Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 17

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 154
  1. Full Papers

    1. Electric Field Tunable Interlayer Relaxation Process and Interlayer Coupling in WSe2/Graphene Heterostructures

      Yang Li, Jing-Kai Qin, Cheng-Yan Xu, Jian Cao, Zhao-Yuan Sun, Lai-Peng Ma, Ping An Hu, Wencai Ren and Liang Zhen

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505412

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      It is demonstrated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties and interlayer coupling in WSe2/graphene heterostructures can be tuned by an electric field. PL intensity in monolayer WSe2/graphene is modulated 40 times. Additionally, it is discovered that the interlayer coupling between monolayer WSe2 and graphene is enhanced under high electric field, inducing the enhanced Raman scattering of defects in graphene.

    2. Benchtop Fluorination of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds on a Preparative Scale: Toward Unusually Hydrophilic Bright Particles

      Jan Havlik, Helena Raabova, Michal Gulka, Vladimira Petrakova, Marie Krecmarova, Vlastimil Masek, Petr Lousa, Jan Stursa, Hans-Gerd Boyen, Milos Nesladek and Petr Cigler

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504857

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      Hydrophilic fluorinated nanodiamonds with stabilized fluorescence from nitrogen-vacancy centres are presented. A high-yielding decarboxylative fluorination performed in acqueous environment creates a unique mixed C–F/C–OH surface. In contrast to other fluorine-based diamond terminations, it retains the colloidal stability of nanodiamonds and boosts the fluorescence of NV centers at the same time. This nonetching one-step approach can be easily performed on the benchtop without special safety precautions.

    3. Contactless and Rapid Discrimination of Improvised Explosives Realized by Mn2+ Doping Tailored ZnS Nanocrystals

      Zhaofeng Wu, Chaoyu Zhou, Baiyi Zu, Yushu Li and Xincun Dou

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600592

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      A chemiresistive sensing scheme to sensitively and rapidly detect the vapors of the constituents relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) at room temperature is achieved by tailoring the sensing properties of ZnS nanocrystals. The resulting differential identification capability toward explosives makes the on-the-spot detection of IEDs possible.

    4. Theranostic Oxygen Reactive Polymers for Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

      Julia Xu, Menko Ypma, Peter A. Chiarelli, Joshua Park, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Patrick S. Stayton, Pierre D. Mourad, Donghoon Lee, Anthony J. Convertine and Forrest M. Kievit

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504416

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      Oxygen reactive polymers (ORP) can accumulate in damaged brain in mouse models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and be visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. Accumulation and retention of ORP is accompanied by reduced neurodegeneration and gliosis, indicators of TBI severity. ORP should help further the understanding of nanomaterial interaction with TBI and hopefully leads to improved outcome for brain injury patients.

    5. A Versatile Self-Organization Printing Method for Simplified Tandem Organic Photovoltaics

      Seok Kim, Hongkyu Kang, Soonil Hong, Jinho Lee, Seongyu Lee, Byoungwook Park, Junghwan Kim and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505161

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      Efficient and simplified tandem organic solar cells are demonstrated through a new self-assembly printing technique using a spontaneous vertical phase separation. A bilayer of interfacial and photoactive layers is simultaneously printed by improving vertical self-organization characteristics. A high tandem efficiency of 9.1% is obtained with a four-layer tandem structure.

    6. Lightweight Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting and Sensing Tiny Mechanical Motion

      Tao Li, Ying Xu, Magnus Willander, Fei Xing, Xia Cao, Ning Wang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600279

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      A novel strategy to enhance the performance of triboelectric nanogenerators by combining a carbon material with nanowire films is proposed. The device has a mass less than 0.1 g and can harvest mechanical energy from light finger tapping. The determination limit of acceleration for such device was as low as 0.25 m s−2.

    7. Epitaxy of Layered Orthorhombic SnS–SnSxSe(1−x) Core–Shell Heterostructures with Anisotropic Photoresponse

      Jing Xia, Dandan Zhu, Xuanze Li, Lei Wang, Lifeng Tian, Jing Li, Jingyuan Wang, Xing Huang and Xiang-Min Meng

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600699

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      Layered orthorhombic SnS–SnSxSe(1−x) core–shell heterostructures are successfully synthesized via an epitaxial growth method. Due to the structural characteristic of the components, the heterostructures are able to show a strong polarization-dependent photoresponse, which will facilitate developing novel functional optoelectronic devices beyond conventional materials.

    8. Fully Transparent Nanocomposite Coating with an Amorphous Alumina Matrix and Exceptional Wear and Scratch Resistance

      Matjaz Valant, Uroš Luin, Mattia Fanetti, Andraž Mavrič, Kateryna Vyshniakova, Zdravko Siketić and Mitjan Kalin

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600213

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      The strain-induced high-temperature stabilization of amorphous alumina is obtained by dispersion of rigid globular polycarbosilane macromolecules within the alumina matrix. This nanocomposite is a base for a new facile and inexpensive coating for mechanical protection of glass surfaces. The nanocomposite coating is characterized by a full optical transparency and exceptional tribological characteristics.

    9. The Effects of Electronic Impurities and Electron–Hole Recombination Dynamics on Large-Grain Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Photovoltaic Efficiencies

      Jean-Christophe Blancon, Wanyi Nie, Amanda J. Neukirch, Gautam Gupta, Sergei Tretiak, Laurent Cognet, Aditya D. Mohite and Jared J. Crochet

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505324

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      The local dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in “large-grain hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites” is presented. Under illumination conditions relevant for photovoltaics, a suppressed recombination of free carriers is observed where electronic impurities play a negligible role in the overall kinetics. This study provides a microscopic model for low defect large-grain hybrid perovskites where non-Langevin recombination results in superior photovoltaic performance.

    10. Mussel-Inspired Conductive Cryogel as Cardiac Tissue Patch to Repair Myocardial Infarction by Migration of Conductive Nanoparticles

      Leyu Wang, Junzi Jiang, Wenxi Hua, Ali Darabi, Xiaoping Song, Chen Song, Wen Zhong, Malcolm M. Q. Xing and Xiaozhong Qiu

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505372

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      An engineered cardiac patch (ECP) is shown for the effective in vivo repair of infarcted heart tissue. The ECP is based on a mussel-inspired conductive cryogel incorporating a multifuntional dopamine crosslinker, gelatin, and polypyrrole nanoparticles. The hydrogel shows super-elasticity and conductivity, which promotes the adhesion and migration of cardiomyocytes.

    11. Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces that Prevent Microbial Surface Fouling and Kill Non-Adherent Pathogens in Surrounding Media: A Controlled Release Approach

      Uttam Manna, Namrata Raman, Michael A. Welsh, Yashira M. Zayas-Gonzalez, Helen E. Blackwell, Sean P. Palecek and David M. Lynn

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505522

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      Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) that prevent colonization by microbial pathogens and also kill non-adherent organisms in surrounding media are reported. The approach exploits the polymer and liquid phases in these materials to sustain the release of an antimicrobial agent. This approach improves the inherent anti-fouling properties of SLIPS, is general in scope, and expands the potential utility of SLIPS in fundamental and applied contexts.

    12. Manipulation of Irradiative Defects at MnSe and ZnSe Dopant–Host Interface

      Chunlei Wang, Jingkun Xu, Yanbin Wang, Shuhong Xu, Zhengqing Qi, Changgui Lu and Yiping Cui

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505172

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      The interface between MnSe dopant and ZnSe host can be used for manipulating irradiative defects with a controllable manner. This work focuses on the way to introduce irradiative defects at dopant–host interface, the method to control interface trap emission, and the method to tune the emission color of quantum dots by interface trap emission.

