Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

  1. Full Papers

    1. Side Chain Optimization of Naphthalenediimide–Bithiophene-Based Polymers to Enhance the Electron Mobility and the Performance in All-Polymer Solar Cells

      Wonho Lee, Changyeon Lee, Hojeong Yu, Dong-Jun Kim, Cheng Wang, Han Young Woo, Joon Hak Oh and Bumjoon J. Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504191

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      The effect of side chain modification of naphthalenediimide–bithiophene (NDI-T2)-based n-type polymers on their structural and electronic properties has been investigated. The P(NDI2HD-T2)-based all-polymer solar cells produce much better performance than other NDI-T2-based devices (i.e., P(NDI2OD-T2) (Polyera Activink N2200)) irrespective of the electron donor due to superb electron transport ability of P(NDI2HD-T2).

    2. Wetting-Assisted Crack- and Wrinkle-Free Transfer of Wafer-Scale Graphene onto Arbitrary Substrates over a Wide Range of Surface Energies

      Hyun Ho Kim, Seong Kyu Lee, Seung Goo Lee, Eunho Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504551

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      During transfer of graphene films defects, such as folds and cracks, are generated by wrinkles in the supporting polymer layer. Transfer by a low-surface tension organic liquid prevents this wrinkle formation, resulting in high-quality and uniform graphene on arbitrary substrates.

    3. Low-Overpotential Li–O2 Batteries Based on TFSI Intercalated Co–Ti Layered Double Oxides

      Shu-Mao Xu, Qian-Cheng Zhu, Jie Long, Hong-Hui Wang, Xing-Fei Xie, Kai-Xue Wang and Jie-Sheng Chen

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504128

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      Investigation on the compatibility at the interface between a highly active catalyst and the electrolyte is crucial for lithium–oxygen battery cathodes with excellent ­cycling stability. A strategy is developed to achieve balance between the catalytic activity and the electrochemical stability by the intercalation of bistrifluoromethane sulfonamide (TFSI) anions into ­interlayers of a cobalt–titanium-layered double oxide.

    4. Toward Biodegradable Mg–Air Bioelectric Batteries Composed of Silk Fibroin–Polypyrrole Film

      Xiaoteng Jia, Caiyun Wang, Chen Zhao, Yu Ge and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503498

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      A partially biodegradable bilayer-structured film composed of silk fibroin and polypyrrole demonstrates an 82% mass loss after 15 d incubation in buffered protease XIV solution. It can offer an energy density of ≈4.70 mW h cm−2 when coupled with Mg alloy in phosphate buffered saline. This battery system may provide appropriate power for temporary implantable electronics coupled with the required degradation profile.

    5. A Large-Area, Flexible, and Flame-Retardant Graphene Paper

      Liye Dong, Chuangang Hu, Long Song, Xianke Huang, Nan Chen and Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504470

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      A flame-retardant piece of free ­standing graphene paper is developed by ­using graphene oxide and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene. The graphene paper shows efficient flame retardant properties in combustion. The improved thermal stability of graphene opens new possibilities for various applications, including the use as civil, military, and aerospace flame retardant.

    6. Manipulating Electronic Energy Disorder in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Enhanced Charge Carrier Transport

      Sangjin Lee, David Zhitomirsky and Jeffrey C. Grossman

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504816

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      Disorder in localized energy states in colloidal quantum dot materials largely degrades their charge carrier mobility. Rearrangements of colloidal quantum dot solids effectively modify the charge transport trends, including easing the mobility drop even in high polydisperse cases. Doubled charge carrier mobility presents an avenue toward enhanced charge extractions in photovoltaic devices.

    7. Large-Area Ultrathin Graphene Films by Single-Step Marangoni Self-Assembly for Highly Sensitive Strain Sensing Application

      Xinming Li, Tingting Yang, Yao Yang, Jia Zhu, Li Li, Fakhr E. Alam, Xiao Li, Kunlin Wang, Huanyu Cheng, Cheng-Te Lin, Ying Fang and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504717

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      An environment-friendly and cost-effective method to fabricate large-area ultrathin graphene films is proposed for highly sensitive flexible strain sensing applications. This simple Marangoni-effect-based fabrication makes it a novel approach to applications in electronic skin, wearable sensors, and health monitoring platforms.

