Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 141
  1. Full Papers

    1. Self-Crosslink Method for a Straightforward Synthesis of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-Based Aerogel Assisted by Carbon Nanotube

      Chong-Bo Ma, Baoji Du and Erkang Wang

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604423

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      A self-crosslink mechanism for one-pot synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based aerogel is reported. No organic crosslinkers are required in the synthesis process and the raw material is low-cost and commercially available. The products have good absorbing capacity for oil–water separation and meanwhile work as a “substrate” for in situ fabrication of conductive gel by hybridizing with polypyrrole.

    2. Seriography-Guided Reduction of Graphene Oxide Biopapers for Wearable Sensory Electronics

      Ruilong Ma and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604802

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      Robust, resilient, foldable microcircuits and sensors are printed in graphene-silk biocomposite films by localizing the application of a reductant paste using a low-cost screen printing setup. This approach provides a portable solution for the micropatterned reduction of graphene biopapers across large areas exceeding hundreds of cm2 for emerging applications in flexible electronics.

    3. Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additives to Render Uniform Li Deposits in Lithium Metal Batteries

      Xue-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Xiang Chen, Chong Yan and Qiang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605989

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      Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive is used to form a LiF-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The FEC-induced SEI layer is compact and stable, and therefore beneficial to obtain a uniform morphology of Li deposits. When the FEC-protected Li metal anode matches a high-loading oxide cathode, a high initial capacity and stable cycling are achieved.

    4. Ultrathin Layered Hydroxide Cobalt Acetate Nanoplates Face-to-Face Anchored to Graphene Nanosheets for High-Efficiency Lithium Storage

      Liwei Su, Jinpei Hei, Xianbin Wu, Lianbang Wang and Zhen Zhou

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605544

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      Layered hydroxide cobalt acetate (LHCA) is introduced as a novel lithium storage material. Ultrathin LHCA nanoplates are face-to-face anchored on graphene nanosheets and exhibit extraordinary performances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the conversion from acetate to acetaldehyde. A reasonable mechanism is proposed to elucidate the lithium storage behaviors referring to the electrocatalytic conversion of OH groups with Co nanocatalysts.

    5. Carbonized Silk Nanofiber Membrane for Transparent and Sensitive Electronic Skin

      Qi Wang, Muqiang Jian, Chunya Wang and Yingying Zhang

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605657

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      Using carbonized electrospun silk nanofiber membranes and planar polydimethylsiloxane films, a skin-like ultrasensitive pressure sensor is fabricated. The sensor shows superior performance, including high sensitivity (34.47 kPa−1), an ultralow detection limit (0.8 Pa), fast response time (<16.7 ms), and high stability and durability (>10 000 cycles), enabling its wide application in real-time biomedical monitoring and smart equipment.

    6. Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells based on a Perylene Monoimide Acceptor with a High Open-Circuit Voltage of 1.3 V

      Youdi Zhang, Xia Guo, Bing Guo, Wenyan Su, Maojie Zhang and Yongfang Li

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603892

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      Nonfullerene polymer solar cells with PTZ1 as a donor and PMI-F-PMI as an acceptor demonstrate a very high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.3 V with a higher power conversion efficiency of 6%. The high Voc is a result of the high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of −3.42 eV of the PMI-F-PMI acceptor and the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of −5.31 eV of the polymer donor.

    7. Flexible and Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Based on Bionic Hierarchical Structures

      Muqiang Jian, Kailun Xia, Qi Wang, Zhe Yin, Huimin Wang, Chunya Wang, Huanhuan Xie, Mingchao Zhang and Yingying Zhang

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606066

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      A flexible, highly sensitive, and low operating voltage pressure sensor is fabricated based on carbon nanotube/graphene hybrid films and hierarchical microstructured polydimethylsiloxane films molded from natural leaves. The sensor has high sensitivity (19.8 kPa−1, <0.3 kPa), a low detection limit (0.6 Pa), fast response time (<16.7 ms), low operating voltage (0.03 V), and excellent stability for over 35 000 cycles.

    8. Unconventional Molecular Weight Dependence of Charge Transport in the High Mobility n-type Semiconducting Polymer P(NDI2OD-T2)

      Masrur M. Nahid, Rukiya Matsidik, Adam Welford, Eliot Gann, Lars Thomsen, Michael Sommer and Christopher R. McNeill

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604744

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      The saturation mobility of transistors based on thin films of the polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) is found to systematically increase as molecular weight is decreased from 41 to 10 kDa. This unusual observation is explained by shorter chains being able to better form extended orientationally correlated domains, with the aggregation of longer chains in the solvent 1,2-dichlorobenzene suppressing correlated orienting.

    9. Declamped Piezoelectric Coefficients in Patterned 70/30 Lead Magnesium Niobate–Lead Titanate Thin Films

      Ryan Keech, Linghan Ye, James L. Bosse, Giovanni Esteves, Jonathon Guerrier, Jacob L. Jones, Marcelo A. Kuroda, Bryan D. Huey and Susan Trolier-McKinstry

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605014

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      The longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of patterned lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate thin films is interrogated as a function of position by three approaches: finite element modeling, piezoresponse force microscopy, and nanoprobe synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Local property enhancements (≈3× increase) describe the spatial influence of declamping by free sidewalls and shape the roadmap of dimensional scaling for piezoelectric films.

    10. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

      Ping Wang, Xinqiang Wang, Tao Wang, Chih-Shan Tan, Bowen Sheng, Xiaoxiao Sun, Mo Li, Xin Rong, Xiantong Zheng, Zhaoying Chen, Xuelin Yang, Fujun Xu, Zhixin Qin, Jian Zhang, Xixiang Zhang and Bo Shen

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604854

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      Lattice-symmetry-driven epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy on pillar-patterned GaN templates. The periodical transformation between wz and zb phases drives the appearance of the hierarchical nanotripods. The formation of zb-GaN can be suppressed by increasing the growth temperature, and the nanotripods are entirely eliminated at temperature above 850 °C.

    11. Highly Reproducible and Regulated Conductance Quantization in a Polymer-Based Atomic Switch

      Karthik Krishnan, Manoharan Muruganathan, Tohru Tsuruoka, Hiroshi Mizuta and Masakazu Aono

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605104

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      The emergence of quantized conductance states and their correlation with resistive switching characteristics are demonstrated in an Ag/polyethylene oxide/Pt atomic switch by means of the combinations of current–voltage measurements and first-principles density functional theory simulations. It is found that the atomic configuration and structural stability of an atomic point contact play crucial roles in determining the quantized conductance state.

    12. Controlled Fabrication of Hierarchically Structured Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as a Highly Active Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst

      Xianglong Zhao, Feng Li, Ruining Wang, Jeong-Min Seo, Hyun-Jung Choi, Sun-Min Jung, Javeed Mahmood, In-Yup Jeon and Jong-Beom Baek

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605717

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      Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs), with copper (Cu) nanoparticles embedded uniformly within their walls and cobalt oxide (CoxOy) nanoparticles decorated on their surfaces, are controllably synthesized via a rationally designed multistep procedure. The resultant Cu@NCNT/CoxOy composites exhibit electrocatalytic activity comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and activity higher than that of IrO2 catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

    13. New Apatite-Type Oxide Ion Conductor, Bi2La8[(GeO4)6]O3: Structure, Properties, and Direct Imaging of Low-Level Interstitial Oxygen Atoms Using Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

      Matthew L. Tate, Douglas A. Blom, Maxim Avdeev, Helen E. A. Brand, Garry J. McIntyre, Thomas Vogt and Ivana Radosavljevic Evans

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605625

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      The new solid electrolyte Bi2La8[(GeO4)6]O3 is prepared and characterized using variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron micro­scopy, and physical property measurements (impedance spectroscopy and second harmonic generation).

