Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 35

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Full Papers

    1. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

      Ming-Hui Chiu, Wei-Hsuan Tseng, Hao-Ling Tang, Yung-Huang Chang, Chang-Hsiao Chen, Wei-Ting Hsu, Wen-Hao Chang, Chih-I Wu and Lain-Jong Li

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603756

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      The band alignment of stacked 2D material heterojunctions is experimentally proven to follow the Anderson's model. Based on this discovery it is demonstrated that electron affinity and band gap values are sufficient to construct the band alignment of stacked 2D heterojunctions.

    2. Au-Decorated Cracked Carbon Tube Arrays as Binder-Free Catalytic Cathode Enabling Guided Li2O2 Inner Growth for High-Performance Li-O2 Batteries

      Fangfang Tu, Junping Hu, Jian Xie, Gaoshao Cao, Shichao Zhang, Shengyuan A. Yang, Xinbing Zhao and Hui Ying Yang

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603088

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      Ni-supported carbon submicron tube arrays with Au decorated on the inner walls (Au@CST) catalyze conformal growth of thin-layered Li2O2 on the inner walls, leading to a high capacity and long cycle life of Li-O2 cells. The Li-O2 cell with an Au@CST array cathode maintains a stable cycling of 112 times under 400 mA g–1 at 500 mAh g–1.

    3. Direct Observation of Ferroelectric Domain Walls in LiNbO3: Wall-Meanders, Kinks, and Local Electric Charges

      Julie Gonnissen, Dmitry Batuk, Guillaume F. Nataf, Lewys Jones, Artem M. Abakumov, Sandra Van Aert, Dominique Schryvers and Ekhard K. H. Salje

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603489

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      The first direct observation of 180° walls in LiNbO3 is reported. The walls are not atomically flat but globally straight when considering a small thickness. Local excess charges populate the walls because these meander and each kink contains a charge. This can be used to construct walls with lots of meanders and hence high carrier densities, allowing novel device fabrications.

    4. Mechanically Robust Silver Nanowires Network for Triboelectric Nanogenerators

      Hyungseok Kang, Han Kim, Seongsu Kim, Hyeon Jin Shin, Siuk Cheon, Ji-Hyeok Huh, Dong Yun Lee, Seungwoo Lee, Sang-Woo Kim and Jeong Ho Cho

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603199

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      This study develops a mechanically robust silver nanowires (AgNWs) electrode platform for use in flexible and stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). The embedding of an AgNWs network into a photocurable or thermocurable polymeric matrix dramatically enhances the mechanical robustness of the flexible and stretchable TENG electrodes while maintaining a highly efficient triboelectric performance.

    5. High-κ Solid-Gate Transistor Configured Graphene Biosensor with Fully Integrated Structure and Enhanced Sensitivity

      Cheng Wang, Yijun Li, Yibo Zhu, Xiaohong Zhou, Qiao Lin and Miao He

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602960

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      High-κ solid-gate graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) devices for biosensing applications are developed by employing a planar metallic gate electrode buried by high-κ HfO2 dielectric layer. These GFET devices eliminate the requirement for an external wire gate electrode that improves the device integration degree, and perform with enhanced sensitivity compared to conventional liquid-gate GFET biosensors.

    6. Wettability of Supported Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride in Air

      Xuemei Li, Hu Qiu, Xiaofei Liu, Jun Yin and Wanlin Guo

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603181

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      Wettability of 2D h-BN is investigated with regard to the substrate dependence and effect of airborne contaminants. The water contact angle of a freshly prepared h-BN monolayer is independent of the substrates, but increases in ambient air due to the adsorption of airborne contaminants. The saturated contact angle in air is robust, facilitating the practical applications.

    7. Magnetic/Fluorescent Barcodes Based on Cadmium-Free Near-Infrared-Emitting Quantum Dots for Multiplexed Detection

      Yuankui Leng, Weijie Wu, Li Li, Kun Lin, Kang Sun, Xiaoyuan Chen and Wanwan Li

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602900

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      Magnetic/fluorescent barcodes based on cadmium-free near-infrared-emitting quantum dots(QDs) of CuInS2/ZnS QDs and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with strong encoding capacity are successfully combined with flow cytometer and one laser for multiplexed assay of tumor markers. Validating experiments also show good performance of the bifunctional barcode-based suspension array when dealing with patient serum samples, indicating their promising applications on multiplexed bioassay.

