potassium and pH Responsive Double-gated Nanochannel

      Meiying Liu, Huacheng Zhang, Kan Li, Liping Heng, Shutao Wang, Ye Tian and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401655

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      A dual-responsive double-gated nanochannel: A bio-inspired potassium and pH responsive double-gated nanosystem is developed by immobilizing C-quadruplex and G-quadruplex DNA molecules onto the top and bottom tip side of a cigar-shaped nanochannel, respectively. This system, as the first example, may open up a new way to build diverse functional double-gated nanochannel with dual-response to meet the real-world application.

  2. Highlights

    1. Current Understanding of Van der Waals Effects in Realistic Materials

      Alexandre Tkatchenko

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403029

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      Van der Waals interactions arise from correlated electronic fluctuations in matter and are therefore present in all materials. Our current understanding of these ubiquitous quantum-mechanical forces is summarized, and their effects in a wide variety of realistic materials are highlighted, ranging from molecular assemblies to solids with and without defects, nanostructures of varying size and dimensionality, as well as interfaces between inorganic and organic materials.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Mechanical Surface Modification of Lithium Metal: Towards Improved Li Metal Anode Performance by Directed Li Plating

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Yong Min Lee, Yunju Lee, Martin Winter and Peter Bieker

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402953

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      The simple, scalable, and cost-efficient surface treatment technique for Li metal is developed. With a simple rolling process, the micro-needles create inverse micro-needles pattern over wide area of Li metal surface, which remarkably enhances the power capabilities and cycle retention abilities to those of the bare Li metal.

    2. Finite-Temperature Properties of Rare-Earth-Substituted BiFeO3 Multiferroic Solid Solutions

      Bin Xu, Dawei Wang, Jorge Íñiguez and Laurent Bellaiche

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403811

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      Rare-earth substituted BiFeO3 (BFO) holds great promise as a piezoelectric and magnetoelectric material. A first-principles based scheme is developed to investigate the structural and magnetic transitions of Nd-doped BFO at finite temperatures. Thanks to this new method, the nature of the composition-induced transformations is unveiled, and the possibility to control the magnetic order by an applied electric field is demonstrated.

    3. Structured Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polymer Composites for Ultra-Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding

      Ding-Xiang Yan, Huan Pang, Bo Li, Robert Vajtai, Ling Xu, Peng-Gang Ren, Jian-Hua Wang and Zhong-Ming Li

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403809

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      The rGO/PS composite with segregated architecture is realized via high-pressure solid-phase compression molding for efficient EMI shielding. The highest EMI SE of 45.1 dB among rGO based polymer composites is achieved with only 3.47 vol% rGO loading. The high-pressure molded composite shows 94% and 40% enhancement in compressive strength and modulus compared to conventional-pressure molded composite.

    4. Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces

      Jianxiong Li, Shuqi Chen, Haifang Yang, Junjie Li, Ping Yu, Hua Cheng, Changzhi Gu, Hou-Tong Chen and Jianguo Tian

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403669

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      A radially polarized beam is generated based on proposed plasmonic metasurfaces that allow simultaneous manipulation of the polarization and phase of the transmitted light. Arbitrary spatial field distribution of the optical phase and polarization direction are obtained by accordingly designed plasmonic metasurfaces. The multifunctional metasurfaces are also validated by demonstrating a broadband near-perfect anomalous refraction with controllable linear polarization.

    5. Ultrathin Iron Oxide Nanowhiskers as Positive Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Thomas Macher, John Totenhagen, Jennifer Sherwood, Ying Qin, Demet Gurler, Mark S. Bolding and Yuping Bao

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403436

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      A new type of positive (T1) contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is reported based on ultrathin iron oxide nanowhiskers. The key innovation is to alter the magnetic properties of nanoparticles through shape control. The positive MRI contrast enhancement of these nanowhiskers is demonstrated using the T1-weighted image scans.

    6. Controlling the Dominant Length Scale of Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation in Spin-coated Organic Semiconductor Films

      Jacobus J. van Franeker, Daniel Westhoff, Mathieu Turbiez, Martijn M. Wienk, Volker Schmidt and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403392

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      Droplet formation occurs in many solution-processed organic semiconductor blends due to liquid–liquid phase separation. The combination of in situ measurements, a simple numerical spin coating model, and advanced image analysis on transmission electron micrographs show that the dominant length scale scales with a normalized drying rate, which is defined as the solvent evaporation rate divided by the dry layer thickness.

