Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 96
  1. Full Papers

    1. A Versatile Nanotheranostic Agent for Efficient Dual-Mode Imaging Guided Synergistic Chemo-Thermal Tumor Therapy

      Xiaojun Cai, Xiaoqing Jia, Wei Gao, Kun Zhang, Ming Ma, Shige Wang, Yuanyi Zheng, Jianlin Shi and Hangrong Chen

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403991

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      A smart and versatile theranostic nanoplatform with single component based on hollow mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles is developed for the in vivo highly efficient synergistic chemo-thermal tumor therapy, guided by synchronous imaging diagnosis and therapy monitoring using ultrasound and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging for the first time.

    2. 2D Janus Hybrid Materials of Polymer-Grafted Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Oxide Thin Film as Flexible, Miniature Electric Carpet

      Peng Xiao, Changjin Wan, Jincui Gu, Zhenzhong Liu, Yonghong Men, Youju Huang, Jiawei Zhang, Liqiang Zhu and Tao Chen

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404624

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      A polymeric electrical carpet of 2D Janus hybrid thin film, with grafted polymer layer as insulative carpet and supported carbon materials as conductive element, has the potential application in heating micro-/nano devices locally.

    3. Facet-Level Mechanistic Insights into General Homogeneous Carbon Doping for Enhanced Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion

      Jie Li, Kun Zhao, Ying Yu and Lizhi Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404178

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      Facet-level understanding of a general homogeneous carbon doping mechanism is demonstrated. The initial facet-dependent adsorption of the dopant precursor, regulated by the surface atomic structures, and the subsequent facet-dependent diffusion of the carbon dopant, associated with the facet-related arrangements of bulk atoms, are identified as the two key factors to determine the concentration of carbon dopants.

    4. Microfluidic Spinning of Cell-Responsive Grooved Microfibers

      Xuetao Shi, Serge Ostrovidov, Yihua Zhao, Xiaobin Liang, Motohiro Kasuya, Kazue Kurihara, Ken Nakajima, Hojae Bae, Hongkai Wu and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404531

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      A photocrosslinkable microgrooved methacrylamide-modified gelatin (GelMA) fiber is produced via the use of a microfluidic device. The combination of the cell supportive properties of GelMA and the topographical cues allows improved cell-material interactions favoring anisotropic tissue formation. Moreover, the high hydration content and viscoelastic properties of the hydrogel allow the coculturing cell types in and on the fiber.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Development and Manufacture of Polymer-based Electrochromic Devices

      Jacob Jensen, Markus Hösel, Aubrey L. Dyer and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403765

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      The materials science of the electrochromic device is reviewed with particular focus on the possible manufacturing routes, the requirements they impose on the materials and the achievable overall device performance. Applications are discussed and the recent progress in realizing solid state flexible devices based on electrochromics and their combination with other advanced devices such as solar cells is reviewed along with an overview of areas where developments would have a large impact.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Self-Doped Conjugated Polymeric Nanoassembly by Simplified Process for Optical Cancer Theragnosis

      Jeonghun Kim, Eugene Lee, Yoochan Hong, Byeonggwan Kim, Minhee Ku, Dan Heo, Jihye Choi, Jongbeom Na, Jungmok You, Seungjoo Haam, Yong-Min Huh, Jin-Suck Suh, Eunkyoung Kim and Jaemoon Yang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500076

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      A thiophene-based photothermal (PT) organic nanoprobe is synthesized, with a simplified preparation process not requiring PEGylation or multicoating. The synthesized nanoassembly shows good stability, biocompatibility, and PT properties. The nanoassembly is applied to 3D tumor mammospheres and breast cancer, and shows excellent specific targeting of the CD44-expressing cancerous cells, near-infrared (NIR) absorbance imaging in vivo, and effective damaging by NIR light irradiation.

    2. Contrast Agent Incorporation into Silicone Enables Real-Time Flow-Structure Analysis of Mammalian Vein-Inspired Soft Pumps

      Michael Loepfe, Christoph M. Schumacher, Cornelia H. Burri and Wendelin J. Stark

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404461

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      There is a nascent research field on machines that are made essentially from soft materials. A new type of mammalian vein-inspired soft silicone liquid pump is presented and characterized, that is based on lost-wax casting of 3D printed injection molds. By functionalizing the material with contrast agents, inner workings can be visualized in real-time by the use of medical ultrasonography.

    3. Magnesiothermic Reduction of Thin Films: Towards Semiconducting Chiral Nematic Mesoporous Silicon Carbide and Silicon Structures

      Thanh-Dinh Nguyen, Joel A. Kelly, Wadood Y. Hamad and Mark J. MacLachlan

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404304

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      Magnesiothermic reduction of chiral nematic silica/carbon and mesoporous silica films templated by cellulose nanocrystals is investigated. The reduction process of silica/carbon forms MgC2/SiC intermediates and then transforms to chiral nematic mesoporous SiC, while silica produces mesoporous Si with a layered hierarchical structure. These novel semiconducting materials are available as film replicas and may be useful for developing thin film sensors.

    4. White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film

      Xiaoliang Ren, Xianghui Zhang, Nishuang Liu, Li Wen, Longwei Ding, Zongwei Ma, Jun Su, Luying Li, Junbo Han and Yihua Gao

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404316

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      A whole interfacial transition of electrons from conduction bands of n-type GaN film to the acceptor levels of p-type antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanowire arrays makes the energy band engineering successful. It tunes intrinsic ZnO UV emission to UV-free and warm white light-emitting diode (W-LED) emission with color coordinates around (0.418, 0.429) at the bias of 8–15.5 V.

    5. Remotely Controlled Red Blood Cell Carriers for Cancer Targeting and Near-Infrared Light-Triggered Drug Release in Combined Photothermal–Chemotherapy

      Xiaoqi Sun, Chao Wang, Min Gao, Aiyan Hu and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500061

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      A tumor angiogenesis targeting red blood cell (RBC)-based drug delivery system is successfully fabricated by incorporating various functional components within the RBC platform, and is responsive to near-infrared light stimulus. As a proof of principle, RBC-based cancer cell targeted drug delivery and light-controlled drug release is demonstrated in vitro, achieving a marked synergistic therapeutic effect through the combined photothermal–chemotherapy.

    6. TiO2@Layered Double Hydroxide Core–Shell Nanospheres with Largely Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Toward O2 Generation

      Yibo Dou, Shitong Zhang, Ting Pan, Simin Xu, Awu Zhou, Min Pu, Hong Yan, Jingbin Han, Min Wei, David G. Evans and Xue Duan

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404496

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      TiO2@CoAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) core–shell nanospheres are fabricated via hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 hollow nanospheres followed by in situ growth of CoAl-LDH shell, which exhibit an extraordinarily high photocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution from water oxidation. A strong donor–acceptor coupling and suitable band matching between TiO2 core and LDH shell facilitate the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, accounting for the highly efficient photocatalytic performance.

    7. A Self-Powered Angle Measurement Sensor Based on Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Ying Wu, Qingshen Jing, Jun Chen, Peng Bai, Junjie Bai, Guang Zhu, Yuanjie Su and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403828

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      A self-powered, sliding electrification based quasi-static triboelectric sensor for detecting angle from rotating motion is reported. The sensor reads and remembers the absolute angular position, angular velocity, and acceleration regardless being continuously monitored or segmented monitored. This work not only demonstrates a new principle in for angular measurement but also greatly expands the applicability of triboelectric nanogenerator as self-powered sensors.

