Macromolecular Bioscience

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Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

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  1. 1 - 35
  1. Full Papers

    1. Block Copolypeptide Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Ocular Therapeutics

      Timo Stukenkemper, Anica Dose, Maria Caballo Gonzalez, Alexander J.J. Groenen, Sarah Hehir, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Rocio Herrero Vanrell and Neil R. Cameron

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400471

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      Nanoparticles from amphiphilic block copolypeptides are loaded with the ocular drug dexamethasone. The block copolypeptides are synthesized by sequential polymerization of benzyl-protected glutamic acid and Z-protected lysine N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). Selective deprotection of the benzyl glutamate block yields amphiphilic block copolymers that self-assemble into nanoaprticles in aqueous solution. Drug release is almost complete after 16 d in aqueous solution at 37 °C.

  2. Communications

    1. PEG-Poly(l-alanine) Thermogel As a 3D Scaffold of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

      Min Hee Park, Hyo Jung Moon, Jin Hye Park, Usha Pramod Shinde, Du Young Ko and Byeongmoon Jeong

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400426

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      Polypeptide thermogel prepared by increasing the temperature of cell suspended polymer aqueous solution to 37 °C provides an excellent 3D culture matrix of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Both in vitro and in vivo studies on three-dimensional culture of the stem cells prove the preferential chondrogenic differentiation of the stem cells in the in situ formed hydrogel.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Efficacy of Pluronic Copolymer Micelle Encapsulated SCR7 against Cancer Cell Proliferation

      Franklin John, Jinu George, Supriya V. Vartak, Mrinal Srivastava, P. A. Hassan, V. K. Aswal, Subhas. S. Karki and Sathees C. Raghavan

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400480

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      Encapsulation of 5,6-bis-(benzylideneamino)-2-mercaptopyrimidin-4-ol (SCR7) in Pluronic P123 copolymer resulted in accumulation of DNA breaks within the cells, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and activation of apoptosis. Micellar encapsulation rendered the molecule about 5 times more effective than the parenteral form.

  4. Reviews

    1. Self-assembled Monolayers and Nanocomposite Hydrogels of Functional Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications

      Nermin Seda Kehr, Seda Atay and Bahar Ergün

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400363

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      Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels of functional nanomaterials (NMs) have gained high interest as biomaterials to mimic natural extracellular matrix and to control cell/material interactions. This paper highlights some of the recent reports on the use of SAMs and NC hydrogels of functional NMs as biomaterials particularly in cell culturing applications.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Semiconductor Polymer Dots Induce Proliferation in Human Gastric Mucosal and Adenocarcinoma Cells

      Shouying Li, Jia Chen, Geng Chen, Qiong Li, Kai Sun, Zhen Yuan, Weiping Qin, Hong Xu and Changfeng Wu

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400428

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      Highly fluorescent polymer dots induce apparent proliferation in human gastric mucosal and adenocarcinoma cells, as validated by MTT viability studies, cell cycle analysis, ROS generation, and MMP changes. The Pdot-induced cell proliferation represents a distinctive finding as most of other nanoparticles interacted with cells typically cause cell damage and inhibit cell growth.

    2. Synthesis and Functions of Well-defined Polymer-drug Conjugates as Efficient Nanocarriers for Intravesical Chemotherapy of Bladder Cancer

      Qingsong Yu, Jiajing Zhang, Guan Zhang and Zhihua Gan

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400416

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      Water-soluble polymer-doxorubicin conjugates based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-2-(hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)) for controlled release of anti-cancer drugs under mild acidic conditions are synthesized by RAFT polymerization and post-polymerization technique. With further indroducing targeting moiety folate, the conjugates show enhanced cytotoxicity against T24 cells.

    3. Non-Covalent Photo-Patterning of Gelatin Matrices Using Caged Collagen Mimetic Peptides

      Yang Li, Boi Hoa San, Julian L. Kessler, Jin Hwan Kim, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes and Seungju Michael Yu

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400436

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      The caged collagen mimetic peptide enables 2D and 3D photo-patterning of gelatin hydrogels as well as creation of concentration gradients of CMPs. Photo-patterning of caged CMPs can be performed on almost any synthetic or natural gelatin-containing matrix to spatially control cell behaviors through CMP-conjugated biochemical cues. This technique is a great tool for functionalizing scaffolds for complex tissue formation.

