CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water

Cover image for Vol. 43 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Prisca-Maryla Henheik

Impact Factor: 1.838

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 24/81 (Water Resources); 36/103 (Marine & Freshwater Biology); 98/216 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1863-0669

VIEW

  1. 1 - 56
  1. Research Articles

    1. Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition Derived Multi-Scale Spatial Relationships between Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Basic Soil Properties

      Dongli She, Jiaxing Zheng, Ming'an Shao, Luis Carlos Timm and Yongqiu Xia

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400143

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      Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is affected by various factors operating at different scales. The results identified multi-scale spatial relationships between Ks and selected basic soil properties along two landscape transects (with various soil textures and land use covers) on the Loess Plateau. Multivariate empirical mode decomposition has great potential in characterizing scale-dependent spatial relationships between soil properties in complicated landscape ecosystems.

    2. Contribution of Methane Benthic and Atmospheric Fluxes of an Experimental Area (Sitka Stream)

      Adam Bednařík, Lubomír Čáp, Vítězslav Maier and Martin Rulík

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300982

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      River sediments are a potential source of methane for surface water due to accumulation and anaerobic decomposition of large amounts of organic matter. Although daily benthic fluxes of methane from sediments were relatively negligible compared to the total methane content in stream water, our research suggests that benthic fluxes may contribute in supplying methane to the stream water and further emission to the atmosphere.

    3. Modified Na-Montmorillonite With Quaternary Ammonium Salts: Application for Removal of Salicylic Acid From Aqueous Solutions

      Zilin Meng, Fengzhu Lv, Yihe Zhang, Qian Zhang, Zhilei Zhang and Shutao Ai

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400051

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      Na-montmorillonites modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetramethylammonium bromide were used to remove salicylic acid and molecular simulation was used to analyze the adsorption process and the molecular arrangement. The results suggest a pseudo-organic phase in the interlayer contributing to the increased adsorption.

    4. Synthesis of a Carbon Molecular Sieve from Broom Corn Stalk via Carbon Deposition of Methane for the Selective Separation of a CO2/CH4 Mixture

      Fatemeh Banisheykholeslami, Ali Asghar Ghoreyshi, Maedeh Mohammadi and Kasra Pirzadeh

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400112

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      A carbon molecular sieve (CMS) was prepared from broom corn stalk by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. The results demonstrated the successful deposition of carbon on the AC surfaces, which remarkably enhanced the micropore volume. The improvement of ideal selectivity from 3.5 for AC to 26 for CMS was attributed to the molecular sieving effect due to the reduction of the average pore diameter from 2.02 to 1.47.

    5. Scale-Related Contribution of Environmental and Spatial Processes to Structuring Phytoplankton Assemblages

      Yun Wan, Jing Hu, Lili Xu, Chi Xu, An Wan and Yushun Chen

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300891

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      The importance of environmental control and spatial processes in structuring phytoplankton community at three scales by using the method of variation partitioning was assessed. The results showed that the importance of pure environmental control in phytoplankton community increased with decreasing spatial scales, while the importance of pure spatial processes increased with increasing spatial scales.

    6. Acrylic Acid-Allylpolyethoxy Carboxylate Copolymer as an Effective Inhibitor for Calcium Phosphate and Iron(III) Scales in Cooling Water Systems

      Guangqing Liu, Yuming Zhou, Jingyi Huang, Qingzhao Yao, Lei Ling, Peixin Zhang, Change Fu, Wendao Wu, Wei Sun and Zhengjun Hu

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201100569

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      A novel phosphorous free and non-nitrogen antiscalant for calcium phosphate and iron(III) inhibition was synthesized. ALn is believed to represent a potentially new environmentally safe water treatment agent suitable for cooling water systems. Both TEM and SEM images indicate that AL15 changes highly the morphology and size of calcium phosphate crystals during the inhibition process.

    7. Recycling of Organic Waste through Four Different Composts for Disease Suppression and Growth Enhancement in Mung Beans

      Jyoti Saxena, Sumati Choudhary, Savita Pareek, Arbind Kumar Choudhary and Mir Asif Iquebal

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300748

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      Organic wastes like banana, cow dung, NADEP, and Calotropis can be effectively recycled for compost preparation. Vermicompost was found to be a useful amendment for organic crops. Organic amendments are excellent sources of nutrition which favor native antagonist(s) to proliferate and suppress soil borne diseases in agriculture. Amending soil with composts enriched with Trichoderma viride holds a great promise in rain-fed as well as in irrigated agriculture for improving soil fertility and suppressing soil-borne plant pathogens.

