Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 28

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Feature Articles

    1. A Review of Three-Dimensional Resistive Switching Cross-Bar Array Memories from the Integration and Materials Property Points of View

      Jun Yeong Seok, Seul Ji Song, Jung Ho Yoon, Kyung Jean Yoon, Tae Hyung Park, Dae Eun Kwon, Hyungkwang Lim, Gun Hwan Kim, Doo Seok Jeong and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303520

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      Three-dimensional resistive switching cross-bar array memories are highly desirable future memory devices for data centric computation. Issues in the circuitry, integration, and material properties of the two- and three-dimensional crossbar array memories are dealt with in a quantitative manner. The impressive progress in theoretical understanding and fabrication of these devices achieved during the past decade is summarized, and an outlook on possible applications is further provided.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Particle Accretion Mechanism Underlies Biological Crystal Growth from an Amorphous Precursor Phase

      Assaf Gal, Keren Kahil, Netta Vidavsky, Ross T. DeVol, Pupa U. P. A. Gilbert, Peter Fratzl, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400676

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      Single calcite crystals are grown by amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particle-accretion using a synthetic procedure inspired by biogenic systems. The transformation of solid ACC particles in the presence of certain additives retards the classical dissolution-precipitation process facilitating growth by a particle-mediated process. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of biogenic and synthetic single crystal growth.

    2. Magnetization Reversal in CsNiIICrIII(CN)6 Coordination Nanoparticles: Unravelling Surface Anisotropy and Dipolar Interaction Effects

      Yoann Prado, Sandra Mazerat, Eric Rivière, Guillaume Rogez, Alexandre Gloter, Odile Stéphan, Laure Catala and Talal Mallah

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400741

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      The interplay between dipolar interaction, surface anisotropy, and size control at the molecular level allows us to finely tune the magnetic anisotropy, the energy barrier for the reorientation of the magnetization, and the blocking temperatures (4 to 22 K) of individual CsNiCr(CN)6 coordination nanoparticles. Upon dilution of the objects, the coercive field shifts from 50 to 230 Oe for 6 nm objects, highlighting the contribution of surface anisotropy.

    3. Carbon-Interconnected Ge Nanocrystals as an Anode with Ultra-Long-Term Cyclability for Lithium Ion Batteries

      Duc Tung Ngo, Ramchandra S. Kalubarme, Hang T. T. Le, John G. Fisher, Choong-Nyeon Park, Il-Doo Kim and Chan-Jin Park

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400888

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      A novel, facile synthetic route to produce nanometer-sized Ge interconnected by carbon is proposed. Amorphous GeO2/C composite is synthesized by the decomposition of a germanium-citrate complex at relatively low temperature followed by calcination in an inert atmosphere. Low-temperature reaction prevents the aggregation of Ge observed at high temperatures. Electrodes based on nanometer-sized Ge interconnected by a carbon layer show excellent electrochemical performances and great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    4. Conjugated Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (C-PIMs)

      Ge Cheng, Baltasar Bonillo, Reiner S. Sprick, Dave J. Adams, Tom Hasell and Andrew I. Cooper

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401001

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      A range of linear conjugated polymers of intrinsic microporosity (C-PIMs) is reported, combining for the first time the properties of conjugated microporous polymers (tunable electronic properties, compositional variation) and linear polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs; solution processability and film formation). These soluble materials have a number of potential applications, for example as components in devices where large, porous interfaces are combined with extended electronic conjugation.

    5. Bifunctional Separator with a Light-Weight Carbon-Coating for Dynamically and Statically Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

      Sheng-Heng Chung and Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400845

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      A bifunctional separator with a light-weight carbon-coating offers excellent dynamic electrochemical stability with Li-S cells: a high initial discharge capacity of 1389 mA h g−1 and long cycle life. The static electrochemical stability is further evidenced by low self-discharge and excellent capacity retention after a 3 month rest period.