    4. Peptide-Directed Self-Assembly of Functionalized Polymeric Nanoparticles. Part II: Effects of Nanoparticle Composition on Assembly Behavior and Multiple Drug Loading Ability

      Xu Xiang, Xiaochu Ding, Trevor Moser, Qi Gao, Tolou Shokuhfar and Patricia A. Heiden

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400438

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      A novel nanoparticle scaffolding system is demonstrated using controlled-release, drug-loaded nanoparticles that yield ordered fibers and scaffolds using ionic complementary peptide-directed self-assembly. The scaffolding system possesses the advantages of individually controlling the release of each loaded drug and the ability to control their assembly sequence.

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Recent Advances in Nanoscale Bioinspired Materials

      Melik C. Demirel, Murat Cetinkaya, Abdon Pena-Francesch and Huihun Jung

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400324

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      This feature article highlights structural and functional characteristics of bio-derived materials, which will expedite the design, fabrication, and synthesis of eco-friendly, recyclable, advanced nano-materials and devices. Recent Advances in Nanoscale Bioinspired Materials.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Engineering a Freestanding Biomimetic Cardiac Patch Using Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Ventricular Cardiomyocytes (hESC-VCMs)

      Yin Chen, Junping Wang, Bo Shen, Camie W. Y. Chan, Chaoyi Wang, Yihua Zhao, Ho N. Chan, Qian Tian, Yangfan Chen, Chunlei Yao, I-Ming Hsing, Ronald A. Li and Hongkai Wu

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400448

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      A facile method for engineering a freestanding biomimetic cardiac patch using biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes is presented. The biomimetic cardiac patch fabricated with microgrooved PLGA film recapitulates the anisotropic electrophysiological feature of native cardiac tissue and is believed to be applicable in the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  8. Invited Reviews

    1. Elastin-Like Polypeptide Based Nanoparticles: Design Rationale Toward Nanomedicine

      Ferdinanda C. M. Smits, Bastiaan C. Buddingh, Mark B. van Eldijk and Jan C. M. van Hest

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400419

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      Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are biocompatible, temperature responsive and can be made with high sequence control. This makes ELP-based materials very interesting for their use towards nanomedicine applications. Many ELP-based systems that show self-assembly into nanoparticles have been developed. This review will give an overview of the ELP-based block copolymers capable of nanoparticle formation and their design parameters.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Multiphase Protein Microgels

      Ulyana Shimanovich, Yang Song, Jasna Brujic, Ho Cheung Shum and Tuomas P. J. Knowles

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400366

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      We show that the characteristics of aqueous two-phase systems can be exploited in combination with protein self-assembly for controlling aggregation and structuring of fibrillar proteins into 3D core–shell microgels.

    2. A Cationic Poly(2-oxazoline) with High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency Identified by a Library Approach

      Alexandra C. Rinkenauer, Lutz Tauhardt, Felix Wendler, Kristian Kempe, Michael Gottschaldt, Anja Traeger and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400334

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      An 18-membered library of cationic poly(2-oxazoline)-based copolymers has been prepared. The influence of different polymer parameters, namely the polymer side chain hydrophobicity and the type and content of amino groups, on the pDNA condensation, the transfection efficiency, the cytotoxicity, and cellular membrane interaction as well as the size, charge, and stability of the polyplexes was studied and first structure–property relationships elucidated.

    3. Protein Compatibility of Selected Cross-linking Reactions for Hydrogels

      Nadine Hammer, Ferdinand P. Brandl, Susanne Kirchhof, Viktoria Messmann and Achim M. Goepferich

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400379

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      Despite years of research, finding cross-linking reactions for hydrogels that are compatible with incorporated proteins is still challenging. The authors, therefore, investigate side reactions between a model protein and methoxypolyethylene glycol functionalized with maleimide, vinyl sulfone, acrylamide, thiol, and furyl moieties. The extent of protein modification was found to depend on the cross-linking agent and the pH during incubation.

