Macromolecular Bioscience

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Kirsten Severing, Editor: Anne Pfisterer

Online ISSN: 1616-5195

Associated Title(s): Advanced Healthcare Materials, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, Macromolecular Rapid Communications

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  1. 1 - 43
  1. Communications

    1. Tumor-Targeting Co-Delivery of Drug and Gene from Temperature-Triggered Micelles

      Seog-Jin Seo, Seon-Young Lee, Seong-Jun Choi and Hae-Won Kim

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500137

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      Our multifunctional nanocarrier system designed for tumor-targeting co-delivery shows controlled release behaviors of hydrophobic molecules at tumors by a temperature trigger and receptor-mediated gene delivery. The unique property of this system is demonstrated by a series of logical characterization measurements, which suggests that this system has a potential for the hyperthermia treatment.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Trivalent Cation Induced Bundle Formation of Filamentous fd Phages

      Nuriye Korkmaz Zirpel and Eun Jin Park

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500046

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      Aggregated bacteriophage bundles are obtained upon treatment of filamentous fd phages with trivalent counterions of varying ionic radii. Condensation of phages results in formation of either networking layer-like structures or denser intertwined agglomerated phage constructs. Self-assembly of molecular sub-units into functional assemblies in vivo and in vitro can be understood by studying polyelectrolyte properties of biomolecules like phages.

  3. Review

    1. Polyphosphate: A Morphogenetically Active Implant Material Serving as Metabolic Fuel for Bone Regeneration

      Werner E. G. Müller, Emad Tolba, Heinz C. Schröder and Xiaohong Wang

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500100

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      Polyphosphate (polyP) is a natural inorganic polymer that is synthesized in cells in close vicinity of bone tissue. This polymer is biocompatible and bioresorbable. The characteristic features of polyP are the physiological origin and the huge conserved reservoir of metabolic energy. Since Ca-polyP is built of phosphate and Ca2+, it can be fabricated to bone scaffolds.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Synergistically Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy by Co-delivery Doxorubicin and Curcumin Polymeric Micelles

      Jinling Wang, Wenzhuan Ma and Pengfei Tu

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500043

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      Co-encapsulated DOX and Cur micelles are designed to simultaneously deliver chemotherapeutic drug and multi-drug resistance (MDR) modulator to tumor sites. Co-delivery micelles exhibited excellent cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and cellular apoptosis in MCF7/Adr cells, and effective tumor inhibitory effects in 4T1-bearing mice. Therefore, co-encapsulated DOX and Cur micelles could be a promising vehicle for overcoming MDR and improving antitumor efficacy.

    2. Nanoparticle Formulation of AEA and BAEA Cellulose Carbamates Increases Biocompatibility and Antimicrobial Activity

      Cornelia Wiegand, Melanie Nikolajski, Uta-Christina Hipler and Thomas Heinze

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500031

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      Antimicrobially active polymers gain increasing interest in health care. AEA and BAEA cellulose carbamates exhibit a significant antimicrobial activity with moderate cell compatibility. Biocompatibility is enhanced by nanoparticle formulation. AEA cellulose carbamate NPs demonstrate a ratio of LC50/IC50 that is four to six times higher than that of BAEA cellulose carbamate NPs.

    3. Hyaluronic Acid/Poly-l-Lysine Multilayers as Reservoirs for Storage and Release of Small Charged Molecules

      Vladimir Z. Prokopović, Claus Duschl and Dmitry Volodkin

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500093

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      Polyelectrolyte multilayer films composed of biocompatible polymers hyaluronic acid and poly-l-lysine are assembled and their ability to store and release small charged molecules is studied. The films show high storage capacity and sustain release profiles, and these phenomena are explained by the proposed mechanism based on charge balance and polymer dynamics in the film.

    4. Poly-l-Lysine–Poly[HPMA] Block Copolymers Obtained by RAFT Polymerization as Polyplex-Transfection Reagents with Minimal Toxicity

      Kristof Tappertzhofen, Franziska Weiser, Evelyn Montermann, Angelika Reske-Kunz, Matthias Bros and Rudolf Zentel

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500022

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      Polyplexes from cationic poly-l-lysine–b–poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (p[HPMA]) block copolymers and p-DNA mediate efficient cellular uptake and facilitate transfection, while showing minimal toxicity. Hence, they may present suitable polymeric transfection vectors for sensitive immune cells.

