Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 44

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


  1. 1 - 86

    1. Comment on “Interesting Evidence for Template-Induced Ferroelectric Behavior in Ultra-Thin Titanium Dioxide Films Grown on (110) Neodymium Gallium Oxide Substrates”

      Stella Skiadopoulou, Stanislav Kamba, Jan Drahokoupil, Jan Kroupa, Nitin Deepak, Martyn E. Pemble and Roger W. Whatmore

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502441

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      X-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation and infrared reflectance investigations reveal no evidence for a polar phase or ferroelectric phase transition in 1.6% tensile strained anatase TiO2 thin films. This indicates that the previously-reported potential ferroelectric behaviour, observed using piezoelectric force microscopy, may have been defect related, or the polar distortion is too small to detect using these methods.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Nanoimprinted, Submicrometric, MOF-Based 2D Photonic Structures: Toward Easy Selective Vapors Sensing by a Smartphone Camera

      Olivier Dalstein, Davide R. Ceratti, Cédric Boissière, David Grosso, Andrea Cattoni and Marco Faustini

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503016

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      2D Photonic metal–organic framework (MOF)-based homo- and heterostructures are fabricated by soft-lithographic approaches. This versatile approach allows preparation of large-scale patterned surfaces on several substrates including flexible plastics. The materials are used as selective optical sensing platform. Detection of toxic vapors such as styrene is performed by using an easy transduction method, compatible with smartphone camera technology.

    2. A Cross-Linkable Donor Polymer as the Underlying Layer to Tune the Active Layer Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells

      Bin Meng, Zaiyu Wang, Wei Ma, Zhiyuan Xie, Jun Liu and Lixiang Wang

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503833

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      A cross-linkable donor polymer is developed and used as the underlying layer to improve the vertical composition distribution of donor:acceptor in the active layer of polymer solar cells (PSCs). With the improvement, the regular PSC device based on PTB7:PC71BM active layer exhibits power conversion efficiency increase from 7.41% to 8.55%.

    3. Sustainable Synthesis and Assembly of Biomass-Derived B/N Co-Doped Carbon Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio for High-Performance Supercapacitors

      Zheng Ling, Zhiyu Wang, Mengdi Zhang, Chang Yu, Gang Wang, Yanfeng Dong, Shaohong Liu, Yuwei Wang and Jieshan Qiu

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504004

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      B/N co-doped carbon nanosheets with ultrahigh aspect ratio are synthesized by assembling the biomass molecule in long-range order on recyclable 2D hard template followed by annealing. The unique structural features allow them to be assembled to flexible thin films and ultralight aerogels for superior charge storage in supercapacitors.

    4. Tunable Self-Assembled Micro/Nanostructures of Carboxyl-Functionalized Squarylium Cyanine for Ammonia Sensing

      Jie Li, Baozhong Lv, Dongpeng Yan, Shouke Yan, Min Wei and Meizhen Yin

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503825

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      Squarylium cyanine dyes D1 and D2, containing different numbers of carboxylic acid groups, are utilized as a model system to investigate the self-assembly behaviors based on hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking. These driving forces synergistically construct the unique morphologies of D1 and D2 by forming distinct distances in repeated units, which makes the D1 reversibly responsive to ammonia gas.

    5. Semiconductor-Based Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting at the Limit of Very Wide Depletion Region

      Mingzhao Liu, John L. Lyons, Danhua Yan and Mark S. Hybertsen

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503692

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      Water photolysis over semiconducting metal oxide is studied at the limit of very wide depletion region for n-SrTiO3 photoanodes. Through a graded doping architecture, the depletion region is widened to an unprecedented depth of 500+ nm, which optimizes the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery, leading to an incident photon-to-current efficiency over 70% for its weak indirect band gap absorption.

    6. Gold Nanobipyramid-Supported Silver Nanostructures with Narrow Plasmon Linewidths and Improved Chemical Stability

      Xingzhong Zhu, Xiaolu Zhuo, Qian Li, Zhi Yang and Jianfang Wang

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503670

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      Silver nanostructures of controllable plasmon wavelengths are synthesized by use of highly pure, highly uniform gold nanobipyramids as supports. They are nearly monodispersed in size and shape, possess narrow plasmon linewidths, high refractive index sensitivities, and figure of merit values. They are expected to be useful in developing ultrasensitive plasmonic sensors.

    7. Hollow ZSM-5 with Silicon-Rich Surface, Double Shells, and Functionalized Interior with Metallic Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes

      Chengyi Dai, Anfeng Zhang, Min Liu, Xinwen Guo and Chunshan Song

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502980

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      Hollow ZSM-5 single crystals with double shells, regular void in the crystal interior, enhanced acidity, increased Brönsted acid sites, silicon-rich exterior, adjustable Si/Al ratio, and crystal size, as well as with Fe2O3, bimetals ca. Cu-Pd, Cu-Pt, Fe-Au, and carbon nanotubes functionalized interior are prepared by “dissolution–recrystallization” strategy in tetrapropylammonium hydroxide solution.

    8. Tuning the Excitonic States in MoS2/Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures via Electrochemical Gating

      Yang Li, Cheng-Yan Xu, Jing-Kai Qin, Wei Feng, Jia-Ying Wang, Siqi Zhang, Lai-Peng Ma, Jian Cao, Ping An Hu, Wencai Ren and Liang Zhen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503131

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      Using monolayer MoS2/graphene heterostructures to construct electric double-layer devices with an ion-gels dielectric, the possibility of tuning the photoluminescence properties through electrochemical gating is realized. This tunability can be achieved by either modulating the carrier densities of the counterparts or the band alignment at the interface, and the dominant factor determining the PL tuning can be determined.

    9. Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Improved Efficiency and Thermal Stability of Polymer–Fullerene Solar Cells

      Teddy Salim, Hang-Woo Lee, Lydia Helena Wong, Joon Hak Oh, Zhenan Bao and Yeng Ming Lam

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503256

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      Semiconducting single-walled nanotubes (sc-SWNTs) with high purity improve both device performance and thermal stability of organic solar cells based on a blend of a conjugated polymer and a fullerene derivative. The presence of sc-SWNTs induces the organization of the polymer phase, while suppressing the excessive phase separation of the blend materials.

    10. A Transparent, Smooth, Thermally Robust, Conductive Polyimide for Flexible Electronics

      Joshua A. Spechler, Tae-Wook Koh, Jake T. Herb, Barry P. Rand and Craig B. Arnold

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503342

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      A fully solution processed composite material of a colorless polyimide, titania, and silver nanowires is presented. This material is a new substrate-cum-electrode for optoelectronics devices, which exhibits excellent thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. A green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode device fabricated atop this electrode outperforms an indium-tin-oxide-on-glass substrate-cum-electrode control device.