    13. All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals for High-Efficiency Light Emitting Diodes: Dual-Phase CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Composites

      Xiaoli Zhang, Bing Xu, Jinbao Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yuanjin Zheng, Kai Wang and Xiao Wei Sun

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600958

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      Dual-phase CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 composites for all-inorganic perovskite light emitting diodes (LEDs) are fabricated, which exhibit significantly improved performance, representing a great increase in the CE and EQE, about 21- and 18-fold improvement than that of the best reported CsPbBr3 LEDs. The dual-phase all-inorganic CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 composite nanocrystals present a new route of perovskite material for advanced light emission applications.

    14. UV–Vis–Infrared Light Driven Thermocatalytic Activity of Octahedral Layered Birnessite Nanoflowers Enhanced by a Novel Photoactivation

      Fang Liu, Min Zeng, Yuanzhi Li, Yi Yang, Mingyang Mao and Xiujian Zhao

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601046

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      A novel photoactivation effect is thoroughly investigated for nanoflowers of octahedral layered birnessite (OL-NF). Their efficient catalytic activity for CO oxidation under full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light is shown. This originates from solar-light-driven thermocatalysis that is related to their efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity.

    15. Metallic Cobalt Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Enriched Graphene Shells: Its Bifunctional Electrocatalysis and Application in Zinc–Air Batteries

      Min Zeng, Yiling Liu, Feipeng Zhao, Kaiqi Nie, Na Han, Xinxia Wang, Wenjing Huang, Xuening Song, Jun Zhong and Yanguang Li

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600636

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      Encapsulating metallic cobalt nanoparticles by a nitrogen-enriched graphene shell makes an excellent bifunctional electrocatalyst and zinc–air battery cathode material.

    16. Fully Solution-Processed Small Molecule Semitransparent Solar Cells: Optimization of Transparent Cathode Architecture and Four Absorbing Layers

      Jie Min, Carina Bronnbauer, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Chaohua Cui, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Ibrahim Ata, Peter Schweizer, Thomas Przybilla, Fei Guo, Tayebeh Ameri, Karen Forberich, Erdmann Spiecker, Peter Bäuerle, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Yongfang Li and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505411

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      Small molecule semitransparent solar cells are successfully demonstrated with conventional structure using a zinc oxide nanoparticles and a perylene diimide with N-oxide as electron extraction bilayer and silver nanowire as the top transparent electrode.

    17. Explosive Raspberries: Controlled Magnetically Triggered Bursting of Microcapsules

      Eve Loiseau, Aymar Quarré de Boiry, Fabian Niedermair, Gerhard Albrecht, Patrick A. Rühs and André R. Studart

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504656

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      A magnetically triggered release system consisting of a metal core covered by temperature-sensitive bursting microcapsules is proposed for site-specific on-demand release of active compounds. In this raspberry architecture, fast release is achieved by a locally induced thermal shock without overheating the surrounding matrix. Proof-of-concept bursting experiments successfully demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed raspberry design.

    18. Flexible Transparent Reduced Graphene Oxide Sensor Coupled with Organic Dye Molecules for Rapid Dual-Mode Ammonia Gas Detection

      Le Thai Duy, Tran Quang Trung, Vinh Quang Dang, Byeong-Ung Hwang, Saqib Siddiqui, Il-Yung Son, Seung Kyun Yoon, Dong June Chung and Nae-Eung Lee

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505477

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      A flexible, transparent, dual-mode chemical sensing device based on reduced graphene oxide and an organic dye is developed for wearable sensing applications. Demonstrative measurements upon exposure to NH3 reveal a novel combination of two complimentary sensing modes of conductometry and colorimetry for practical wearable chemical sensors at ambient conditions. These devices are low-cost and require minimal power usage.

    19. Size-Induced Switching of Nanowire Growth Direction: a New Approach Toward Kinked Nanostructures

      Youde Shen, Oleg I. Lebedev, Stuart Turner, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Xiaohui Song, Xuechao Yu, Qijie Wang, Hongyu Chen, Shadi A. Dayeh and Tom Wu

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600142

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      Kinked nanocone–nanowire In2O3 nanostructures are fabricated via precisely controlling the nanowire growth directions. The reliable switching of growth direction from [111] to [110] and [112] at a critical nanowire radius of 100 nm is explained by the size-dependent free energy of growing nanowires with different orientations, which represents a vital step toward constructing nanoarchitectures with tailored structural complexities.

    20. Strategies for Volumetric Recovery of Large Scale Damage in Polymers

      Brett P. Krull, Ryan C. R. Gergely, Windy A. Santa Cruz, Yelizaveta I. Fedonina, Jason F. Patrick, Scott R. White and Nancy R. Sottos

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600486

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      The maximum volume recovery achievable by two-stage healing chemistry is investigated for various mixing, surface wetting, specimen configuration, and microvascular delivery conditions. Gelation enables the healing agents to overcome the influence of gravity and surface tension to regenerate cylindrical damage volumes. Complete material recovery is achieved for damage regions ranging up to 11.2 mm in diameter, an increase of 197% over non-gelling control fluids.

    21. Delocalized Electron Accumulation at Nanorod Tips: Origin of Efficient H2 Generation

      Kan Zhang, Jung Kyu Kim, Ming Ma, Sang Youp Yim, Chang-Lyoul Lee, Hyunjung Shin and Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600285

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      MoS2 tipped CdS nanorods synthesized by amine-assisted oriented attachment exhibit ultrafast charge transfer and slow charge recombination via spatially localized deeper energy states, resulting in photocatalytic H2 activity of 8.44 mmol h−1 g−1 with excellent long-term durability (>23 h) without additional passivation under simulated solar light.

    22. A Novel Photocathode Material for Sunlight-Driven Overall Water Splitting: Solid Solution of ZnSe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2

      Hiroyuki Kaneko, Tsutomu Minegishi, Mamiko Nakabayashi, Naoya Shibata, Yongbo Kuang, Taro Yamada and Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600615

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      (ZnSe)0.85(CIGS)0.15-based photocathodes for hydrogen evolution from water show a notably high onset potential of 0.89 VRHE under simulated sunlight. A photoelectrochemical cell composed of a (ZnSe)0.85(CIGS)0.15-based photocathode and a BiVO4-based photoanode drives overall water splitting utilizing simulated sunlight without an external bias voltage, exhibiting a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 0.91%.

    23. Designing Multicolored Photonic Micropatterns through the Regioselective Thermal Compression of Inverse Opals

      Joon-Seok Lee, Kwanghwi Je and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601095

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      Multicolored photonic micropatterns with high reflectivity and resolution are simply created by anisotropic shrinkage of inverse opals made of a negative photoresist. The rate of shrinkage is determined by annealing temperature and UV dose, which enables the spatial modulation of structural color through a photolithography. This spatially addressable and rate-controllable anisotropic compression will benefit a wide range of photonic applications.

    24. Combinatorial Study of Temperature-Dependent Nanostructure and Electrical Conduction of Polymer Semiconductors: Even Bimodal Orientation Can Enhance 3D Charge Transport

      Sangsik Park, Moo Hyung Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Hyun Ho Choi, Jihye Shin, Jie Xu, Jianguo Mei, Kilwon Cho, Zhenan Bao, Dong Ryeol Lee, Moon Sung Kang and Do Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601164

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      3D charge conduction behavior of sister isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor thin films is described complementarily with X-ray structural analyses at varying temperatures. Because the overall charge transport occurs three dimensionally, rather than through a simple 2D manner, films formed with mixtures of edge-on and face-on orientations can also be beneficial, as long as good π-stacking is attained in molecular scale.