    8. Bromate Adsorption on Three Variable Charge Soils: Kinetics and Thermodynamics

      Aiyin Jia, Chunde Wu, Wenchao Hu and Caixia Hu

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400181

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      Variable charge soils have unique properties for adsorption of inorganic ions in aqueous solution. Bromate, produced during ozonation processes of raw water containing Br, is toxic and carcinogenic to human. Experimental evidence showed that bromate adsorbed by the soils was increased with the increasing of reaction time and flattened after 120 min. It was a spontaneous, endothermic, and entropy-driven process.

    9. Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor

      Bin Dong, Han-Yu Chen, Yang Yang, Qun-biao He and Xiao-Hu Dai

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201200623

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      This study demonstrated the capability of the MBBR technology to degrade PCBs. Here, the degradation of PCB77, which is a dioxin-like PCB congener, was studied in a laboratory-simulation sewage treatment MBBR mode. The results show a removal efficiency of 83–84% in an anaerobic–aerobic MBBR system with 8 h hydraulic retention time.

  2. Research Papers

    1. Photocatalytic Degradation of the Azo Dye Acid Red 14 in Nanosized TiO2 Suspension under Simulated Solar Light

      Jing Miao, Hai-Bo Lu, Daryoush Habibi, Mehdi H. Khiadani and Lai-Chang Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400383

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      Acid red 14 could be mineralized by nanosized TiO2 suspension under simulated solar light by nearly 100% after 60 min irradiation under certain experimental conditions. While TiO2 dosage, pH, and initial acid red 14 concentrationhad significant effects on the decolorization efficiency, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency increased with the enhancement in irradiation intensity. The high photocatalytic efficiency of this nanosized TiO2 under simulated solar light might be related to its lower bandgap energy and the relatively higher content of anatase phase.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Effects of Grassland Conversion From Cropland on Soil Respiration on the Semi-Arid Loess Plateau, China

      Dong Wang, Yu Liu, Zhan-Huan Shang, Fu-Ping Tian, Gao-Lin Wu, Xiao-Feng Chang and David Warrington

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300971

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      Plant litter plays an important role in soil respiration of studied grassland. The contribution of litter to soil respiration reached 12% for 15-year grassland. Soil respiration was the highest for 15-year grassland converted from cropland followed by cropland and 5-year grassland. The results suggest that grassland after 15-year natural restoration should be utilized properly to balance changes in soil respiration with the soil organic carbon accumulations.

    2. Buoyant Photocatalyst Based on ZnO Immobilized on Polystyrene Beads for Pollutants Treatment

      İlknur Altın and Münevver Sökmen

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400303

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      An eco-friendly and easy technique has been presented to prepare ZnO photocatalyst immobilized on waste polystyrene (PS) beads by thermal attachment method. ZnO-PS successfully removed pollutants such as methylene blue, Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli from aqueous solution. This work shows the utilization of waste material, which causes environmental problems for nanotechnology-based treatment systems.

    3. Degradation of Reactive Dyes Using Advanced Oxidation Method

      Özgen Ercan, Sabahattin Deniz, Ece Kök Yetimoğlu and Adnan Aydın

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400195

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      Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Red, used in the textile dyeing industry, cause water pollution. The degradation conditions of dye stuff wastewaters were determined by using the photo-Fenton process. Under the optimum conditions, the degradation efficiencies for synthetic textile wastewaters were found to be >95% within 10 min.

    4. Temporal Stability and Periodicity of Groundwater Electrical Conductivity in Luohuiqu Irrigation District, China

      Guoce Xu, Kexin Lu, Zhanbin Li, Peng Li, Haibo Liu, Shengdong Cheng and Zongping Ren

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400488

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      The concept of temporal stability has been defined as the time-invariant association between spatial location and statistical parameters of soil properties. The temporal stability and periodicity of groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) in irrigation districts were examined. The groundwater EC of different wells exhibited strong temporal stability. Well 2 was time-stable and also represented the best mean EC.

    5. Influence of Olive Oil Mill Waste Amendment on Fate of Oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain Soils

      María Jesús Calderón, Miguel Real, Alegría Cabrera, William C. Koskinen, Juan Cornejo and Mari Carmen Hermosín

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400560

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      The presence of pesticides like oxyfluorfen in surface and ground water surrounding olive crop areas is a particular concern. The effect of olive-oil mill waste soil amendment on the fate of oxyfluorfen in soil has been studied. An increase in soil adsorption and persistence with the amendment could be observed. However, olive-oil mill waste amendment facilitated downward movement of oxyfluorfen along soil profile at 25°C.