    11. Advanced Charged Sponge-Like Membrane with Ultrahigh Stability and Selectivity for Vanadium Flow Batteries

      Yuyue Zhao, Mingrun Li, Zhizhang Yuan, Xianfeng Li, Huamin Zhang and Ivo F. J. Vankelecom

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503390

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      A charged sponge-like membrane with a pore-wall covered imidazolium-based crosslinked structure is designed and fabricated. The prepared membranes exhibit excellent selectivity and stability for vanadium flow battery application.

    12. Lightweight and Anisotropic Porous MWCNT/WPU Composites for Ultrahigh Performance Electromagnetic Interference Shielding

      Zhihui Zeng, Hao Jin, Mingji Chen, Weiwei Li, Licheng Zhou and Zhong Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503579

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      Lightweight, flexible and anisotropic porous composites are assembled by a simple freeze-drying method. The composites contain wide range of mass ratios of multiwalled carbon nanotube in water-borne polyurethane matrix, and show giant electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness, with the relevant specific shielding effectiveness greater than other shielding materials ever reported.

    13. High-Performance Field Effect Transistors Using Electronic Inks of 2D Molybdenum Oxide Nanoflakes

      Manal M. Y. A. Alsaif, Adam F. Chrimes, Torben Daeneke, Sivacarendran Balendhran, Darin O. Bellisario, Youngwoo Son, Matthew R. Field, Wei Zhang, Hussein Nili, Emily P. Nguyen, Kay Latham, Joel van Embden, Michael S. Strano, Jian Zhen Ou and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503698

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      Electronic inks of 2D MoO3x flakes based on a solar light irradiation in liquid-phase exfoliated method are used for developing channels FETs for future high-performance printed nanoelectronic devices. It is shown that the carrier concentration, energy band, and carrier charge mobility in 2D MoO3−x-based FETs can be tuned and the optimal substoichiometric value with the maximum transconductance is obtained.

    14. Efficient Perovskite Hybrid Photovoltaics via Alcohol-Vapor Annealing Treatment

      Chang Liu, Kai Wang, Chao Yi, Xiaojun Shi, Adam W. Smith, Xiong Gong and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504041

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      High performance of perovskite photovoltaics (perovskite solar cells and perovskite photodetectors) is realized by alcohol-vapor solvent annealing treatment on CH3NH3PbI3 thin films to enhance the crystal growth and the grain size of the CH3NH3PbI3 crystals.

    15. Energy-Level Alignment at the Organic/Electrode Interface in Organic Optoelectronic Devices

      Zhanhao Hu, Zhiming Zhong, Yawen Chen, Chen Sun, Fei Huang, Junbiao Peng, Jian Wang and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503420

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      There is no agreement on the dipole direction of the cathode interfacial layer in organic electronic devices in the literature. By splitting the device at different interfaces to study the energy-level alignment, the energetic diagrams of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device are clarified. The vacuum level is aligned across the organic/metal interface in OLED, while energy pinning occurs in OPV.

    16. Rational Design of Small Molecules to Implement Organic Quaternary Memory Devices

      Qijian Zhang, Jinghui He, Hao Zhuang, Hua Li, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Dongyun Chen and Jianmei Lu

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503493

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      A donor–acceptor structured small molecule is rationally designed to contain three distinct electron acceptors. Organic quaternary memory behavior is demonstrated for the first time induced by a stepwise charge-transfer process. The threshold voltages of the memory device are distinct, and the current ratio of the four states is identified, which indicate a low possibility of read and write errors.

    17. UV-Light-Driven Oxygen Pumping in a High-Temperature Solid Oxide Photoelectrochemical Cell

      Georg Christoph Brunauer, Bernhard Rotter, Gregor Walch, Esmaeil Esmaeili, Alexander Karl Opitz, Karl Ponweiser, Johann Summhammer and Juergen Fleig

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503597

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      Photon-driven electrochemical energy storage is realized by stacking a high-temperature oxide-based solar cell and a zirconia-based oxygen pump. The solar cell part exhibits more than 900 mV cell voltage at 400 °C and this driving force is transferred to the electrochemical process by a shared electrode in the single stack device.

    18. Fast Photoresponse from 1T Tin Diselenide Atomic Layers

      Peng Yu, Xuechao Yu, Wanglin Lu, Hsin Lin, Linfeng Sun, Kezhao Du, Fucai Liu, Wei Fu, Qingsheng Zeng, Zexiang Shen, Chuanhong Jin, Qi Jie Wang and Zheng Liu

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503789

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      A high performance atomically layered SnSe2 photodetector has been first successfully fabricated for the first time. The photodetector displays a good responsivity of 0.5 A W−1 and a fast photoresponse down to ≈2 ms at room temperature, one of the fastest response times among all types of 2D photodetectors.

    19. Bioprinting Complex Cartilaginous Structures with Clinically Compliant Biomaterials

      Matti Kesti, Christian Eberhardt, Guglielmo Pagliccia, David Kenkel, Daniel Grande, Andreas Boss and Marcy Zenobi-Wong

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503423

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      Complex, cell-laden cartilaginous structures are printed with regulatory-compliant biomaterials. Printed grafts are tunable in mechanical properties and tissue-specific, as they can contain extracellular matrix particles. Bioprinting of overhanging structures is achieved using a co-extruded support polymer which also acts as a cation-reservoir to rapidly crosslink the bioink.

    20. Solution-Processed Crystalline n-Type Organic Transistors Stable against Electrical Stress and Photooxidation

      Hee Taek Yi, Zhihua Chen, Antonio Facchetti and Vitaly Podzorov

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502423

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      n-type organic field-effect transistors based on highly crystalline oriented N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide films grown from a solution are shown to have an excellent environmental and electrical stability, resistance to photooxidation, and the ability to withstand temperature cycling in a wide temperature range. The charge carrier mobility is found to be temperature independent in the practically relevant range between −25 and 100 °C.

    21. Methods and Applications of Multilayer Silk Fibroin Laminates Based on Spatially Controlled Welding in Protein Films

      Mark A. Brenckle, Benjamin Partlow, Hu Tao, Matthew B. Applegate, Andrew Reeves, Mark Paquette, Benedetto Marelli, David L. Kaplan and Fiorenzo G. Omenetto

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502819

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      A thermal processing method for producing patterned multilayer laminates in silk fibroin is presented, based on thermal reflow of amorphous protein films. The method is able to produce laminates with strength on the order of the bulk material, and features as small as 100 μm. Applications of geometries produced by this method in bioelectronics and drug delivery are also presented.