    4. Novel Cationic Triblock Copolymer of Poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-block-poly(β-amino ester)-block-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]: A Promising Non-Viral Gene Delivery System

      Rosemeyre A. Cordeiro, Dina Farinha, Nuno Rocha, Arménio C. Serra, Henrique Faneca and Jorge F. J. Coelho

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400424

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      An efficient block copolymer non-viral vector composed by poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and poly(β-amino ester) for plasmid DNA delivery. The new cationic block copolymers of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-b-poly(β-amino ester)-b-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] efficiently bind pDNA and show high transfection activity in HeLa and COS-7 cell lines compared to bPEI and TurboFect™ polymeric non-viral vector standards.

    5. Thermoresponsive Self-Assembly of Nanostructures from a Collagen-Like Peptide-Containing Diblock Copolymer

      Tianzhi Luo, Lirong He, Patrick Theato and Kristi L. Kiick

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400358

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      Well-defined vesicles with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were produced from temperature-triggered self-assembly from a collagen-like peptide containing thermoresponsive diblock conjugates, driven by the coil/globule conformational transition of the PDEGMEMA building block above its LCST. The incorporation of CLP domains in these nanostructures offers opportunities for the selective targeting of collagen-containing matrices.

    6. Targeted Delivery of Vaccine to Dendritic Cells by Chitosan Nanoparticles Conjugated with a Targeting Peptide Ligand Selected by Phage Display Technique

      Su-Na Jung, Sang-Kee Kang, Guen-Hye Yeo, Hai-Ying Li, Tao Jiang, Jae-Woon Nah, Jin-Duck Bok, Chong-Su Cho and Yun-Jaie Choi

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400352

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      Delivering antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising strategy for enhancing vaccine efficacy. A novel DC-targeting peptide ligand is isolated by phage display technique. DC-targeting peptide conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (TPC-NPs) are designed and evaluated for their targeting efficiency to DCs. Furthermore, immunization of mice with antigen-carrying TPC-NPs induces strong and balanced immune responses, demonstrating that TPC-NPs can further improve the immunogenicity of vaccine.

    7. Clustered Nanocarriers: The Effect of Size on the Clustering of CCMV Virus-Like Particles With Soft Macromolecules

      Martijn Verwegen and Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400326

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      Clusters of virus-like particles are potentially interesting biomaterials that can find application in drug delivery, imaging, etc. This clustering can be induced by positively charged macromolecules, of which we here show that the macromolecular topology in combination with the symmetry of the virus-like particle are crucial parameters.

    8. Micellization of Antineoplastic Agent to Significantly Upregulate Efficacy and Security

      Chen Li, Weiguo Xu, Jianxun Ding, Ying Zhang, Jincheng Wang, Xiuli Zhuang and Xuesi Chen

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400356

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      Doxorubicin-incorporated micelle is prepared by noncovalent interaction-assissed nanoprecipitation of drug and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-oligo(D,L-leucine). The loading micelle exhibits enhanced cellular interalization and antiproliferative activity in vitro, improved intratumoral distribution, and upregulated antitumor efficacy and security in vivo, which all indicate its great potential for smart delivery of antineoplastic agents.

    9. Diblock Copolymers of Polyethylene Glycol and a Polymethacrylamide with Side-Chains Containing Twin Ortho Ester Rings: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Potential pH-Responsive Micelles

      Xiaojing Zhou, Shi Luo, Rupei Tang, Rui Wang and Jun Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400395

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      Block copolymers, PEG-b-PMEA, bearing twin five-membered ortho ester pendants, formed micelles with pH-responsive solubility as a result of accelerated release of payload. The micelles were compatible with cells, and paclitaxel-loaded micelles killed cancer cells with potency equivalent to free drug, suggesting potential use as effective nano-carriers for anticancer drugs without toxic side-effects.

    10. Effect of Amphiphilic PCL–PEG Nano-Micelles on HepG2 Cell Migration

      Yang Shen, Mengtian Leng, Hongchi Yu, Qin Zhang, Xianglin Luo, Hans Gregersen, Guixue Wang and Xiaoheng Liu

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400376

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      Nano-sized polymer micelles attract attentions to their biocompatibility and biodegradability in antitumor therapy. However, few investigations focus on exploring the effect of internalized nano-micelles on the cancer cells migration. We demonstrated that amphiphilic PCL–PEG NPs-induced cell migration depended on integrin-FAK-Rho GTPases pathway, which expected to evoke more attentions in the design of drug delivery systems based on polymer micelles.