    6. Effect of Nitrogen Management on Soil Microbial Community and Enzymatic Activities in Jatropha curcas L. Plantation

      Doongar Ram Chaudhary, Ritesh Kumar Gautam, Arup Ghosh, Jitendra Chikara and Bhavanath Jha

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400357

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      The effects of N applied by urea fertilizers and organic manures (FYM and Jatropha cake) on microbial communities in Jatropha plantation were monitored. NMS analysis of PLFA profiles for soil microbial community shifts showed that 100% N urea fertilizer treatment significantly differed from other treatments.

    7. Variations in Growth, Clonal and Sexual Reproduction of Spartina alterniflora Responding to Changes in Clonal Integration and Sand Burial

      Yan Xiao, Hui Zhao, Wen Yang, Hua Qing, Changfang Zhou, Junbing Tang and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300868

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      This study revealed that clonal integration stimulated the growth and clonal reproduction of daughter ramets, but had negative effects on the performances of mother ramets. The results indicated that increased performances of daughter ramets occurred when mother ramets showed decreases of growth, clonal, and sexual reproduction when buried.

    8. Chemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Soil Hydrophilic Fulvic Acid Purified by Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration

      Ian A. Navarrete and Kiyoshi Tsutsuki

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400046

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      To further enhance the understanding of the characteristics and composition of soil hydrophilic FA (HiFA) including its turnover rate, fate and chemical transformation in soils, it is indispensable to isolate and purify HiFA. The results revealed marked differences between HiFA and hydrophobic FA (HoFA) in terms of chemical and spectroscopic properties. Our result suggests that elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy aid in differentiating HiFA and HoFA of the FA fraction.

    9. Time Series Models for Air Pollution Modelling Considering the Shift to Natural Gas in a Turkish City

      Fatih Taşpınar

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400461

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      Time series models developed in the short-term estimation of residential natural consumption (RNGC), PM10, and SO2 levels for 2014–2015 yielded reasonable fitting scores and accuracy measures. Air temperature dependent ARIMAX(1,1,2) model (R2 = 0.944) for RNGC, and the RNGC and meteorological factors dependent models SARIMAX(0,1,1)(1,1,0)12 for PM10 and ARIMAX(1,1,0) for SO2 performed well in reflecting the time series data. The results suggested that this modelling approach could be utilized in energy planning for sustainable development concerning environmental decision making and short-term air quality forecasting.

    10. Effect of Surface Properties of Iron Oxide Sorbents on Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Odor

      Danlin Zeng, Shenglan Liu, Wanjun Gong, Guanghui Wang, Jianghua Qiu and Hongxiang Chen

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300328

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      The activity loss of the iron oxide sorbent is mainly due to the gradual oxidation of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and further into sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid. Meanwhile, the basic sites in base-treated iron oxide sorbent result in a higher desulfurization activity by suppression of H2SO4 or H2SO3 formation.

    11. Bioremediation Potential of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) against Chromium(VI)

      Sundaramoorthy Balaji, Thiagarajan Kalaivani, Chandrasekaran Rajasekaran, Ramamoorthy Siva, Mohan Shalini, Ranjan Das, Varun Madnokar and Prajakta Dhamorikar

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400133

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      The bioremediation potential of A. platensis was explored by treating with various Cr(VI) concentrations and as well as with Cr containing tannery effluent. The results of biochemical, physicochemical and analytical parameters indicated that A. platensis has the ability to adsorb and convert Cr(VI) that confirms its bioremediation potential.

    12. p-Nitrophenol Removal by Bauxite Ore Assisted Ozonation and its Catalytic Potential

      Chunmao Chen, Hongshuo Chen, Ji Yu, Chao Han, Guangxu Yan and Shaohui Guo

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400330

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      The catalytic ozonation process has attracted wide attention in the recalcitrant contaminants treatment. Calcined bauxite ore exhibited higher degradation and mineralization performance in the catalytic ozonation of p-nitrophenol than a single ozonation process. The results demonstrated the catalytic potential of bauxite ore for the ozonation of recalcitrant organic contaminants considering low cost and abundant reserves.

  4. Research Papers

    1. Electrochemical Degradation of Triketone Herbicides and Identification of Their Main Degradation Products

      Milica Jović, Dragan Manojlović, Dalibor Stanković, Uroš Gašić, Dejan Jeremić, Ilija Brčeski and Goran Roglić

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300951

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      Degradation of the triketone herbicides mesotrione and sulcotrione was conducted in a two-electrode undivided electrochemical cell equipped with commercially available, non-modified, electrode materials. Studied electrochemical parameters included different electrode systems, current densities and pH values in sodium sulfate as supporting electrolyte. Aliphatic and aromatic degradation products for both pesticides could be detected by MS, which proves electrochemical treatment as a promising technique.