    22. A Bio-Inspired Rod-Shaped Nanoplatform for Strongly Infecting Tumor Cells and Enhancing the Delivery Efficiency of Anticancer Drugs

      Dan Li, Zhaomin Tang, Yuqian Gao, Huili Sun and Shaobing Zhou

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503664

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      A novel bio-inspired rod-shaped micellar system is developed as a nanoplatform for highly effectively delivering anti­cancer drugs. The nanoplatform has a great capacity of escaping the rapid clearance of reticuloendothelial system in blood, a high internalization rate of tumor cells, and a significant enhancement of therapeutic agent potency against artificial solid tumors.

    23. Covalently Bonded Graphene–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for High-Performance Thermal Interfaces

      Jie Chen, Jens H. Walther and Petros Koumoutsakos

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501593

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      An improvement for the c-axis heat transfer of few layer graphene by a covalently bonded graphene–carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid is demonstrated. The G-CNT exhibits a thermal resistance that is three orders of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art thermal interface materials. The G-CNT can be immersed in a circulating liquid for the ultrafast cooling of hot surfaces such as integrated circuits.

    24. Overcoming the Cut-Off Charge Transfer Bandgaps at the PbS Quantum Dot Interface

      Ala'a O. El-Ballouli, Erkki Alarousu, Ahmad R. Kirmani, Aram Amassian, Osman M. Bakr and Omar F. Mohammed

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504035

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      The interfacial electrostatic interaction between the positively charged porphyrin and the negatively charged quantum dots (QDs) surface enables widening the effective bandgap (Eg) range for charge transfer (CT) from PbS QDs. For the first time, the occurance of an effective CT from large PbS QDs (Eg < 1 eV) is shown to positively charged porphyrin, thus overcoming the previously reported cut-off CT bandgaps at PbS QD interface.

    25. Tunable Nanochannels along Graphene Oxide/Polymer Core–Shell Nanosheets to Enhance Proton Conductivity

      Guangwei He, Chaoyi Chang, Mingzhao Xu, Shen Hu, Lingqiao Li, Jing Zhao, Zhen Li, Zongyu Li, Yongheng Yin, Mingyue Gang, Hong Wu, Xinlin Yang, Michael D. Guiver and Zhongyi Jiang

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503229

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      A novel approach to construct tunable nanochannels via direct assembly of graphene oxide/polymer core–shell nanosheets is developed. Through molecular-level engineering of the nanosheets, ordered and continuous nanochannels with well-tailored chemical structures can be created. The resulting membrane exhibits a proton conductivity of 32 mS cm−1 at 51% RH, surpassing state-of-the-art Nafion membrane and all previously reported GO-based materials.

    26. Sol–Gel Assisted Inkjet Hologram Patterning

      Aleksandr V. Yakovlev, Valentin. A. Milichko, Vladimir. V. Vinogradov and Alexandr V. Vinogradov

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503483

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      It is presented for the first time a method of producing holographic text and images using colorless TiO2 ink with a high ­refractive index is presented for the first time. The TiO2 ink is deposited on top of exposed PET-based micro­embossed ­paper by an inkjet printer. The represented technology allows to quickly ­generate any image with a holographic effect.

    27. Metallic Architectures from 3D-Printed Powder-Based Liquid Inks

      Adam E. Jakus, Shannon L. Taylor, Nicholas R. Geisendorfer, David C. Dunand and Ramille N. Shah

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503921

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      Particle-laden liquid inks are comprised of metals, metal oxides, and other metal compound powders. These inks are rapidly 3D-printed into powder-dense solids via simple extrusion to create the user-defined architecture. Upon thermochemical processing in a reducing hydrogen atmosphere, the 3D-printed objects reduce to metals, sinter, and result in a metallic architecture that maintains the as-printed form without warping or cracking.

    28. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Hybridized ZnO Nanoparticles as a Cathode Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

      Kyungmok Kim, Minwon Suh, Jihae Choi, Dongchan Lee, Youngsun Kim, Sang Hun Cheong, Donghyuk Kim and Duk Young Jeon

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502360

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      High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diodes (11.7 cd A−1 at 5.2 V and 8.6 lm W−1 at 3.8 V) are demonstrated using F8imFO4 conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-hybridized zinc oxide nano­particles (ZnO NPs) as a cathode interfacial layer. The alkoxy sidechains and bromide anions of F8imFO4 form a coordination bond to the ZnO surface, thus reducing fluorescence quenching of light-emitting polymer.

    29. Structural and Electronic Properties of Crystalline, Isomerically Pure Anthradithiophene Derivatives

      Rawad K. Hallani, Karl J. Thorley, Yaochuan Mei, Sean R. Parkin, Oana D. Jurchescu and John E. Anthony

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502440

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      Isolation of pure anti anthradithiophene derivatives sheds light on the intermolecular interactions that increase order in these materials. Strong hydrogen–fluorine interactions, along with an inversion center in the pure anti isomer, reduces disorder and decrease intermolecular spacing in these derivatives, yielding field-effect mobility higher than 6 cm2 V−1 s−1 in spin-cast films.

    30. Rational Design of Polymeric Hybrid Micelles with Highly Tunable Properties to Co-Deliver MicroRNA-34a and Vismodegib for Melanoma Therapy

      Hanmei Li, Yao Fu, Ting Zhang, Yanping Li, Xiaoyu Hong, Jiayu Jiang, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang and Xun Sun

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503115

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      A polymeric hybrid micelle system with highly tunable properties is rationally designed and optimized to co-deliver Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib and microRNA-34a for melanoma therapy. The co-delivery system shows synergistic anticancer efficacy on B16F10-CD44+ cells in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of PHM in co-delivery of small molecule and nucleic acid drugs.

    31. Thermally Stable Silver Nanowire–Polyimide Transparent Electrode Based on Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc Oxide on Silver Nanowires

      Dustin Chen, Jiajie Liang, Chao Liu, Gillian Saldanha, Fangchao Zhao, Kwing Tong, Jiang Liu and Qibing Pei

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503236

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      Silver nanowires are made thermally stable with a thin layer of ZnO deposited using atomic layer deposition. This ZnO layer prevents the melting and coalescence of AgNWs observed at annealing temperatures above 180 °C, while maintaining a porous network structure. When transparent, colorless polyimide is infiltrated between the nanowires, the resulting freestanding films are able to withstand 300 °C annealing for over 6 h, showing little to no degradation in electrical or optical properties.

    32. Understanding the Origin of Li2MnO3 Activation in Li-Rich Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Delai Ye, Guang Zeng, Kazuhiro Nogita, Kiyoshi Ozawa, Marlies Hankel, Debra J. Searles and Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503276

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      A Li-rich cathode material Li1.87Mn0.94Ni0.19O3 with low level of Ni doping exhibits interersting slow activating process of Li2MnO3 phase, offering excellent platform to fundamentally understand the structural evolution of Li2MnO3 during activation. Detailed electrochemical study and in situ structure characterization reveals that the transition metal diffusion process features a much slower kinetics than O2 generation and determines the Li2MnO3 activation rate.