    11. Degradable Glycine-Based Photo-Polymerizable Polyphosphazenes for Use as Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

      Sandra Rothemund, Tamara B. Aigner, Aitziber Iturmendi, Maria Rigau, Branislav Husár, Florian Hildner, Eleni Oberbauer, Martina Prambauer, Gbenga Olawale, Reinhard Forstner, Robert Liska, Klaus R. Schröder, Oliver Brüggemann and Ian Teasdale

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400390

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      Hydrolytically degradable, porous matrices are prepared via a mild and simple photopolymerization of functionalized poly(organo)phosphazenes. The modular system allows for facile surface functionalization and property tuning. The novel materials are biocompatible and have tunable degradation rates to non-toxic small molecules and thus are promising for use as synthetic scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

    12. Substrate-induced PC12 Cell Differentiation Without Filopodial, Lamellipodial Activity or NGF Stimulation

      Guillaume Lamour, Sylvie Souès and Ahmed Hamraoui

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400323

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      PC12 cells are driven to extend neurites through cell-substrate interactions only, that is, without nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation. Actin polymerization is destabilized by treating the cells with cytochalasin. As a result the cells are deprived of both filopodia and lamellipodia. However, they extend neurites continuously. This shows that neither filopodia nor lamellipodia are required to trigger substrate-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    13. Poly(anhydride-ester) and Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) Blends: Salicylic Acid-Releasing Blends with Hydrogel-Like Properties that Reduce Inflammation

      Michelle A. Ouimet, Renata Fogaça, Sabrina S. Snyder, Sameer Sathaye, Luiz H. Catalani, Darrin J. Pochan and Kathryn E. Uhrich

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400238

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      Hydrogels-like polymer blends that combine the biocompatibility and hydrophilicity of PVP with controlled release of salicylic acid to reduce inflammation are presented. These copolymer blends substantially reduce the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in vitro and indicate no cytotoxic or anti-proliferative effects. Based upon the unique combination, these blended polymer films show great potential for wound healing.

    14. Multi-Technique Characterization of Poly-L-lysine Dendrigrafts–Cu(II) Complexes for Biocatalysis

      Jean-Christophe Rossi, Barbara Maret, Kevin Vidot, Jean-Patrick Francoia, Michela Cangiotti, Susanna Lucchi, Concetta Coppola and Maria Francesca Ottaviani

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400341

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      Significant structural features of poly-L-lysine dendrigrafts (DGLs) – Cu(II) complexes are characterized to implement the use of these complexes as biocatalysts. The agreement and complementarity among EPR, potentiometric titration, UV-Vis and CD measurements provide an exhaustive view of the Cu(II)-DGL complexation behavior as a function of DGL generation, relative concentrations, and pH.

  10. Feature Articles

    1. Thermoresponsive Nanodevices in Biomedical Applications

      Julián Bergueiro and Marcelo Calderón

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400362

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      Thermoresponsive nanodevices are one of the most promising systems in nanomedicine. Due to new building blocks, a number of promising smart systems have been rapidly developed in response to the needs of nanomedicine. This article reviews the innovations in this field from the last four years.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Blending of Diblock and Triblock Copolypeptide Amphiphiles Yields Cell Penetrating Vesicles with Low Toxicity

      April R. Rodriguez, Uh-Joo Choe, Daniel T. Kamei and Timothy J. Deming

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400348

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      Diblock and triblock copolypeptides were blended to form vesicle populations with uniform compositions. Mixing of cationic and non-ionic amphiphiles in these vesicles gave optimized properties of good cellular uptake while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity. Copolypeptide mixing is a promising strategy to provide useful functionality without requiring the use of complicated synthesis procedures.

    2. Glycosylated Star Polypeptides from NCA Polymerization: Selective Binding as a Function of Degree of Branching and Glycosylation

      Mark Byrne, Robert Mildner, Henning Menzel and Andreas Heise

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400371

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      Poly(glutamic acid) star polymers with up to 64 arms were synthesized via N-carboxy-anhydride (NCA) polymerization from dendritic initiators. Glycosylation afforded star-shaped glyco- peptides with varying degrees of sugar conjugation. The secondary structure and the ability to selectively bind to lectin ConA was found to be dependent on sugar content and polymer structure, respectively.