    5. Selective Cell Adhesion and Biosensing Applications of Bio-Active Block Copolymers Prepared by CuAAC/Thiol-ene Double Click Reactions

      Gizem Oyman Eyrilmez, Sean Doran, Eljesa Murtezi, Bilal Demir, Dilek Odaci Demirkol, Hakan Coskunol, Suna Timur and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500099

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      N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-polycaprolactone block copolymer (PMMA-b-PCL-NAC) is synthesized using one-pot photoinduced sequential CuAAC/thiol-ene double click procedure. The constructed surfaces within the modification of RGD peptide are used for the selective cell binding in the way of cell viability and electrochemical biosensing platform. Glioblastoma cells are found to be more selective to PMMA-b-PCL-NAC/RGD surface than HaCaT keratinocytes.

  5. Communications

    1. POxylated Polyurea Dendrimers: Smart Core-Shell Vectors with IC50 Lowering Capacity

      Rita B. Restani, João Conde, Rita F. Pires, Pedro Martins, Alexandra R. Fernandes, Pedro V. Baptista, Vasco D. B. Bonifácio and Ana Aguiar-Ricardo

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500131

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      Core-shell nanocarriers obtained by POxylation of polyurea dendrimers in supercritical CO2 are able to reduce 100-fold the IC50 dose of encapsulated placlitaxel. These water-soluble smart vectors are intrinsically fluorescent, pH responsive, and show lower toxicity when compared to pristine PURE-type dendrimers. POxylation using oligo-oxazolines is presented as a novel tool for next generation low cost and highly efficient nanotherapeutics.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Dual-Responsive pH and Temperature Sensitive Nanoparticles Based on Methacrylic Acid and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate for the Triggered Release of Drugs

      Yee Yee Khine, Yanyan Jiang, Aydan Dag, Hongxu Lu and Martina H. Stenzel

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500057

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      Modulation of the cloud point of PDEGMA by copolymerization with methacrylic acid resulted in the formation of a micelle shell that is not only responsive to temperature changes, but also the pH changes. The release of the drug was significantly accelerated above the cloud point causing the triggered release of the in a slightly acidic environment.

    2. Biodegradable Microcarriers of Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) and Nano-Hydroxyapatite Decorated with IGF-1 via Polydopamine Coating for Enhancing Cell Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation

      Tianlin Gao, Ning Zhang, Zongliang Wang, Yu Wang, Ya Liu, Yoshihiro Ito and Peibiao Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500069

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      The poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) microcarriers are fabricated by O/W emulsion, and IGF-1 is effectively immobilized on the microcarriers by polydopamine coating. After the immobilization of IGF-1, the PLGA/HA microcarriers exhibit excellent bioactivities for supporting the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, which is promising in the bone tissue engineering.

    3. Injectable Hyaluronan Hydrogels with Peptide-Binding Dendrimers Modulate the Controlled Release of BMP-2 and TGF-β1

      Ryan J. Seelbach, Peter Fransen, Daniel Pulido, Matteo D'Este, Fabian Duttenhoefer, Sebastian Sauerbier, Thomas M. Freiman, Philipp Niemeyer, Fernando Albericio, Mauro Alini, Miriam Royo, Alvaro Mata and David Eglin

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500082

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      The molecular architecture of an injectable hydrogel carrier is modulated with dendrimers designed to selectively bind proteins. Hence, growth factor-loaded biomaterials augmented with these affinity binding nanostructures can attenuate the local delivery of drugs that promote bone regeneration.

    4. Cationic Polyrotaxanes as a Feasible Framework for the Intracellular Delivery and Sustainable Activity of Anionic Enzymes: A Comparison Study with Methacrylate-Based Polycations

      Atsushi Tamura, Go Ikeda, Kei Nishida and Nobuhiko Yui

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500083

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      To ascertain the effect of supramolecular backbone structure of cationic polyrotaxanes in the intracellular delivery of anionic enzymes, the physichochemical properties and the intracellular delivery efficacy of the complexes were investigated in comparison to a linear polycation.

    5. Silver Nanoparticle Coated Bioactive Glasses – Composites with Dex/CMC Hydrogels: Characterization, Solubility, and In Vitro Biological Studies

      Anthony W. Wren, Pegah Hassanzadeh, Lana M. Placek, Timothy J. Keenan, Aisling Coughlan, Lydia R. Boutelle and Mark R. Towler

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500109

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      This study sees the synthesis of AgNP coated bioactive glass particles which were incorporated into Dex/CMC hydrogels for localized therapeutic effects. Solubility profiles were determined in addition to evaluating toxicity levels in eukaryotic cells. Additionally, antibacterial properties were evaluated in microbes such as S. aureus, E. coli, and S. epidermidis.