    8. Programmable “Semismart” Sensor: Relevance to Monitoring Antipsychotics

      Eunkyoung Kim, Sheryl E. Chocron, Hadar Ben-Yoav, Thomas E. Winkler, Yi Liu, Matthew Glassman, Christopher Wolfram, Deanna L. Kelly, Reza Ghodssi and Gregory F. Payne

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403783

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      A semismart electrochemical sensor is prepared from a composite film of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in a chitosan matrix. The aminopolysaccharide chitosan enables programmable assembly of the composite at an electrode address while carbon nanotubes confer electrocatalytic properties. This sensor enables highly sensitive detection of the antipsychotic medication clozapine from blood samples of schizophrenia patients without the need for sample pretreatment.

    9. Thermally Stable, Biocompatible, and Flexible Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Their Application in Temperature Sensing Arrays for Artificial Skin

      Xiaohan Wu, Yan Ma, Guoqian Zhang, Yingli Chu, Juan Du, Yin Zhang, Zhuo Li, Yourong Duan, Zhongyong Fan and Jia Huang

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404535

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      A highly thermally stable, biocompatible, and flexible organic field-effect transistor is realized by applying a three-arm stereocomplex polylactide as dielectric and substrate materials. Temperature sensitivity of the devices is significantly enhanced by utilizing polar-group-induced dielectric/semiconductor interfacial charge trapping effect. 2D temperature sensing array is demonstrated based on such transistors, which are applicable for artificial skin.

    10. Multifunctional Silver-Exchanged Zeolite Micromotors for Catalytic Detoxification of Chemical and Biological Threats

      Virendra V. Singh, Beatriz Jurado-Sánchez, Sirilak Sattayasamitsathit, Jahir Orozco, Jinxing Li, Michael Galarnyk, Yuri Fedorak and Joseph Wang

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500033

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      Multifunctional reactive-zeolite micromotors that combine the remarkable adsorption capacity of zeolites with the efficient catalytic properties of reactive Ag+ and the effective movement for accelerated “on-the-fly” detoxification of chemical and biological threats are described. The attractive capabilities of these self-propelled zeolite micromotors will pave the way for their diverse applications in defense and environmental applications in a more economical and sustainable manner.

    11. Design of Hybrid MnO2-Polymer-Lipid Nanoparticles with Tunable Oxygen Generation Rates and Tumor Accumulation for Cancer Treatment

      Claudia R. Gordijo, Azhar Z. Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Amini, Ho Yin Lip, Azusa Maeda, Ping Cai, Peter J. O'Brien, Ralph S. DaCosta, Andrew M. Rauth and Xiao Yu Wu

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404511

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      Terpolymer/protein and polymer/lipid matrices are used to design hybrid MnO2 nanoparticles with tailored hydrophobicity and structure for programmable oxygen generation in the solid tumor. They feature prolonged circulation in the blood, superior tumor accumulation, and taylored reactivity with H2O2 in the acidic tumor microenvironment for the production of O­2 and modulation of tumor hypoxia through both local and systemic administration.

    12. Optical, Electrical, and Magnetic Studies of Organic Solar Cells Based on Low Bandgap Copolymer with Spin ½ Radical Additives

      Tek Basel, Uyen Huynh, Tianyue Zheng, Tao Xu, Luping Yu and Z. Valy Vardeny

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403191

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      Charge transfer process in an organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell is studied in thin films and devices of a low bandgap polymer. Major loss in copolymer-based OPV devices is the formation of triplet excitons in the polymer donor from 3CT at the donor–acceptor interfaces. A method is presented to circumvent this process by incorporating spin ½ additives.

    13. Triggering Mechanism for DNA Electrical Conductivity: Reversible Electron Transfer between DNA and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

      Massimiliano Magro, Davide Baratella, Petr Jakubec, Giorgio Zoppellaro, Jiri Tucek, Claudia Aparicio, Rina Venerando, Geppo Sartori, Federica Francescato, Fabio Mion, Nadia Gabellini, Radek Zboril and Fabio Vianello

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404372

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      DNA based self-assembled nanoconjugates and a macroscopic metamaterial are synthetized, using naked maghemite nanoparticles as electroactive supports. DNA nanoconjugates show reversible electrochemical behavior and better electrochemical performances with respect to bare nanoparticles. The intimate contact between DNA and nanoparticles is studied and electron transfer at the interface between nanoparticles and DNA is unequivocally demonstrated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and modeled by density functional theory.

    14. Electronic Structure of Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistor Applications

      Josephine Socratous, Kulbinder K. Banger, Yana Vaynzof, Aditya Sadhanala, Adam D. Brown, Alessandro Sepe, Ullrich Steiner and Henning Sirringhaus

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404375

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      The electronic structure of low-temperature, solution-processed Indium–Zinc–Oxide thin-film transistors is probed, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. A compensation of a significant density of acceptor states below the conduction band by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels as the key factor for achieving high device performance at low temperature is identified.

    15. Hybrid Z-Scheme Using Photosystem I and BiVO4 for Hydrogen Production

      Younghye Kim, Della Shin, Woo Je Chang, Hae Lin Jang, Chan Woo Lee, Hye-Eun Lee and Ki Tae Nam

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404556

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      The first hybrid Z-scheme by using photo­system I and a semiconductor in an all-linked structure is reported. The hybrid system produces hydrogen from water without the use of a reducing additive under visible light. This novel system provides a new means of using photosynthetic proteins in photocatalytic applications.

    16. A–D–A-Type Oligothiophenes for Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells: Extending the π-System by Introduction of Ring-Locked Double Bonds

      Roland Fitzner, Elena Mena-Osteritz, Karsten Walzer, Martin Pfeiffer and Peter Bäuerle

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404210

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      A new series of acceptor-substituted oligothiophenes (DCCnT) is investigated. Structural, thermal, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties are contrasted to dicyanovinylene-capped oligothiophenes (DCVnT). Melting temperatures and solubilities are significantly enhanced for the DCCnTs versus DCVnTs. Oligomers with equal numbers of double bonds, show very similar absorption profiles. In vacuum-processed planar heterojunction solar cells, DCC-terthiophenes DCC3T and DCC3T-Me show superior photovoltaic parameters compared to conjugated corresponding DCV-quaterthiophenes.

    17. Giant Phononic Anisotropy and Unusual Anharmonicity of Phosphorene: Interlayer Coupling and Strain Engineering

      Yongqing Cai, Qingqing Ke, Gang Zhang, Yuan Ping Feng, Vivek B. Shenoy and Yong-Wei Zhang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404294

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      Phosphorene, with a honeycomb lattice as graphene but puckered with ridge and accordion atomic profiles along the zigzag and armchair directions, shows a strong phonon anisotropy, and a significant orientation-dependent interlayer coupling. Simulations reveal a more pronounced interlayer interaction and thermal leakage normal to the layer direction; accordingly, a different strategy is needed for thermal management of phosphorene devices.

    18. Printing Patterned Fine 3D Structures by Manipulating the Three Phase Contact Line

      Lei Wu, Zhichao Dong, Minxuan Kuang, Yanan Li, Fengyu Li, Lei Jiang and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404559

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      A facile strategy to directly print controllable 3D structures and morphologies from one single droplet is demonstrated. Through designing hydrophilic pattern on hydrophobic surface, the surface energy difference results in asymmetric retraction of three phase contact line, which leads to various 3D structures. This idea to precisely print the 3D structures will open a new avenue for controllable 3D manufacture.