    7. Magnetic Liquid Marbles: Toward “Lab in a Droplet”

      Yan Zhao, Zhiguang Xu, Haitao Niu, Xungai Wang and Tong Lin

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403051

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      “On-line” quantitative detection of liquid ingridents and biological assays is demonstratred in magnetic liquid marbles using electrochemical and optical approaches. The particle shell of magnetic liquid marbles can be hardened to preserve the samples/reagents when a low melting-point material is present in the powder shell. These novel features, with the actuation and microreactor characteristics, make magnetic liquid marbles a promising candidate for “lab in a droplet”.

    8. Enhanced Electrochromism with Rapid Growth Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolyte Complexes

      Mengqi Cui, Wee Siang Ng, Xu Wang, Peter Darmawan and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402100

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      A fast growing film is fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition by using polyelectrolyte complexes PAA-PEI and PANI as building blocks. The film exhibits porous structure and enhanced electrochromism compared to PAA/PANI films under the same condition. The use of polyelectrolyte complexes is demonstrated to be beneficial for high performance electrochemically active LbL films.

    9. Plasticization of PEDOT:PSS by Common Additives for Mechanically Robust Organic Solar Cells and Wearable Sensors

      Suchol Savagatrup, Esther Chan, Sandro M. Renteria-Garcia, Adam D. Printz, Aliaksandr V. Zaretski, Timothy F. O'Connor, Daniel Rodriquez, Eduardo Valle and Darren J. Lipomi

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401758

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      This paper describes the effects of common additives on the mechanical properties (stiffness and ductility) of the transparent conductive polymer, PEDOT:PSS. In particular, 10% Zonyl fluorosurfactant decreases the tensile modulus by a factor of 100. Plasticized films are used for wearable sensors of human motion and have the potential to increase the mechanical robustness of organic solar cells.

    10. Few-Layered SnS2 on Few-Layered Reduced Graphene Oxide as Na-Ion Battery Anode with Ultralong Cycle Life and Superior Rate Capability

      Yandong Zhang, Peiyi Zhu, Liliang Huang, Jian Xie, Shichao Zhang, Gaoshao Cao and Xinbing Zhao

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402833

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      A SnS2/rGO hybrid with a plate-on-sheet architecture exhibits a high capacity, superior cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The hybrid delivers an initial capacity of 469 mAh g−1 at 800 mA g−1 and keeps at 61% after 1000 cycles. At 12.8 A g−1 (28 C), it still yields a charge capacity of 337 mAh g−1.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Polymer/Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells: Influence of Molecular Precursor Design on Film Nanomorphology, Charge Generation and Device Performance

      Andrew J. MacLachlan, Thomas Rath, Ute B. Cappel, Simon A. Dowland, Heinz Amenitsch, Astrid-Caroline Knall, Christine Buchmaier, Gregor Trimmel, Jenny Nelson and Saif A. Haque

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403108

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      Molecular tuning of metal xanthate precursors is shown to be a valuable tool to optimize absorber layer morphologies in ligand-free prepared polymer/nanoparticle hybrid solar cells. Additionally to investigating the formation of the different nanomorphologies, their influences on optoelectronic properties are studied by transient absorption spectroscopy and a remarkable effect on device performance is revealed.

    12. Rational Design of a Printable, Highly Conductive Silicone-based Electrically Conductive Adhesive for Stretchable Radio-Frequency Antennas

      Zhuo Li, Taoran Le, Zhenkun Wu, Yagang Yao, Liyi Li, Manos Tentzeris, Kyoung-Sik Moon and C. P. Wong

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403275

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      Silicone-based electrically conductive adhesives (silo-ECAs) with an electrical conductivity of 1.51 × 104 S cm−1 at static state and 1.11 × 103 S cm−1 at a large stain of 240% is developed. By using the stretchable silo-ECAs as the conductor and pure silicone elastomers as the substrate, stretchable antennas can be fabricated by stencil printing or soft-lithography.

    13. Highly Porous Materials as Tunable Electrocatalysts for the Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Marc Ledendecker, Guylhaine Clavel, Markus Antonietti and Menny Shalom

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402078

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      A facile synthesis of highly porous manganese doped sponge-like nickel materials embedded in a carbon and nitrogen matrix is presented. The new materials demonstrate high electrocatalytic activity towards the water splitting reaction both in the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction. The use of these materials for both reactions results in a 70% voltage efficiency in the overall water splitting reaction.