    14. Peptide-Passivated Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Based on Synergistic Effect between Amino and Carboxylic Functional Groups

      Binbin Luo, Sara Bonabi Naghadeh, A'Lester Allen, Xueming Li and Jin Z. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604018

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      Peptides with different lengths are used in the synthesis of perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) as capping ligands. PNCspeptide with tunable size (≈3.9 to 8.6 nm), prepared by adjusting the concentration of the peptides, exhibit size-dependent optical properties due to quantum confinement effect. Such PNCs with peptides conjugated on their surface have potential applications in biomedicine, including optical sensing and imaging.

    15. Gold Nanocomposite Bioink for Printing 3D Cardiac Constructs

      Kai Zhu, Su Ryon Shin, Tim van Kempen, Yi-Chen Li, Vidhya Ponraj, Amir Nasajpour, Serena Mandla, Ning Hu, Xiao Liu, Jeroen Leijten, Yi-Dong Lin, Mohammad Asif Hussain, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Tamayol and Ali Khademhosseini

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605352

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      A gold nanorod-incorporated gelatin methacryloyl-based bioink for printing of 3D cardiac tissue constructs is developed. The rapid deposition of the cell-laden fibers at a high resolution is achieved, while reducing the shear stress on the encapsulated cells. The incorporated gold nanorods improve the electrical propagation between cardiac cells and promote their functional improvement in the printed cardiac construct.

    16. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films

      Francisco Molina-Lopez, Hongping Yan, Xiaodan Gu, Yeongin Kim, Michael F. Toney and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605503

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      Tuning the crystal packing of solution-processed organic semiconductors is a key aspect for achieving high performing printed electronics. An electric field, via dielectrophoresis, is used to tune the crystal packing and modify the electrical performance of solution-shearing coated organic semiconductors. This method offers an unprecedented degree of freedom in the deposition of crystalline films with controlled molecular packing structure.

    17. A Nano-in-Nano Vector: Merging the Best of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Drug Nanocrystals

      Dongfei Liu, Cristina Rodríguez Bernuz, Jin Fan, Wei Li, Alexandra Correia, Jouni Hirvonen and Hélder A. Santos

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604508

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      An optimal nano-in-nano vector merges the best of polymeric nanoparticles and drug nanocrystals, showing ultrahigh drug-loading degree, biodegradability, pH-responsive fast dissolution, high stability in serum, and ease of surface functionalization. This nano-in-nano vector is ≈54 times more efficient than the conventional drug-loaded nanoparticles.

    18. Multifaceted Immunomodulatory Nanoliposomes: Reshaping Tumors into Vaccines for Enhanced Cancer Immunotherapy

      Young-Woock Noh, Sun-Young Kim, Jung-Eun Kim, Sohyun Kim, Jooyeon Ryu, Inhye Kim, Eunji Lee, Soong Ho Um and Yong Taik Lim

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605398

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      Multifaceted immunomodulatory nanoliposomes composed of tumor cell membrane proteins with two pathogen-related lipid-based adjuvants to turn tumors into vaccines: an immunomodulatory nanoliposome that can turn tumors into vaccines and induce enhanced antitumor immune response by image-guided cancer immunotherapy is designed and synthesized.

    19. Dielectric Properties of Sustainable Nanocomposites Based on Zein Protein and Lignin for Biodegradable Insulators

      Maria Oliviero, Reza Rizvi, Letizia Verdolotti, Salvatore Iannace, Hani E. Naguib, Ernesto Di Maio, Heinz C. Neitzert and Giovanni Landi

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605142

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      Zein-based bio-nanocomposites as biodegradable dielectric materials for transient (temporary) electronics are investigated. The dielectric properties of the bio-nanocomposites can be tailored by modulating the composition and the typology of the lignin derivatives (i.e., alkali lignin and lignosulfonic acid sodium).

    20. Neuroendocrine Tumor-Targeted Upconversion Nanoparticle-Based Micelles for Simultaneous NIR-Controlled Combination Chemotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy, and Fluorescence Imaging

      Guojun Chen, Renata Jaskula-Sztul, Corinne R. Esquibel, Irene Lou, Qifeng Zheng, Ajitha Dammalapati, April Harrison, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Weiping Tang, Herbert Chen and Shaoqin Gong

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604671

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      Neuroendocrine tumor (NET)-targeted upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based theranostic micelles are developed for simultaneous near-infrared (NIR)-controlled combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), and fluorescence imaging. The NIR light can effectively trigger fast drug release at the tumor sites, thereby achieving superior chemotherapy efficacy and effectively generating 1O2 for PDT. These UCNP-based theranostic micelles can also serve as excellent NET-targeted imaging probes.

    21. A Continuous Carbon Nitride Polyhedron Assembly for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors

      Chao Lu, Dongxing Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Song Han and Wei Chen

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606219

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      A continuous carbon nitride polyhedron assembly is developed using a facile pyrolysis method and is further constructed into a flexible supercapacitor with a highly ion-conductive interpenetrating polymer network electrolyte. The high energy capacity of the device along with excellent flexibility demonstrates advancement of the novel assembly strategy, providing new insight into rational design of electrode materials for long-lived flexible energy storage devices.

    22. Synthesis of Ternary and Quaternary Au and Pt Decorated CdSe/CdS Heteronanoplatelets with Controllable Morphology

      Suraj Naskar, Franziska Lübkemann, Saher Hamid, Axel Freytag, Andreas Wolf, Julian Koch, Irina Ivanova, Herbert Pfnür, Dirk Dorfs, Detlef W. Bahnemann and Nadja C. Bigall

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604685

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      Metal–semiconductor inorganic (ternary and quaternary) nanoheteroplatelets are synthesized by growing Au and/or Pt domains on CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets of variable core and crown dimensions. The nanoplatelets are phase transferred to water and found to be an efficient catalyst for H2 fuel generation with compelling apparent quantum efficiency as high as ≈19.3% under white light illumination.

    23. “Naked” Magnetically Recyclable Mesoporous Au–γ-Fe2O3 Nanocrystal Clusters: A Highly Integrated Catalyst System

      Lu Shang, Yunhui Liang, Mengzhu Li, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Pei Tang, Ding Ma, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung and Tierui Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606215

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      “Naked” magnetically recyclable mesoporous Au–γ-Fe2O3 clusters are successfully fabricated by combining a self-assembly method with a silica-protected calcination strategy. On account of their clean surfaces, small Au nanoparticle size, the inherent magnetism of γ-Fe2O3, and the excellent interfacial contact between the Au and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the clusters show outstanding catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and enhanced performance in the catalytic oxidation of CO.

    24. Ultrathin Single Bilayer Separation Membranes Based on Hyperbranched Sulfonated Poly(aryleneoxindole)

      Nithya Joseph, Joice Thomas, Pejman Ahmadiannamini, Hans Van Gorp, Roy Bernstein, Steven De Feyter, Mario Smet, Wim Dehaen, Richard Hoogenboom and Ivo F. J. Vankelecom

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605068

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      Reducing the number of bilayers, in combination with increasing flux and retention, is an important objective in the emerging field of layer-by-layer membranes. By exploiting the unique features of a properly tuned hyperbranched polyelectrolyte as polyanion, a simple and very efficient two-step strategy is proposed for the synthesis of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes with outstanding solvent-resistant nanofiltration properties.

    25. 3D Aluminum Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructures with Large Areas of Dense Hot Spots and Long-Term Stability

      Xi-Mei Li, Ming-Hai Bi, Lan Cui, Yu-Zhu Zhou, Xi-Wen Du, Shi-Zhang Qiao and Jing Yang

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605703

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      3D Al hybrid plasmonic nanostructures over a large area are fabricated via a simple and highly efficient approach. The nanoscale alumina interlayer and 3D-stacked nanostructure create dense hot spots with high field enhancements, leading to strong plasmon-enhanced light harvesting and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy performance comparable to the noble metals for non-resonant molecules.