    25. Simple Salt-Coordinated n-Type Nanocarbon Materials Stable in Air

      Yoshiyuki Nonoguchi, Motohiro Nakano, Tomoko Murayama, Harutoshi Hagino, Shota Hama, Koji Miyazaki, Ryosuke Matsubara, Masakazu Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Kawai

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600179

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      Highly stable n-type nanocarbon materials are prepared using the complexes of ordinary salts and crown ethers. Negatively charged π-conjugated structures in n-type materials are stabilized by the coordination of soft acids on the basis of classical hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. The exceptional thermal stability of n-type single-walled carbon nanotubes at 150 °C in air is demonstrated.

    26. Anion-Selective Redox Electrodes: Electrochemically Mediated Separation with Heterogeneous Organometallic Interfaces

      Xiao Su, Heather J. Kulik, Timothy F. Jamison and T. Alan Hatton

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600079

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      Heterogeneous organometallic redox eletrodes show remarkable stoichiometric selectivity toward organic anions based on functional group affinity in the presence of competing ions. The ferrocene-functionalized redox electrode is selective for carboxylates, sulfonates, and phosphonates over 33-fold excess competing electrolyte based on a redox-mediated H-bonding interaction dependent on the electronic structure of the anion. This is one of the first anion-selective redox electrodes based on electrochemically activated chemical interactions.

    27. Chitosan–Alginate Microcapsules Provide Gastric Protection and Intestinal Release of ICAM-1-Targeting Nanocarriers, Enabling GI Targeting In Vivo

      Rasa Ghaffarian, Edgar Pérez-Herrero, Hyuntaek Oh, Srinivasa R. Raghavan and Silvia Muro

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600084

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      Encapsulation and release of anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (anti-ICAM) nanocarriers (NCs). Encapsulation of ICAM-1-targeting nanocarriers (anti-ICAM NCs) in alginate (core) microcapsules coated with a chitosan shell provides protection against gastric degradation and release in intestinal conditions, enabling NCs to target ICAM-1 of gastrointestinal (GI) cells and the GI tract in mice.

    28. Flexible Sodium-Ion Pseudocapacitors Based on 3D Na2Ti3O7 Nanosheet Arrays/Carbon Textiles Anodes

      Shengyang Dong, Laifa Shen, Hongsen Li, Gang Pang, Hui Dou and Xiaogang Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600264

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      A new class of flexible energy storage device called flexible sodium-ion pseudocapacitor is developed by using 3D flexible Na2Ti3O7 nanosheet arrays/carbon textile as anode and reduced graphene oxide films as cathode. Due to its structural features and hybrid energy storage mechanisms, the flexible sodium-ion pseudocapacitor demonstrates high mechanical flexibility, high energy density, high power density, and long capacity retention.

    29. Preparation of MnCo2O4@Ni(OH)2 Core–Shell Flowers for Asymmetric Supercapacitor Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance

      Yan Zhao, Linfeng Hu, Shuyan Zhao and Limin Wu

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600494

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      Manganese cobalt spinel and nickel hydroxide hybrid belt-based core–shell nanoflowers are successfully fabricated by a facile and cost-effective strategy. The hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance (2154 F g−1 at 5 A g−1). An asymmetric supercapacitor device based on this hybrid nanoflowers demonstrates high energy density, high power density, and long cycling lifespan.

    30. Bipolar Electrochemical Synthesis of WS2 Nanoparticles and Their Application in Magneto-Immunosandwich Assay

      Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Bahareh Khezri, Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Zdeněk Sofer, Pavel Ulbrich and Martin Pumera

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600961

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      WS2 nanoparticles are prepared using bipolar electrochemistry. The potential applications of these materials as a label for protein detection are demonstrated utilizing hydrogen evolution reaction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a transduction method. This new system shows high analytical performance in terms of a wide range, selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility.

    31. Mussel-Inspired Approach to Constructing Robust Multilayered Alginate Films for Antibacterial Applications

      Suyeob Kim, Jung-Mi Moon, Joon Sig Choi, Woo Kyung Cho and Sung Min Kang

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600613

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      A novel method for generating a multilayered alginate film is developed by mimicking the formation of cuticle layers around the byssus of mussels. The approach consists of spin-coating-assisted deposition of alginate catechols onto a solid substrate and their subsequent crosslinking via catechol–Fe3+–catechol interactions, which yields a robust alginate film that inhibits bacterial adhesion.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Charge-Carrier Density Independent Mobility in Amorphous Fluorene-Triarylamine Copolymers

      Alasdair J. Campbell, Ruth Rawcliffe, Alexander Guite, Jorge Costa Dantas Faria, Abhimanyu Mukherjee, Martyn A. McLachlan, Maxim Shkunov and Donal D. C. Bradley

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504722

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      Charge transport in diodes and transistors of two amorphous glassy fluorene-triarylamine copolymers is found to be consistent with a charge-carrier density independent mobility. This is in contradiction to many theoretical models, which predict a charge-carrier density dependent mobility for such energetically disordered organic semiconductors. This could indicate that interchain correlations can smooth out the energy landscape in amorphous conjugated polymers.

    33. Stretchable-Fiber-Confined Wetting Conductive Liquids as Wearable Human Health Monitors

      Liyun Guan, Azadeh Nilghaz, Bin Su, Lei Jiang, Wenlong Cheng and Wei Shen

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600443

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      Stretchable wetting behaviors of conductive liquids deposited onto two horizontal rubber fibers are investigated. Optimized parameters contribute to a stable liquid bridge between the fibers even under externally stretching, showing the potentials to monitor human movement toward early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease or sports protection.

    34. Photoluminescence Enhancement in Formamidinium Lead Iodide Thin Films

      Hong-Hua Fang, Feng Wang, Sampson Adjokatse, Ni Zhao and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600715

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      Laser healing perovskites: Photophysical properties of FAPbI3 thin films under continuous UV illumination are investigated. Giant light-induced enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity is observed when the sample is exposed to air. It is demonstrated that moisture plays a critical role in the light-induced photoluminescence enhancement effect. Laser healing in air can become a way to improve the quality of perovskite thin films.

    35. Large-Area Bilayer ReS2 Film/Multilayer ReS2 Flakes Synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition for High Performance Photodetectors

      Muhammad Hafeez, Lin Gan, Huiqiao Li, Ying Ma and Tianyou Zhai

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601019

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      Hexagonal single-crystal ReS2 flakes and large-area continuous polycrystalline bilayer ReS2 film are achieved via CVD method, and their possible growth mechanism is studied. Potential utilization of ReS2 in high performance photodetector is explored. A single-crystal ReS2-based photodetector is found to be of excellent photoresponsivity (604 A W−1), high external quantum efficiency (1.50 × 105%), and fast response time (2 ms), obviously superior to many other similar transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based photodetectors.

    36. Thiolation and Cell-Penetrating Peptide Surface Functionalization of Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Insulin

      Neha Shrestha, Francisca Araújo, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Ermei Mäkilä, Maria João Gomes, Bárbara Herranz-Blanco, Rici Lindgren, Sari Granroth, Edwin Kukk, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Bruno Sarmento and Hélder A. Santos

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505252

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      l-cysteine- and cell-penetrating-peptide-modified, chitosan-conjugated porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for oral delivery of insulin. The NPs site-specifically deliver insulin in the intestine where it associate with the mucus layers and come in close proximity to the intestinal epithelia where enhances its permeation across the intestine wall.

    37. Flexible Polymer Transducers for Dynamic Recognizing Physiological Signals

      Xu Han, Xin Chen, Xin Tang, Yu-Lei Chen, Jia-Hao Liu and Qun-Dong Shen

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600008

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      Portable devices for diagnosis of cardiovascular system: A simple yet efficient and low-cost method can fabricate a wearable transducer for non-invasive and dynamic diagnosis of cardiovascular system by using smart dielectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene). The transducer has low power consumption and is facile to integrate into portable devices for remote detecting warning signals of heart attacks and assessing efficiency of heart drugs.