    8. High-Performance Ferroelectric Polymer Side-Gated CdS Nanowire Ultraviolet Photodetectors

      Dingshan Zheng, Hehai Fang, Peng Wang, Wenjin Luo, Fan Gong, Johnny C. Ho, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu, Lei Liao, Jianlu Wang and Weida Hu

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603152

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      A ferroelectric polymer side-gated CdS NW ultraviolet photodetector is demonstrated. The dark current of the device is reduced significantly after being depleted by the ultrahigh electrostatic field from polarization of ferroelectric polymer, exhibiting an ultrahigh detection performance. In addition, the spatially resolved scanning photocurrent mapping, noise characteristics, and noise equivalent power of the ultraviolet photodetector are investigated.

    9. Flexible Piezoelectric Nanocomposite Generators Based on Formamidinium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles

      Ran Ding, He Liu, Xiaoli Zhang, Juanxiu Xiao, Rahul Kishor, Huaxi Sun, Bowen Zhu, Geng Chen, Fei Gao, Xiaohua Feng, Jingsheng Chen, Xiaodong Chen, Xiaowei Sun and Yuanjin Zheng

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602634

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      The hybrid piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a composite of piezoelectric organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite materials and polydimethylsiloxane polymer are demonstrated. The recordable maximum piezoelectric output voltage and current density up to 8.5 V and 3.8 μA cm−2 are successfully obtained under periodically vertical compression.

    10. Mobile Silk Fibroin Electrode for Manipulation and Electrical Stimulation of Adherent Cells

      Tetsuhiko Teshima, Hiroshi Nakashima, Nahoko Kasai, Satoshi Sasaki, Aya Tanaka, Shingo Tsukada and Koji Sumitomo

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603302

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      Mobile electrodes composed of silk fibroin hydrogel with incorporated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are described. Because of their high biocompatibility, adherent cells can be loaded. High conductivity and mechanical stiffness also facilitate the manipulation and electrical stimulation of the cells via nanopallets while their adhesive properties and morphology are retained.

    11. Germanium Nanograin Decoration on Carbon Shell: Boosting Lithium-Storage Properties of Silicon Nanoparticles

      Wei Luo, Dengke Shen, Renyuan Zhang, Binwei Zhang, Yunxiao Wang, Shi Xue Dou, Hua Kun Liu and Jianping Yang

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603335

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      A facile Ge decoration on Si@C core–shell nanoparticles is developed via a sol–gel method. With this optimal design, Si@C@Ge core–satellite nanoparticles are expected to exhibit significant enhancement in structural stability and electrochemical kinetics, delivering an unprecedented capacity of 1854 mA h g−1 over 150 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 541 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1.

    12. Highly Sensitive, Wearable, Durable Strain Sensors, and Stretchable Conductors Using Graphene/Silicon Rubber Composites

      Ge Shi, Zhiheng Zhao, Jing-Hong Pai, Ivan Lee, Liqun Zhang, Craig Stevenson, Kalana Ishara, Rujing Zhang, Hongwei Zhu and Jun Ma

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602619

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      Sensors and conductors are fabricated from developed graphene/elastomer composites. Demonstrating response time below 50 ms, high cycling durability and a gauge factor of over 100, the sensors work well as a health-monitoring device, sound signal collector and human-machine interface detector. The conductors can be readily bent and stretched with exceptional mechanical robustness and cyclability.

    13. Tunable Structural Color Surfaces with Visually Self-Reporting Wettability

      Cihui Liu, Haibo Ding, Ziqian Wu, Bingbing Gao, Fanfan Fu, Luoran Shang, Zhongze Gu and Yuanjin Zhao

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602935

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      Lubricant-infused elastic inverse opal films with tunable and visually “self-reporting” surface wettability are developed. The inverse opal structure of the films can not only lock in the infused lubricating fluid to construct slippery surfaces for repelling droplets of various liquids but also self-report their surface status as a visualized structural color change.

    14. Gas Pickering Emulsion Templated Hollow Carbon for High Rate Performance Lithium Sulfur Batteries

      Matthew Li, Yining Zhang, Xiaolei Wang, Wook Ahn, Gaopeng Jiang, Kun Feng, Gregory Lui and Zhongwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603241

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      A gas Pickering emulsion is used to synthesize porous hollow carbon, taking advantage of the dual role of the nanoparticle as both an emulsion stabilizer and a pore template for the shell. Impressive rate performance is observed and investigated, providing valuable insight into the mechanistic benefits of hollow structures for lithium sulfur battery applications.