    26. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: A 3D Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of the Current Characteristics in Micrometer-Sized Devices

      Haoyuan Li, Yuan Li, Hong Li and Jean-Luc Brédas

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605715

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      3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been successfully applied to model charge-carrier transport in micrometer-­sized organic field-effect transistor devices. The impact of the channel thickness, the validity of the gradual channel approximation, and the microscopic charge transport are investigated. The parallel computing techinque and the efficient evaluation of the electric potential can be extended to the simulations of other organic electronic devices as well.

    27. Direct Synthesis of Large-Scale WTe2 Thin Films with Low Thermal Conductivity

      Yu Zhou, Hyejin Jang, John M. Woods, Yujun Xie, Piranavan Kumaravadivel, Grace A. Pan, Jingbei Liu, Yanhui Liu, David G. Cahill and Judy J. Cha

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605928

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      Large-scale, polycrystalline WTe2 thin films are synthesized by atmospheric chemical vapor reaction of W metal films with Te vapor catalyzed by H2Te intermediates, paving a way to understanding the synthesis mechanism for low bonding energy tellurides and toward synthesis of single-crystalline telluride nanoflakes. Through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities of single-crystal WTe2 flakes and polycrystalline WTe2 thin films are measured for the first time. Nanoscale grains and disorder in WTe2 thin films suppress the in-plane thermal conductivity of WTe2 greatly, which is at least 7.5 times lower than that of the single-crystalline flakes.

    28. Stabilization of Single Metal Atoms on Graphitic Carbon Nitride

      Zupeng Chen, Sharon Mitchell, Evgeniya Vorobyeva, Rowan K. Leary, Roland Hauert, Tom Furnival, Quentin M. Ramasse, John M. Thomas, Paul A. Midgley, Dariya Dontsova, Markus Antonietti, Sergey Pogodin, Núria López and Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605785

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      Criteria are identified for preparing single-atom heterogeneous catalysts based on carbon nitride. The impact of the synthesis route, carrier morphology, and metal identity on the speciation is determined using characterizations and simulations. Direct synthesis exploiting copolymerizable metal precursors, high mesoporosity, and the presence of defects favor the stabilization of metal atoms, but post-synthesis approaches yield enhanced accessibility in catalyzed reactions.

    29. Energy-Dissipative Matrices Enable Synergistic Toughening in Fiber Reinforced Soft Composites

      Yiwan Huang, Daniel R. King, Tao Lin Sun, Takayuki Nonoyama, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tasuku Nakajima and Jian Ping Gong

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605350

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      The critical role of energy dissipation of a soft matrix is understood in the synergistic toughening of fiber reinforced composites. The composite toughness (Tc) follows an empirical power-law equation, Tc = 220 Tm0.64, over two orders of magnitude of the soft matrix toughness (Tm). This study provides a good guide for the universal design of extremely tough soft composite materials.

    30. Unraveling Surface Basicity and Bulk Morphology Relationship on Covalent Triazine Frameworks with Unique Catalytic and Gas Adsorption Properties

      Giulia Tuci, Moritz Pilaski, Housseinou Ba, Andrea Rossin, Lapo Luconi, Stefano Caporali, Cuong Pham-Huu, Regina Palkovits and Giuliano Giambastiani

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605672

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      Highly microporous N-doped covalent triazine frameworks show superior activity and stability in the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene compared to state-of-the-art benchmark systems. Their unique chemico-physical properties also demonstrate their superior H2 storage capability as well as their CO2 absorption that ranks among the highest reported so far for related systems.

    31. Electronic and Optical Properties of a Semiconducting Spinel (Fe2CrO4)

      Scott A. Chambers, Timothy C. Droubay, Tiffany C. Kaspar, Iffat H. Nayyar, Martin E. McBriarty, Steve M. Heald, David J. Keavney, Mark E. Bowden and Peter V. Sushko

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605040

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      A qualitatively different mode of conductivity is activated in magnetite by doping one third of the Fe cation sites with Cr. Experimental data and ab initio modeling results establish the structure, and then point to different electron hopping paths becoming operative, as Cr3+ replaces Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of the spinel lattice.

    32. Rock Salt Ni/Co Oxides with Unusual Nanoscale-Stabilized Composition as Water Splitting Electrocatalysts

      Ksenia Fominykh, Gülen Ceren Tok, Patrick Zeller, Hamidreza Hajiyani, Thomas Miller, Markus Döblinger, Rossitza Pentcheva, Thomas Bein and Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605121

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      Ultrasmall crystalline Ni/Co mixed oxide nanoparticles with unusual miscibility in the whole composition range are prepared. Their unusual properties are attributed to a stabilizing effect of the nanoscale combined with kinetic control of particle formation. The particles demonstrate tunable electrocatalytic activity in both the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction depending on the relative amount of cobalt and nickel.

    33. Ultrathin-Nanosheet-Induced Synthesis of 3D Transition Metal Oxides Networks for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

      Shan Zhu, Jiajun Li, Xiaoyang Deng, Chunnian He, Enzuo Liu, Fang He, Chunsheng Shi and Naiqin Zhao

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605017

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      A general ultrathin-nanosheet-induced strategy is introduced for producing 3D mesoporous network of transition metal oxides (TMOs). An N-doped carbon network serves as the sacrificed template, which can be applied to many kinds of TMOs. The obtained material exhibits an interconnected mesopore architecture and possesses superior performance as a lithium ion anode.

    34. A Biomimetic Mussel-Inspired ε-Poly-l-lysine Hydrogel with Robust Tissue-Anchor and Anti-Infection Capacity

      Rui Wang, Jingzhe Li, Wei Chen, Tingting Xu, Shifeng Yun, Zheng Xu, Zongqi Xu, Takashi Sato, Bo Chi and Hong Xu

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604894

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      A new enzyme cross-linking method for the fabrication of biomimetic mfp-5 analogue hydrogels (i.e., ε-poly-l-lysine-polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels) is demonstrated. The resulting hydrogel possesses robust tissue-anchor and superior anti-infection performance. A new platform for designing mussel-inspired materials by coupling catechol and cationic functionalities is developed.

    35. Strong Facet Effects on Interfacial Charge Transfer Revealed through the Examination of Photocatalytic Activities of Various Cu2O–ZnO Heterostructures

      Szu-Chieh Wu, Chih-Shan Tan and Michael H. Huang

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604635

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      Formation of Cu2O–ZnO heterostructures can enhance or completely suppress photoinduced charge carrier transfer depending on the contacting facets or planes. Simple band alignment analysis of semiconductor heterojunctions without consideration of facet effects is insufficient in predicting photocatalytic behaviors. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2O octahedra is lost after preferential growth of (101) planes of ZnO.

    36. Significant Enhancement of Proton Transport in Bioinspired Peptide Fibrils by Single Acidic or Basic Amino Acid Mutation

      Ohad Silberbush, Moran Amit, Subhasish Roy and Nurit Ashkenasy

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604624

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      Efficient proton self-doping is induced in peptide self-assembled fibrils by the introduction of amino acids with acidic or basic functionality. This effect is found to be much more pronounced for acidic groups, and together with higher mobility of the charge carriers, results in much over an order of magnitude greater conductivity for the acidic fibrils.

    37. Photopicking: In Situ Approach for Site-Specific Attachment of Single Multiprotein Nanoparticles to Atomic Force Microscopy Tips

      Ivan Liashkovich, Gonzalo Rosso, Martina Rangl, Andreas Ebner, Wali Hafezi, Joachim Kühn, Peter Schön, Peter Hinterdorfer and Victor Shahin

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604506

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      A schematic of the photopicking approach to pick up a single multiprotein nanoparticle is given, exemplified by a viral capsid with a site-specific orientation.