    38. The Application of Stimuli-Responsive VEGF- and ATP-Aptamer-Based Microcapsules for the Controlled Release of an Anticancer Drug, and the Selective Targeted Cytotoxicity toward Cancer Cells

      Wei-Ching Liao, Yang Sung Sohn, Marianna Riutin, Alessandro Cecconello, Wolfgang J. Parak, Rachel Nechushtai and Itamar Willner

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600069

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      Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- or vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-responsive DNA-based microcapsules loaded with fluorescent labels or the doxorubicin-modified dextran are unlocked in the presence of ATP or VEGF cancer biomarkers, resulting in the release of the loads. Selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells is observed upon the intracellular ATP-triggered release of doxorubicin.

    39. Fully Solution-Processed Conductive Films Based on Colloidal Copper Selenide Nanosheets for Flexible Electronics

      Sergey Vikulov, Francesco Di Stasio, Luca Ceseracciu, Pearl L. Saldanha, Alice Scarpellini, Zhiya Dang, Roman Krahne, Liberato Manna and Vladimir Lesnyak

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600124

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      Two types of colloidal copper selenide nanomaterials (spherical particles and sheets) are used for fabrication of flexible conductive films. The morphology of the nanosheet films with overlapping contacts between the individual sheets results in almost complete recovery of their conductivity after bending and stretching. Similar treatment of Cu2−xSe spherical nanoparticle-based samples leads to irreversible loss of their conductivity.

    40. Toward High Performance Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation: Combined Effects of Ultrafine Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanoparticle

      Yang-Fan Xu, Xu-Dong Wang, Hong-Yan Chen, Dai-Bin Kuang and Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600232

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      One design for multiple effects: ultrafine CoFe2O4 (CIO) nanoparticles are synthesized as an efficient water oxidation co-catalyst for α-Fe2O3 photoelectrode to achieve comprehensive promotions on photoelectrochemical water splitting performances.

    41. Enhancing Charge Separation in Metallic Photocatalysts: A Case Study of the Conducting Molybdenum Dioxide

      Zhuofeng Hu, Gang Liu, Xingqiu Chen, Zhurui Shen and Jimmy C. Yu

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600239

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      An effective solution to the problem of serious charge recombination in metallic photocatalysts is described. The concept is demonstrated by encapsulating individual metallic MoO2 particles in a hydrothermal carbonation carbon (HTCC) matrix. When integrating with HTCC, MoO2 exhibits enhanced charge separation efficiency and photocatalytic activity because of an internal electric field and appropriate band alignment.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Reality Check for Nanomaterial-Mediated Therapy with 3D Biomimetic Culture Systems

      Chor Yong Tay, Madaswamy S. Muthu, Sing Ling Chia, Kim Truc Nguyen, Si-Shen Feng and David Tai Leong

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600476

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      In vitro 3D cell culture systems have emerged as important tools to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of nano-scale drug delivery vehicles. The use of 3D colon, blood brain barriers, lungs, skin, and tumor in vitro surrogates is here reviewed, to reveal salient insights that underpin the rational design of advanced nanomedicine.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Charge Injection in Organic Field-Effect Transistors Enabled by Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin VOx Interlayer

      Yuanhong Gao, Youdong Shao, Lijia Yan, Hao Li, Yantao Su, Hong Meng and Xinwei Wang

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600482

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      A low-temperature atomic layer deposition process for vanadium oxide (VOx), using tetrakis(dimethylamino)vanadium and water vapor, is developed to prepare high-quality ultrathin charge injection layer directly on organic semiconducting materials. The prepared VOx is able to remarkably reduce the contact resistance at metal/organic interface, and, therefore, greatly enhance the performance of organic field-effect transistors.

    2. Intercalation-Induced Tunable Stimuli-Responsive Color-Change Properties of Crystalline Organic Layered Compound

      Mamoru Okaniwa, Yuya Oaki and Hiroaki Imai

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600560

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      Dynamic properties of functional organic materials are tuned by not molecular design and synthesis but intercalation of guests in the layered crystal structure. Intercalation of metal ions in the interlayer space of layered crystalline polydiacetylene induces tunable stimuli-responsive color-change properties, such as color, responsivity, and reversibility.

    3. Improving Performance and Stability of Flexible Planar-Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Using Polymeric Hole-Transport Material

      Jea Woong Jo, Myung-Seok Seo, Minwoo Park, Jae-Yup Kim, Joon Suh Park, Il Ki Han, Hyungju Ahn, Jae Woong Jung, Byeong-Hyeok Sohn, Min Jae Ko and Hae Jung Son

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600746

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      By incorporating low-temperature solution-processable 1,4-bis(4-sulfonatobutoxy)benzene and thiophene moieties polymer as a hole-transport layer, highly efficient, environmental stable, and mechanically flexible planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cell has been successfully achieved with an excellent power conversion efficiency of 14.7%.

    4. Self-Assembled Dense Colloidal Cu2Te Nanodisk Networks in P3HT Thin Films with Enhanced Photocurrent

      Milena P. Arciniegas, Francesco Di Stasio, Hongbo Li, Davide Altamura, Luca De Trizio, Mirko Prato, Alice Scarpellini, Iwan Moreels, Roman Krahne and Liberato Manna

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600751

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      A remarkable self-organization of hexagonal Cu2Te nanodisks into worm-like structures is formed in P3HT thin films by a controlled solvent evaporation process, creating a 3D network fully embedded in the polymer. Such internal nanoarchitecture, extended over several microns in the polymer, significantly improves the performance of the polymer film by acting as an active material and enhancing the photocurrent response.

    5. Highly Emissive, Water-Repellent, Soft Materials: Hydrophobic Wrapping and Fluorescent Plasticizing of Conjugated Polyelectrolyte via Electrostatic Self-Assembly

      Young-Jae Jin, Joon-Hyun Yoon, Toshikazu Sakaguchi, Chang-Lyoul Lee and Giseop Kwak

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600889

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      Conjugated polyelectrolyte–surfactant complexes are constructed via stoichiometric electrostatic self-assembly, which reveals remarkably enhanced fluorescence emission, water-resistance, and softness relative to the pristine polymer owing to the plasticizer effect of the hydrophobic tails of surfactant. This chemistry allows for various imaging and printing on paper, especially for embedding figure in paper money.

    6. Design of Multistimuli Responsive Hydrogels Using Integrated Modeling and Genetically Engineered Silk–Elastin-Like Proteins

      Wenwen Huang, Anna Tarakanova, Nina Dinjaski, Qin Wang, Xiaoxia Xia, Ying Chen, Joyce Y. Wong, Markus J. Buehler and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600236

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      A new family of robust, tunable stimuli-responsive hydrogels using rationally designed genetically engineered silk–elastin copolymers is reported. These dynamic hydrogels exhibit significant reversible changes in size, optical transparency, mechanical properties, and micromorphology upon exposure to designed target stimuli, dependent on the silk-to-elastin ratio or the guest amino acid residue designed in the elastin domain.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Label-Free Microfluidic Manipulation of Particles and Cells in Magnetic Liquids

      Wujun Zhao, Rui Cheng, Joshua R. Miller and Leidong Mao

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504178

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      Manipulating particles and cells in magnetic liquids is a new and exciting research field. It offers label-free and low-cost techniques for microfluidic manipulation. Fundamental principles and recent applications of particle manipulation using magnetic liquids are reviewed.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Self-Healable Polymer Nanocomposites Capable of Simultaneously Recovering Multiple Functionalities

      Lixin Xing, Qi Li, Guangzu Zhang, Xiaoshan Zhang, Feihua Liu, Li Liu, Yudong Huang and Qing Wang

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505305

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      Supramolecular polymer nanocomposites can be healed efficiently and repeatedly to fully recover multiple functionalities in addition to structural integrity. The introduction of surface-modified boron nitride nanosheets leads to the nanocomposites exhibiting superior mechanical strength, improved electrical resistivity, higher breakdown strength, enhanced thermal conductivity, and stabilized dielectric properties compared to the pristine polymer.