    6. Co-deposited Cu(I) Complex for Tri-layered Yellow and White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Xiaochen Liu, Tao Zhang, Tianchi Ni, Nan Jiang, Zhiwei Liu, Zuqiang Bian, Zhenghong Lu and Chunhui Huang

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400685

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      Four pyridyl or isoquinolyl containing compounds are designed and synthesized to co-deposition with copper iodide (CuI) in a vacuum chamber to form luminescent Cu(I) complex doped film, which could be utilized as the emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Consequently, efficient and simplified tri-layered yellow and white OLEDs are achieved by varying the CuI doping concentrations.

    7. Nanometric Micelles with Photo-Triggered Cytotoxicity

      Parambath Anilkumar, Edmond Gravel, Ioanna Theodorou, Karine Gombert, Benoit Thézé, Frédéric Ducongé and Eric Doris

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400840

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      The development of a photo-responsive micellar system capable of triggering cell death is reported. Illumination of the photo-responsive micelles produces a cytotoxic species that is utilized in the on-demand inhibition of cellular proliferation.

    8. An All-Ceramic Solid-State Rechargeable Na+-Battery Operated at Intermediate Temperatures

      Tao Wei, Yunhui Gong, Xuan Zhao and Kevin Huang

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400773

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      A ceramic based solid state rechargeable Na+-battery is demonstrated with good reversible and stable capacity when operated at 250–350 °C, extremely low self-discharge rate, and excellent tolerance to thermal cycling.

    9. Large, Temperature-Tunable Low-Field Magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3:NiO Nanocomposite Films Modulated by Microstructures

      Xingkun Ning, Zhanjie Wang and Zhidong Zhang

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400735

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      (LSMO)5:(NiO)5 nanocomposite films have a checkerboard-like structure and show a large LFMR in a temperature range from 200 to 300 K (≈17% at 250 K with a magnetic field of 1T). By contrast, the (LSMO)3:(NiO)7 nanocomposite films have anano-columnar structure with a large LFMR of 41% at 10 K and1 T.

    10. Construction of White-Light-Emitting Silk Protein Hybrid Films by Molecular Recognized Assembly among Hierarchical Structures

      Naibo Lin, Fan Hu, Yilin Sun, Chenxu Wu, Hongyao Xu and Xiang Yang Liu

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400249

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      White-light-emitting silk protein/quantum dot hybrid films are successfully prepared by controlling the molar ratio of blue luminescent ZnSe and yellow luminescent CdTe quantum dots via an assembly method based on hydrogen bonding. The silk films with uniform quantum dot dispersion show unique advantages, and are a promising candidate for application in optical devices.

    11. Precise Tuning of (YBa2Cu3O7-δ)1-x:(BaZrO3)x Thin Film Nanocomposite Structures

      Run Zhao, Weiwei Li, Joon Hwan Lee, Eun Mi Choi, Yan Liang, Wei Zhang, Rujun Tang, Haiyan Wang, Quanxi Jia, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll and Hao Yang

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304302

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      The precise tuning of inorganic nanocomposite thin films is realized using (YBa2Cu3O7-δ)1-x:(BaZrO3)x as a model system. A nanostructure switch from a vertical columnar structure to a horizontal multilayered structure is found with a transition, cross-ply structure at x = 0.4. Energetic considerations are used to explain the observed structures.

    12. A Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a High Areal Energy Density

      Joo-Seong Kim, Tae Hoon Hwang, Byung Gon Kim, Jaeyun Min and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400935

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      The highest areal energy density to date of a lithium-sulfur battery is demonstrated by the combined smart engineering of the key cell components (electrode, electrolyte, and separator). The integrated strategy suppresses both lithium polysulfide dissolution from the sulfur cathode and lithium dendrite growth from the lithium anode, leading to the highest areal capacity of 9 mAh cm−2 while preserving stable cyclability.