    6. Evaluation of Surface Microtopography Engineered by Direct Laser Interference for Bacterial Anti-Biofouling

      Jaione Valle, Saioa Burgui, Denise Langheinrich, Carmen Gil, Cristina Solano, Alejandro Toledo-Arana, Ralf Helbig, Andrés Lasagni and Iñigo Lasa

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500107

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      Three-dimensional micrometer periodic structures generated by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) on polystyrene surfaces have a profound effect on S. aureus adhesion. Pillar-like topographical patterns enhanced S. aureus adhesion, whereas complex lamella microtopography reduced S. aureus adhesion both in static and continuous flow culture conditions and in a model of biofilm formation in vivo.

    7. Structural Mimetic Silk Fiber-Reinforced Composite Scaffolds Using Multi-Angle Fibers

      Gang Li, Jian Liu, Zhaozhu Zheng, Xiaoqin Wang and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400502

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      In order to develop a successful tissue engineered scaffold for the treatment of meniscus loss, this work starts with understanding and mimicking its complex internal architecture and function, and then develops a structural mimetic scaffolds reinforced with multi-angle silk fibers. The fiber reinforcement technique and mechanisms elucidated in this study can also be expanded to other mechanical strength-demanding tissue regeneration needs.

    8. Enzymatic Polymerization of an Ibuprofen-Containing Monomer and Subsequent Drug Release

      Nicholas D. Stebbins, Weiling Yu and Kathryn E. Uhrich

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500030

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      Through enzymatic methods, drug-containing monomers were polymerized to afford linear polyesters with pendant bioactive groups. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies determined precursor and polymer structures. The polymers exhibited sustained hydrolytic release of ibuprofen, along with other natural and biocompatible compounds over the 30 d study. Released ibuprofen retained its chemical structure following synthesis and hydrolytic degradation.

  7. Feature Articles

    1. Poly(α-Peptoid)s Revisited: Synthesis, Properties, and Use as Biomaterial

      Christian Secker, Sarah M. Brosnan, Robert Luxenhofer and Helmut Schlaad

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500023

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      Polypeptoids, or poly(N-alkyl glycine)s, are undergoing renaissance in interest because of their immense potential as biologically relevant materials. Here, we review the methods of polypeptoid synthesis by ring-opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, polypeptoid bulk and solution properties, self-assembly, and use as biomaterial.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Living Composites of Bacteria and Polymers as Biomimetic Films for Metal Sequestration and Bioremediation

      Christian Knierim, Michaela Enzeroth, Patrick Kaiser, Christian Dams, David Nette, Andreas Seubert, Andreas Klingl, Charles L. Greenblatt, Valérie Jérôme, Seema Agarwal, Ruth Freitag and Andreas Greiner

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400538

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      Water-insoluble core-shell fibers of PVA and PPX containing M. luteus or N. winogradskyi were achieved by utilizing wet spinning in combination with CVD. The leaking of bacteria from the fibers is retarded in aqueous solution. The immobilized bacteria were used for sequestration of gold and degradation of nitrite from aqueous solutions. The biosorption of gold lead to encapsulated gold nanoparticles as analyzed by EDX, ICP-MS, and TEM.

    2. Fabrication and Characterization of Gd-DTPA-Loaded Chitosan–Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Arsalan Ahmed, Chao Zhang, Jian Guo, Yong Hu and Xiqun Jiang

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500034

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      Gd-DTPA-loaded chitosan–poly(acrylic acid) NPs were fabricated. These obtained NPs have a spherical shape with a size about 220 nm. They were stable in normal aqueous solution with positive surface charges and showed pH sensitivity in in vitro release and relaxation experiments. In vivo biodistribution and MRI studies have also demonstrated selective localization of contrast agent and enhanced contrast, respectively.

    3. A Low Protein Binding Cationic Poly(2-oxazoline) as Non-Viral Vector

      Zhijian He, Lei Miao, Rainer Jordan, Devika S-Manickam, Robert Luxenhofer and Alexander V. Kabanov

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500021

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      A new “clickable” cationic poly(2-oxazoline) (CPOx) block copolymer containing pendant secondary amine groups can form sub-100 nm stable polyplexes with plasmid DNA with very low cytotoxicity and plasma protein binding, and slow cellular uptake. These unique aspects of resulting polyplexes demonstrate potential for systemic and targeted gene delivery in vivo.