    19. In Situ Preparation of Sandwich MoO3/C Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Rate and Ultralong-Life Supercapacitors

      Hongmei Ji, Xiaolin Liu, Zhijuan Liu, Bo Yan, Lin Chen, Yafeng Xie, Chao Liu, Wenhua Hou and Gang Yang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404378

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      A sandwich MoO3/C hybrid nanostructure assembled by α-MoO3 and graphene layers at a molecular level provides more accessible active sites and bicontinuous pathways for quick transfer of charges inside the interlayers, as well as an excellent structure stability in the charge/discharge process. The electrode material has a high rate discharge capability accompanying with a long cycle life.

    20. Fluorinated Graphene in Interface Engineering of Ge-Based Nanoelectronics

      Xiaohu Zheng, Miao Zhang, Xiaohua Shi, Gang Wang, Li Zheng, Yuehui Yu, Anping Huang, Paul K. Chu, Heng Gao, Wei Ren, Zengfeng Di and Xi Wang

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404031

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      A barrier layer of fluorinated graphene is applied to suppress the interdiffusionand unstable interfacial oxide in HfO2/Ge-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. The device exhibits negligible CV hysteresis, extremely low leakage, and superior equivalent oxide thickness. The concept is expected to expedite the implementation of germanium as a channel material in next-generation nanoelectronic devices.

    21. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

      John G. Labram, Yen-Hung Lin, Kui Zhao, Ruipeng Li, Stuart R. Thomas, James Semple, Maria Androulidaki, Lamprini Sygellou, Martyn McLachlan, Emmanuel Stratakis, Aram Amassian and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403862

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      The concept of quantized energy states in ultrathin solution-processed zinc oxide layers is explored. As-deposited layers are found to exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in accordance with theoretical predictions. When the zinc oxide layers are used as quantum-wells in carefully engineered two-terminal electronic devices, negative differential conductance is observed.

    22. N-Type Conjugated Polymer-Enabled Selective Dispersion of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Flexible CMOS-Like Circuits

      Huiliang Wang, Yaoxuan Li, Gonzalo Jiménez-Osés, Peng Liu, Ya Fang, Jie Zhang, Ying-Chih Lai, Steve Park, Liwei Chen, Kendall N. Houk and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404126

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      Selective dispersion of semiconducting carbon nanotubes by an n-type conjugated polymer is demonstrated. Molecular dynamics stimulations reveal various polymer wrapping geometries for different types of nanotubes. These polymer-wrapped semiconducting carbon nanotubes exhibit ambipolar transport, which is utilized for fabrication of flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-like logic circuits without the need of n-doping.

    23. Photophysics of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

      Hong-Hua Fang, Raissa Raissa, Mustapha Abdu-Aguye, Sampson Adjokatse, Graeme R. Blake, Jacky Even and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404421

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      Low-temperature photophysical investigations of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals indicate that the recombination in these perovskites is due to spontaneous band-to-band radiative transition at room temperature and to singlet-free-exciton and bound-triplet excitons below the phase transition temperature. The bound-triplet excitons are characterized by a decay dynamics of about 5 μs and by a saturation phenomenon due to many-body interactions.

    24. Engineering Gold Nanotubes with Controlled Length and Near-Infrared Absorption for Theranostic Applications

      Sunjie Ye, Gemma Marston, James R. McLaughlan, Daniel O. Sigle, Nicola Ingram, Steven Freear, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Richard J. Bushby, Alexander F. Markham, Kevin Critchley, Patricia Louise Coletta and Stephen D. Evans

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404358

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      Gold nanotubes with controlled length and tunable absorption in the near-infrared region are developed. The present work represents the first in vitro and in vivo study of gold nanotubes and demonstrates their effectiveness as novel agents for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy with a potential of drug delivery.

    25. Localized Laser-Based Photohydrothermal Synthesis of Functionalized Metal-Oxides

      Kyungmook Kwon, Jaeho Shim, Jeong Oen Lee, Kyunghan Choi and Kyoungsik Yu

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404215

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      Light absorption at metal surfaces allows remote, localized generation of heat for enhanced chemical reaction rates near the beam spot. A novel class of solution-processed metal-oxide synthesis techniques is demonstrated that takes advantage of these effects: photohydrothermal material synthesis via pulsed laser superheating of the precursor solution. This method allows ultrafast, localized, and facile growth of functionalized metal oxide materials on metal structures.

    26. TPA Immobilization on Iron Oxide Nanocubes and Localized Magnetic Hyperthermia Accelerate Blood Clot Lysis

      Eszter Voros, Minjung Cho, Maricela Ramirez, Anna Lisa Palange, Enrica De Rosa, Jaehong Key, Zsolt Garami, Alan B. Lumsden and Paolo Decuzzi

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404354

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      Clustered super-paramagnetic 20 nm iron oxide nanocubes, stabilized by tissue plasminogen activator molecules and serum albumin, are proposed as thrombolytic agents. In vitro, as compared to tissue plasminogen activator, these nano­constructs demonstrate a ≈1000-fold increase in dissolution rate. Intravital microscopy experiments demonstrate blood vessel reperfusion within a few minutes post tail vein injection of tissue plasminogen activator nanocubes.

    27. Infrared Detection Using Transparent and Flexible Field-Effect Transistor Array with Solution Processable Nanocomposite Channel of Reduced Graphene Oxide and P(VDF-TrFE)

      Tran Quang Trung, Subramaniyan Ramasundaram and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404582

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      A transparent and flexible infrared photodetector array, using a field-effect transistor structure in which an infrared-responsive nanocomposite layer of reduced graphene oxide and P(VDF-TrFE) is employed as a channel, exhibits high infrared responsivity, stability, and reproducibility under mechanical strain. It is possible to measure the distribution of the infrared responses from each device in a transparent and flexible nanocomposite field-effect transistor array under infrared radiation from the human body.

    28. Achieving a Significantly Increased Efficiency in Nondoped Pure Blue Fluorescent OLED: A Quasi-Equivalent Hybridized Excited State

      Shitong Zhang, Liang Yao, Qiming Peng, Weijun Li, Yuyu Pan, Ran Xiao, Yu Gao, Cheng Gu, Zhiming Wang, Ping Lu, Feng Li, Shijian Su, Bing Yang and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404260

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      The newly synthesized material 4-[2-(4′-diphenylamino-biphenyl-4-yl)-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl]-benzonitrile (TBPMCN) possesses a quasi-equivalent hybridization of the locally emissive and charge-transfer components in its excited state, which gives rise to its overall electroluminescence performance. The blue emissive nondoped organic light-emitting diode of TBPMCN exhibits a very high external quantum efficiency of 7.8% with a Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinate of (0.16, 0.16).

    29. Stoichiometry Variation in Materials with Three Mobile Carriers—Thermodynamics and Transport Kinetics Exemplified for Protons, Oxygen Vacancies, and Holes

      D. Poetzsch, R. Merkle and J. Maier

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402212

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      Mixed conducting oxides containing oxygen vacancies, protons, and electron holes exhibit a complex kinetic behavior for water uptake: fast proton uptake at expense of holes (=reduction) followed by slow oxygen incorporation (reoxidation). Exact analytical relations are derived and this complex kinetics is illustrated by numerical simulations, which naturally explain a number of intriguing experimental observations.