    33. Highly Efficient Solid-State Near-Infrared Emitting Material Based on Triphenylamine and Diphenylfumaronitrile with an EQE of 2.58% in Nondoped Organic Light-Emitting Diode

      Xiao Han, Qing Bai, Liang Yao, Haichao Liu, Yu Gao, Jinyu Li, Liqun Liu, Yulong Liu, Xiaoxiao Li, Ping Lu and Bing Yang

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503344

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      The development of near-infrared (NIR) emitting material is of increasing interest. TPATCN with a strong NIR emission and a film efficiency of 33% is obtained. It benefits from a large dipole moment of CT state and a certain degree of orbital overlap of LE state. The maximum EQE of nondoped device reaches 2.58%, which is among the highest values of NIR OLEDs.

    34. Ultrahigh-Performance Pseudocapacitor Electrodes Based on Transition Metal Phosphide Nanosheets Array via Phosphorization: A General and Effective Approach

      Kai Zhou, Weijia Zhou, Linjing Yang, Jia Lu, Shuang Cheng, Wenjie Mai, Zhenghua Tang, Ligui Li and Shaowei Chen

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503662

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      Ultrahigh-performance pseudocapacitor electrodes are prepared with a general and effective phosphorization strategy to enhance supercapacitor performance of various transition metals oxide or hydroxide. The Ni foam supported Ni2P nanosheets array electrode shows a remarkable specific capacitance of more than 3000 F g−1, much larger than the corresponding Ni(OH)2 nanosheets array before phosphorization.

  3. Feature Articles

    1. Stimuli-Directing Self-Organized 3D Liquid-Crystalline Nanostructures: From Materials Design to Photonic Applications

      Ling Wang and Quan Li

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502071

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      Soft nanotechnology—i.e., exploiting self-organized soft materials in nanotechnology—is emerging as an attractive paradigm in the bottom-up nanofabrication of intelligent stimuli-driven 3D photonic materials and devices. Liquid-crystalline materials undoubtedly represent such an elegant dynamic system that combines the liquid-like fluidity and crystal-like ordering from molecular to macroscopic levels. This review provides a glimpse of the advancements in design, fabrication and applications of stimuli-directing self-organized 3D liquid-crystalline photonic nanostructures.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Tuning the Charge Transfer in Fx-TCNQ/Rubrene Single-Crystal Interfaces

      Yulia Krupskaya, Ignacio Gutiérrez Lezama and Alberto F. Morpurgo

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502082

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      Using the family of Fx-TCNQ molecules, the first comparative study is performed on organic single-crystal charge-transfer interfaces. The very systematic behavior of the studied interfaces now opens the possibility of investigating the microscopic charge-transfer mechanisms experimentally under controlled conditions.

    2. High-Performance Supercapacitor Applications of NiO-Nanoparticle-Decorated Millimeter-Long Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays via an Effective Supercritical CO2-Assisted Method

      Junye Cheng, Bin Zhao, Wenkang Zhang, Feng Shi, Guangping Zheng, Deqing Zhang and Junhe Yang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502711

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      An effective supercritical CO2-assisted approach is presented for synthesizing vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT)/NiO hybrid structures. NiO nanoparticles are distributed uniformly in the highly dense, millimeter-long VACNTs. The unique hybrid structures of VACNT/NiO exhibit high capacity and long cycle stability. The great electrochemical properties of the VACNT/NiO hybrid materials plus their simple fabrication make this class of materials attractive for supercapacitor applications.

    3. Water-Powered Cell-Mimicking Janus Micromotor

      Zhiguang Wu, Jinxing Li, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Tianlong Li, Weiwei Gao, Qiang He, Liangfang Zhang and Joseph Wang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503441

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      Cell-mimicking Janus micromotors are con­­structed by integrating red blood cell (RBC) membranes and gold nanoparticles onto the exposed surface areas of magnesium microparticles to achieve effi­cient water-driven propulsion and rapid detoxification in biological matrices. The RBC-Mg Janus micromotors represent an exciting progress toward cell-mimicking microscale motors that hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical and biodefense applications.

    4. Nanoporous Substrate-Infiltrated Hydrogels: a Bioinspired Regenerable Surface for High Load Bearing and Tunable Friction

      Shuanhong Ma, M. Scaraggi, Daoai Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Yongmin Liang, Weimin Liu, Daniele Dini and Feng Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503681

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      A novel composite surface of ordered nanohydrogel arrays confined in an anodic aluminum oxide template based on a soft/hard combination strategy is reported. The surface shows a low friction coefficient (<0.01) under 40 N and contact pressures of ≈2 MPa, along with desirable regenerative and antiwear properties, while exhibiting smart switching between high friction (>0.3) and superlubrication (≈10−3) by acidic and basic actuation.

    5. Regimes of Exciton Transport in Molecular Crystals in the Presence of Dynamic Disorder

      Juan Aragó and Alessandro Troisi

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503888

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      Thermal motions in molecular crystals cause substantial fluctuation of the excitonic coupling between neighboring molecules (dynamic disorder) and, thus, the role of this fluctuation on the exciton dynamics is explored in two extreme regimes (incoherent and coherent) by means of two crystal models, anthracene and a heteropentacene derivative.

    6. All-Carbon Nanoarchitectures as High-Performance Separation Membranes with Superior Stability

      Kunli Goh, Wenchao Jiang, Huseyin Enis Karahan, Shengli Zhai, Li Wei, Dingshan Yu, Anthony G. Fane, Rong Wang and Yuan Chen

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502955

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      All-carbon nanoarchitectured membranes comprising reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit a high water permeability, which is five to ten times higher than most commercial nanofiltration membranes. The membranes show almost 100% organic dye rejection and, most importantly, superior membrane stability under a turbulent hydrodynamic flow condition of 2000 mL min−1 and a Reynolds number of 4667.

    7. Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy by 808 nm Laser-Induced Synergistic Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy Based on a Indocyanine-Green-Attached W18O49 Nanostructure

      Kerong Deng, Zhiyao Hou, Xiaoran Deng, Piaoping Yang, Chunxia Li and Jun Lin

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503046

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      An 808-nm-light-mediated, antitumor, synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy nanosystem based on tungsten oxide@indocyanine green (WO@ICG) nanocomposites has been successfully constructed. These WO@ICG nanocomposites exhibit fascinating in vitro and in vivo dual-modal phototherapeutic properties under single 808 nm light irradiation, including therapeutic potential in cultured HeLa cells and HeLa tumor-bearing mice.