    3. Porous Polylactic Acid–Silica Hybrids: Preparation, Characterization, and Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

      Christos Pandis, Sara Trujillo, Joana Matos, Sara Madeira, Joaquín Ródenas-Rochina, Sotiria Kripotou, Apostolos Kyritsis, João F. Mano and José Luis Gómez Ribelles

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400339

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      Polymer/silica porous hybrids are prepared by a novel strategy using sol–gel reactions inside the pores of polylactic acid (PLA) membranes. The link between organic and inorganic phase is achieved by functionalizing PLA and using glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent. The adjustment of silica precursors ratio allows modifying the thermomechanical properties. The proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potential is studied.

    4. Biocompatible, Biodegradable and Porous Liquid Crystal Elastomer Scaffolds for Spatial Cell Cultures

      Anshul Sharma, Abdollah Neshat, Cory J. Mahnen, Alek d. Nielsen, Jacob Snyder, Tory L. Stankovich, Benjamin G. Daum, Emily M. LaSpina, Gabrielle Beltrano, Yunxiang Gao, Shuo Li, Byung-Woo Park, Robert J. Clements, Ernest J. Freeman, Christopher Malcuit, Jennifer A. McDonough, LaShanda T. J. Korley, Torsten Hegmann and Elda Hegmann

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400325

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      A new trick for LC elastomers: Biocompatible, biodegradable and porous liquid crystal (LC) elastomers were used for the first time as viable, soft scaffolds for cell growth and proliferation in a spatial (3D) fashion.

    5. Microcellular Open Porous Monoliths for Cell Growth by Thiol-Ene Polymerization of Low-Toxicity Monomers in High Internal Phase Emulsions

      Maja Sušec, Robert Liska, Günter Russmüller, Jiři Kotek and Peter Krajnc

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400219

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      Combination of high internal phase emulsion templating and thiol-ene polymerization of vinyl esters and thiols produced highly porous polymers with an interconnected morphology and tunable pore size. Usefulness of novel material is demonstrated by application as a scaffold for in vitro osteoblasts growth.

  12. Reviews

    1. Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: The Crossroads of Biomaterials, Cells and Stimulating Factors

      Nandana Bhardwaj, Dipali Devi and Biman B. Mandal

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400335

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      Over the years, cartilage tissue engineering is growing by leaps and bounds. Not only are various biomaterials being opted for repair, but newer methodologies being invented. With an aim to present an overview of current progress, we have summed up the advances and problems in cartilage regeneration with strong emphasis on material types, cells, stimulating factors and culture conditions.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Adsorption of Fibronectin on Salt-Etched Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and its Roles in Mediating the Adhesion and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

      Jun Deng, Mingcong Sun, Shasha Wang, Lulu Han, Zhengwei Mao, Dan Li, Hong Chen and Changyou Gao

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400344

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      The adsorption of fibronectin (Fn) and the adhesion and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are characterized and correlated on salt-treated PEI(PSS/PDDA)7 multilayers. The swelling properties and surface charge of the salt-treated multilayers jointly govern the adsorption manner, conformation, and activity of Fn, which in turn contribute heavily to the adhesion, spreading, and migration of VSMCs.

    2. New Semi-Biodegradable Materials from Semi-Interpenetrated Networks of Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) and Poly(ethyl acrylate)

      P. Lozano Picazo, M. Pérez Garnes, C. Martínez Ramos, A. Vallés-Lluch and M. Monleón Pradas

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400331

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      Semi-degradable materials may have find applications. Poly-(ethyl acrylate) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) are here combined as semi-IPNs. Materials are obatined which combine their outstanding biological properties and possess mechanical properties tunable in a wide range of moduli. The behavior of fibroblasts and adipose-tissue-derived stem cells on these new materials is studied.

  14. Reviews

    1. You have free access to this content
      Polymeric Anti-HIV Therapeutics

      Maarten Danial and Harm-Anton Klok

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400298

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      Anti-HIV therapeutics have enabled to improve the lives of many infected individuals and shifted the prognosis to a chronic but manageable disease. In parallel to the development of small molecule drug therapeutics, profound interest and efforts have been made to develop polymeric anti-HIV therapeutics. An overview of these macromolecular therapeutics is presented herein.

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