    38. Anomalous Channel-Length Dependence in Nanofluidic Osmotic Energy Conversion

      Liuxuan Cao, Feilong Xiao, Yaping Feng, Weiwei Zhu, Wenxiao Geng, Jinlei Yang, Xiaopeng Zhang, Ning Li, Wei Guo and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604302

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      Anomalous channel-length dependence is discovered in nanofluidic osmotic power generation. In contrast to conventional long nanofluidic devices, if the channel length is further reduced to below 400 nm, the output power decreases with decreasing channel length, showing anomalous, non-Ohmic response. These findings reveal the importance of the long-overlooked element, the channel length, in nanofluidic energy conversion.

    39. Controllable Crystallization of CH3NH3Sn0.25Pb0.75I3 Perovskites for Hysteresis-Free Solar Cells with Efficiency Reaching 15.2%

      Hugh Lu Zhu, Junyan Xiao, Jian Mao, Hong Zhang, Yong Zhao and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605469

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      CH3NH3Sn0.25Pb0.75I3 films with enhanced crystallinity, preferred orientation, and ameliorated inhomogeneous Sn/Pb distributions are realized by the controllable crystallization via the introduction of dimethyl sulfoxide. Optimized planar-heterojunction CH3NH3Sn0.25Pb0.75I3-based solar cells achieve the power conversion efficiency of 15.2% and no hysteresis, which is the highest value among Sn[BOND]Pb alloy-based perovskite solar cells.

    40. Unexpected Sole Enol-Form Emission of 2-(2′-Hydroxyphenyl)oxazoles for Highly Efficient Deep-Blue-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Devices

      Bijin Li, Guoqiang Tang, Linsen Zhou, Di Wu, Jingbo Lan, Liang Zhou, Zhiyun Lu and Jingsong You

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605245

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      The unusual sole enol-form emission of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)oxazoles and their application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been investigated. The device exhibits an excellent color purity, a spectral stability, and an external quantum efficiency up to 7.1%, which is the first example of highly efficient blue OLEDs based on the sole enol-form emission of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)azoles.

    41. Printable and Flexible Phototransistors Based on Blend of Organic Semiconductor and Biopolymer

      Jia Huang, Juan Du, Zehra Cevher, Yuhang Ren, Xiaohan Wu and Yingli Chu

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604163

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      Printable, flexible, and low-cost organic phototransistors are fabricated by simply blending a common organic semiconductor with a biopolymer. The device exhibits great photosensitivity by taking advantage of organic semiconductor/polymer interfacial charge effect. The phototransistor with blended structure shows better photosensitivity, e.g., higher photogenerated to dark current ratio up to 105 than that with layered structure due to larger interfacial area.

    42. A Generic Conversion Strategy: From 2D Metal Carbides (MxCy) to M-Self-Doped Graphene toward High-Efficiency Energy Applications

      Zongkui Kou, Tian Meng, Beibei Guo, Ibrahim Saana Amiinu, Wenqiang Li, Jie Zhang and Shichun Mu

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604904

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      For the first time, graphene and its derivative metal-self-doped graphene (MG) are obtained by a universal technique to thermal chlorination of 2D metal carbides (MxCy). Comparing with top nonmetallic atoms-doped graphene, particular MG demonstrates superb Li-storage properties as anode of LIBs and catalyticalctivities for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.

    43. Engineered Extracellular Matrices as Biomaterials of Tunable Composition and Function

      Paul Emile Bourgine, Emanuele Gaudiello, Benjamin Pippenger, Claude Jaquiery, Thibaut Klein, Sebastien Pigeot, Atanas Todorov Jr., Sandra Feliciano, Andrea Banfi and Ivan Martin

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605486

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      The biological functionality of scaffold materials can be enhanced and customized by decoration with cell-laid extracellular matrix (ECM). As proof-of-principle of the concept, a death-inducible mesenchymal stromal cell line (MSOD), or its counterpart overexpressing VEGF, are cultured under perfusion flow and induced to apoptosis. The resulting decellularized, customized ECM grafts are used to regenerate bone tissue or to enhance vascularization.

    44. Design of Hierarchical Ni[BOND]Co@Ni[BOND]Co Layered Double Hydroxide Core–Shell Structured Nanotube Array for High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Battery-Type Supercapacitors

      Yan Liu, Nianqing Fu, Guoge Zhang, Ming Xu, Wei Lu, Limin Zhou and Haitao Huang

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605307

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      Hierarchical nickel–cobalt@nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide nanotube arrays with separated tubes and massive top are designed and fabricated by facile electrodeposition. The as-prepared electrode possesses numerous electroactive sites, a highly conductive Ni/Co metallic core, and a high capacitance Ni[BOND]Co layered double hydroxide shell. The assembled battery-type supercapacitor exhibits superior gravimetric capacitance, good rate performance, high specific energy, and high power density.

    45. Elasticity, Flexibility, and Ideal Strength of Borophenes

      Zhuhua Zhang, Yang Yang, Evgeni S. Penev and Boris I. Yakobson

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605059

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      Borophene is a graphene analog for boron. Here, it is predicted that borophene, albeit being lighter than graphene, combines unprecedented flexibility with excellent in-plane elasticity, rendering it as an atomic membrane that is easiest to bend yet hard to stretch. Moreover, borophene can exceptionally resist considerably high loading even when extremely stretched, due to unique tension-induced structural phase transitions.

    46. Magneto-Thermal Metrics Can Mirror the Long-Term Intracellular Fate of Magneto-Plasmonic Nanohybrids and Reveal the Remarkable Shielding Effect of Gold

      François Mazuel, Ana Espinosa, Guillaume Radtke, Matthieu Bugnet, Sophie Neveu, Yoann Lalatonne, Gianluigi A. Botton, Ali Abou-Hassan and Claire Wilhelm

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605997

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      The structural and functional changes of magneto-plasmonic nanohybrids in the local intracellular environment are investigated. It is found that i) magnetic and thermal metrics can act as macroscopic quantitative fingerprints of the intracellular fate of hybrid magneto-plasmonic nanomaterials and ii) the measured massive biodegradation of the magnetic core can be prevented by fine tuning the inert gold shell.

    47. Tailored Yolk–Shell Sn@C Nanoboxes for High-Performance Lithium Storage

      Hongwei Zhang, Xiaodan Huang, Owen Noonan, Liang Zhou and Chengzhong Yu

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201606023

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      A novel yolk–shell Sn@C nanobox composite with controllable structures has been synthesized using a facile approach. The generation of metallic Sn together with the void space and the conversion of polymer to carbon are simultaneously completed in one step. Importantly, with an optimized carbon shell thickness, the composite exhibits high specific capacity, good rate performance, and exceptional cycling stability.

    48. Controlled Electrochemical Deposition of Large-Area MoS2 on Graphene for High-Responsivity Photodetectors

      Xi Wan, Kun Chen, Zefeng Chen, Fangyan Xie, Xiaoliang Zeng, Weiguang Xie, Jian Chen and Jianbin Xu

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603998

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      Centimeter-size and homogeneous vertical MoS2/graphene heterostructures have been successfully fabricated in a controlled manner of thickness (5–150 nm) via environmentally friendly electrochemical deposition of MoS2 on conducting graphene electrodes in the aqueous solution of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (NH4)2MoS4, followed by a vacuum annealing process in the atmosphere of Ar and H2 without additional sulfur.

    49. Embedding Perovskite Nanocrystals into a Polymer Matrix for Tunable Luminescence Probes in Cell Imaging

      Haihua Zhang, Xu Wang, Qing Liao, Zhenzhen Xu, Haiyang Li, Lemin Zheng and Hongbing Fu

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604382

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      A strategy to overcome the inherent vulnerability of perovskites to water is demonstrated by embedding CsPbX3 nanocrystals (NCs) into microhemispheres (MHSs) of polystyrene matrix to prepare “water-resistant” NCs@MHSs hybrids. NCs@MHSs are demonstrated as multicolor luminescence probes in live cells with high stability and nontoxicity. Using ten intensity levels and seven-color NCs@MHSs, it will be possible to individually tag about ten million cells.