    4. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Linear and Branched Cationic Peptides: Evaluation as Gene Carriers

      Jose Manuel Ageitos, Jo-Ann Chuah and Keiji Numata

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400487

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      Branched and linear cationic peptides composed of l-lysine and l-arginine have been synthesized by one-pot chemo-enzymatic reaction without using organic solvents or deprotection steps. Those peptides with wide distribution of molecular weights function as gene carriers and demonstrate similar transfection efficiencies to mono-disperse cationic peptides.

    5. Vitamin Bc-Bearing Hydrophilic Photosensitizer Conjugate for Photodynamic Cancer Theranostics

      Jiyoung Kim, Kyoung Sub Kim, Sin-jung Park and Kun Na

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500060

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      Vitamin Bc-bearing hydrophilic photosensitizer conjugate, folic acid-polyethylene glycol-pheophorbideA (FA-PEG-PheoA), was synthesized for photodynamic cancer theranostics. By conjugating FA with a photosensitizer that can be used in optical imaging and further clinical treatment, FA-PEG-PheoA was delivered to the FA receptor overexpressing cancer and utilized for cancer diagnosis and therapy simultaneously.

    6. Bioactive Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Containing Decellularized Cartilage

      Amanda Sutherland and Michael Detamore

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400472

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      Scaffolds were fabricated using sintered PLGA microspheres containing decellularized articular cartilage either encapsulated within the microspheres or coated on the surface of the microspheres. The encapsulated decellularized cartilage constructs showed the ability to induce bioactivity in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, although there is opportunity for improved chondrogenesis.

    7. An Oligonucleotide Transfection Vector Based on HSA and PDMAEMA Conjugation: Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Cell Proliferation and on Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

      Yanyan Jiang, Chin Ken Wong and Martina H. Stenzel

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500006

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      A drug delivery system for nucleic acid drugs based on a polymer-protein conjugate is synthesized. The protein itself is based on human serum albumin. It is shown that a number-averaged molecular weight inline image of around 20 000 g mol−1 has the highest efficiency in delivering the oligonucleotide ISIS 5132, resulting in the highest toxicity and the most efficient destruction of multicellular breast cancer spheroids.

    8. The Human Embryoid Body Cystic Core Exhibits Architectural Complexity Revealed by use of High Throughput Polymer Microarrays

      Martin L. Tomov, Zachary T. Olmsted and Janet L. Paluh

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500051

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      The embryoid body is a classic and important stem cell intermediate used to mimic the three dimensional architecture in early embryos for differentiation. Formation methods for EBs are evolving, necessitating an improved understanding of critical EB parameters for differentiation. Here, we apply a uniform platform of custom polymer microarrays to comprehensively analyze EB formation methods, rate of formation, morphology, size, and differentiation protocols. Our analysis reveals a size-dependent resilient multicystic core architecture in larger EBs that contributes to non-uniformity during early differentiation.

    9. Supramolecular Polyelectrolyte Complexes of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with Sulfonated Polyrotaxanes to Induce Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation

      Masahiko Terauchi, Go Ikeda, Kei Nishida, Atsushi Tamura, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi Harada and Nobuhiko Yui

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500032

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      The sulfonated polyrotaxanes (S-PRX) composed of sulfonated α-cyclodextrin threaded onto a linear polymer were developed to protect bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from degradation and deactivation through the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. The S-PRXs are promising candidates to induce enhanced osteoinduction ability of BMP-2 without toxicity and anticoagulant activity.

    10. Chitosan Grafted with Phosphorylcholine and Macrocyclic Polyamine as an Effective Gene Delivery Vector: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Transfection

      Ling Li, Fangfang Zhao, Baojing Zhao, Jin Zhang, Chao Li and Renzhong Qiao

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400518

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      Chitosan grafted with phosphorylcholine and macrocyclic polyamine is synthesized to deliver gene. It can efficiently wrap DNA into uniform nanoparticles in the appropriate size and protect DNA from nuclease. It also shows satisfactory water-solubility, low cytotoxicity, high cell uptake and superior in vitro transfection activity. All these results show that it could be used as a promising gene vector.

    11. Highly Porous Gelatin Reinforced 3D Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Regeneration

      Sofia Amadori, Paola Torricelli, Silvia Panzavolta, Annapaola Parrilli, Milena Fini and Adriana Bigi

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500014

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      Reinforcement with gelatin yields highly porous interconnected 3D scaffolds with significantly improved mechanical properties.