    8. Self-Supported Cobalt Phosphide Mesoporous Nanorod Arrays: A Flexible and Bifunctional Electrode for Highly Active Electrocatalytic Water Reduction and Oxidation

      Yun-Pei Zhu, Yu-Ping Liu, Tie-Zhen Ren and Zhong-Yong Yuan

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503666

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      Flexible, bifunctional electrodes with self-supported CoP mesoporous nanorod arrays are fabricated through an electrodeposition strategy. The electrodes possess well-structured mesoporosity and a high specific surface area, exhibiting high activities toward both electrochemical hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. In a further step, an alkaline electrolyzer with a current density of 10 mA cm−2 at 1.62 V in a long-term operation is realized.

    9. Humidity-Triggered Self-Healing of Microporous Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coatings for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery

      Xia-Chao Chen, Ke-Feng Ren, Jia-Hui Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Emily Zhao, Zhong Jonathon Zhao, Zhi-Kang Xu and Jian Ji

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503258

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      Humidity can serve as a feasible trigger to activate the self-healing of microporous polyelectrolyte multilayer film. Based on this, a facile and versatile means is suggested to directly integrate hydrophobic drugs into the films for biomedical coatings.

    10. A Dual-FRET-Based Versatile Prodrug for Real-Time Drug Release Monitoring and In Situ Therapeutic Efficacy Evaluation

      Shi-Ying Li, Li-Han Liu, Lei Rong, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Hui-Zhen Jia, Bin Li, Fei Li and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503262

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      A dual-Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based versatile prodrug (V-prodrug) is designed to provide a cascaded imaging of real-time drug release and subsequent cell apoptosis. This V-prodrug enables the in situ detection of the cancer response as well as the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of the drug.

    11. Flash-Assisted Processing of Highly Conductive Zinc Oxide Electrodes from Water

      Enrico Della Gaspera, Danielle F. Kennedy, Joel van Embden, Anthony S. R. Chesman, Thomas R. Gengenbach, Karl Weber and Jacek J. Jasieniak

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503421

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      Highly conductive, intrinsically doped ZnO electrodes are prepared using a low-temperature aqueous deposition and a flash light postprocessing. The aqueous bath chemistry favors the formation of oxygen deficient ZnO films, which are then flashed with millisecond light pulses to achieve record conductivity and high transparency. Deposition on PET substrates and indium-tin-oxide-free optoelectronic devices is demonstrated.

    12. Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on Structure-Optimized Mn3O4/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanohybrid Paper with High Energy and Power Density

      Yating Hu, Cao Guan, Guangxue Feng, Qingqing Ke, Xiaolei Huang and John Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503528

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      A highly flexible Mn3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanohybrid paper with high electrical conductivity and high mass loading of Mn3O4 nanofiber (0.71 g cm−3) is successfully developed via a facile gel formation and electrochemical reduction process. Through this novel design and processing control, the energy and power density of the flexible Mn3O4/rGO-based asymmetric supercapacitor are greatly improved.

    13. Polydopamine as a Biocompatible Multifunctional Nanocarrier for Combined Radioisotope Therapy and Chemotherapy of Cancer

      Xiaoyan Zhong, Kai Yang, Zhiliang Dong, Xuan Yi, Yong Wang, Cuicui Ge, Yuliang Zhao and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503587

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      Ploydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles as a biocompatible nanocarrier platform are developed for loading of both radionuclides and an anticancer drug to realize nuclear-imaging-guided combined radioisotope therapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Utilizing this synergistic manner, 131I-PDA-poly(ethylene glycol)/doxorubicin nanoparticles exhibited effective cancer treatment efficacy, without rendering significant toxicity to the treated animals.

    14. Dual-Salt Mg-Based Batteries with Conversion Cathodes

      Ye Zhang, Junjie Xie, Yanlin Han and Chilin Li

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503639

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      In Mg/Li hybrid battery systems with Mg anodes, FeS x (x = 1 or 2) is employed as conversion cathodes. With 2–4 electron transfers these systems achieve a maximum energy density close to 400 Wh kg−1 without serious dendrite growth and polysulfide dissolution.

    15. Nonvolatile Floating-Gate Memories Based on Stacked Black Phosphorus–Boron Nitride–MoS2 Heterostructures

      Dong Li, Xiaojuan Wang, Qichong Zhang, Liping Zou, Xiangfan Xu and Zengxing Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503645

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      Nonvolatile ambipolar memory devices are developed based on stacked black phosphorus–boron nitride–molybdenum disulphide heterostructure floating-gate field-effect transistors. The memory device exhibits a fairly large memory window with a width (ΔV) of ≈60 V for a maximum control gate voltage of 40 V and can be switched well between the erase and program state.

    16. Microfluidic-Spinning-Directed Microreactors Toward Generation of Multiple Nanocrystals Loaded Anisotropic Fluorescent Microfibers

      Yan Zhang, Cai-Feng Wang, Li Chen, Su Chen and Anthony J. Ryan

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503680

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      A fiber microreactor based on a microfluidic spinning technique is proposed for the in situ fabrication of nanocrystals loaded anisotropic fluorescent hybrid microfibers. By designing coaxial flow microdevices with different geometric features, multiple nanocrystal reactions in microreactors result in microfibers with delicate topographies and distinct optical properties. This work develops a facile platform for rapid fabrication of anisotropic fluorescent hybrid microfibers.

    17. Highly Flexible Transparent Electrodes Containing Ultrathin Silver for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

      Dhriti Sundar Ghosh, Quan Liu, Paola Mantilla-Perez, Tong Lai Chen, Vahagn Mkhitaryan, Minghuang Huang, Sean Garner, Jordi Martorell and Valerio Pruneri

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503739

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      TiO2/Ag/indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent electrodes (TEs) with sheet resistance of 6.2 Ω sq−1 and average optical transmittance in the visible of 87.6% are developed. These performances are superior to those of state-of-the-art single-layer ITO. Polymer solar cells employing such TEs achieve 8.34% efficiency, higher than similar structures on conventional ITO.

    18. Improving the Extraction of Photogenerated Electrons with SnO2 Nanocolloids for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

      Hua-Shang Rao, Bai-Xue Chen, Wen-Guang Li, Yang-Fan Xu, Hong-Yan Chen, Dai-Bin Kuang and Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201501264

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      SnO2 nanocolloids are synthesized for planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. A champion efficiency of 14.69% is achieved for the SnO2-based solar cell, which is superior to the TiO2-based solar cell (13.38%) due to a higher electron mobility and negative conduction band, facilitating the electron injection, charge separation, and collection, which contribute to the improvement of photovoltaic performance.