    50. Chemical Sensing Systems that Utilize Soft Electronics on Thin Elastomeric Substrates with Open Cellular Designs

      Yoon Kyeung Lee, Kyung-In Jang, Yinji Ma, Ahyeon Koh, Hang Chen, Han Na Jung, Yerim Kim, Jean Won Kwak, Liang Wang, Yeguang Xue, Yiyuan Yang, Wenlong Tian, Yu Jiang, Yihui Zhang, Xue Feng, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605476

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      A collection of materials and device architectures are introduced for thin, stretchable arrays of ion sensors that mount on open cellular substrates to facilitate solution exchange for use in biointegrated electronics. As the chemical composition of extracellular fluids contains valuable information related to biological function, the concepts and the integration/design strategies introduced here have potential utility across a range of skin- and other organ-integrated electronics where soft mechanics, fluidic permeability, and advanced chemical sensing capabilities are key requirements.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Epitaxial Stitching and Stacking Growth of Atomically Thin Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) Heterojunctions

      Kun Chen, Xi Wan and Jianbin Xu

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603884

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      Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (2D TMDCs) heterojunctions offer new and exciting opportunities to fabricate novel devices with unprecedented performance. Currently, the chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) has displayed great promise to prepare lateral or vertical epitaxial TMDCs heterostructures. An overview of recent progress in the epitaxial growth of heterojunctions on the basis of ultrathin TMDCs and their potential application is presented.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Enzymatic Biodegradability of Pristine and Functionalized Transition Metal Dichalcogenide MoS2 Nanosheets

      Rajendra Kurapati, Laura Muzi, Aritz Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Julie Russier, Damien Voiry, Isabella A. Vacchi, Manish Chhowalla and Alberto Bianco

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605176

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      Biodegradation of pristine and covalently functionalized MoS2 by peroxidases in the presence of H2O2 is reported. A faster degradation compared to peroxidase treatment is observed without enzymes using biologically relevant concentrations of H2O2. Importantly, covalent functionalization of MoS2 alters the degradation profile of this type of nanomaterials, opening interesting perspectives in the design of new biomedical tools.

    2. Cobalt Assisted Synthesis of IrCu Hollow Octahedral Nanocages as Highly Active Electrocatalysts toward Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Taehyun Kwon, Hyeyoun Hwang, Young Jin Sa, Jongsik Park, Hionsuck Baik, Sang Hoon Joo and Kwangyeol Lee

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604688

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      Novel facet-controlled Co-doped IrCu octahedral hollow nanocages exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen evolution reaction in acidic conditions.

    3. Toward Sensitive Room-Temperature Broadband Detection from Infrared to Terahertz with Antenna-Integrated Black Phosphorus Photoconductor

      Lin Wang, Changlong Liu, Xiaoshuang Chen, Jing Zhou, Weida Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Jinhua Li, Weiwei Tang, Anqi Yu, Shao-Wei Wang and Wei Lu

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604414

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      A highly efficient room-temperature black phosphorus (BP) detector is shown that can operate from the infrared to the terahertz bands. The moderate bandgap and high mobility of black phosphorus make it a good candidate for both infrared and terahertz detections. Different detection principles are reported for the antenna-coupled BP detector, which is based on the photoconductive effect transiting from the interband electron–hole relaxations to intraband wave excitations.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Two-Step Sequential Deposition of Organometal Halide Perovskite for Photovoltaic Application

      Haining Chen

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605654

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      The two-step sequential deposition method is one of the most important deposition methods for the organometal halide perovskite layer in photovoltaic application. So far, great progress has been made on this method, which helps to promote the development of PSCs. Herein, its recent achievements are reviewed and the important issues are highlighted while proposing the corresponding solutions.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Corrosion-Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings on Mg Alloy Surfaces Inspired by Lotus Seedpod

      Dongmian Zang, Ruiwen Zhu, Wen Zhang, Xinquan Yu, Ling Lin, Xinglin Guo, Mingjie Liu and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605446

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      Inspired by the lotus seedpod, a strategy to fabricate self-assembled monolayers on AZ91D Mg alloys with exceptional superhydrophobic and corrosion-resistant surfaces is reported. The surfaces exhibit a thermally controlled wetting transition between the superhydrophilic and super­hydrophobic states, and corrosion behavior ranging from corrosion resistance to improved corrosion resistance. This strategy will lead to improved corrosion-resistant Mg alloys and thermally responsive “surface engineering.”

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Thermal Properties of Two Dimensional Layered Materials

      Yuxi Wang, Ning Xu, Deyu Li and Jia Zhu

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604134

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      Two dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have shown unique thermal transport properties, such as anomalous size-dependent and anisotropic thermal conductivity. The recent progress in thermal property measurement (measurement methods and measurement results) for 2DLMs is reviewed and their potential applications in energy conversion and thermal management are also discussed.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Self-Assembly of Semiconducting Polymer Amphiphiles for In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging

      Chen Xie, Xu Zhen, Qunli Lei, Ran Ni and Kanyi Pu

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605397

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      Near-infrared absorbing semiconducting polymer amphiphiles (SPAs) that can spontaneously self-assemble into homogenous nanoparticles are synthesized. The small size and structurally stable nanostructure in conjunction with a dense poly(ethylene glycol) shell allow SPAs to passively target tumors of living mice after systemic administration, permitting both photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging of the tumors.

    2. Photoinduced Tetrazole-Based Functionalization of Off-Stoichiometric Clickable Microparticles

      Chen Wang, Markus M. Zieger, Alexander Schenzel, Martin Wegener, Johannes Willenbacher, Christopher Barner-Kowollik and Christopher N. Bowman

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605317

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      We report the preparation of tetrazole-containing step-growth microparticles and the subsequent use of photoinduced nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition reactions on the particles with spatiotemporal control.

    3. Kirigami/Origami-Based Soft Deployable Reflector for Optical Beam Steering

      Wei Wang, Chenzhe Li, Hugo Rodrigue, Fengpei Yuan, Min-Woo Han, Maenghyo Cho and Sung-Hoon Ahn

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604214

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      Soft deployable reflectors combining a soft deployable structure with simple kirigami/origami reflective films used for dynamic beam steering are presented in this work. This structure can self-deploy by expanding its height several folds. Origami/kirigami reflectors, essentially mirrors with slits, are placed in hollow pockets of the soft deployable structure whose large deformation changes the reflection angle of the reflectors.

  8. Feature Articles

    1. Layer-Number Dependent Optical Properties of 2D Materials and Their Application for Thickness Determination

      Xiao-Li Li, Wen-Peng Han, Jiang-Bin Wu, Xiao-Fen Qiao, Jun Zhang and Ping-Heng Tan

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604468

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      Optical properties of 2D materials, such as optical contrast, Rayleigh scattering, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence, and second harmonic generation, are dependent on the layer number. Here, we demonstrate how these optical techniques serve as fast and nondestructive approaches for layer number counting or thickness determination of these typical 2D material flakes.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Long Minority-Carrier Diffusion Length and Low Surface-Recombination Velocity in Inorganic Lead-Free CsSnI3 Perovskite Crystal for Solar Cells

      Bo Wu, Yuanyuan Zhou, Guichuan Xing, Qiang Xu, Hector F. Garces, Ankur Solanki, Teck Wee Goh, Nitin P. Padture and Tze Chien Sum

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604818

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      Pb-free CsSnI3 single crystal possesses superior optoelectronic properties compared to its polycrystalline thin film counterparts for photovoltaic application, uncovered using detailed optical spectroscopy, with a bulk carrier lifetimes of around 6.6 ns, doping concentrations of ≈4.5 × 1017 cm−3, minority-carrier diffusion lengths approaching 1 µm, and surface recombination velocity of <2 × 103 cm s−1.