    30. Under-Water Superaerophobic Pine-Shaped Pt Nanoarray Electrode for Ultrahigh-Performance Hydrogen Evolution

      Yingjie Li, Haichuan Zhang, Tianhao Xu, Zhiyi Lu, Xiaochao Wu, Pengbo Wan, Xiaoming Sun and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404250

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      A Pt nanoarray electrode with under-water superaerophobicity is fabricated by a facile and easily scalable electrodeposition technique. This electrode with a lower bubble adhesive force, a higher bubble contact angle in aqueous solution, and lower size of bubbles release, exhibits an ultrahigh electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction performance, excellent durability, no obvious current fluctuation, and dramatically fast current density increase.

    31. Zeolite-Coated Porous Arrays: A Novel Strategy for Enzyme Encapsulation

      V. R. Reddy Marthala, Mona Friedrich, Zhou Zhou, Monica Distaso, Stephanie Reuss, Shaeel A. Al-Thabaiti, Wolfgang Peukert, Wilhelm Schwieger and Martin Hartmann

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404335

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      Zeolite-coated highly porous arrays with gradient porosity are used as filter-panels for enzyme encapsulation using a novel approach. By this method the encapsulated enzyme molecules are freely mobile like in their native form within the gradient pores of stainless steel discs, while the zeolite layer on top of the discs acts as a protective layer against enzyme leaching.

    32. Molecular Heterojunctions of Oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s with Linear to Cruciform Framework

      Zhongming Wei, Tim Hansen, Marco Santella, Xintai Wang, Christian R. Parker, Xingbin Jiang, Tao Li, Magni Glyvradal, Karsten Jennum, Emil Glibstrup, Nicolas Bovet, Xiaowei Wang, Wenping Hu, Gemma C. Solomon, Mogens Brøndsted Nielsen, Xiaohui Qiu, Thomas Bjørnholm, Kasper Nørgaard and Bo W. Laursen

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404388

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      Molecular heterojunctions based on self-assembled monolayers of oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s, which have linear to cruciform framework, are measured by conducting probe–atomic force microscopy. Different molecular orbitals are obtained by adding the electron donating redox-active dithiafulvene as substituent group to the OPE3 backbone. The Fermi level of the atomic force microscopy tip is tuned by different metal coating (Ag, Au, and Pt).

    33. Ultrafast Self-Assembly of Graphene Oxide-Induced Monolithic NiCo–Carbonate Hydroxide Nanowire Architectures with a Superior Volumetric Capacitance for Supercapacitors

      Juan Yang, Chang Yu, Xiaoming Fan, Changtai Zhao and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404019

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      A novel strategy for ultrafast self-assembly of the monolithic composite architectures (G–CH) with alternate connections of the monodisperse NiCo–carbonate hydroxide nanowires and graphene nanosheets is reported. The as-made G–CH films exhibit a superior volumetric capacitance of 2936 F cm−3 at a current density of 1 A g−1 and excellent cycle ability.

    34. Alignment of Rod-Shaped Single-Photon Emitters Driven by Line Defects in Liquid Crystals

      Laurent Pelliser, Mathieu Manceau, Clotilde Lethiec, Delphine Coursault, Stefano Vezzoli, Godefroy Leménager, Laurent Coolen, Massimo DeVittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello, Luigi Carbone, Agnes Maitre, Alberto Bramati and Emmanuelle Lacaze

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403331

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      The self-alignment of CdSe/CdS dots-in-rods is realized through their deposition within aligned line defects of smectic liquid crystals. The measurements of numerous single-photon emitters evidences, for a given liquid crystal film, a unique alignment of the in-plane dipoles associated with these particles. Fine control of the polarization of single photons emitters is thus achieved.

    35. Rapid Self-Assembly of Macroscale Tissue Constructs at Biphasic Aqueous Interfaces

      John P. Frampton, Brendan M. Leung, Eve L. Bingham, Sasha Cai Lesher-Perez, Jack D. Wang, Hady T. Sarhan, Mohamed E. H. El-Sayed, Stephen E. Feinberg and Shuichi Takayama

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403825

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      Macroscopic tissue constructs composed entirely of cells are formed using the interfacial properties of aqueous two-phase systems. The constructs form rapidly in as little as 2 h using a variety of cell types, offering a new methodology for fabricating tissue-engineered in vitro models and cell-based materials for regenerative therapies.

    36. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanochannels Based on Polypyrrole-Embedded Alumina Nanopore Arrays: pH- and Light-Modulated Ion Transport

      Qianqian Zhang, Zhaoyue Liu, Kefeng Wang and Jin Zhai

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404160

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      Organic/inorganic hybrid nanochannels are constructed by integrating conductive polypyrrole (PPy) into alumina nanopore arrays. The protonation and deprotonation of surface groups upon pH variation contribute to the pH-tunable ion rectification. Positive charges in PPy layer induced by the cooperative effect of light and protons are used to regulate the channel flux, which results in a light-responsive ion current.

    37. The Effect of Gradual Fluorination on the Properties of FnZnPc Thin Films and FnZnPc/C60 Bilayer Photovoltaic Cells

      Michael Brendel, Stefan Krause, Andreas Steindamm, Anna Katharina Topczak, Sudhakar Sundarraj, Peter Erk, Steffen Höhla, Norbert Fruehauf, Norbert Koch and Jens Pflaum

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404434

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      The impact of gradually fluorinated zinc phthalocyanine molecules on the photophysical properties of FnZnPc/C60 solar cells is investigated. Upon increasing fluorination, distinct variations of the cell parameters such as the open circuit voltage are observed yielding, in combination with complementary structural and electron spectroscopy analyses a detailed picture of the relevant D/A interface energetics and processes on microscopic length scales.

    38. Two-Photon Nanolithography Enhances the Performance of an Ionic Liquid–Polymer Composite Sensor

      Natalia A. Bakhtina, Ute Loeffelmann, Neil MacKinnon and Jan G. Korvink

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404370

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      A novel ionic liquid–polymer composite material is reported, alongside an approach for its patterning by two-photon nanolithography. The unique properties of the material are combined with a single-step process for its 3D structuring, having nanometer resolution and high aspect ratio. A proof-of-concept multifunctional sensor for temperature and relative humidity sensing is demonstrated.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Emerging In Situ and Operando Nanoscale X-Ray Imaging Techniques for Energy Storage Materials

      Johanna Nelson Weker and Michael F. Toney

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403409

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      In situ X-ray microscopy provides a powerful approach to watching battery electrode materials during realistic operation. Such experiments shed light onto operational mechanisms, including degradation and failure. This rapidly growing and developing field is described, focusing on insights gained for these inherently heterogeneous materials.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Mohamed Eita, Abdulrahman El Labban, Federico Cruciani, Anwar Usman, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Omar F. Mohammed

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402637

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      A unique approach to fabricating bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells consisting of an electron transport layer of ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid prepared by a layer-by-layer technique is described. With spin-coated active layers of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester on a 25-nm-thick ZnO/polyacrylic acid layer, the power-conversion efficiency of the solar cell is ≈6%, exceeding that of ZnO interlayers formed by sputtering.

    2. Synthetic Surfaces with Robust and Tunable Underwater Superoleophobicity

      Uttam Manna and David M. Lynn

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403735

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      Nanoporous polymer multilayers that exhibit robust and tunable underwater superoleophobicity are reported. These entirely organic coatings are tolerant to a broad range of physical, chemical, and environmental insults encountered in harsh or chemically complex media. The results provide new approaches to the design of durable anti-oil-fouling coatings and new principles for control over the transport, manipulation, and separation of oils and organic fluids in aqueous environments.