    15. Graphene-Mimicking 2D Porous Co3O4 Nanofoils for Lithium Battery Applications

      Wonsik Eom, Ayoung Kim, Hun Park, Hansu Kim and Tae Hee Han

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602320

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      2D porous Co3O4 nanofoils without the loss of 2D nature of graphene oxide (GO) are prepared by using GO as a sacrificial template. By taking advantage of the catalytic ability of Co3O4 to degrade carbon backbones, as well as the thermal instability of graphene, porous 2D Co3O4 nanofoils consisting of Co3O4 nanocrystals (about 10–20 nm in diameter) are successfully synthesized and exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1279.0 mAh g−1 even after 50 cycles.

    16. Patterned Nanowire Electrode Array for Direct Extraction of Photosynthetic Electrons from Multiple Living Algal Cells

      Lo Hyun Kim, Yong Jae Kim, Hyeonaug Hong, Dasom Yang, Myungjin Han, Gu Yoo, Hyun Woo Song, Youngcheol Chae, Jae-Chul Pyun, Arthur R. Grossman and WonHyoung Ryu

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602171

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      Nanowire electrode arrays for insertion of multiple algal cells are developed to directly extract photosynthetic electrons by wet-tapped nanosphere lithography. Insertions into multiple cells are investigated and the corresponding photosynthetic currents are analyzed by light intensity, inhibition, and potential biases. This shows the possibility for scalable harvesting of high-energy photosynthetic electrons from multiple living algal cells.

    17. Rapid Fabrication of Soft, Multilayered Electronics for Wearable Biomonitoring

      Michael D. Bartlett, Eric J. Markvicka and Carmel Majidi

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602733

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      A new rapid fabrication method for stretchable electronics is demonstrated that enables efficient assembly of multifunctional devices through a combination of rapid laser machining and transfer printing. This seamlessly integrates soft and rigid materials with a variety of shapes (2D/3D) and sizes (0.01–100 cm2), including integrated circuits. Two wireless, wearable embodiments are demonstrated and characterized.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Carbon-Nanotube–PDMS Composite Coatings on Optical Fibers for All-Optical Ultrasound Imaging

      Sacha Noimark, Richard J. Colchester, Ben J. Blackburn, Edward Z. Zhang, Erwin J. Alles, Sebastien Ourselin, Paul C. Beard, Ioannis Papakonstantinou, Ivan P. Parkin and Adrien E. Desjardins

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601337

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      Creation of three types of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube–polymer composite coatings with high optical absorption and micrometer-scale thickness on the distal end of optical fibers using a dip-coating method. These coated fibers are used as all-optical ultrasound transmitters and achieve high ultrasound pressures and broad frequency bandwidths, showing a high level of clinically relevant detail in pulse-echo ultrasound imaging of an aorta.

    19. Facile Synthesis of 3D Graphene Flowers for Ultrasensitive and Highly Reversible Gas Sensing

      Jin Wu, Shuanglong Feng, Xingzhan Wei, Jun Shen, Wenqiang Lu, Haofei Shi, Kai Tao, Shirong Lu, Tai Sun, Leyong Yu, Chunlei Du, Jianmin Miao and Leslie K. Norford

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603598

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      3D graphene flower (GF) structures are synthesized successfully by exploiting facile microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GF growth mechanism is revealed. The synthesized GF are employed to detect NO2 gas with ultrahigh sensitivity (133.2 ppm−1), good selectivity, reversibility, and ultrafast recovery. The high sensing performance is attributed to the porous structures, abundant oxygenated functional groups, and defects.

    20. Red- to NIR-Emitting, BODIPY-Based, K+-Selective Fluoroionophores and Sensing Materials

      Bernhard J. Müller, Sergey M. Borisov and Ingo Klimant

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603822

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      New fluorescence sensor materials for K+-ions are prepared by using bright red- to NIR-emitting borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluoroionophores with a highly selective crown ether receptor. Incorporation of these indicator dyes into different polymer matrixes yields solid-state sensing materials as well as water-dispersible nanoparticles. The sensors show no cross sensitivity to other ions and pH in the physiological range.