    2. Interface Engineered WxC@WS2 Nanostructure for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

      Fengmei Wang, Peng He, Yuanchang Li, Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Ya Deng, Kaili Liu, Qisheng Wang, Feng Wang, Yao Wen, Zhenxing Wang, Xueying Zhan, Lianfeng Sun and Jun He

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605802

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      Here, a Ravenala leaf-like WxC@WS2 heterostructure with WxC “leaf-valves” attached to the inner WS2 tubes is grown. Its catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction outperforms that of WS2 and WxC counterparts under the same condition. Theoretical calculations reveal the charge distribution at the interface between WxC and WS2 plays a key role for promoting H atom adsorption and desorption kinetics simultaneously.

    3. Conjugation-Induced Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF): From Conventional Non-TADF Units to TADF-Active Polymers

      Qiang Wei, Paul Kleine, Yevhen Karpov, Xianping Qiu, Hartmut Komber, Karin Sahre, Anton Kiriy, Ramunas Lygaitis, Simone Lenk, Sebastian Reineke and Brigitte Voit

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605051

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      A thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) π-conjugated cyclic polymer composed of non-TADF building blocks is developed. Conjugation-induced highest occupied molecular orbital destabilization leads to a decreased singlet–triplet splitting and efficient TADF in the polymer, while the repeating unit itself shows only inefficient phosphorescence. This conjugation-induced TADF concept represents a novel molecular design rule particularly for solution-processable polymeric materials.

    4. Phase Transition Induced Synthesis of Layered/Spinel Heterostructure with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties

      Yi Pei, Cheng-Yan Xu, Yu-Chen Xiao, Qing Chen, Bin Huang, Bin Li, Shuang Li, Liang Zhen and Guozhong Cao

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604349

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      Li-rich layered materials with layered/spinel heterostructure are prepared through a novel polyol method. With an “Li-rich spinel phase decomposition” phase transition mechanism, the content of LLO is controllable and the products with moderate content of spinel phase demonstrate superior electrochemical performances with a discharge capacity of about 200 mA h g−1 at 1 C.

    5. Al-Doped Black Phosphorus p–n Homojunction Diode for High Performance Photovoltaic

      Yuanda Liu, Yongqing Cai, Gang Zhang, Yong-Wei Zhang and Kah-Wee Ang

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604638

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      2D p–n junction is a fundamental building block for nanoelectronics devices, which has been predominantly realized using van der Waals heterostructures or electrostatic-gated junctions due to the lack of controllable doping techniques. Here, near-ideal black phosphorus p–n homojunction diodes are achieved by novel and facile Al-atom doping, paving the way toward high performance photovoltaic applications.

  10. Feature Articles

    1. Analyzing the Carrier Mobility in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors

      Zhihao Yu, Zhun-Yong Ong, Songlin Li, Jian-Bin Xu, Gang Zhang, Yong-Wei Zhang, Yi Shi and Xinran Wang

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604093

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      Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are widely investigated for enhanced characteristics for electronics among next generation semiconductors. The understanding of charge transport in TMDCs is significant for further device applications. Through carefully analyzing the reported high performance MoS2 devices, this review provides a systematic theoretical and experimental path to optimize the device structure and improve device performance.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Atomic Insights into the Enhanced Surface Stability in High Voltage Cathode Materials by Ultrathin Coating

      Xin Fang, Feng Lin, Dennis Nordlund, Matthew Mecklenburg, Mingyuan Ge, Jiepeng Rong, Anyi Zhang, Chenfei Shen, Yihang Liu, Yu Cao, Marca M. Doeff and Chongwu Zhou

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602873

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      Atomic layer deposition was employed as an ultrathin coating on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, a cathode in lithium-ion batteries. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize both pristine and coated materials before and after cycling. The results show that the coating suppressed Mn2+ formation, decelarating impedance buildup from surface passivation and improving cycling behavior.

    2. Toroidal Protein Adaptor Assembles Ferrimagnetic Nanoparticle Fibers with Constructive Magnetic Coupling

      Tuan Anh Pham, Andreas Schreiber, Stefan M. Schiller and Helmut Cölfen

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604532

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      Applying the toroidal protein Hcp1 as an interparticle connector leads to directed molecular assembly and ferrimagnetic coupling of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Assembled biohybrid nanofibers range from the nano- to the microscale. Their magnetic characterization reveals enhanced saturation (+28%) and remanence magnetization (+38%) and an increase in the coercive field (+12%) reaching values of high-end Nd2Fe14B bulk magnets at 2 K.

    3. Electrowetting-Induced Morphological Evolution of Metal-Organic Inverse Opals toward a Water-Lithography Approach

      Junchao Liu, Lun Wan, Manbo Zhang, Kejian Jiang, Kai Song, Jingxia Wang, Tomiki Ikeda and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605221

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      A unique morphological evolution is demonstrated for metal-organic inverse opals during an electrowetting process. The building blocks of inverse opals change from the interconnected pore to the separated hollow sphere with respect to electrowetting time, accompanied by a blue-shift in the reflection bands and the decreased wettability of the film, which provides a facile strategy for the water-lithography technique.

    4. Facile Doping and Work-Function Modification of Few-Layer Graphene Using Molecular Oxidants and Reductants

      Ahmed E. Mansour, Marcel M. Said, Sukumar Dey, Hanlin Hu, Siyuan Zhang, Rahim Munir, Yadong Zhang, Karttikay Moudgil, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder and Aram Amassian

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602004

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      Solution-based noncovalent doping of few-layer graphene using novel metal-organic and organic molecules is demonstrated to enhance the conductivity and modulate the work function over a range of 2.4 eV with marginal reduction of mobility. The effects of dopant strength and coverage are shown to play a crucial role in the optimization of the performance of few-layer graphene as a transparent conductive electrode.

    5. Multifunctional Materials: A Case Study of the Effects of Metal Doping on ZnO Tetrapods with Bismuth and Tin Oxides

      Vasile Postica, Jorit Gröttrup, Rainer Adelung, Oleg Lupan, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Nora H. de Leeuw, Nicolai Ababii, José F. C. Carreira, Joana Rodrigues, Nebiha Ben Sedrine, Maria Rosário Correia, Teresa Monteiro, Victor Sontea and Yogendra Kumar Mishra

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604676

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      Gas sensing and optical properties of hybrid 3D ZnO-T (tetrapods) with Bi2O3 and Zn2SnO4 networks are reported. The investigations reveal improved gas sensing performances of hybrid networks compared with pure ZnO-T (tetrapod) networks. The described synthesis strategy serves as an excellent method to fabricate enhanced and selective gas sensors. ZnO-T-Bi2O3 hybrids enhance H2 gas response whereas ZnO-T-Zn2SnO4 changes selectivity to CO.

    6. Stabilized Octahedral Frameworks in Layered Double Hydroxides by Solid-Solution Mixing of Transition Metals

      Ji Hoon Lee, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Soo Yeon Lim, Keun Hwa Chae, Sung Hyeon Park, Kyung Yoon Chung, Erhan Deniz and Jang Wook Choi

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605225

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      An α-layered double hydroxide with equal amounts of nickel and cobalt ions exhibits high performances in specific capacity (206 mA h g−1) and cycle life (89.0% after 2000 cycles) as a pseudocapacitor electrode material. These electrochemical properties are attributed to the synergistic interplay of d-electrons of both transition metal ions upon their solid-solution mixing.

    7. High-Performance UV–Vis–NIR Phototransistors Based on Single-Crystalline Organic Semiconductor–Gold Hybrid Nanomaterials

      Ji Hyung Jung, Min Ji Yoon, Ju Won Lim, Yoon Ho Lee, Kang Eun Lee, Dong Ha Kim and Joon Hak Oh

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604528

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      Optoelectrical performances of phototransistors based on gold nanorods-decorated n-type single-crystalline organic semiconductor nanowires are reported. Owing to the synergy among the excellent photo-conducting characteristics of organic nanowire, the scattering effect and localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanorods, the hybrid system exhibits broad spectral responsivity with unprecedented performances that are comparable to those of inorganic materials-based phototransistors.