    2. Reusable and Long-Lasting Active Microcleaners for Heterogeneous Water Remediation

      Jemish Parmar, Diana Vilela, Eva Pellicer, Daniel Esqué-de los Ojos, Jordi Sort and Samuel Sánchez

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600381

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      Reusable Fe/Pt multi-functional active microcleaners are capable of degrading organic pollutants (malachite green and 4-nitrophenol) by generated hydroxyl radicals via an in situ heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. The microcleaners can continuously swim for more than 24 hours and can be stored for more than 5 weeks and subjected to multiple cleaning cycles for reuse, which reduces the cost of the process.

    3. Bifunctional Porous NiFe/NiCo2O4/Ni Foam Electrodes with Triple Hierarchy and Double Synergies for Efficient Whole Cell Water Splitting

      Changlong Xiao, Yibing Li, Xunyu Lu and Chuan Zhao

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505302

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      A freestanding, bifunctional NiFe nanosheet/NiCo2O4 nanoflake/Ni foam electrode is reported for water splitting. The electrode exhibits extraordinary catalytic activity toward both oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions in alkaline media, comparable to the state-of-the-art catalysts including noble metal based catalysts. The unique multiple hierarchical porous architecture offers significantly enlarged reactive surface area and abundant synergistic effects for water splitting.

    4. Tunable Optical Mode Ferromagnetic Resonance in FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Trilayers under Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy

      Shandong Li, Qiang Li, Jie Xu, Shishen Yan, Guo-Xing Miao, Shishou Kang, Youyong Dai, Jiqing Jiao and Yueguang Lü

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600122

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      In a ferromagnet/nonmagnet/ferromagnet exchange coupled trilayer system, the ferromagnetic resonance can be tuned with the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy and interlayer coupling strength. The lower frequency acoustic mode can be eliminated while the higher frequency optical mode is enhanced. A low inverse switch field allows one to efficiently toggle between these two modes.

    5. Carrier Type Control of WSe2 Field-Effect Transistors by Thickness Modulation and MoO3 Layer Doping

      Changjian Zhou, Yuda Zhao, Salahuddin Raju, Yi Wang, Ziyuan Lin, Mansun Chan and Yang Chai

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600292

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      In the thickness-dependent transport behavior of WSe2 transistors, it is revealed that all p-type, ambipolar, and n-type characteristics are obtained by merely varying the thickness of WSe2 flakes. The layer-dependent band structure is a determining factor in achieving this strong thickness-dependent transport behavior in WSe2 field-effect transistors. The unique band structure of WSe2 also enables efficient p-type doping in WSe2 by solid-state oxide.

    6. Platelet-in-Box Colloidal Quantum Wells: CdSe/CdS@CdS Core/Crown@Shell Heteronanoplatelets

      Yusuf Kelestemur, Burak Guzelturk, Onur Erdem, Murat Olutas, Kivanc Gungor and Hilmi Volkan Demir

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600588

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      CdSe/CdS@CdS core/crown@shell nanoplatelets (NPLs) have been synthesized with a novel 3D architecture resembling a platelet-in-box structure. With the coformation of the CdS-crown and CdS-shell regions, core/crown@shell nanoplatelets exhibit increased photoluminescence quantum yield (PL-QY), enhanced absorption cross-section, and eliminated trap sites which enable favorable excitonic properties for the achievement of low-threshold gain.

    7. Enhanced Nanodrug Delivery to Solid Tumors Based on a Tumor Vasculature-Targeted Strategy

      Chenghua Song, Yejun Zhang, Chunyan Li, Guangcun Chen, Xiaofeng Kang and Qiangbin Wang

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600417

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      A novel nanodrug (T&D@RGD-Ag2S) for tumor vasculature-targeted therapy is presented, which can effectively inhibit tumor growth by integrating the specific tumor vascular targeting peptide cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Cys) (cRGD), the broad-spectrum endothelial inhibitor O-(chloroacetyl-carbamoyl) fumagillol (TNP-470) and chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin for synergetic tumor therapy, as well as an in situ fluorescence imaging agent of Ag2S quantum dots.

    8. High-Performance Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Lead Acetate Precursor with Efficiency Exceeding 18%

      Lichen Zhao, Deying Luo, Jiang Wu, Qin Hu, Wei Zhang, Ke Chen, Tanghao Liu, Yi Liu, Yifei Zhang, Feng Liu, Thomas P. Russell, Henry J. Snaith, Rui Zhu and Qihuang Gong

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601175

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      High-performance inverted perovskite solar cells based on lead acetate precursor are demonstrated with power conversion efficiency exceeding 18% and stabilized output efficiency of 17.6%. Methylammonium bromide was utilized as additive into the lead acetate precursor solutions, leading to the perovskite films with improved performance.

    9. Molecular Storage of Mg Ions with Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters

      Yingwen Cheng, Yuyan Shao, Vadivukarasi Raju, Xiulei Ji, B. Layla Mehdi, Kee Sung Han, Mark H. Engelhard, Guosheng Li, Nigel D. Browning, Karl T. Mueller and Jun Liu

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505501

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      A new molecular storage approach with supported V2O5 nanoclusters is described for developing Mg batteries cathode materials. The highly dispersed V2O5 nanoclusters are able to react with Mg2+ ions reversibly in Mg battery electrolytes, and delivered initial capacities exceed 300 mAh g−1. The electrochemical reaction has surface limited pseudocapacitive characteristics with outstanding kinetics.

    10. Bifunctional Nickel Phosphide Nanocatalysts Supported on Carbon Fiber Paper for Highly Efficient and Stable Overall Water Splitting

      Xiaoguang Wang, Wei Li, Dehua Xiong, Dmitri Y. Petrovykh and Lifeng Liu

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505509

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      Overall water splitting is realized at a high efficiency (91.0% at 10 mA cm−2) with excellent stability and durability by an alkaline electrolyzer made from self-supported carbon fiber paper electrodes integrated with bifunctional nickel phosphide catalysts. The self-supported electrode exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance toward both hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions in alkaline medium.

    11. Metal Based Nonvolatile Field-Effect Transistors

      Chong Bi, Meng Xu, Hamid Almasi, Macus Rosales and Weigang Wang

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600048

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      The reversible metal–oxide transition induced by an electric field is demonstrated at a moderate temperature below 200 °C. The field-effect transistors based on the metal–oxide transition are compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology and show nonvolatile behavior and a high on/off ratio of about 105.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Single Atom Excels as the Smallest Functional Material

      Wei Zhang and Weitao Zheng

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600240

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      Functional single-atoms: In a top-down style, the dimensionality of materials is reduced from 3D to 2D (one layer of atoms extracted from 3D) to single-atom chain (1D, one line of atoms extracted from 2D) to the debut of single-atom (0D, one atom extracted from 1D/2D). Single atoms, delicately arranged, excel as the smallest functional material.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Large-Size Growth of Ultrathin SnS2 Nanosheets and High Performance for Phototransistors

      Xing Zhou, Qi Zhang, Lin Gan, Huiqiao Li and Tianyou Zhai

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600318

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      Large-size ultrathin SnS2 nanosheets are synthesized via chemical vapor method with the side length up to 150 μm. The thickness of the SnS2 nanosheets can be found to be as thin as 10 nm. Phototransistors based on ultrathin SnS2 nanosheet exhibit a high responsivity, fast response rates, and a high detectivity.