    19. Highly Transparent and Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Structure Optimized for Anode/Cathode Multilayer Electrodes

      Dong-Young Kim, Yun Cheol Han, Hyun Cheol Kim, Eun Gyo Jeong and Kyung Cheol Choi

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502542

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      The highly transparent and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (TFOLEDs) are fabricated using dielectric layer/metal/dielectric layer (multilayer) electrodes for use as both anodes and cathodes. The structure of multilayer electrodes is optimized to maximize transmittance and to provide flexibility. The fabricated TFOLEDs are highly transparent and show a nearly Lambertian emission pattern without a microcavity effect.

    20. Tuning the Microenvironment: Click-Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogels Provide a Platform for Studying Breast Cancer Cell Invasion

      Stephanie A. Fisher, Priya N. Anandakumaran, Shawn C. Owen and Molly S. Shoichet

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502778

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      A hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel crosslinked with protease cleavable crosslinks is shown to support breast cancer cell invasion. The crosslink and adhesive ligand densities of the hydrogel are decoupled, allowing the effect of each parameter on cell invasion to be studied. A platform is developed capable of recapitulating a wide range of microenvironments.

    21. Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells with a Large Capacitance

      Huimin Zhang, Hong Lin, Chunjun Liang, Hong Liu, Jingjing Liang, Yong Zhao, Wenguan Zhang, Mengjie Sun, Weikang Xiao, Han Li, Stefano Polizzi, Dan Li, Fujun Zhang, Zhiqun He and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502962

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      Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) of organic–inorganic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) with two high work function electrodes are demonstrated. Results indicate that CH3NH3PbI3 has an ionic conductivity of ≈10−8 S cm−1. The accumulated ions at the interfaces result in a large capacitance, which suggests a potential application in electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as solid-state supercapacitors and batteries.

    22. Plasmonic Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Enhanced Detection Sensitivity of Biolabeling Fluorophores

      Rupak Bhattacharya, Chaitanya Indukuri, Nafisa Begam, Oliver H. Seeck and Jaydeep K. Basu

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502153

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      A novel method for ultrasensitive biomarker sensing is achieved by plasmonic bio-membrane templates for a wide range of fluorophores. Gold nanoparticle assemblies are used on lipid bilayer to get an emission enhancement through Förster resonance energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of nanoparticle membrane binding and penetration as well as its consequence on observed enhanced bio-fluorophore detection sensitivity is elucidated.

    23. Biomimetic Carbon Nanotube Films with Gradient Structure and Locally Tunable Mechanical Property

      Zhiqiang Lin, Xuchun Gui, Zhiping Zeng, Binghao Liang, Wenjun Chen, Ming Liu, Yuan Zhu, Anyuan Cao and Zikang Tang

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503341

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      A macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) film with gradient structure is synthesized by one-step CVD. The CNT arrangement gradually changes from well aligned to random distribution in a continuous and smooth way along the thickness direction. Local deformation and mechanical properties such as stiffness and elastic modulus are determined by the Herman's orientation factor and span over three orders of magnitude.

    24. Remarkable NIR Enhancement of Multifunctional Nanoprobes for In Vivo Trimodal Bioimaging and Upconversion Optical/T2-Weighted MRI-Guided Small Tumor Diagnosis

      Zhigao Yi, Xiaolong Li, Zhenluan Xue, Xiao Liang, Wei Lu, Hao Peng, Hongrong Liu, Songjun Zeng and Jianhua Hao

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503672

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      A remarkable enhancement of NIR emission of multifunctional PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is developed. The nanoparticles serve as bioprobes and contrast agents for upconversion (UC) optical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT trimodal bioimaging. Impressively, the developed UCNPs are successfully used for UC and T2-weighted MRI-guided early-stage diagnosis of small tumors.

    25. Avalanche-Discharge-Induced Electrical Forming in Tantalum Oxide-Based Metal–Insulator–Metal Structures

      Katharina Skaja, Christoph Bäumer, Oliver Peters, Stephan Menzel, Marco Moors, Hongchu Du, Manuel Bornhöfft, Christoph Schmitz, Vitaliy Feyer, Chun-Lin Jia, Claus Michael Schneider, Joachim Mayer, Rainer Waser and Regina Dittmann

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502767

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      It is experimentally demonstrated that a pronounced interface adsorbate layer in Ta2O5-x-based resistive switching devices leads to an avalanche-discharge-induced breakdown instead of a breakdown within a single filament. Moreover, it is explicitly proven that the switching between the low and high resistance state is caused by the reduction/oxidation of Ta2O5-x/TaO2 in the entire former Pt/Ta2O5-x interface of the dendrite-like structure.

    26. Catalyst Design by NH4OH Treatment of USY Zeolite

      Joost Van Aelst, Danny Verboekend, An Philippaerts, Nicolas Nuttens, Mert Kurttepeli, Elena Gobechiya, Mohamed Haouas, Sreeprasanth P. Sree, Joeri F. M. Denayer, Johan A. Martens, Christine E. A. Kirschhock, Francis Taulelle, Sara Bals, Gino V. Baron, Pierre A. Jacobs and Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502772

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      Postsynthetic NH4OH treatment is performed on USY (Ultra-Stable Y) zeolite to sustainably develop superior catalysts. Extensive characterization shows the selective creation of small mesopores by partial zeolite densification without significant material leaching. The hierarchical zeolite outperforms the conventional USY for acid-catalyzed isomerization of α-pinene and metal-catalyzed conjugation of safflower oil, which is attributed to its enhanced intracrystalline mass transport capacity.

    27. Flexible Battery-Less Bioelectronic Implants: Wireless Powering and Manipulation by Near-Infrared Light

      Hongzhong Liu, Tingting Zhao, Weitao Jiang, Rui Jia, Dong Niu, Guanglin Qiu, Lin Fan, Xin Li, Weihua Liu, Bangdao Chen, Yongsheng Shi, Lei Yin and Bingheng Lu

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502752

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      By investigating the pyroelectric performances of poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) and its remote-manipulability under near-infrared (nIR) irradiation, a flexible battery-less implantable device is proposed. The device is constructed by laminated graphene–PVDF–graphene sandwiches, which can be wirelessly powered and supply regulatable electrical pulses for nerve stimulation by nIR irradiation.

    28. Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence-Based Core–Shell Gold Nanorods as a near-IR Fluorescent Turn-On Sensor for the Highly Sensitive Detection of Pyrophosphate in Aqueous Solution

      Le Wang, Quanwei Song, Qiuling Liu, Dacheng He and Jin Ouyang

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503326

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      Core–shell gold nanorods are employed to significantly enhance the fluorescence intensity of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin via the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence effect. These nanostructures combined with the quenching effect of Cu2+ are applied to turn-on detection of pyrophosphate with nanomolar sensitivity in aqueous solutions, which may provide great potential for the development of highly sensitive sensing systems in biological and biomedical applications.