    3. Stretchable Self-Powered Fiber-Based Strain Sensor

      Junwen Zhong, Qize Zhong, Qiyi Hu, Nan Wu, Wenbo Li, Bo Wang, Bin Hu and Jun Zhou

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404087

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      A fiber-based electret generator is coiled around a stretchable silicone fiber to form an active fiber-based strain sensor (AFSS). The AFSS shows the sensitive and stable performance and has the ability to detect the strain up to 25%, which is also demonstrated to detect finger motion states. It may play an essential role in future self-powered sensor system.

    4. 3D MoS2–Graphene Microspheres Consisting of Multiple Nanospheres with Superior Sodium Ion Storage Properties

      Seung Ho Choi, You Na Ko, Jung-Kul Lee and Yun Chan Kang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402428

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      3D MoS2–graphene composite microspheres consisting of multiple nanospheres are prepared by a one-pot spray pyrolysis process with high scale-up potential. The 3D MoS2–graphene composite microspheres show high reversible capacity and long cycle stability as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The facile and continuous synthesis of 3D graphene-based composite microspheres could be applied to the potential materials for various fields including energy storage.

    5. A Novel Design Strategy for Fully Physically Linked Double Network Hydrogels with Tough, Fatigue Resistant, and Self-Healing Properties

      Qiang Chen, Lin Zhu, Hong Chen, Hongli Yan, Lina Huang, Jia Yang and Jie Zheng

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404357

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      A new design strategy is proposed and demonstrated for a new type of double network hydrogels with both networks being fully physically linked. Agar/hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide double network gels exhibit high toughness, remarkable fatigue resistance, and notable self-healing performance, which can be achieved by tuning the second network.

    6. Mobile Domain Walls as a Bridge between Nanoscale Conductivity and Macroscopic Electromechanical Response

      Tadej Rojac, Hana Ursic, Andreja Bencan, Barbara Malic and Dragan Damjanovic

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402963

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      A link between electrical conductivity at the nanoscale and macroscopic electromechanical response is revealed in polycrystalline, ferroelectric BiFeO3. The existence of spontaneously formed conductive domain walls, which persist after poling, is demonstrated. It is shown that these conductive interfaces move significantly under applied subswitching electric fields, revealing emerging phenomena and large enhancement of the macroscopic piezoelectric response.

    7. Novel Polygonal Vanadium Oxide Nanoscrolls as Stable Cathode for Lithium Storage

      Qiulong Wei, Shuangshuang Tan, Xiaoyi Liu, Mengyu Yan, Fengchao Wang, Qidong Li, Qinyou An, Ruimin Sun, Kangning Zhao, Hengan Wu and Liqiang Mai

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404311

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      Polygonal inorganic nanoscrolls are successfully synthesized for the first time via a self-rolling, Ostwald ripening, and scroll-by-scroll process in aqueous solution. This kind of novel polygonal nanoscroll structure represents an interesting model with robust outwall and expandable inner space which buffers the swelling stress during cycling, resulting in the largely enhanced cycling stability. This novel structure is interesting and has great potential in other applications.

    8. A Facile In Situ Approach to Polypyrrole Functionalization Through Bioinspired Catechols

      Wei Zhang, Zihe Pan, Fut K. Yang and Boxin Zhao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403115

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      A benign one-step approach to synthesize novel catechol-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposties with a fibrous structure, good water dispersibility, enhanced film adhesion, and improved electrical conductivity is reported. Such functionalized PPy nanofibers can be uniformly dispersed into polyvinyl alcohol polymer matrix and casted into thin-film coating; as-prepared coating exhibited high scratch resistance, biocompatibility, and conductivity, would find broad industrial applications.

    9. Cohesively Enhanced Conductivity and Adhesion of Flexible Silver Nanowire Networks by Biocompatible Polymer Sol-Gel Transition

      Yunxia Jin, Lu Li, Yuanrong Cheng, Lingqiang Kong, Qibing Pei and Fei Xiao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403293

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      Flexible Ag nanowire (NW)/Ca alginate composite transparent electrodes with cohesively improved adhesion and conductivity are prepared without high-temperature annealing. The bivalent calcium ions cross-link the alginate under the AgNW networks to form water-resist alginate gel to bond the AgNWs tightly on the substrate; the chloride ions detach the stabilizer on the surface of the Ag nano­wire to trigger the sintering.

    10. Polypyrrole Asymmetric Bilayer Artificial Muscle: Driven Reactions, Cooperative Actuation, and Osmotic Effects

      Masaki Fuchiwaki, Jose G. Martinez and Toribio F. Otero

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404061

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      Polypyrrole asymmetric bilayer (PPy1/PPy2) bending muscles with asymmetric volume changes under reaction driven ionic exchanges originate cooperative electro-chemo-mechanical effects. Osmotic and electro-osmotic processes, following ionic entrance or preceding conformational compaction processes, complement the muscle actuation.

    11. Dual Support System Ensuring Porous Co–Al Hydroxide Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Rate Performance and High Energy Density for Supercapacitors

      Xiaoliang Wu, Lili Jiang, Conglai Long, Tong Wei and Zhuangjun Fan

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404142

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      Integrated porous Co–Al hydroxide nanosheets with dual support system (GSP-LDH) are synthesized by using dodecyl sulfate anions as structural support and graphene sheets as conductive support. The as-obtained GSP-LDH electrode exhibits high specific capacitance and ultra-high rate capability. Moreover, the assembled porous carbon//GSP-LDH asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a high energy density up at a very high power density.

    12. Tumor Microenvironment Activated Photothermal Strategy for Precisely Controlled Ablation of Solid Tumors upon NIR Irradiation

      Enguo Ju, Kai Dong, Zhen Liu, Fang Pu, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403885

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      A tumor microenvironment activated photothermal strategy is presented based on pH-dependent light-heat conversion property of Au@PANI nanoparticles. The tumor acidic microenvironment-activated photothermal effect exhibits highly discriminating photo-induced damage to tumor region while leaving normal tissues intact. With the benefit of the control to switch on the photothermal ablation, technical difficulty to precisely operate laser irradiation on tumor cells can be circumvented.

    13. Reduced Graphene Oxide Micromesh Electrodes for Large Area, Flexible, Organic Photovoltaic Devices

      Dimitrios Konios, Constantinos Petridis, George Kakavelakis, Maria Sygletou, Kyriaki Savva, Emmanuel Stratakis and Emmanuel Kymakis

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404046

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      A direct laser writing technique is demonstrated for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide micromesh electrodes with high conductivity and transparency. Their utilization as the transparent electrode in flexible organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.05%, which is the highest ever reported for flexible OPVs based on solution-processed graphene electrodes.

    14. PEGylated Polypyrrole Nanoparticles Conjugating Gadolinium Chelates for Dual-Modal MRI/Photoacoustic Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy of Cancer

      Xiaolong Liang, Yanyan Li, Xiaoda Li, Lijia Jing, Zijian Deng, Xiuli Yue, Changhui Li and Zhifei Dai

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402338

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      A theranostic agent with excellent physiological stability, strong NIR absorption, and high magnetization is fabricated from PEGylated polypyrrole nanoparticles conjugating gadolinium chelates (Gd-PEG-PPy NPs). The passive targeting and high MRI/photoacoustic contrast capability of Gd-PEG-PPy NPs are favorable for precise cancer diagnosing, and locating tumor sites to guide external laser irradiation for photothermal ablation of tumors without damaging surrounding healthy tissue.