    2. The Excellence of Both Worlds: Developing Effective Double Perovskite Oxide Catalyst of Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Room and Elevated Temperature Applications

      Bin Hua, Ya-Qian Zhang, Ning Yan, Meng Li, Yi-Fei Sun, Jian Chen, Jian Li and Jing-Li Luo

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600339

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      The double perovskite oxide, i.e., NdBa0.75Ca0.25Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ, is demonstrated to be a good ORR catalyst at both room and elevated temperatures, and we also hypothesize that the excellent ORR activity strongly correlates to the crystallographic, electronic, and the defect structures of the material.

    3. Bendable Solar Cells from Stable, Flexible, and Transparent Conducting Electrodes Fabricated Using a Nitrogen-Doped Ultrathin Copper Film

      Guoqing Zhao, Soo Min Kim, Sang-Geul Lee, Tae-Sung Bae, ChaeWon Mun, Sunghun Lee, Huashun Yu, Gun-Hwan Lee, Hae-Seok Lee, Myungkwan Song and Jungheum Yun

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600392

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      A highly stable, flexible, conductive, and transparent electrode based on a completely continuous, smooth nitrogen-doped ultrathin Cu film is developed by an innovative room-temperature reactive sputtering process. The electrode is employed to fabricate highly efficient bendable organic solar cells built on polymer substrates.

    4. Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumor by Tumor-Triggered Programmed Wormlike Micelles with Precise Targeting and Deep Penetration

      Lijuan Zeng, Lili Zou, Haijun Yu, Xinyu He, Haiqiang Cao, Zhiwen Zhang, Qi Yin, Pengcheng Zhang, Wangwen Gu, Lingli Chen and Yaping Li

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600642

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      The efficient and specific delivery of drugs to brain tumors is a crucial challenge for successful systemic chemotherapy. By exploiting the unique wormlike structure and RGD targeting peptide modification, a tumor-triggered programmed nanoscaled wormlike system (RNW) has been properly designed with precise targeting and deep penetration capability to treat malignant gliomas, providing a promising delivery platform for systemic chemotherapy of brain tumor.

    5. Highly Conductive Optical Quality Solution-Processed Films of 2D Titanium Carbide

      Andrew D. Dillon, Michael J. Ghidiu, Alex L. Krick, Justin Griggs, Steven J. May, Yury Gogotsi, Michel W. Barsoum and Aaron T. Fafarman

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600357

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      An aqueous colloidal Ti3C2-based MXene is assembled by spincasting into highly aligned, optical-quality films with a conductivity of 6500 S cm−1. The electrical and optical properties of this material are measured revealing that it is plasmonic in the near-infrared. Comparison of the in-plane DC conductivity and the optical conductivity indicates that the macroscopic material is nearly as conductive as the constituent nanosheets.

    6. Hierarchical NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays Supported on Ni Foam: An Efficient and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions

      Arumugam Sivanantham, Pandian Ganesan and Sangaraju Shanmugam

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600566

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      Direct growth of thiospinel nanowire arrays on a nickel current collector improves overall water splitting using an efficient and durable nonprecious-metal NiCo2S4 nanowire array on a nickel foam in an alkaline electrolyte. More exposed active sites and a higher number of electron routes decrease the overpotential and enhance the bifunctional activity for large-scale application.

    7. Phosphorescent Polymeric Thermometers for In Vitro and In Vivo Temperature Sensing with Minimized Background Interference

      Zejing Chen, Kenneth Yin Zhang, Xiao Tong, Yahong Liu, Changyong Hu, Shujuan Liu, Qi Yu, Qiang Zhao and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600706

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      A water-soluble dual-emissive phosphorescent polymeric thermometer is developed by incorporating two phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes into an acrylamide-based thermosensitive polymer. It can be applied to ratiometric temperature determination in vitro. In addition, utilizing the long-lived phosphorescence of the polymer, temperature mapping in zebrafish is demonstrated for the first time with minimized autofluorescence interference via time-resolved luminescence imaging.

    8. Catalytically Doped Semiconductors for Chemical Gas Sensing: Aerogel-Like Aluminum-Containing Zinc Oxide Materials Prepared in the Gas Phase

      Kay Hagedorn, Wenyu Li, Qijun Liang, Stefan Dilger, Matthias Noebels, Markus. R. Wagner, Juan S. Reparaz, Andreas Dollinger, Jörn Schmedt auf der Günne, Thomas Dekorsy, Lukas Schmidt-Mende and Sebastian Polarz

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505355

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      Doping of a semiconductor nose: Gas-sensors assembled from hollow ZnO aerogels can be made sensitive for new compounds like acetaldehyde via chemical doping with aluminum, which not only leads to effective n-doping but also results in a catalytic effect.

    9. Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 10% Efficiency Enabled via a Facile Star-Shaped Molecular Cathode Interlayer with Variable Counterions

      Zhenguo Wang, Zuojia Li, Xiaopeng Xu, Ying Li, Kai Li and Qiang Peng

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504734

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      A series of star-shaped small molecular cathode interlayer materials with variable pendant polar functionalities are designed for polymer solar cells. For the first time, the effect of different pendant functional groups with/without mobile counterions on the cell's photovoltaic properties is investigated. Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methyl-propyl)]-diphenylamine) with pendant quaternary ammonium ions shows (TFB) the best cathode modification capability, achieving an efficiency of 10.1%.

    10. Carbon-Based Composite as an Efficient and Stable Metal-Free Electrocatalyst

      Xiujun Fan, Zhiwei Peng, Juanjuan Wang, Ruquan Ye, Haiqing Zhou and Xia Guo

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600076

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      Silicon carbide (SiC) encapsulated with graphitized nanodiamond (GD) sheaths (SiC-GD) as a core-shell nanocrystal is synthesized with atomic hydrogen post-treatment of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which are unzipped and converted into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The SiC-GD@GNRs composite is self-assembled with SiC, GD clusters, and GNRs into an integrated nanostructure, leading to excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity.

  8. Feature Articles

    1. Actuating Soft Matter with Magnetic Torque

      Randall M. Erb, Joshua J. Martin, Rasam Soheilian, Chunzhou Pan and Jabulani R. Barber

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504699

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      Breakthroughs in actuating soft matter with magnetic torque in three principal research directions are highlighted: controlling particle suspensions, actuating composite materials, and manipulating biomaterials. Progress in these fields has rich application in life sciences, microfluidics, rheology, and energy systems. An outlook is offered for the current challenges and opportunities in using magnetic torque as a manipulation and actuation strategy.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Carbon–Silica Nanocapsules with Gold Core for Synergistic Photothermal and Chemo-Cancer Therapy under the Guidance of Bimodal Imaging

      Linlin Li, Chuanfang Chen, Huiyu Liu, Changhui Fu, Longfei Tan, Shunhao Wang, Shiyan Fu, Xi Liu, Xianwei Meng and Hong Liu

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600985

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      Multifunctional carbon–silica nanocapsules with gold core are fabricated for cancer theranostics. The design integrates bimodal computed tomography, photoacoustic tomography imaging, and the synergistic effect of photothermal and chemotherapy under near-infrared (NIR) light. NIR and pH-responsive drug release efficiently increase the therapeutic effect and decrease off-target toxicity.

    2. Transparent InP Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with ZrO2 Electron Transport Layer and Indium Zinc Oxide Top Electrode

      Hee Yeon Kim, Yu Jin Park, Jiwan Kim, Chul Jong Han, Jeongno Lee, Yohan Kim, Tonino Greco, Christian Ippen, Armin Wedel, Byeong-Kwon Ju and Min Suk Oh

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505549

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      Transparent eco-friendly QD-LEDs are realized by using InP QDs, inorganic ZrO2 ETL, and IZO top electrode. QD-LED, with ZrO2 ETL and Al top electrode, shows 530 cd m−2 and 1 cd/A. When the two-step sputtering process for the IZO top electrode is used, a fully transparent QD-LED (Tpanel > 74% @ 550 nm) with 200 cd m−2 and 0.47 cd/A can be fabricated.