    29. Highly Elastic and Conductive N-Doped Monolithic Graphene Aerogels for Multifunctional Applications

      In Kyu Moon, Seonno Yoon, Kyoung-Yong Chun and Jungwoo Oh

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502395

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      The synthesis of a novel ultralightweight, compressible, electrically conductive, and hydrophobic N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel is described.

    30. Kitchen Chemistry 101: Multigram Production of High Quality Biographene in a Blender with Edible Proteins

      Ajith Pattammattel and Challa Vijaya Kumar

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503247

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      Graphite exfoliates to high-quality, few-layer graphene when subjected to shear forces in a kitchen blender on a multigram scale, which is assisted by ordinary, edible proteins. Protein charge plays a very important role in the exfoliation mechanism, and the graphene samples are highly conductive. The graphene suspensions in water are stable against temperature (5–50 °C), pH range from 3 to 11 well over a month, and suitable for biological applications.

    31. Growth and Manipulation of Organic Semiconductors Microcrystals by Wet Lithography

      Denis Gentili, Fabiola Liscio, Luigi Mariucci, Luca Beverina, Manuela Melucci, Stefano Toffanin, Silvia Milita and Massimiliano Cavallini

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502462

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      The application of lithographically controlled wetting on the manipulation and positioning of single crystals directly on devices. It is demonstrated that it is possible to achieve patterning of crystals of conjugated molecules with a defined shape and with controlled size directly on a device.

    32. Gradient Porous Elastic Hydrogels with Shape-Memory Property and Anisotropic Responses for Programmable Locomotion

      Rongcong Luo, Jin Wu, Ngoc-Duy Dinh and Chia-Hung Chen

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503434

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      Gradient porous elastic hydrogels with rapid and programmable locomotion to thermal-/photostimulation are obtained through an effective hydrothermal route. According to the gradient porosity control, the hydrogels simultaneously exhibit rapid responses, high elasticity, and anisotropic locomotion. The hydrothermally induced hydrogelation mechanism is applicable to other thermal-responsive monomers and crosslinkers, opening new avenues for modulating the pore structures of soft materials.

    33. Self-Assembly of Antimicrobial Peptides on Gold Nanodots: Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Wound-Healing Application

      Wei-Yu Chen, Hsiang-Yu Chang, Jenn-Kan Lu, Yi-Cheng Huang, Scott G. Harroun, Yu-Ting Tseng, Yu-Jia Li, Chih-Ching Huang and Huan-Tsung Chang

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503248

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      Surfactin, an antimicrobial lipopeptide, when self-assembled on photoluminescent gold nanodots (Au NDs) exhibits an >80-fold improvement in its antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Antibacterial wound-healing assays further reveal that the surfactin–Au ND hybrid material is superior to that of surfactin alone on a bacteria-infected flesh wound in rats.

    34. High-Performance, Air-Stable, Top-Gate, p-Channel WSe2 Field-Effect Transistor with Fluoropolymer Buffer Layer

      Seyed Hossein Hosseini Shokouh, Pyo Jin Jeon, Atiye Pezeshki, Kyunghee Choi, Hee Sung Lee, Jin Sung Kim, Eun Young Park and Seongil Im

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502008

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      A bilayer gate dielectric composed of a high-k Al2O3 layer and a low-k fluoropolymer layer yields field-effect transistors (FETs) with excellent gating properties. The proposed top-gate p-channel WSe2 FETs demonstrate a high hole mobility of 100 cm2 V−1 s−1 and an ION/IOFF ratio of >107 on a glass substrate. Furthermore, the top-gate FET shows a very good stability in ambient air up to 7 days after device fabrication.

  5. Feature Articles

    1. Scalable Production of Edge-Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets via Mechanochemical Ball-Milling

      In-Yup Jeon, Seo-Yoon Bae, Jeong-Min Seo and Jong-Beom Baek

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502214

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      A method for producing edge-selectively functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs) is developed by simple mechanochemical ball-milling graphite in the presence of the desired reactant(s). Due to their advantages such as manufacturing simplicity, edge-selectivity, eco-friendliness, low-cost and high-quality over other commonly used methods, EFGnPs have potential in a broad range of applications.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Peptide Materials Obtained by Aggregation of Polyphenylalanine Conjugates as Gadolinium-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

      Carlo Diaferia, Eliana Gianolio, Pasquale Palladino, Francesca Arena, Cinzia Boffa, Giancarlo Morelli and Antonella Accardo

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502458

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      Novel peptide materials are proposed as a new class of supramolecular gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. These materials, containing four phenylalanine residues, a Gd-DOTA or Gd-DTPA complex, and a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer, are able to self-aggregate in amyloid type fibrils with an antiparallel alignment in acqueos solution at very low concentration.

    2. Water-Induced Scandium Oxide Dielectric for Low-Operating Voltage n- and p-Type Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

      Ao Liu, Guoxia Liu, Huihui Zhu, Huijun Song, Byoungchul Shin, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins and Fukai Shan

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502612

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      A novel way of preparing low-voltage n-type and p-type oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with improved electrical performance is shown. The water-induced, high-k ScOx is proven to be an attractive channel–insulator interface constituent and exhibits excellent electrical properties. The solution-processed p-type CuO/ScOx TFTs exhibit superior hole-transport characteristics with a field-effect mobility of 0.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 at the low operating voltage of 3 V.

    3. From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics

      Zhinan Guo, Han Zhang, Shunbin Lu, Zhiteng Wang, Siying Tang, Jundong Shao, Zhengbo Sun, Hanhan Xie, Huaiyu Wang, Xue-Feng Yu and Paul K. Chu

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502902

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      A basic N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone liquid exfoliation method is described to produce phosphorene with an excellent water stability, controllable size and layer number, as well as in a high yield. Phosphorene with one to four layers exhibits layer-dependent Raman scattering characteristics thus providing a fast and efficient means for the in situ determination of the thickness of phosphorene.

    4. Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting

      Kristin M. Persson, Susanna Lönnqvist, Klas Tybrandt, Roger Gabrielsson, David Nilsson, Gunnar Kratz and Magnus Berggren

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503542

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      Selective and electronically controlled cell detachment is achieved using a conjugated polymer that detaches when electrochemically oxidized. The polymer is patterned to create a matrix with individually addressable pixels. The addressing is based on passive matrix addressing and is controlled by a resistance network. Human skin cells are cultured on the matrix, show good viability, and can be selectively detached.