    14. Mesoporous Silica Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Multifunctional Light-Responsive Platform for Cancer Combination Therapy

      Jingjing Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaojing Wang, Xin Wang, Liang Cheng, Yonggang Li and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403079

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      Mesoporous silica coated single-wall carbon nanotubes with polyethylene glycol functionalization and anti-cancer drug loading are developed as a multi­functional theranostic platform. Upon systemic administration of such nano-agent, combined photothermal and chemotherapy, which is under the guidance of multimodal magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging, is conducted on an animal tumor model, achieving a great synergistic therapeutic effect.

    15. A Free-Standing and Ultralong-Life Lithium-Selenium Battery Cathode Enabled by 3D Mesoporous Carbon/Graphene Hierarchical Architecture

      Kai Han, Zhao Liu, Jingmei Shen, Yuyuan Lin, Fang Dai and Hongqi Ye

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402815

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      Free-standing selenium cathode for lithium-selenium batteries are developed by embedding selenium-impreganated mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in graphene sheets (Se/MCN-RGO). The 3D hierarchical architecture provides excellent electrical and ionic conductivity, and also suppresses polyselenides shuttling and accommodates volume change. The Se/MCN-RGO exhibits ultra-long cycle life with capacity retention of 89% after 1300 cycles at 1 C.

    16. Gadolinium-Doped Persistent Nanophosphors as Versatile Tool for Multimodal In Vivo Imaging

      Thomas Maldiney, Bich-Thuy Doan, Damien Alloyeau, Michel Bessodes, Daniel Scherman and Cyrille Richard

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401612

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      An optical-magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobe is designed on the basis of a spinel zinc gallate structure doped with trivalent chromium and gadolinium. This nanocrystal bears the ability to serve as both a highly sensitive persistent luminescence nanoprobe for optical imaging, and a negative contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Surface coverage can be modified in order to obtain stealth nanoparticles suitable for real-time in vivo application.

    17. Dipole–Dipole and H-Bonding Interactions Significantly Enhance the Multifaceted Mechanical Properties of Thermoresponsive Shape Memory Hydrogels

      Yinyu Zhang, Yongmao Li and Wenguang Liu

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401989

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      Combining dipole–dipole and hydrogen bonding interactions in one single network enhances the tensile/compressive strengths and toughness of hydrogels significantly. The rapid destruction and reconstruction of dual physical interactions contribute to the reversible mechanical properties and thermoresponsive shape memory effect. This dipole–dipole and H-bonding reinforcement strategy offers a universal approach to design high performance hydrogels for practical load-bearing applications.

    18. Plasmonic Particles that Hit Hypoxic Cells

      Fulvio Ratto, Ewa Witort, Francesca Tatini, Sonia Centi, Lorenza Lazzeri, Fabrizio Carta, Matteo Lulli, Daniela Vullo, Franco Fusi, Claudiu T. Supuran, Andrea Scozzafava, Sergio Capaccioli and Roberto Pini

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402118

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      Hybrid particles are engineered to target hypoxic cells, inhibit their proliferation, and mediate their optical sensitization. These particles comprise gold nanorods and inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases, which become accessible under hypoxia. Hypoxic cells are damaged both by compromising their metabolism and overheating with a laser. Since hypoxia occurs in most aggressive tumors, this construct represents a versatile anticancer agent.

    19. Soft Processing of Graphene Nanosheets by Glycine-Bisulfate Ionic-Complex-Assisted Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite for Reduction Catalysis

      Kodepelly Sanjeeva Rao, Jaganathan Sentilnathan, Hsun-Wei Cho, Jih-Jen Wu and Masahiro Yoshimura

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402621

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      A mild, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective soft processing approach for the continuous synthesis of high-quality, few-layer graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite using an atomically economical (100%), low-cost glycine-bisulfate ionic complex is presented. The high-quality and suitability of these GNSs to catalytic applications is demonstrated through the efficient reduction of benzoate, utilizing a GNS-AuNCs hybrid.

    20. ε-Branched Flexible Side Chain Substituted Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Containing Polymers Designed for High Hole and Electron Mobilities

      A-Reum Han, Gitish K. Dutta, Junghoon Lee, Hae Rang Lee, Sang Myeon Lee, Hyungju Ahn, Tae Joo Shin, Joon Hak Oh and Changduk Yang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403020

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      The novel ε-branched side chains are incorporated into diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based backbone to facilitate the charge transport by modulating π-stacking and lamellar distance. A systematic investigation of the highly π-extended systems with electron-rich groups are also performed to achieve synergetic effects of the extended branching point of alkyl chains. These polymers effectively build up 3-D charge transport pathways and exhibit ultra-high mobilities.