    3. Manipulation of Magnetic Properties by Oxygen Vacancies in Multiferroic YMnO3

      Shaobo Cheng, Menglei Li, Shiqing Deng, Shanyong Bao, Peizhe Tang, Wenhui Duan, Jing Ma, Cewen Nan and Jing Zhu

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505031

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      First-principles calculations and experimental studies are combined to study the magnetic properties of YMnO3. Because of the existence of oxygen vacancies at specific sites, a ferromagnetic phase can be created in this single-phase multiferroic material. Further transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the ferroelectricity. Therefore, the coexistence of the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties can be realized.

    4. Synthesis and Functionalization of Oriented Metal–Organic-Framework Nanosheets: Toward a Series of 2D Catalysts

      Guowu Zhan and Hua Chun Zeng

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505380

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      Here, a shape-controlled method has been devised for fabrication of a series of low-dimensional copper-containing metal–organic-framework (MOF) crystals by using Cu2O nanoparticles as a copper source. The oriented MOF nanosheets can serve as a single-source solid precursor or an ideal support for 2D-nanocatalyst fabrication. Here, heterogeneous catalysis reactions have also been used to demonstrate the advantage of these MOF-derived catalysts.

    5. Organic Cation-Dependent Degradation Mechanism of Organotin Halide Perovskites

      Feng Wang, Jiale Ma, Fangyan Xie, Linkai Li, Jian Chen, Jun Fan and Ni Zhao

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505127

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      It is found that organic cation considerably influences the oxidation of Sn2+ and the binding of H2O molecules to the perovskite lattice. Sn2+ can be easily oxidized to Sn4+ in MASnI3, but not in FASnI3. Solar cells fabricated from FASnI3 demonstrate much improved reproducibility in device performance as compared to that from MASnI3.

    6. High-Performance Sodium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitor Based on Nb2O5@Carbon Core–Shell Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

      Eunho Lim, Changshin Jo, Min Su Kim, Mok-Hwa Kim, Jinyoung Chun, Haegyeom Kim, Jongnam Park, Kwang Chul Roh, Kisuk Kang, Songhun Yoon and Jinwoo Lee

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505548

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      Nb2O5@Carbon core–shell nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (Nb2O5@C/rGO) for new energy storage systems, namely sodium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Na-HSCs), are presented. A Na-HSC system comprising an Nb2O5@C/rGO anode and an MSP-20 cathode delivers high energy and power densities (≈76 W h kg−1 and ≈20 800 W kg−1), with excellent cycling stability.

  10. Feature Articles

    1. Nanoscale Thermal Phenomena in the Vicinity of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Alternating Magnetic Fields

      Andreina Chiu-Lam and Carlos Rinaldi

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505256

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      Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) respond to applied alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) by dissipating heat. Recent experimental evidence demonstrates that nanoscale thermal phenomena in the vicinity of MNPs can be harnessed to kill cancer cells and to trigger release of a drug cargo.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Engineering Thermal Conductivity for Balancing Between Reliability and Performance of Bulk Thermoelectric Generators

      Hee Seok Kim, Tianbao Wang, Weishu Liu and Zhifeng Ren

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600128

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      The engineering thermal conductivity κeng is defined and evaluated to satisfy high thermoelectric performance and thermomechanical device reliability of thermoelectric generators. The thermal conductivity of some state-of-the-art p-type Bi2Te3 is comparable or even lower than the κeng, indicating the need of reducing thermal conductivity for a higher thermoelectric figure-of-merit but increased, device reliability.

    2. Transforming Common III–V and II–VI Semiconductor Compounds into Topological Heterostructures: The Case of CdTe/InSb Superlattices

      Qihang Liu, Xiuwen Zhang, L. B. Abdalla and Alex Zunger

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505357

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      First-principle calculations reveal how a heterovalent superlattice can transform its topological-trivial components into a topological nanostructure, illustrated by InSb/CdTe superlattices. The heterovalent nature of such interfaces sets up an internal electric field that leads to topological transition. This work also illustrates how to make realistic predictions on topological insulators by coevaluating the competition between thermodynamic stability and band inversion.

    3. Reversible Electrochemically Triggered Delamination Blistering of Hydrogel Films on Micropatterned Electrodes

      Ben B. Xu, Qihan Liu, Zhigang Suo and Ryan C. Hayward

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504769

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      Delamination and buckling of hydrogels in a controlled, localized, and reversible manner are demonstrated using electrochemical-triggered debonding and inflation of a gas bubble. The process provides rapid and large amplitude out-of-plane displacements, while thermally induced deswelling of the gel allows devices to be reset and actuated over multiple cycles.

    4. Spontaneous and Directional Transportation of Gas Bubbles on Superhydrophobic Cones

      Cunming Yu, Moyuan Cao, Zhichao Dong, Jingming Wang, Kan Li and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505234

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      Superhydrophobic cones are fabricated by applying superhydrophobic coating to copper cones. Arising from its superhydrophobic wettability and conical morphology, the superhydrophobic cone carries a stable air film and possesses a Laplace pressure gradient. Assisted by these properties, the superhydrophobic cone can facilitate spontaneous sand directional transport of gas bubbles, especially microscopic bubbles.

    5. Inherent Role of Water in Damage Tolerance of the Prismatic Mineral–Organic Biocomposite in the Shell of Pinna Nobilis

      Bernd Bayerlein, Luca Bertinetti, Benny Bar-On, Horst Blumtritt, Peter Fratzl and Igor Zlotnikov

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600104

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      Mechanical performance of the prismatic calcite-organic biocomposite structure in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Pinna nobilis is strongly dependent on high moisture content inherent to its marine habitat. Water is not only an integral structural component but also plays a key role in various toughening mechanisms responsible for the high damage tolerance of the shell.

    6. Dual-Targeted Photopenetrative Delivery of Multiple Micelles/Hydrophobic Drugs by a Nanopea for Enhanced Tumor Therapy

      Chien-Ting Lin, I-Chieh Lin, Shou-Yuan Sung, Yu-Lin Su, Yu-Fen Huang, Chi-Shiun Chiang and Shang-Hsiu Hu

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600498

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      A reduced graphene oxide-based capsule (nanopea) can carry multiple micelles containing hydrophobic therapeutic agents to achieve on-demand drug delivery into deep tumor in vivo. Near-IR irradiation triggers a burst-like release of multiple ultrasmall micelles containing hydrophobic drugs which accomplish deep tumor penetration due to their small size and due to hyperthermia, all contributing to cell killing.

    7. Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Ruiguo Cao, Junzheng Chen, Kee Sung Han, Wu Xu, Donghai Mei, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Mark H. Engelhard, Karl T. Mueller, Jun Liu and Ji-Guang Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The electrolyte selection for lithium-sulfur batteries is critical to achieve high energy and stable cycling. The stability of concentrated electrolytes containing various lithium salts for lithium-sulfur batteries is investigated. The anion stability of lithium salt greatly affects the anode/electrolyte interface stability and the electrochemical performance.

    8. High-Performance Multifunctional Graphene-PLGA Fibers: Toward Biomimetic and Conducting 3D Scaffolds

      Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Rouhollah Jalili, Elise M. Stewart, Seyed H. Aboutalebi, Joselito M. Razal, Simon E. Moulton and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505304

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Addition of defect-free solvent exfoliated graphene to PLGA enhances mechanical and electrical properties of the wet-spun biofibers, while not being detrimental to the inherent biocompatibility response of the biopolymer. These multifunctional biofiber architectures present all of the requirements for bionic applications such as high electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, biomimetic mechanical, and chemical properties, simultaneously.