    15. Novel Molybdenum Carbide–Tungsten Carbide Composite Nanowires and Their Electrochemical Activation for Efficient and Stable Hydrogen Evolution

      Peng Xiao, Xiaoming Ge, Haibo Wang, Zhaolin Liu, Adrian Fisher and Xin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403633

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      The well-defined nanowire structure of complex molybdenum carbide–tungsten carbide is realized by a pseudomorphic transformation and exhibits high activity towards hydrogen evolution reaction after electrochemical activation.

    16. Lanthanide Ion Codoped Emitters for Tailoring Emission Trajectory and Temperature Sensing

      Shu-Na Zhao, Lei-Jiao Li, Xue-Zhi Song, Min Zhu, Zhao-Min Hao, Xing Meng, Lan-Lan Wu, Jing Feng, Shu-Yan Song, Cheng Wang and Hong-Jie Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402061

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      Codoped Ln-metal-organic frameworks EuxTb1-xL are synthesized based on the isostructural Ln-metal-organic frameworks using lanthanide ion emitters. With careful adjustment of the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions and the excitation wavelength, the emission trajectory can be modulated, allowing white emission. Furthermore, Eu0.2Tb0.8L allows for the design of a thermometer operating over a wide range, from 40 to 300 K.

    17. The Effect of Protein Fusions on the Production and Mechanical Properties of Protein-Based Materials

      Shang-Pu Tsai, David W. Howell, Zhao Huang, Hao-Ching Hsiao, Yang Lu, Kathleen S. Matthews, Jun Lou and Sarah E. Bondos

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402997

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      A wide range of proteins can be incorporated into protein-based materials via gene fusion, to produce a single polypeptide capable of self-assembly and the function of interest. 24 proteins are fused to Ultrabithorax, a protein which self-assembles in vitro. Whereas the appended proteins determine the solubility and purification yield of the corresponding fusion protein, all fusion proteins self-assemble equally well.

    18. Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles as Nano Floating Gate Electrets for High Performance Nonvolatile Organic Transistor Memory Devices

      Chien-Chung Shih, Yu-Cheng Chiu, Wen-Ya Lee, Jung-Yao Chen and Wen-Chang Chen

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404329

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      A molecular nano-floating gate approach using conjugated polymer nanoparticles is developed for achieving high performance transistor memory devices. The transistor memory device using discrete polyfluorene and poly(fluorene-alt-benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole nanoparticles as the floating gates can effectively trap the electrons and lead to a large memory window, long retention time, and a high ON/OFF ratio of >104.

    19. Mesoporous Colloidal Superparticles of Platinum-Group Nanocrystals with Surfactant-Free Surfaces and Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

      Yongxing Hu, Yuzi Liu and Yugang Sun

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403664

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      Colloidal superparticles consisting of platinum nanocrystals embedded in silver chloride matrix are synthesized through a self-limited coprecipitation on sacrificial substrates of colloidal silver particles. ­Selective dissolution of silver chloride leads to the formation of porous superparticles of platinum with ligand-free surfaces that are beneficial for solution-phase heterogeneous catalysis.

    20. Self-Limited Switching in Ta2O5/TaOx Memristors Exhibiting Uniform Multilevel Changes in Resistance

      Kyung Min Kim, Seung Ryul Lee, Sungho Kim, Man Chang and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403621

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      A self-limited switching circuit for uniformly regulating the resistance states is first suggested. This circuit, which is composed of memristor, switch, and resistor, is successfully established in a Ta2O5/TaOx structure. In this device, low- and high-resistance states, and their intermediate resistance states are precisely regulated, and thus, multilevel switching is successfully achieved.

    21. Ultrafast All-Polymer Electrically Tunable Silicone Lenses

      Luc Maffli, Samuel Rosset, Michele Ghilardi, Federico Carpi and Herbert Shea

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403942

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      Soft and electrically tunable lenses based on dielectric elastomer actuators are fabricated and exhibit settling time below 175 μs. Soft and compliant systems can also display fast response speed by a proper choice of materials and an adequate design. The lens, based on a low-loss commercial silicone, is able to modulate its focal length by 20%.

    22. Transparent, Stimuli-Responsive Films from Cellulose-Based Organogel Nanoparticles

      Yonggui Wang, Lars-Oliver Heim, Yeping Xu, Gerd Buntkowsky and Kai Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403067

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      Novel cellulose-based organogel nanoparticles, called surface-stearoylated cellulose nanoparticles (SS-CNPs), are synthesized after the surface esterification of cellulose fibers under heterogeneous reaction conditions. SS-CNPs form stimuli-responsive organogels and transparent, self-standing films by solvent casting. The films show solvent-responsive surface wettability, responsive shape-memory properties as well as switchable optical colors by forming nanocomposite films containing stearoylated rhodamine spiroamide.

    23. MoS2/Graphene Composite Anodes with Enhanced Performance for Sodium-Ion Batteries: The Role of the Two-Dimensional Heterointerface

      Xiuqiang Xie, Zhimin Ao, Dawei Su, Jinqiang Zhang and Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404078

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      MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nano­composites are prepared as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The performance of MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nano­composites is closely related to the heterointerfacial areas. Computational investigations reveal that the 2D MoS2/reduced graphene oxide heterointerface can increase the conductivity of MoS2, adsorb more Na atoms, and maintain high diffusion mobility of Na on MoS2 surface and electron transfer efficiency from Na to MoS2.

    24. Hydrogen-Terminated Si Nanowires as Label-Free Colorimetric Sensors in the Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Detection of Fluoride Anions in Pure Water Phase

      Hui Wang, Pei-Hong Fan, Bin Tong, Yu-Ping Dong, Xue-Mei Ou, Fan Li and Xiao-Hong Zhang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401632

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      A colorimetric sensor for F−1 detection in pure water is investigated by taking advantage of the strong specific binding between F and Si, as well as the color change property of SiNWs with their diameter. The sensor demonstrates ultrasensitivity, high selectivity, and good stability.

    25. Torrent Frog-Inspired Adhesives: Attachment to Flooded Surfaces

      Jagoba Iturri, Longjian Xue, Michael Kappl, Luis García-Fernández, W. Jon P. Barnes, Hans-Jürgen Butt and Aránzazu del Campo

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403751

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      The friction of artificial hexagonal arrays of polydimethyl­siloxane pillars in the presence of water is studied. Arrays consisting of elongated pillars, resembling the structure of the toe pads of torrent frogs, are compared with arrays of hexagonal pillars as found in the toe pads of tree frogs. Elongated pillar patterns show significantly higher friction in a direction perpendicular to the long axis and favor orientation-dependent friction.

    26. Magnetic Helical Microswimmers Functionalized with Lipoplexes for Targeted Gene Delivery

      Famin Qiu, Satoshi Fujita, Rami Mhanna, Li Zhang, Benjamin R. Simona and Bradley J. Nelson

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403891

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      Magnetic helical microswimmers, called artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs), can perform precise 3D navigation in liquid under low-strength rotating magnetic fields, making themselves promising tools for targeted therapies. The ABFs are functionalized with lipoplexes containing plasmid DNA, and the successful wirelessly targeted gene delivery to human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using these functionalized ABFs is demonstrated.

    27. On-Chip Self-Assembly of a Smart Hybrid Nanocomposite for Antitumoral Applications

      Bárbara Herranz-Blanco, Dongfei Liu, Ermei Mäkilä, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Eloy Ginestar, Hongbo Zhang, Vladimir Aseyev, Vimalkumar Balasubramanian, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen and Hélder A. Santos

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404122

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      A multistage drug delivery nanocomposite, comprising porous silicon nanoparticles and micellar pH-responsive polymers, is fabricated by microfluidic nanoprecipitation. The drug-loaded multistage platform shows high cytocompatibility, pH-dependent cell growth inhibition capacity, and reduced internalization by phagocytic macrophage cells. This nanocomposite is a good candidate for further development as a platform for cancer drug delivery.