    21. Enzyme-Responsive Release of Doxorubicin from Monodisperse Dipeptide-Based Nanocarriers for Highly Efficient Cancer Treatment In Vitro

      He Zhang, Jinbo Fei, Xuehai Yan, Anhe Wang and Junbai Li

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403119

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      Cationic diphenylalanine (CDP) can assemble into biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarriers through cross-linkage of glutaraldehyde (GA). The nanocarriers can be biodegraded under the action of tyrisin. Importantly, after loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) the nanocarriers also show a desired enzyme-responsive property and the release of DOX can be easily achieved in PBS (pH 7.2) with tyrisin.

    22. FeO0.7F1.3/C Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Yong-Ning Zhou, Mahsa Sina, Nathalie Pereira, Xiqian Yu, Glenn G. Amatucci, Xiao-Qing Yang, Frederic Cosandey and Kyung-Wan Nam

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403241

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      A high-capacity cathode for a sodium battery is presented. FeO0.7F1.3/C nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 496 mAh g−1 in a sodium cell at 50 °C. A reversible capacity of 360 mAh g−1 is retained at the 50th cycle, demonstrating superior cycleability. Both intercalation and conversion reactions are revealed during the discharge-charge process of the FeO0.7F1.3/C – Na cell.

    23. Sodium Storage Behavior in Natural Graphite using Ether-based Electrolyte Systems

      Haegyeom Kim, Jihyun Hong, Young-Uk Park, Jinsoo Kim, Insang Hwang and Kisuk Kang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402984

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      This study reports unusual Na storage behavior in natural graphite through Na+-solvent co-intercalation combined with pseudocapacitive behaviors using ether-based electrolytes which was confirmed by electrochemical and ex situ analyses. This work can be used as a foundation for further studies on graphite as a promising anode for NIBs in conjunction with its straightforward advantages, such as low costs, earth abundance, environmental friendliness, and non-toxicity.

    24. Building Three-Dimensional Graphene Frameworks for Energy Storage and Catalysis

      Minghao Yu, Yongchao Huang, Cheng Li, Yinxiang Zeng, Wang Wang, Yao Li, Pingping Fang, Xihong Lu and Yexiang Tong

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402964

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      The massive fabrication of high-quality three dimensional graphene-based frameworks (3DGFs) is reported here. The as-fabricated 3DGFs exhibit a superior conductivity and large surface area. Meanwhile the application of 3DGFs as versatile 3D scaffolds to create PANI@3DGFs, Pd@3DGFs, and Pt@3DGFs composites is demonstrated, which should find applications in 3D electrode materials for supercapacitors and catalyst.

    25. Dynamic Fluoroalkyl Polyethylene Glycol Co-Polymers: A New Strategy for Reducing Protein Adhesion in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

      Mahesh K. Sarvothaman, Kris S. Kim, Brendon Seale, Peter M. Brodersen, Gilbert C. Walker and Aaron R. Wheeler

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402218

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      An antifouling coating is described that improves digital microfluidic device lifetime up to 5.5-fold relative to the state of the art. The material is dynamic: under standard conditions, the surface is flat and fluorinated; upon applying an electrical potential, the surface becomes activated, forming nanometer-sized fluoropegylated structures.

    26. Recapillarity: Electrochemically Controlled Capillary Withdrawal of a Liquid Metal Alloy from Microchannels

      Mohammad R. Khan, Chris Trlica and Michael D. Dickey

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403042

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      The mechanistic details of a method to control the withdrawal of a liquid metal alloy, eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), from microfluidic channels, are described. Recapillarity is a technique to repeatably toggle on and off the capillary behavior of a liquid metal by electrochemically reducing its surface oxide. It can control the shape of liquid metal in microchannels for reconfigurable circuits.

    27. An Interface-Induced Co-Assembly Approach Towards Ordered Mesoporous Carbon/Graphene Aerogel for High-Performance Supercapacitors

      Ruili Liu, Li Wan, Shaoqing Liu, Lixia Pan, Dongqing Wu and Dongyuan Zhao

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403280

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      When ordered mesoporous carbons meet graphene areogel, the resulting hierarchically porous composites conglomerating the advantages of both components are obtained and exhibit excellent performance in electrochemical energy devices. More importantly, the synthesis strategy provides an ideal platform for hierarchically porous graphene composites with potential for energy storage and conversion applications.