    5. Photocatalyst Interface Engineering: Spatially Confined Growth of ZnFe2O4 within Graphene Networks as Excellent Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysts

      Deren Yang, Jing Feng, Lili Jiang, Xiaoliang Wu, Lizhi Sheng, Yuting Jiang, Tong Wei and Zhuangjun Fan

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502970

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      A novel strategy for the synthesis of ultra-small and highly crystallized graphene–ZnFe2O4 photocatalysts through interface engineering is reported. As a result, ≈20 nm ZnFe2O4 with highly crystallized (311) plane confined in the graphene network exhibits an excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity with an ultrafast degradation rate of 1.924 × 10−7 mol gcat−1 s−1 for methylene blue.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using Molecular Design to Increase Hole Transport: Backbone Fluorination in the Benchmark Material Poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]-thiophene (pBTTT)

      Pierre Boufflet, Yang Han, Zhuping Fei, Neil D. Treat, Ruipeng Li, Detlef-M Smilgies, Natalie Stingelin, Thomas D. Anthopoulos and Martin Heeney

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502826

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      Backbone fluorination of the benchmark liquid crystalline polymer poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]-thiophene) is shown to significantly influence its physical properties, substantially increasing the melting point and promoting aggregation. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this is related to a more coplanar backbone for the fluorinated polymer. Field effect transistor measurements show a fourfold increase in mobility upon fluorination.

    7. Self-Powered, Room Temperature Electronic Nose Based on Triboelectrification and Heterogeneous Catalytic Reaction

      Ji-Hyun Kim, Jinsung Chun, Jin Woong Kim, Won Jun Choi and Jeong Min Baik

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503419

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      A two-dimensional microarray functioning as a self-powered electronic nose with high gas selectivity is shown. This electronic sensor is based on the triboelectrification between ZnO nanowires and dielectric layers and the heterogeneous catalytic reaction occurring on those structures. The electronic noses are able to distinguish between four volatile organic compound gases with a detection limit of 0.1% and work at room temperature without an external power source.

    8. An All-Solid-State Flexible Piezoelectric High-k Film Functioning as Both a Generator and In Situ Storage Unit

      Wangshu Tong, Yihe Zhang, Qian Zhang, Xinglong Luan, Fengzhu Lv, Leipeng Liu and Qi An

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503514

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      An all-solid-state flexible generator–capacitor film is fabricated by employing the dual role of PVDF-HFP: it serves as both the piezoelectric generator and the polymeric matrices of the capacitor. Chemically modified reduced graphene oxide fillers effectively enhance film permittivity. The film converts low-frequency biomechanical energy to stored electricity and can delayed release the electric signal on demand.

    9. Perovskite Photovoltaics for Dim-Light Applications

      Chien-Yu Chen, Jung-Hao Chang, Kai-Ming Chiang, Hong-Lin Lin, Sheng-Yi Hsiao and Hao-Wu Lin

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503448

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      Device engineering of perovskite photovoltaics dedicated to indoor dim-light applications is reported. The trap density in perovskite layer is effectively eliminated by judiciously controlling the fabrication of the electron-transporting layers. Small-area lab cell and 5.44 cm2 large-area device attain maximum efficiencies up to 27.4% and 20.4% under indoor illumination, respectively.

    10. Thermally Controlled, Patterned Graphene Transfer Printing for Transparent and Wearable Electronic/Optoelectronic System

      Moon Kee Choi, Inhyuk Park, Dong Chan Kim, Eehyung Joh, Ok Kyu Park, Jaemin Kim, Myungbin Kim, Changsoon Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Kyoung Won Cho, Jae-Ho Hwang, Jwa-Min Nam, Taeghwan Hyeon, Ji Hoon Kim and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502956

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      A thermally controlled transfer printing method that is specially designed for the multiple aligned transference of patterned graphene is developed. Through this approach, accurate and high-yield transference of patterned graphene onto diverse substances is achieved, allowing a transparent, stretchable, and wearable all-graphene electronic/optoelectronic system to be fabricated.

    11. Maximizing Transfection Efficiency of Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays

      Roey Elnathan, Bahman Delalat, Daniel Brodoceanu, Hashim Alhmoud, Frances J. Harding, Katrin Buehler, Adrienne Nelson, Lucio Isa, Tobias Kraus and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503465

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      An easy-to-implement approach to control geometrical parameters in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays, which are used in gene delivery by means of mechanical transfection, is provided. This is realized by combining nanosphere lithography and templated metal-assisted wet chemical etching. Optimized nanowire array configurations produce transfection efficiencies approaching 95%.

  7. Feature Articles

    1. Tuning Crystal Ordering, Electronic Structure, and Morphology in Organic Semiconductors: Tetrathiafulvalenes as a Model Case

      Raphael Pfattner, Stefan T. Bromley, Concepció Rovira and Marta Mas-Torrent

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502446

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      Tetrathiafulvalenes are promising active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), in which they exhibit high performances. An overview is provided of the use of this family of materials as a model building block for OFETs to highlight general concepts of organic semiconductors and their use in devices.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Contact-Induced Nucleation in High-Performance Bottom-Contact Organic Thin Film Transistors Manufactured by Large-Area Compatible Solution Processing

      Muhammad R. Niazi, Ruipeng Li, Maged Abdelsamie, Kui Zhao, Dalaver H. Anjum, Marcia M. Payne, John Anthony, Detlef-M. Smilgies and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502428

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Contact-induced nucleation, normally a desirable effect when spin-coating organic semiconductors (OSC), is shown to disrupt the crystallization of large OSC domains and to alter the vertical stratification of otherwise high-performance polymer:OSC blends.

    2. Understanding Polymorph Transformations in Core-Chlorinated Naphthalene Diimides and their Impact on Thin-Film Transistor Performance

      Geoffrey E. Purdum, Nan Yao, Arthur Woll, Thomas Gessner, Ralf Thomas Weitz and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502412

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Post-deposition annealing enables reversible thin-film structural rearrangement of a core-chlorinated naphthalene tetracarboxylic diimide between two distinct polymorphs. In situ spectroscopy and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction reveal the transformations to follow second-order Avrami kinetics. Thin-film transistor performance indicates in-plane anisotropy to dominate charge transport, and implicates 2D π-stacking to be more efficient for lateral charge transport than 1D π-stacking in polycrystalline thin films.

    3. Single Crystal-Like Performance in Solution-Coated Thin-Film Organic Field-Effect Transistors

      Freddy G. del Pozo, Simone Fabiano, Raphael Pfattner, Stamatis Georgakopoulos, Sergi Galindo, Xianjie Liu, Slawomir Braun, Mats Fahlman, Jaume Veciana, Concepció Rovira, Xavier Crispin, Magnus Berggren and Marta Mas-Torrent

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bar-assisted meniscus shearing of dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene is used to coat-process self-organized crystalline organic semiconducting domains with high reproducibility for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Electric field and temperature-independent charge carrier mobility as well as no bias stress effects are observed in these devices. A record-high gain in OFET inverters and exceptional operational stability in both air and water is demonstrated.


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