    28. Stretchable Conductive Composites Based on Metal Wools for Use as Electrical Vias in Soft Devices

      Joshua Lessing, Stephen A. Morin, Christoph Keplinger, Alok S. Tayi and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403396

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      Soft devices can be bent, stretched, and compressed reversibly, but conventional wires are rigid. This work describes stretchable composites that are easily fabricated with simple tools and commodity materials, and that can provide a strategy for electrical wiring that meets certain needs of soft devices. The utility of this composite is demonstrated in several devices, including a soft, solderless breadboard.

    29. Regulated Breathing Effect of Silicon Negative Electrode for Dramatically Enhanced Performance of Li-Ion Battery

      Xingcheng Xiao, Weidong Zhou, Youngnam Kim, Ill Ryu, Meng Gu, Chongmin Wang, Gao Liu, Zhongyi Liu and Huajian Gao

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403629

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      Si–C yolk–shell is applied to regulate the breathing effect and one order of magnitude of reduction on thickness changes at the electrode level during cycling is achieved: the electrode thickness variation reduces down to 10%, comparing with 100% in the electrode with Si nanoparticles as active materials.

    30. Biospecific Self-Assembly of a Nanoparticle Coating for Targeted and Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery

      Jinyang Li, Xue Qu, Gregory F. Payne, Cheng Zhang, Yuxin Zhang, Jianbo Li, Jie Ren, Hua Hong and Changsheng Liu

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403636

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      Biology routinely uses nanoparticles to target the delivery of molecular and macro­molecular cargo. Here, biological materials and mechanisms are listed for the fabrication of a nanoparticle coating that: i) self-assembles through biospecific interactions (sugar–lectin binding), ii) confers targeting function (selective cellular uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis), and iii) is triggered to disassemble for cargo release in response to physiologically relevant stimuli (endosomal pH).

    31. Molecular Mechanism of Specific Recognition of Cubic Pt Nanocrystals by Peptides and of the Concentration-Dependent Formation from Seed Crystals

      Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Lingyan Ruan, Yu Huang and Hendrik Heinz

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201404136

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      The mechanism of selective peptide recognition of nanocrystals and peptide-directed growth into specific shapes is explained using molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. The adsorption strength of the peptides depends on the spatial location on the surface and on the concentration, in addition to the sequence. Preferences in facet coverage and binding energies correlate with nanocrystal shape, size, and yield.

    32. Novel Biocompatible Polysaccharide-Based Self-Healing Hydrogel

      Zhao Wei, Jian Hai Yang, Zhen Qi Liu, Feng Xu, Jin Xiong Zhou, Miklós Zrínyi, Yoshihito Osada and Yong Mei Chen

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401502

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      A novel biocompatible polysaccharide-based self-healing hydrogel containing dynamic imine and acylhydrazone bonds can be prepared by the dynamic reaction of N-carboxyethyl chitosan, adipic acid dihydrazide with oxidized sodium alginate. The self-healing efficiency can autonomously achieve 95% under physiological conditions, holding great potential for applications in biomedical field.

    33. Hydrophilic Nanotube Supported Graphene–Water Dispersible Carbon Superstructure with Excellent Conductivity

      Vasilios Georgakilas, Athanasios Demeslis, Evangelos Ntararas, Antonios Kouloumpis, Konstantinos Dimos, Dimitrios Gournis, Mikuláš Kocman, Michal Otyepka and Radek Zbořil

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403801

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      In this work, hydrophilic functionalized carbon nanotubes can stabilize a large amount of pristine graphene nanosheets in pure water without surfactant assistance, affording a stable dispersion at concentrations as high as 15 mg mL−1. The graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid dispersion shows high electrical conductivity with potential application as a conductive ink for inkjet printing.

    34. High Performance 3D Si/Ge Nanorods Array Anode Buffered by TiN/Ti Interlayer for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Chuang Yue, Yingjian Yu, Shibo Sun, Xu He, Binbin Chen, Wei Lin, Binbin Xu, Mingsen Zheng, Suntao Wu, Jing Li, Junyong Kang and Liwei Lin

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403648

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      3D hexagonal Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR arrays as anodes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) present high reversible areal/specific capacity and superior cycling stability even imposed by high current densities. This kind of unique wafer-scale 3D Si-based composite electrode portends a promising future for lab-on-chip micro/nanoSIBs with practical applications in integrated circuit systems, micro/nano­electro mechanical systems, or other smart electronic devices.

    35. Injectable Hydrogels with In Situ Double Network Formation Enhance Retention of Transplanted Stem Cells

      Lei Cai, Ruby E. Dewi and Sarah C. Heilshorn

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403631

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      Shear-thinning hydrogels for injectable encapsulation and long-term delivery (SHIELD) undergo two sequential cross­linking steps: 1) peptide-based, molecular-recognition crosslinking to encapsulate cells, providing protection during injection, and 2) thermoresponsive crosslinking to form a reinforcing network in situ to reduce biodegradation rates and prolong transplanted cell retention. SHIELD is shown to provide significant cell protection using a preclinical model of human adipose-derived stem cell transplantation.

    36. Biodegradable Thin Metal Foils and Spin-On Glass Materials for Transient Electronics

      Seung-Kyun Kang, Suk-Won Hwang, Sooyoun Yu, Jung-Hun Seo, Elise A. Corbin, Jiho Shin, Dae Seung Wie, Rashid Bashir, Zhenqiang Ma and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403469

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      Materials, fabrication strategies, dissolution kinetics, and biocompatibility studies of transient electronics systems built on thin metal foils passivated by layers of spin-on glass (SOG) are presented. Transient electronic components exhibit comparable performances to conventional, nontransient substrates. Dissolution kinetics of the materials cured at different temperatures reveal key aspects of their corrosion chemistry, and in vitro cell cultures demonstrate their biocompatibility.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dual-Mechanism Antimicrobial Polymer–ZnO Nanoparticle and Crystal Violet-Encapsulated Silicone

      Sacha Noimark, Jonathan Weiner, Nuruzzaman Noor, Elaine Allan, Charlotte K. Williams, Milo S. P. Shaffer and Ivan P. Parkin

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402980

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      Using a simple dipping strategy to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles and crystal violet dye in a silicone polymer, a versatile and potent antimicrobial surface is reported to demonstrate high kills under both dark and light conditions, against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Modeling of Organic Light Emitting Diodes: From Molecular to Device Properties

      Pascal Kordt, Jeroen J. M. van der Holst, Mustapha Al Helwi, Wolfgang Kowalsky, Falk May, Alexander Badinski, Christian Lennartz and Denis Andrienko

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403004

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      Multiscale ansatz for modeling of organic light emitting diodes: single-molecule-based first principle calculations, parameterization of microscopic and coarse-grained models, simulation of IV characteristics. OLED properties can be predicted without fitting parameters, starting from chemical structures of compounds.