    9. Unconventional Carbon: Alkaline Dehalogenation of Polymers Yields N-Doped Carbon Electrode for High-Performance Capacitive Energy Storage

      Guoxin Zhang, Lin Wang, Yongchao Hao, Xiuyan Jin, Yuqi Xu, Yun Kuang, Liming Dai and Xiaoming Sun

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505533

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Halogenated polymers are explored as a new type of precursors to synthesize high-quality carbons. Dehalogenation occurs within several seconds at room temperature in the presence of strong alkaline in dimethylformamide. Subsequent annealing leads to N-doped carbon of superior capacitive behavior with a high energy/power density, high rate capability, and good long-term stability.

    10. Beryllium-Assisted p-Type Doping for ZnO Homojunction Light-Emitting Devices

      Anqi Chen, Hai Zhu, Yanyan Wu, Mingming Chen, Yuan Zhu, Xuchun Gui and Zikang Tang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600163

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High performance ZnO-based UV-light-emitting diodes are achieved by using a reliable route of p-type doping ZnO through the Be-assisted N-acceptor complex doping method. The results represent a critical advance toward the development of highly efficient and stabilized p-type ZnO, which is also a desirable key step for future ZnO-based optoelectronic applications.

    11. Sulfated Hydrogel Matrices Direct Mitogenicity and Maintenance of Chondrocyte Phenotype through Activation of FGF Signaling

      Ece Öztürk, Øystein Arlov, Seda Aksel, Ling Li, David M. Ornitz, Gudmund Skjåk-Bræk and Marcy Zenobi-Wong

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600092

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A cartilage biomimetic hydrogel based on alginate demonstrates the important function of sulfation in the cellular microenvironment in inducing self-renewal of chondrocytes. Sulfated hydrogels promote extensive 3D growth of chondrocytes decoupled from hydrogel stiffness and porosity. Chondrocytes proliferating in the biomimetic hydrogels are shown to produce a vast amount of cartilage matrix and escape dedifferentiation via activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling with the hydrogel matrix.

    12. 2D Single-Crystalline Molecular Semiconductors with Precise Layer Definition Achieved by Floating-Coffee-Ring-Driven Assembly

      Qijing Wang, Jun Qian, Yun Li, Yuhan Zhang, Daowei He, Sai Jiang, Yu Wang, Xinran Wang, Lijia Pan, Junzhuan Wang, Xizhang Wang, Zheng Hu, Haiyan Nan, Zhenhua Ni, Youdou Zheng and Yi Shi

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600304

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The floating-coffee-ring-driven assembly of 2D single-crystalline molecular semiconductors with precise layer definition is presented. Typical single-crystalline features, atomic smoothness, and high morphologic uniformity over a large area are achieved. Field-effect transistors devices yield a maximum carrier mobility of 13.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 and thus show promise for low-cost, large-area, and high-performance electronics.

    13. The Dynamic Phase Transition Modulation of Ion-Liquid Gating VO2 Thin Film: Formation, Diffusion, and Recovery of Oxygen Vacancies

      Shi Chen, Xi jun Wang, Lele Fan, Guangming Liao, Yuliang Chen, Wangsheng Chu, Li Song, Jun Jiang and Chongwen Zou

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505399

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The oxygen vacancies in VO2 thin films, produced by electrolyte gating with ionic liquids, can be recovered gradually by just heating it in the air, as clearly observed from the in situ metal–insulator phase transition measurement.

    14. Radially Aligned Porous Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Carbon Fibers: A Hierarchical 3D Carbon Nanostructure for High-Performance Capacitive Energy Storage

      Guanhua Zhang, Yian Song, Hang Zhang, Jia Xu, Huigao Duan and Jingyue Liu

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Radially aligned porous carbon nanotube arrays with desired mesopores and intimate contact with carbon fibers substrate facilitate fast transport of both electrons and electrolyte ions to provide high rate capability at high current density. Such unique hierarchical nanoarchitectures demonstrate excellent cycling stability and good mechanical properties, making them more applicable in flexible energy storage devices.

    15. Bio-Orthogonally Crosslinked, Engineered Protein Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanics and Biochemistry for Cell Encapsulation

      Christopher M. Madl, Lily M. Katz and Sarah C. Heilshorn

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505329

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Engineered protein hydrogels crosslinked using bio-orthogonal chemistries with varying gelation kinetics are presented. The modular design of these proteins permits decoupled control of matrix mechanics and biochemistry. The hydrogels support the in vitro culture of a variety of cell types, and the bio-orthogonality of the crosslinking scheme permits specific functionalization of the gels post-cell encapsulation.

    16. Inhibition of Ion Migration for Reliable Operation of Organolead Halide Perovskite-Based Metal/Semiconductor/Metal Broadband Photodetectors

      Ki Chang Kwon, Kootak Hong, Quyet Van Le, Sun Yong Lee, Jaeho Choi, Ki-Bum Kim, Soo Young Kim and Ho Won Jang

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600405

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A reliable and high performance perovskite-based lateral-structure photodetector is achieved by inhibition of charged defect ions migration at low external bias. The electrical history severely affects the device performance and the poling at high external bias should be avoided in order to obtain reliable performances from CH3NH3PbI3 photodetectors, especially for detecting low-intensity light.

  12. Correction

    1. Restoring Intrinsic Properties of Electromagnetic Radiators Using Ultralightweight Integrated Metasurface Cloaks

      Zhi Hao Jiang, Peter E. Sieber, Lei Kang and Douglas H. Werner

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601263

      This article corrects:

      Restoring Intrinsic Properties of Electromagnetic Radiators Using Ultralightweight Integrated Metasurface Cloaks

      Vol. 25, Issue 29, 4708–4716, Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015

  13. Full Papers

    1. Double-Twisted Conductive Smart Threads Comprising a Homogeneously and a Gradient-Coated Thread for Multidimensional Flexible Pressure-Sensing Devices

      Yanlong Tai and Gilles Lubineau

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600078

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Conductive double-twisted smart threads: one thread is coated with a homogeneous thickness of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the intensity of an applied load and the other is coated with a graded thickness of SWCNTs to identify the position of the load along the thread. The basic performance of each thread is also presented.

  14. Feature Articles

    1. Organic Spin Valves: A Review

      Jagannath Devkota, Rugang Geng, Ram Chandra Subedi and Tho Duc Nguyen

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic spintronics is an emerging and potentiahl platform for future electronic devices due to its long electron spin lifetime, flexible chemistry, and cost efficiency. Outstanding advances in organic spin valves—during the past decade plus—are reviewed. In addition, some major challenges are highlighted and an outlook for the future of organic spin valves is suggested.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Non-Lithographic Fabrication of All-2D α-MoTe2 Dual Gate Transistors

      Kyunghee Choi, Young Tack Lee, Jin Sung Kim, Sung-Wook Min, Youngsuk Cho, Atiye Pezeshki, Do Kyung Hwang and Seongil Im

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All-2D MoTe2-based dual gate field-effect trasnsistors (FETs) are fabricated on glass, using hexagonal boron nitride and graphene without thermal annealing and lithography processes. The dual-gate MoTe2 FET drives a few tens-to-hundred μA at a low operation voltage. It nicely demonstrates its capability of OLED pixel switching and NOR logic operation.

    2. New Insights into Tunable Volatility of Ionic Materials through Counter-Ion Control

      Dongxin Ma, Yong Qiu and Lian Duan

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505493

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sublimable ionic materials are developed by a facile and versatile molecular design strategy through counter-ion control. A series of ionic iridium complexes are obtained with desirable volatility and polychromic emission, which show excellent performance in vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes. This work introduces a large class of ionic materials and paves the way to new organic optoelectronics.

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