    12. The Role of Charge Density and Hydrophobicity on the Biocidal Properties of Self-Protonable Polymeric Materials

      Simona Matrella, Carmela Vitiello, Massimo Mella, Giovanni Vigliotta and Lorella Izzo

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400503

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      The antimicrobial activity of plaques made of non-water soluble, thermoplastic copolymers A(BC)n (n = 1, 2, 4; A = m-PEG, BC = random chain based on MMA, and a series of alkyl-aminoethyl methacrylates (AAEMA)) was controlled by the surface charge density and by the influence of the N-alkyl groups on the surface morphology. More interestingly for possible applications, it is the absence of hemolitytic activity in all copolymers.

  9. Communications

    1. Hybrid Cross-Linking Characteristics of Hydrogel Control Stem Cell Fate

      G. Rajesh Krishnan, Calvin Cheah and Debanjan Sarkar

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400535

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      Characteristics of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel can be tuned by combined physical and chemical cross-links to regulate gel morphology. Self-assembling segments induce physical cross-links in photo-cross-linkable PEG gels. This molecular design provides control to organize stem cells in a biomimetic manner, which enhances chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Influence of the Molecular Weight and Charge of Antibiotics on Their Release Kinetics From Gelatin Nanospheres

      Jiankang Song, Jim C. E. Odekerken, Dennis W. P. M. Löwik, Paula M. López-Pérez, Tim J. M. Welting, Fang Yang, John A. Jansen and Sander C. G. Leeuwenburgh

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500005

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      Antibiotics are loaded onto gelatin nanospheres using a diffusional post-loading method to form an antibiotic-loaded colloidal gelatin gel (A), colistin and vancomycin are released in a sustained manner for more than 14 d (B), the release of colistin and vancomycin is correlated to the degradation of gelatin nanospheres after the initial burst release (C) which confirms strong interactions between antibiotics and gelatin nanospheres.

    2. Heparin-Based Nanocapsules as Potential Drug Delivery Systems

      Grit Baier, Svenja Winzen, Claudia Messerschmidt, Daniela Frank, Michael Fichter, Stephan Gehring, Volker Mailänder and Katharina Landfester

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500035

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      Low toxic, narrowly distributed heparin-based nanocapsules are synthesized via a miniemulsion polymerization. Microscopy, zeta potential values, isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and activated clotting time measurements demonstrate the morphology and biological intactness of the polymeric shell. This is confirmed by an impressive uptake in different cells, monitored by fluorescence activated cell sorting, confocal laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

    3. Mechanical Responses of Cancer Cells on Nanoscaffolds for Adhesion Size Control

      Soyeun Park, Lyndon Bastatas, James Matthews and Yong Joong Lee

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400504

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      Mechano-reciprocal interactions play a critical role in cancer progresion. We found that the stimuli from nanoscaffolds cause changes in mechanical compliance and proliferation depending on the origin of cancer cells and their metastatic potential. A holistic approach utilizing AFM-based biomechanics and nanoscaffolds can reveal mechano-reciprocal interactions crucial for metastatic progression and provide useful information for anti-cancer drug development.

    4. The Effect of Sterilization on Silk Fibroin Biomaterial Properties

      Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Teresa M. DesRochers, Kelly A. Burke and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500013

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      The final properties of silk fibroin biomaterials are affected by the sterilization protocol. The effect of common sterilization techniques, including autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, on the physical and biological properties of 3D, porous silk fibroin scaffolds is described.

  11. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Polysaccharide-Block-Polypeptide Copolymer for Potential Co-Delivery of Drug and Plasmid DNA

      Qianqian Li, Wenya Liu, Jian Dai and Chao Zhang

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400454

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      A pH-sensitive, biodegradable, and biocompatible polysaccharide-block-polypeptide Copolymer copolymer derivative {Ac-Dex-b-PAsp(DET)} is synthetized and self-assembles into cationic nanopaticles for potential co-delivery of plasmid DNA and anticancer drug by usingwater/oil/water (w/o/w) emulsion method. The results suggest that the copolymer has excellent performance and potential for the co-delivery of gene and drugs.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Poly(ornithine-co-arginine-co-glycine-co-aspartic Acid): Preparation via NCA Polymerization and its Potential as a Polymeric Tumor-Penetrating Agent

      Haiyang Yu, Zhaohui Tang, Dawei Zhang, Wantong Song, Taicheng Duan, Jingkai Gu and Xuesi Chen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500040

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      A novel random copolypeptide Poly(O,R,G,D) is prepared through the ring-opening polymerization of N-δ-carbobenzoxy-l-ornithine N-carboxyanhydride, l-glycine N-carboxyanhydride and β-benzyl l-aspartate N-carboxyanhydride, following by subsequent deprotection and guanidization. The Poly(O,R,G,D) can be proteolytically cleaved in a treated tumor to expose the cryptic CendR elements that mediates binding to neuropilin-1, inducing vascular and tissue permeabilization.