    8. In Situ Reversible Ionic Control for Nonvolatile Magnetic Phases in a Donor/Acceptor Metal-Organic Framework

      Kouji Taniguchi, Keisuke Narushima, Hajime Sagayama, Wataru Kosaka, Nanami Shito and Hitoshi Miyasaka

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604990

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      In situ reversible magnetic phase switching between nonvolatile paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic states has been demonstrated in an electron-donor/-acceptor metal-organic framework by a lithium ion battery (LIB) system. Selective electron-filling control of acceptor sites based on the LIB voltage has been achieved by the Li+-ion migration accompanying redox reaction; magneto-ionic control. On/off switching of exchange interaction paths has been realized.

    9. Ag/Ag2S Nanocrystals for High Sensitivity Near-Infrared Luminescence Nanothermometry

      Diego Ruiz, Blanca del Rosal, María Acebrón, Cristina Palencia, Chen Sun, Juan Cabanillas-González, Miguel López-Haro, Ana B. Hungría, Daniel Jaque and Beatriz H. Juarez

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604629

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      The outstanding infrared fluorescence thermal sensing capabilities of Ag2S nanocrystals are reported. Ag2S nanocrystals are here introduced to the scientific community as thermal nanoprobes capable of real-time subcutaneous contactless temperature sensing with a subdegree resolution. In combination with their long-term stability and low toxicity, their thermal sensing capabilities make Ag2S nanocrystals unique bioprobes.

    10. Graphene-Piezoelectric Material Heterostructure for Harvesting Energy from Water Flow

      Huikai Zhong, Jun Xia, Fengchao Wang, Hongsheng Chen, Hengan Wu and Shisheng Lin

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604226

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      Through introducing piezoelectric template beneath graphene, moving droplets of deionized water along the graphene surface can induce an electric potential. This electricity is suggested to be a result of a dynamic charge interaction among water, graphene, and the piezoelectric substrate, which highlights the crucial role of the underlying substrate in the electricity generating process.

    11. Wearable Force Touch Sensor Array Using a Flexible and Transparent Electrode

      Jun-Kyul Song, Donghee Son, Jaemin Kim, Young Jin Yoo, Gil Ju Lee, Liu Wang, Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Mincheol Lee, Kyungsik Do, Ja Hoon Koo, Nanshu Lu, Ji Hoon Kim, Taeghwan Hyeon, Young Min Song and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605286

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      A novel transparent and flexible electrode, composed of an epoxy-copper-indium tin oxide (ECI) multilayer is presented. Enhanced optical transparency, mechanical deformability, and electrical conductivity of the ECI multilayer allow for the development of a transparent and wearable human–machine interface system. The system is composed of the touch and pressure sensor array multiplexed by Si nanomembrane diodes and is integrated with wearable quantum dot light-emitting diodes. A drone can be wirelessly controlled by the developed wearable force touch sensor array.

    12. Determination of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene for Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Carcinogens by a Lanthanide-functionalized Metal-Organic Framework Sensor

      Ji-Na Hao and Bing Yan

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603856

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      A novel europium-functionalized metal-organic framework is constructed that can act as the first example of a fluorescent sensor for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, which is the metabolite and biomarker of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carcinogens.

    13. Active Regulation of On-Demand Drug Delivery by Magnetically Triggerable Microspouters

      Ali Shademani, Hongbin Zhang, John K. Jackson and Mu Chiao

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604558

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      A triggerable device, termed a microspouter, is designed and fabricated for active and precise control of localized drug delivery. It is able to be triggered to spout drug solution on demand through external magnetic stimuli to achieve a safe and long-time controlled drug release.

    14. 1T-Phase WS2 Protein-Based Biosensor

      Rou Jun Toh, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Zdenek Sofer and Martin Pumera

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604923

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      Synergistic effects between 1T-phase WS2 and hemoglobin result in a high-performing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor compared to its 1T-phase MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 counterparts. 1T-phase WS2 displays electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H2O2 and serves as a high surface-to-volume ratio and conductive platform for hemoglobin immobilization and facilitation of its electron transfer to the electrode surface.

    15. High-Performance Organic Heterojunction Phototransistors Based on Highly Ordered Copper Phthalocyanine/para-Sexiphenyl Thin Films

      Chuan Qian, Jia Sun, Ling-An Kong, Guangyang Gou, Menglong Zhu, Yongbo Yuan, Han Huang, Yongli Gao and Junliang Yang

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604933

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      High-performance organic heterojunction phototransistors are fabricated using highly ordered copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) thin films. The ratio of photocurrent and dark current and photoresponsivity reach to about 2.2 × 104 and 4.3 × 102 A W−1, respectively. A detailed study is carried out with current sensing atomic force microscopy.

    16. Impact of Crystal Surface on Photoexcited States in Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

      Susanne T. Birkhold, Eugen Zimmermann, Tom Kollek, Daniel Wurmbrand, Sebastian Polarz and Lukas Schmidt-Mende

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604995

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      A comparison of electron-rich and isolating surface passivation of submicrometer sized CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals reveals the presence of positively charged trap states at the crystal surface. Photoluminescence measurements at different temperatures demonstrate that these surface trap states cause surface lattice distortions and nonradiative recombination at room temperature and energy transfer from free excitons to bound excitons at low temperatures.

    17. Selenium-Containing Polymer@Metal-Organic Frameworks Nanocomposites as an Efficient Multiresponsive Drug Delivery System

      Weiqiang Zhou, Lu Wang, Feng Li, Weina Zhang, Wei Huang, Fengwei Huo and Huaping Xu

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605465

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      The multiresponsive P@ZIF-8 as an advanced biocompatible drug delivery system (DDS) has been successfully prepared. The as-prepared P@ZIF-8 has excellent biocompatibility, good loading capacity, and controllable drug release and is suitable for doxorubicin storage/release as a smart DDS. These results suggest that hybrid nanocomposites may provide new possibilities for controllable drug release in biomaterials.

    18. Activating Basal Planes and S-Terminated Edges of MoS2 toward More Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

      Xiaolei Huang, Mei Leng, Wen Xiao, Meng Li, Jun Ding, Teck Leong Tan, Wee Siang Vincent Lee and Junmin Xue

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604943

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      P-doped MoS2 is synthesized via a facile, efficient, and low-temperature non-metal doping method, whereby O-doping plays a crucial role in lowering the formation energies. P-doping can dramatically decrease hydrogen evolution reaction overpotential due to the lowering of Mo valance charge, hence promoting electron transfer from MoS2 to hydrogen ions.

    19. Hydrogels That Actuate Selectively in Response to Organophosphates

      Manos Gkikas, Reginald K. Avery, Carolyn E. Mills, Ramanathan Nagarajan, Eugene Wilusz and Bradley D. Olsen

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602784

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      Acrylamide-based hydrogels containing oxime pendant groups are shown to decontaminate and actuate in response to contact with V-type organophosphates such as malaoxon. The mechanical actuation, leading to pore closing, is the result of disulfide cross-link cleavage triggered by the organophosphate decontamination products, yielding dissolution or swelling of the hydrogel. This technology is applied in both hydrogel sheets and hydrogel-impregnated fabrics.