    28. Self-Sacrifice Template Fabrication of Hierarchical Mesoporous Bi-Component-Active ZnO/ZnFe2O4 Sub-Microcubes as Superior Anode Towards High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

      Linrui Hou, Lin Lian, Longhai Zhang, Gang Pang, Changzhou Yuan and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402827

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      Hierarchical mesoporous ZnO/ZnFe2O4 sub-microcubes are rationally fabricated via an efficiently scalable self-sacrifice strategy and exhibit excellent electrochemical Li-storage performance, benefiting from their unique structural characteristics and striking synergistic effect between the bi-component-active, well-dispersed ZnO and ZFO nanophases at the nanoscale.

    29. ZnO Hard Templating for Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Carbons with Tailored Porosity and High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Battery

      Patrick Strubel, Sören Thieme, Tim Biemelt, Alexandra Helmer, Martin Oschatz, Jan Brückner, Holger Althues and Stefan Kaskel

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402768

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      Hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) prepared by a ZnO nanoparticle hard templating approach enables in situ template removal accompanied by a controllable growth of micropores within the carbon walls. Due to tailored porosity, the HPC/S composite delivers a high discharge capacity at high sulfur content and loading as well as moderate amount of electrolyte. This triggers high energy densities on cell level.

    30. Eliminating the Trade-Off between the Throughput and Pattern Quality of Sub-15 nm Directed Self-Assembly via Warm Solvent Annealing

      Jong Min Kim, YongJoo Kim, Woon Ik Park, Yoon Hyung Hur, Jae Won Jeong, Dong Min Sim, Kwang Min Baek, Jung Hye Lee, Mi-Jeong Kim and Yeon Sik Jung

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401529

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      The formation of high-resolution, high-throughput, and high-quality patterns is accomplished using a warm solvent-vapor annealing (WSA) treatment for the self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) with an extremely high segregation strength. A means of avoiding the undesirable trade-off between the quality and formation throughput of the self-assembled patterns is suggested. The significant improvement of pattern quality realized by WSA is attributed to the reduced degree of interfacial deformation during final solvent evaporation.

    31. Submicrometer-Sized ZIF-71 Filled Organophilic Membranes for Improved Bioethanol Recovery: Mechanistic In-Sights by Monte Carlo Simulation and FTIR Spectroscopy

      Lik H. Wee, Yanbo Li, Kang Zhang, Patrizia Davit, Silvia Bordiga, Jianwen Jiang, Ivo F. J. Vankelecom and Johan A. Martens

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402972

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      Gram scale synthesis of submicrometer-sized ZIF-71 crystal is demonstrated via a simple mixed solvent approach for improving mixed matrix membrane pervaporation separation of bioethanol. The host–guest chemistry at its molecular level is unravelled by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation and FTIR spectroscopy. The results reveal a strong hydrogen interaction between the cages of ZIF-71 and ethanol, well explaining the pervaporation performance.

    32. Transparent and Stretchable Interactive Human Machine Interface Based on Patterned Graphene Heterostructures

      Sumin Lim, Donghee Son, Jaemin Kim, Young Bum Lee, Jun-Kyul Song, Suji Choi, Dong Jun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Minbaek Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402987

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      A transparent and stretchable interactive human machine interface (iHMI) based on patterned graphene (GP) heterostructures is developed. The conductive/piezoelectric GP heterostructures enable the iHMI to have high transparency, excellent performance, low power consumption, and superb mechanical deformability. The control of a robot arm for various motions and feedback stimulation upon successful executions of commands are demonstrated using the wearable iHMI system.

    33. Mesostructured Intermetallic Compounds of Platinum and Non-Transition Metals for Enhanced Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Xing-You Lang, Gao-Feng Han, Bei-Bei Xiao, Lin Gu, Zhen-Zhong Yang, Zi Wen, Yong-Fu Zhu, Ming Zhao, Jian-Chen Li and Qing Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401868

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      A mesostructured ordered intermetallic of PtAl is developed by a facilely and cost-effectively alloying/dealloying approach for the high-performance ORR. The extremely strong covalent bonds between Pt and Al not only give rise to excellent kinetic stability, but also result in remarkable catalytic activity duo to the downshift of d-band center.