    2. Synthesis and Properties of Star HPMA Copolymer Nanocarriers Synthesised by RAFT Polymerisation Designed for Selective Anticancer Drug Delivery and Imaging

      Petr Chytil, Eva Koziolová, Olga Janoušková, Libor Kostka, Karel Ulbrich and Tomáš Etrych

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400510

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      Well-defined water-soluble high-molecular-weight star polymer drug nanocarriers, based on HPMA copolymers, enabling the pH-sensitive drug release in the tumour tissue were synthesised and their properties were studied. The nanocarriers showed a low dispersity and contained different functionalities, which enabled the attachment of drugs along the polymer chains and also the one-point attachment for the targeting ligands and/or a labelling moiety.

    3. Inclusion Complexes Between Polytetrahydrofuran-b-Amylose Block Copolymers and Polytetrahydrofuran Chains

      Rachmawati Rachmawati, Albert J. J. Woortman, Kamlesh Kumar and Katja Loos

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400515

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      Polytetrahydrofuran-block-amylose is able to act as a host molecule which can include guest polytetrahydrofuran chains to result in complexes. The amylose helices in the resulting complexesare in the form of a V amylose with six glucose residues per helical turn. This complexation between the host block copolymer and the guest homopolymer offers a facile route to building supramolecular structures.

    4. Optimization of Aqueous SI-ATRP Grafting of Poly(Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate) Brushes from Benzyl Chloride Macroinitiator Surfaces

      Andrew E. Rodda, Francesca Ercole, David R. Nisbet, John S. Forsythe and Laurence Meagher

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400512

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      Surface Initiated ATRP of poly(OEGMA) was performed from macroinitiators bearing the stable benzyl chloride moiety. Despite the structural mismatch between the initiator and monomer and expected poor kinetics, dense polymer brush coatings were grafted from the surface under a set of optimised conditions in aqueous solution. These coatings were highly effective at reducing protein fouling and cell adhesion.

    5. Organic Radical Contrast Agents Based on Polyacetylenes Containing 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl (TEMPO): Targeted Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Optical Bimodal Imaging of Folate Receptor Expressing HeLa Tumors in Vitro and in Vivo

      Lixia Huang, Chenggong Yan, Danting Cui, Yichen Yan, Xiang Liu, Xinwei Lu, Xiangliang Tan, Xiaodan Lu, Jun Xu, Yikai Xu and Ruiyuan Liu

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400403

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      Folic acid modified paramagnetic fluorescent bimodal organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) are prepared using polyacetylenes containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO). The ORCAs exhibit satisfactory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast efficacy with low cytotoxicity. In vitro and in vivo MRI/optical imaging demonstrate the active targetability of the targeted ORCAs to folate receptor-positive HeLa tumors.

  13. Feature Articles

    1. Cellulose Carbonates: A Platform for Promising Biopolymer Derivatives With Multifunctional Capabilities

      Thomas Elschner and Thomas Heinze

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400521

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      Cellulose carbonates are versatile platform compounds in order to obtain highly engineered, functional biopolymer derivatives. Low, intermediate, and high degrees of substitution as well as regioselective substitution patterns are accessible.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Galactosylated Poly(Ethyleneglycol)-Lithocholic Acid Selectively Kills Hepatoma Cells, While Sparing Normal Liver Cells

      Nomundelger Gankhuyag, Bijay Singh, Sushila Maharjan, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho and Myung-Haing Cho

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400475

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A potent anti-cancer drug, lithocholic acid (LCA), is converted to poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) conjugates, and further decorated with lactobionic acid (LBA) to produce LCA-PEG-LBA (LPL) to target the hepatocytes. LPL can self-assemble to form nanoparticles, and it has high potency than LCA to kill HepG2 cancer cells, sparing normal LO2 cells. The cell death is occurred through apoptosis induced by LPL nanoparticles. Besides, LPL has high specificity to mouse liver cells in vivo.

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