    8. Plasmonic Nanoparticles as a Physically Unclonable Function for Responsive Anti-Counterfeit Nanofingerprints

      Alison F. Smith, Paul Patton and Sara E. Skrabalak

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503989

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      An optical physically unclonable function using a random distribution of Au nanoparticles is presented, with the additional functionality of refractive index based environmental sensing using both Au and Ag nanoparticles. This system provides facile fabrication of anti-counterfeit labels, with total dimensions on the microscale for applications in pharmaceutical and electronic counterfeit prevention.

    9. Spray Deposition of Titania Films with Incorporated Crystalline Nanoparticles for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using P3HT

      Lin Song, Weijia Wang, Volker Körstgens, Daniel Moseguí González, Yuan Yao, Norma K. Minar, Johann M. Feckl, Kristina Peters, Thomas Bein, Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Gonzalo Santoro, Stephan V. Roth and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504498

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      All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell performance is tuned by the addition of presynthesized crystalline titania nanoparticles. Films with 50 wt% nano­particles possess the network morphology best suited for poly(3-hexylthiophene) infiltration. Due to optimal crystal size and highest conductivity, the corresponding solar cells show the best photovoltaic performance.

    10. Efficiency Roll-Off in Blue Emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Carbazole Host Materials

      Chaoyu Xiang, Xiangyu Fu, Wei Wei, Rui Liu, Yong Zhang, Viktor Balema, Bryce Nelson and Franky So

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504357

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      The efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using different carbazole compounds as the host is studied. While there is no significant difference in device efficiency, OLEDs using ter-carbazole as the host show a reduction in efficiency roll-off at high luminance. Low triplet–triplet and triplet–polaron interactions are identified as the main cause of the suppressed roll-off.

    11. Native Defect-Induced Hysteresis Behavior in Organolead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells

      Hui Yu, Haipeng Lu, Fangyan Xie, Shuang Zhou and Ni Zhao

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504997

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      The origin of the currentvoltage hysteresis is studied by fine-tuning the precursor ratio of methylammonium lead iodide and thus varying the native defects in the material. The lower activation energy of the “PbI2 excess” and “stoichiometric” samples indicates that the presence of MA vacancies may provide a favorable pathway for the migration of iodide ions.

    12. Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium Cobaltite Films

      Jonathan R. Petrie, Chandrima Mitra, Hyoungjeen Jeen, Woo Seok Choi, Tricia L. Meyer, Fernando A. Reboredo, John W. Freeland, Gyula Eres and Ho Nyung Lee

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504868

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      The application of epitaxial strain to perovskite-based cobaltites is shown to allow oxygen stoichiometries not possible before in highly oxidizing conditions, resulting in the precise control of functional oxygen defects at reduced temperatures (≤300 °C). Due to the additional oxygen vacancies created through tensile strain, epitaxial SrCoOx films can be tuned from a ferromagnetic metal to an antiferromagnetic insulator in the same environment, enhancing the functionality of such oxides independent of the operating conditions.

    13. Scaffolded Thermally Remendable Hybrid Polymer Networks

      Gayla Berg Lyon, Austin Baranek and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201505368

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      Two distinct networks, one fixed and one reversible, are reacted simultaneously to create a “scaffolded” thermally remendable polymer. At elevated temperature, the Diels–Alder network depolymerizes and can flow into damaged regions, while the polyurethane network maintains the permanent shape of the sample. The catalyst-free, solvent-free process can be performed repeatedly without concern of depleting the Diels–Alder monomers.