  4. Comments

    1. Response to Comment on Sponge-Templated Preparation of High Surface Area Graphene with Ultrahigh Capacitive Deionization Performance

      Zhi-Yu Yang, Lin-Jian Jin, Guo-Qian Lu, Qing-Qing Xiao, Yu-Xia Zhang, Lin Jing, Xiao-Xue Zhang, Yi-Ming Yan and Ke-Ning Sun

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403534

  5. Full Papers

    1. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines: Size Matters

      Konstantinos Spyrou, Matteo Calvaresi, Evmorfia K. Diamanti, Theodoros Tsoufis, Dimitrios Gournis, Petra Rudolf and Francesco Zerbetto

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402622

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      Experimental and theoretical approaches are combined to demonstrate the successful intercalation of common organic polycyclic aromatic compounds between the layers of graphite oxide, and to examine in detail the mechanism by which each molecule interacts with the graphene oxide surface. It is proved that the type of interaction for aniline and naphthalene amine with the graphene oxide layers differs according to the size of the aromatic molecules.

    2. Controlled Growth from ZnS Nanoparticles to ZnS–CdS Nanoparticle Hybrids with Enhanced Photoactivity

      Xiaojie Xu, Linfeng Hu, Nan Gao, Shaoxiong Liu, Swelm Wageh, Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed Alshahrie and Xiaosheng Fang

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403065

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      Chalcogenide nanostructure has attracted world-wide attention due to the great potential of applications in photocatalysis and optoelectronics. Well-defined heterostructures, which often exhibit superior properties, are of extreme importance. In this paper, a facile method to synthesize monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) and ZnS–CdS nanocomposites (NCs) is proposed. The ZnS–CdS heterostructure not only shows obvious advantage in photoactivities, but also offers exciting opportunities for the development of new dual-semiconductor nanostructures.

    3. Nanofragmentation of Ferroelectric Domains During Polarization Fatigue

      Hanzheng Guo, Xiaoming Liu, Jürgen Rödel and Xiaoli Tan

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402740

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      A novel mechanism of polarization fatigue is visualized in situ in polycrystalline [(Bi1/2Na1/2)0.95Ba0.05]0.98La0.02TiO3 by using transimission electron microscopy. Complementary to domain wall pinning, nanoscale domain fragmentation is found to take place during bipolar electric cycling. The broken long range polar order in the nanofragments is primarily responsible for the fatigue behavior measured from bulk specimens.

    4. Charge Separation Dynamics and Opto-Electronic Properties of a Diaminoterephthalate-C60 Dyad

      Stefano Pittalis, Alain Delgado, Jörg Robin, Lena Freimuth, Jens Christoffers, Christoph Lienau and Carlo Andrea Rozzi

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402316

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      Photoinduced charge separation occurs on a 100 fs time scale in a diaminoterephthalate-C60 dyad. Quantum simulations are performed to study the excited state dynamics of a new dyad. The chemical flexibility and optical properties of the chromophore moiety make this system a particularly useful model to study the early steps in the photovoltaic energy conversion. The simulations clarify the influence of electron-nuclei coupling and molecular conformation on the charge separation efficiency of the molecule.

    5. High-Mobility ZnO Thin Film Transistors Based on Solution-processed Hafnium Oxide Gate Dielectrics

      Mazran Esro, George Vourlias, Christopher Somerton, William I. Milne and George Adamopoulos

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402684

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      Solution-processed metal oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) employing sequential spray coated antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) gate electrodes, hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectrics and zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconducting channels are demonstrated. The transistors show excellent characteristics in terms of high transparency, hysteresis-free operation, low operation voltage, high electron mobility and On/Off current modulation ratio.

    6. Silicon-Based Current-Controlled Reconfigurable Magnetoresistance Logic Combined with Non-Volatile Memory

      Zhaochu Luo, Xiaozhong Zhang, Chengyue Xiong and Jiaojiao Chen

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402955

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      Magnetoelectronics logic shows promise for surpassing the development limits of CMOS logic and arouses profound attentions. Here, silicon-based current-controlled reconfigurable magnetoresistance logic is experimentally demonstrated. This logic device performs four basic Boolean logic (AND, OR, NAND, and NOR) in one device. It has the advantages of reconfiguration, ultralow consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap.