  7. Full Papers

    1. On-Demand Wrinkling Patterns in Thin Metal Films Generated from Self-Assembling Liquid Crystals

      Laurens T. de Haan, Philippe Leclère, Pascal Damman, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning and Michael G. Debije

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403399

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      Unique wrinkling patterns with oscillating amplitudes in any arbitrarily complex fashion are generated by controlling the alignment director of a liquid crystal network using photoalignment layers in combination with photomasks. The wrinkled gold surfaces are strikingly visual which is interesting for applications ranging from diffractive elements to fine jewelry. Image adapted with permission. Copyright 1973, Pink Floyd Music Ltd.

    2. Materials and Wireless Microfluidic Systems for Electronics Capable of Chemical Dissolution on Demand

      Chi Hwan Lee, Jae-Woong Jeong, Yuhao Liu, Yihui Zhang, Yan Shi, Seung-Kyun Kang, Jeonghyun Kim, Jae Soon Kim, Na Yeon Lee, Bong Hoon Kim, Kyung-In Jang, Lan Yin, Min Ku Kim, Anthony Banks, Ungyu Paik, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403573

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      Triggerable transient electronics are presented with the use of wireless microfluidics to enable complete dissolution of conventional microelectronic systems on demand in a controlled, programmable manner. Demonstration examples include triggered destruction of home-built metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and commercial microchips in radio-frequency identification device.

    3. Relating the Physical Structure and Optoelectronic Function of Crystalline TIPS-Pentacene

      Sahar Sharifzadeh, Cathy Y. Wong, Hao Wu, Benjamin L. Cotts, Leeor Kronik, Naomi S. Ginsberg and Jeffrey B. Neaton

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403005

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      A combination of micro-spectroscopy and many-body perturbation theory reveals the inter-grain orientation within polycrystalline TIPS-pentacene films and the relationship of the physical structure to opto-electronic properties.

  8. Highlights

    1. Current Understanding of Van der Waals Effects in Realistic Materials

      Alexandre Tkatchenko

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201403029

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      Van der Waals interactions arise from correlated electronic fluctuations in matter and are therefore present in all materials. Our current understanding of these ubiquitous quantum-mechanical forces is summarized, and their effects in a wide variety of realistic materials are highlighted, ranging from molecular assemblies to solids with and without defects, nanostructures of varying size and dimensionality, as well as interfaces between inorganic and organic materials.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Charge Separation Dynamics and Opto-Electronic Properties of a Diaminoterephthalate-C60 Dyad

      Stefano Pittalis, Alain Delgado, Jörg Robin, Lena Freimuth, Jens Christoffers, Christoph Lienau and Carlo Andrea Rozzi

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402316

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      Photoinduced charge separation occurs on a 100 fs time scale in a diaminoterephthalate-C60 dyad. Quantum simulations are performed to study the excited state dynamics of a new dyad. The chemical flexibility and optical properties of the chromophore moiety make this system a particularly useful model to study the early steps in the photovoltaic energy conversion. The simulations clarify the influence of electron-nuclei coupling and molecular conformation on the charge separation efficiency of the molecule.

    2. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters

      Reinder Coehoorn, Harm van Eersel, Peter Bobbert and René Janssen

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402532

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      Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to mechanistically analyze the influence of the organic semiconductor materials properties on the luminance decay due to degradation processes in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes. A relationship is established between the lifetime and the efficiency roll-off with increasing current density, assuming triplet-polaron quenching processes as the root-cause of the degradation, and design rules regarding the energy levels are developed.

    3. The Effect of Large Compositional Inhomogeneities on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells: A Numerical Study

      Davide Bartesaghi and L. Jan Anton Koster

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402260

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      A three-dimensional model is presented to relate the efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells to the morphology of the active layer. With this, the effect of the occurrence of large acceptor domains dispersed in a mixed phase is quantified. The total current is split up in two contributions, both of which are calculated also with a one-dimensional drift–diffusion model.

    4. Dipole-field Sums, Lorentz Factors, and Dielectric Properties of Organic Molecular Films Modeled as Crystalline Arrays of Polarizable Points

      Davide Vanzo, Benjamin J. Topham and Zoltán G. Soos

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402405

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      The relative permittivity κ = ε/ε0 of crystalline thin films is obtained in the limit of zero intermolecular overlap. Dipole-field sums over polarizable points in applied field E are evaluated directly and combined with Lorentz factors to compute κ from monolayers to crystals, deviations from uniform polarization in surface layers, and dielectric properties in systems of lower than cubic symmetry.

  10. Feature Articles

    1. Materials Meets Concepts in Molecule-based Electronics

      Frank Ortmann, K. Sebastian Radke, Alrun Günther, Daniel Kasemann, Karl Leo and Gianaurelio Cuniberti

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402334

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      Molecular semiconductors are intriguing materials with applications in flexible electronics due to their potential low-cost processing ability and chemical tunability. In addition, they are utile in fundamental studies of decoherence effects in single-molecular junctions. Concepts of transport modeling for such systems are presented in this Feature Article, highlighting the unique transport properties of organic and molecular semiconductors.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Delocalized Charge Carriers in Organic Solar Cells: Predicting Nanoscale Device Performance from Morphology

      Adam G. Gagorik, Jacob W. Mohin, Tomasz Kowalewski and Geoffrey R. Hutchison

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402332

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      The effects of charge delocalization on device efficiency is probed using mesoscale Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport in idealized and isotropic two-phase morphologies. Interfacial charge trapping is drastically reduced when Coulomb interactions are weakened through moderate delocalization (1.0–2.0 nm). Morphological differences become less dominant as charges delocalize.

    2. From Chiral Islands to Smectic Layers: A Computational Journey Across Sexithiophene Morphologies on C60

      Gabriele D'Avino, Luca Muccioli and Claudio Zannoni

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402609

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      The morphology of sexithiophene thin films deposited over a C60 fullerene crystalline slab is investigated with an atomistic molecular dynamics technique. Simulations show that the nucleation and growth of vapor-deposited sexithiophene leads to the formation of weakly correlated crystalline layers of standing molecules, while the orientation of sexithiophene molecules can be radically changed to planar upon thermal annealing.

    3. First Principles Calculations of Charge Transfer Excitations in Polymer–Fullerene Complexes: Influence of Excess Energy

      Dorota Niedzialek, Ivan Duchemin, Thiago Branquinho de Queiroz, Silvio Osella, Akshay Rao, Richard Friend, Xavier Blase, Stephan Kümmel and David Beljonne

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402682

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      A comparative first-principle study is presented of polymer-fullerene complexes that differ by the excess energy for charge separation. The measured quantum efficiencies of the bulk heterojunctions can be traced back to the presence of energy-accessible charge-transfer states with large electron-hole radii and molecular triplets mediating competing recombination pathways.

  12. Feature Articles

    1. Charge Carrier Localization and Transport in Organic Semiconductors: Insights from Atomistic Multiscale Simulations

      Marko Mladenović and Nenad Vukmirović

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402435

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      Organic semiconductor materials exhibit different types of disorder which lead to localization of charge carrier wave functions. Atomic multiscale simulations can be used to generate the models of atomic structure and to calculate the wave function localization lengths, electronic density of states and sometimes even the conductivity of the material.

  13. Full Papers

    1. A Novel MoSe2–Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyimide Composite Film for Applications in Electrocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis Hydrogen Evolution

      Lingpu Jia, Xiao Sun, Yimin Jiang, Shenjiao Yu and Chunming Wang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401814

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      The cathodic current of the MoSe2–rGO/PI composite film hardly decreases at −0.6 V compared to SCE by current density versus time curves, both illuminated and dark, illustrating how it possesses high stability and sufficient cathodic current density. These properties its potential as a better catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction, and even solar-driven hydrogen evolution.

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