  2. Feature Articles

    1. Predicting the Self-Assembly of Superparamagnetic Colloids under Magnetic Fields

      Jordi Faraudo, Jordi S. Andreu, Carles Calero and Juan Camacho

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504839

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      Recent theoretical advances allow quantitative predictions of self-assembly of superparamagnetic colloids under magnetic fields. This article describes how to employ self-assembly thermodynamics to predict the possible assembled structures from the properties of the colloidal suspension (particle, size, magnetization, concentration, temperature). Quantitative prediction of kinetics is also discussed for the cases in which equilibrium theory is not relevant.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Near-Infrared Plasmonic 2D Semimetals for Applications in Communication and Biology

      Zhengfeng Zhu, Yousheng Zou, Weida Hu, Yuebin Li, Yu Gu, Bingqiang Cao, Nan Guo, Lin Wang, Jizhong Song, Shengli Zhang, Haoshuang Gu and Haibo Zeng

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504884

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      Novel near-infrared plasmonic properties are discovered in thickness- and width-controlled 2D TiS2 nanosheets. These properties can be harnessed to improve the photodetection performance in the spectral communication window (1200–1600 nm). Additionally, the biologically accessible spectral window (700–1200 nm) can be therapeutically employed to generate a photothermal temperature rise of 50 °C.

    2. 3D Hierarchical Co/CoO-Graphene-Carbonized Melamine Foam as a Superior Cathode toward Long-Life Lithium Oxygen Batteries

      Peng Zhang, Rutao Wang, Mu He, Junwei Lang, Shan Xu and Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503907

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      Core–shell structured Co/CoO with high LiO2 adsorption energy is proven to be a superior preservative for carbon-based Li-O2 batteries. The design is based on a 3D Co/CoO-graphene-carbonized polymer foam. The preservative reduces the side reaction and improves the cycle stability of Li-O2 batteries by inducing Li2O2 growth on itself instead of the carbon surfaces.

  4. Feature Articles

    1. The Transient Localization Scenario for Charge Transport in Crystalline Organic Materials

      Simone Fratini, Didier Mayou and Sergio Ciuchi

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201502386

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      Charge transport in crystalline organic semiconductors is intrinsically limited by the presence of large thermal molecular motions. These lead to an original regime of transport called transient localization, sharing features of both localized and itinerant electron systems. Here, an overview of recent theoretical descriptions of the phenomenon is provided, alongside their experimental implications.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Substrate-Induced and Thin-Film Phases: Polymorphism of Organic Materials on Surfaces

      Andrew O. F. Jones, Basab Chattopadhyay, Yves H. Geerts and Roland Resel

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503169

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      Substrate-induced phases are polymorphs with a molecular packing distinct from the bulk, forming in the vicinity of a solid substrate. Predominantly known for organic semiconducting molecules such as pentacene, they are found to be an intrinsic material property, forming due to the inherent structural anisotropy of organic systems. Their origins may be traced to the substrate geometry and the structure of any underlying wetting or monolayers.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Manipulation of Disodium Rhodizonate: Factors for Fast-Charge and Fast-Discharge Sodium-Ion Batteries with Long-Term Cyclability

      Chengliang Wang, Yaoguo Fang, Yang Xu, Liying Liang, Min Zhou, Huaping Zhao and Yong Lei

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504537

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      Factors determining the performance of sodium-ion batteries are investigated. To achieve improved cyclability, control of solubility through molecular design, proper determination of the electrochemical window and binder selection are shown to be essential. Moreover, decent charge transport and ionic diffusion are demonstrated to be favorable for fast-charge and fast-discharge.

    2. Polymorphism and Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Dicyano-Distyrylbenzene Derivative with Multiple Trifluoromethyl Substituents: Intermolecular Interactions in Play

      Shinto Varghese, Sang Kyu Park, Santiago Casado, Roland Resel, Reinhold Wannemacher, Larry Lüer, Soo Young Park and Johannes Gierschner

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503371

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      Stimulated emission in the polymorphs CN-TFPA is investigated. Delicate interplay between the intermolecular interactions leads to polymorphs with distinctly different emission behavior. Only the blue form displays light amplification with low threshold, while the green form does not. These suffice the fact that the intermolecular interactions are decisive in the optical, electronic, and light amplification properties in organic materials.

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