    7. Integration of 2D and 3D Thin Film Glassy Carbon Electrode Arrays for Electrochemical Dopamine Sensing in Flexible Neuroelectronic Implants

      Jules J. VanDersarl, André Mercanzini and Philippe Renaud

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402934

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      Incorporating glassy carbon electrodes into flexible neural probes allows for implants to be used as chemical sensors as well as electrical sensors and stimulators. The devices are microfabricated on carrier wafers out of polyimide, platinum, titanium, and glassy carbon. The process demonstrated here is generally applicable for the integration of various high temperature materials into flexible devices.

    8. Controlling the Self-Assembly of Periodic Defect Patterns in Smectic Liquid Crystal Films with Electric Fields

      Iryna Gryn, Emmanuelle Lacaze, Roberto Bartolino and Bruno Zappone

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402875

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      Rapid formation of periodic defect patterns can be induced and controlled in smectic liquid crystal films by applying electric fields and varying the film thickness at the smectic-nematic phase transition. The pattern type (1d/2d) and period persist in the smectic phase in a non-equilibrium state, stabilized by large topological barriers, even after switching the field off.

    9. Enhanced Vertical Charge Transport in a Semiconducting P3HT Thin Film on Single Layer Graphene

      Vasyl Skrypnychuk, Nicolas Boulanger, Victor Yu, Michael Hilke, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Michael F. Toney and David R. Barbero

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403418

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      The crystallinity and the electrical properties of thin films of the semiconducting polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene are investigated on a single layer of graphene. Enhanced vertical charge transport and a much higher charge carrier mobility are measured in thicker films due to the face-on orientation induced by the graphene substrate and the formation of an interconnected path of crystallites.

    10. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters

      Reinder Coehoorn, Harm van Eersel, Peter Bobbert and René Janssen

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402532

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      Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to mechanistically analyze the influence of the organic semiconductor materials properties on the luminance decay due to degradation processes in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes. A relationship is established between the lifetime and the efficiency roll-off with increasing current density, assuming triplet-polaron quenching processes as the root-cause of the degradation, and design rules regarding the energy levels are developed.

    11. All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials

      Yangyang Wang, Zeyuan Ni, Qihang Liu, Ruge Quhe, Jiaxin Zheng, Meng Ye, Dapeng Yu, Junjie Shi, Jinbo Yang, Ju Li and Jing Lu

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402904

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      Electron transport from one Dirac material to the other near E f is forbidden by momentum mismatch if the two Dirac cones of different layers are well separated. All-metallic field effect transistor can be designed out of Dirac materials with a large transport gap and a high on/off current ratio of over 104 based on ab initio quantum transport simulations.

    12. Unraveling the Sinuous Grain Boundaries in Graphene

      Zhuhua Zhang, Yang Yang, Fangbo Xu, Luqing Wang and Boris I. Yakobson

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403024

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      Grain boundaries are intrinsic to polycrystalline graphene and often exhibit diversely sinuous structures. Here, it is revealed that the sinuous grain boundaries are energetically preferred over the straight forms when the grain division is asymmetric, and their well-defined configurations agree well with experimental observations. Importantly, such grain boundaries show improved strength as well as uniformly semiconducting electronic transport behavior.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using Polymer Electrolyte Gates to Set-and-Freeze Threshold Voltage and Local Potential in Nanowire-based Devices and Thermoelectrics

      Sofia Fahlvik Svensson, Adam M. Burke, Damon J. Carrad, Martin Leijnse, Heiner Linke and Adam P. Micolich

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402921

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      A nanoscale patterned polymer electrolyte gate is used to “freeze in” ionic charge environments at low temperatures around an indium arsenide nanowire. The low thermal conductivity of the local wrap-gate allows side-by-side investigations of the conductance and thermoelectric properties of the gated nanowire segment over a series of biases applied to the polymer electrolyte.

    14. Surface Directed Phase Separation of Semiconductor Ferroelectric Polymer Blends and their use in Non-Volatile Memories

      Albert van Breemen, Tomasz Zaba, Vsevolod Khikhlovskyi, Jasper Michels, Rene Janssen, Martijn Kemerink and Gerwin Gelinck

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401896

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D morphology control in polymer resistive memories by surface directed phase separation of semiconductor ferroelectric blends is presented. Full 3D numerical simulation of the surface-controlled de-mixing process provides insight in the ability of the substrate pattern to direct the phase separation. Pattern replication on a cm-scale is achieved leading to enhanced functional device performance.

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