    13. Multi-Alternating Organic Semiconducting Films with High Electric Conductivity

      Hin-Wai Mo, Ming-Fai Lo, Qing-Dan Yang, Tsz-Wai Ng and Chun-Sing Lee

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400468

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      High conductivity in a thick organic multi­layer stack (up to 4 × 102 S cm-1) is reported. It is shown that the high conductivity comes from the charge-transfer complex interface between m-MTDATA and F16CuPc.

    14. Optical Gain in the Near Infrared by Light-Emitting Electrospun Fibers

      Giovanni Morello, Maria Moffa, Salvatore Girardo, Andrea Camposeo and Dario Pisignano

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400395

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      Optical gain in the near infrared spectral range is demonstrated in electrospun fibers. The fibers can be aligned in free-standing arrays and show amplified spontaneous emission as well as self-waveguiding properties. The infrared optical gain opens the way for the embedding of electrospun materials in fiber amplifiers and nanolasers.

    15. Synergistic Enhancement of Lung Cancer Therapy Through Nanocarrier-Mediated Sequential Delivery of Superantigen and Tyrosin Kinase Inhibitor

      Da Li, Yongbin Li, Haibo Xing, Junling Guo, Yuan Ping and Guping Tang

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400456

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      Sequential delivery of superantigen and tryrosin kinase inhibitor by nanocarriers is proven to synergistically promote lung cancer therapy. The new therapeutic modality combines the advantages of superantigens to activate antitumor immunity with the specificity feature of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to selectively induce tumor cell apoptosis. This proof-of-concept study defines a unique strategy of effective lung cancer therapy for future clinical translation.

    16. Understanding Lattice Strain-Controlled Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors: A Computational Study

      Xiaoyan Zheng, Hua Geng, Yuanping Yi, Qikai Li, Yuqian Jiang, Dong Wang and Zhigang Shuai

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400261

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      Motivated by recent solution-shearing experiments, a multiscale theoretical approach is employed to investigate charge-transport properties of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene under various lattice strains, enabling a deep understanding of the lattice strain–molecular packing–charge carrier mobility relationship. The elucidated structure–property relationship is a prerequisite to efficient and targeted control of charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    17. Luminescent Graphene Oxide with a Peptide-Quencher Complex for Optical Detection of Cell-Secreted Proteases by a Turn-On Response

      Seon-Yeong Kwak, Jin-Kyoung Yang, Su-Ji Jeon, Hye-In Kim, Joonhyuk Yim, Homan Kang, San Kyeong, Yoon-Sik Lee and Jong-Ho Kim

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400001

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      A graphene oxide (GO) fluorescence-based protease sensor consisting of a luminescent GO donor conjugated with a peptide-quencher complex detects cell-secreted proteases. The most effective quencher for GO fluorescence creates a GO–peptide–QXL optical sensor for protease detection. The quenched fluorescence of GO is restored by the proteolytic cleavage of a peptide quencher moiety from the sensor. This “turn-on” optical sensor detects MMP-2 secreted from live cells with high sensitivity.

    18. Trilevel-Structured Superhydrophobic Pillar Arrays with Tunable Optical Functions

      Sanghyuk Wooh, Jai Hyun Koh, Soojin Lee, Hyunsik Yoon and Kookheon Char

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400228

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      A highly transparent multilevel structure consisting of sub-100 nm nanoparticles with excellent water repellency is deve­loped using a soft molding technique. Suppressing Mie scattering, high transparency is achieved in the structure with a low density of micro-features. Moreover, a thin silica film and photoresponsive dyes attached to TiO2 nanoparticles are further introduced to realize multifunctional surfaces with high stability against UV light.

    19. Organic Field Effect Transistors Based on Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures

      Seok Ju Kang, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Young-Jun Yu, Yue Zhao, Bumjung Kim, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, James Hone, Philip Kim and Colin Nuckolls

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400348

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      Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) based on 2D graphene and hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures are fabricated by a dry-transfer method. The resulting heterostructured OFETs exhibit both high mobility and low operating voltage due to the atomically sharp interfaces of hBN flake and efficient charge carrier-injection from graphene electrodes.