    20. Fluorescent Block Copolymer-MoS2 Nanocomposites for Real-Time Photothermal Heating and Imaging

      Chan Ho Park, Hongseok Yun, Hyunseung Yang, Junhyuk Lee and Bumjoon J. Kim

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604403

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      Novel self-monitoring photothermal (PT) agents based on optothermally responsive block copolymer-MoS2 composites (BCP-MoS2) are developed. The BCP-MoS2 nanocomposites can simultaneously generate photothermally induced heating and provide in situ, high resolution thermal imaging with excellent reversibility. Also, the BCP-MoS2 is integrated into organogel matrices to demonstrate its potential as a portable, self-monitoring PT system suitable for biological, clinical, and environmental applications.

    21. AFM Identification of Beetle Exocuticle: Bouligand Structure and Nanofiber Anisotropic Elastic Properties

      Ruiguo Yang, Alireza Zaheri, Wei Gao, Cheryl Hayashi and Horacio D. Espinosa

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603993

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      Using beetle's exocuticle as a model system, an atomic force microscopy-based experimental–theoretical methodology is developed to characterize its helicoidal fiber structure and identify anisotropic material properties of constituent nanofibers. The method is applicable to other biomaterial architectures.

    22. Photophysical Study of DPPTT-T/PC70BM Blends and Solar Devices as a Function of Fullerene Loading: An Insight into EQE Limitations of DPP-Based Polymers

      Elisa Collado-Fregoso, Florent Deledalle, Hendrik Utzat, Pabitra S. Tuladhar, Stoichko D. Dimitrov, Alexander Gillett, Ching-Hong Tan, Weimin Zhang, Iain McCulloch and James R. Durrant

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604426

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      Relative integrated EQE (Int EQE) in the fullerene and polymer absorbing areas tracks to a large extent the exciton losses as calculated from the relative photoluminescence quenching (PLQ) efficiency after excitation of the fullerene and polymer.

    23. A Cake-Style CoS2@MoS2/RGO Hybrid Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

      Yaxiao Guo, Linfeng Gan, Changshuai Shang, Erkang Wang and Jin Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602699

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      A three-tiered cake-style CoS2@MoS2/RGO hybrid catalyst is established with the characteristic of a double-deck of MoS2 nanosheets and graphene sheets dotted with CoS2 nanoparticles. Because the prominent synergistic effect of graphene acts as a conductive support, MoS2 and CoS2 provide abundant catalytically active sites, and the cake-style structure promotes mechanical stability. The CoS2@MoS2/RGO (reduction of graphene oxide) hybrid catalyst exhibits outstanding hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalytic activity.

    24. A Polymetallic Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Strategy toward Synergistically Multidoped Metal Oxide Electrodes with Ultralong Cycle Life and High Volumetric Capacity

      Shanshan Niu, Zhiyu Wang, Tao Zhou, Mingliang Yu, Mengzhou Yu and Jieshan Qiu

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201605332

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      A polymetallic metal-organic framework-derived strategy is developed for easy synthesis of multidoped metal oxide nanohybrids with precisely controlled composition and structure. Benefitting from the synergistically multidoping effect, the obtained electrode materials exhibit ultralong cycle life with high capacity and high power output.

    25. Facile Stem Cell Delivery to Bone Grafts Enabled by Smart Shape Recovery and Stiffening of Degradable Synthetic Periosteal Membranes

      Ben Zhang, Tera M. Filion, Artem B. Kutikov and Jie Song

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604784

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      Degradable PELGA polymer-hydroxyapatite composite meshes with tunable degradation rates stiffen upon hydration and support proliferation and osteogenesis of stem cells, as well as facile shape programming and efficient shape recovery at body temperature. These characteristics combined enable self-wrapping of the composite mesh around tissue grafts, triggered by warm saline rinse, for smart stem cell delivery for regenerative medicine applications.

    26. Printed Neuromorphic Devices Based on Printed Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors

      Ping Feng, Weiwei Xu, Yi Yang, Xiang Wan, Yi Shi, Qing Wan, Jianwen Zhao and Zheng Cui

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604447

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      Printed dual-gate carbon-nanotube thin-film transistors with very high saturation field-effect mobility are proposed for artificial synapse application. Important synaptic behaviors including paired-pulse facilitation and signal filtering characteristics are successfully emulated. The PPF index can be modulated by spike interval and spike width of presynaptic voltages. This work presents a printable approach to fabricate synaptic devices for neuromorphic system applications.

    27. Hierarchical Porous Te@ZnCo2O4 Nanofibers Derived from Te@Metal-Organic Frameworks for Superior Lithium Storage Capability

      Gang Huang, Qian Li, Dongming Yin and Limin Wang

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604941

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      Te@ZIF-8 (Zn, Co) templated synthesis of 1D hierarchical porous Te@ZnCo2O4 nanofibers exhibits large reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This general and powerful synthesis approach opens a new route to design and construct advanced anode materials for future LIBs.

  12. Feature Articles

    1. Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy of Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

      Frank Ceballos and Hui Zhao

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604509

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      Recent progress on using ultrafast lasers to study two-dimensional materials is reviewed. Fundamentals of pump–probe spectroscopy and the current understanding of various aspects of photocarrier dynamics, such as thermalization, energy relaxation, exciton formation, exciton–exciton annihilation, recombination, and transport, are discussed. Applications of ultrafast laser spectroscopy on studies of spin dynamics, coherent properties, and van der Waals heterostructures are also introduced.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Zero Thermal Expansion Achieved by an Electrolytic Hydriding Method in La(Fe,Si)13 Compounds

      Shaopeng Li, Rongjin Huang, Yuqiang Zhao, Wei Wang, Yemao Han and Laifeng Li

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604195

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      Room-temperature negative thermal expansion and broad operation-temperature window (20–275 K) zero thermal expansion have been achieved by an electrolytic hydriding method in La(Fe,Si)13 compounds, which is ascribed to the variations of magnetic exchange interactions and spontaneous magnetization after hydrogenation. The results highlight the potential applications of La(Fe,Si)13 hydrides in precision instruments working in broad temperature range.

  14. Feature Articles

    1. Electric Field Effect in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

      Fucai Liu, Jiadong Zhou, Chao Zhu and Zheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602404

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      The outstanding electric, optical, and valleytronic properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TDMDs) make them promising for device applications, while the electric controllability is extremely important for demonstrating their device application. In this review, we highlight the recent progress on the electric controllability of 2D TMDs and provide the opportunities that need to be investigated.

  15. Full Papers

    1. A Highly Stretchable Fiber-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Self-Powered Wearable Electronics

      Xu He, Yunlong Zi, Hengyu Guo, Haiwu Zheng, Yi Xi, Changsheng Wu, Jie Wang, Wei Zhang, Canhui Lu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604378

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      A highly stretchable/fiber-like triboelectric nanogenerator (fiber-like TENG) is developed with a unique structure for effectively harvesting energy at a range of low frequency stretching motions. By optimizing the device structure, this fiber-like TENG verifies its promising applications in both power generation for wearable electrics and self-powered sensing for acceleration rates.

    2. Field-Switchable Broadband Polarizer Based on Reconfigurable Nanowire Assemblies

      Sarah J. Boehm, Lei Kang, Douglas H. Werner and Christine D. Keating

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604703

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      In order to build structures with switchable modality that can enable active functionalities, the ability to control organization and rapidly reconfigure particle assemblies is essential. AC electric field directed assembly of gold nanowires to form reconfigurable 2D lattices is employed and a tunable broadband polarizer in a proof-of-concept demonstration is presented.

    3. Cellulose Nanofiber Supported 3D Interconnected BN Nanosheets for Epoxy Nanocomposites with Ultrahigh Thermal Management Capability

      Jin Chen, Xingyi Huang, Yingke Zhu and Pingkai Jiang

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604754

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      A novel strategy for the fabrication of cellulose nanofiber supported 3D interconnected boron nitride nanosheet (3D-C-BNNS) aerogels is presented. The aerogels show significant enhancement of thermal conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites while maintaining the excellent electrical insulating property of the nanocomposites. Accordingly, the corresponding epoxy/3D-C-BNNS nanocomposites exhibit strong thermal management capability.

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