    2. Mathematical and Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict the Membrane Fouling Behavior of an Intermittently-Aerated Membrane Bioreactor Under Sub-Critical Flux

      Zuowei Wang and Xiaohui Wu

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400116

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      A back-propagation neural network (BPNN) based on critical theory was applied to simulate the membrane fouling behavior in an intermittently-aerated membrane bioreactor (IAMBR). The BPNN model performed better, especially in the intermittently-aerated mode. However, the simulation ability was not as good as the mathematical model.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Dimethyl Phthalate Degradation by UV/H2O2: Combination of Experimental Methods and Quantum Chemical Calculation

      Er-Deng Du, Xin-Xin Feng, Ying-Qing Guo, Ming-Guo Peng, Hong-Qi Feng, Juan-Lin Wang and Shuo Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400369

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      The oxidation behavior of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) degradation in aqueous solution by a UV/H2O2 process was investigated. The factors that affect the degradation efficiency were also discussed. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that the addition of OH to the C4 position of the DMP ring is energetically favorable for the initial reaction. The degradation mechanism was also proposed based on GC/MS analysis and chemical calculations.

  6. Reviews

    1. Recycling of Paper Mill Biosolids: A Review on Current Practices and Emerging Biorefinery Initiatives

      Muhammad Pervaiz and Mohini Sain

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400590

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      Generation and disposal of extra-ordinary amounts of sludge during paper manufacture have always been aneconomic and ecological challenge for the industry, general public and environmental regulating agencies. The residual biosolids associated with waste sludge contain valuable biopolymers and recent technologies have enabled to transform this abundantly available biomass into value-added products through biorefinery approaches.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Biodegradation and Detoxification of BPA: Involving Laccase and a Mediator

      Hatice Atacag Erkurt

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400628

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      The extracellular extract of Funalia trogii was used for BPA degradation. BPA was degraded rapidly with a significant decrease in toxicity. When adding pure laccase of Trametes versicolor to the thermally inactivated crude extract of F. trogii, the BPA degradation efficiency of pure laccase increased up to that of the crude extract of F. trogii. This result implies the presence of mediator or activator molecules in the crude extract which act jointly with laccase to degrade BPA. The presence of a low molecular weight, butylhydroxytoluene, was verified by GC-MS.

  8. Short Communications

    1. Interaction between Microbes DNA and Atrazine in Black Soil Analyzed by Spectroscopy

      Ying Zhang, Zhigang Wang, Huosheng Guo, Dongfang Meng, Yang Wang and Po-keung Wong

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400006

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      There are few reports about the mechanism of atrazine biotoxicity on black soil microbes. The experimental evidence suggested that the binding between atrazine and the DNA of black soil microbes could inhibit some functions of the nucleic acid, restrain the microbial activity or cause genotoxicity.

  9. Research Articles

    1. Characteristics and Fertilizer Effects of Soil-Like Materials from Landfill Mining

      Chuanbin Zhou, Wanying Xu, Zhe Gong, Wenjun Fang and Aixin Cao

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400510

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      Soil-like material is the primary component of stored waste in old landfills and therefore, the main product obtained from landfill mining. The fertilizer effects were studied by cultivating Impatiens balsamina L. and it could be proved that the soil-like material can be a valuable bio-resource as a cultivating substrate and raw material for organic–inorganic compound fertilizers.

    2. Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Eastern Chinese Coast as Affected by Short-Term C4 Plant Spartina alterniflora Invasion

      Wen Yang, Shuqing An, Hui Zhao, Shubo Fang, Lu Xia, Yan Xiao, Yajun Qiao and Xiaoli Cheng

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300846

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      Soil chemical fractionation techniques were combined with stable isotope analyses to examine soil C- and N-stocks, labile and recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) pools, in invaded ten years Spartina alterniflora community compared with bare flat, native Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis communities. The results suggest that short-term S. alterniflora invasions in tidal salt marshes of Eastern Chinese coast play an important C- and N-sink role in soil C and N cycles.

    3. Alleviating Effect of Calcium on Nickel Toxicity in Rice

      Humera Aziz, Muhammad Sabir, Hamaad Raza Ahmad, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Khalid Rehman Hakeem and Munir Ozturk

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400085

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      Due to soil contamination, food crops growing on, e.g., Ni contaminated soils could accumulate Ni to levels which are harmful for human and other living organisms. Ni entering the food chain through plant absorption can be decreased through nutritional plant management. Calcium for example can decrease the Ni concentration in rice plants and thus, restrict its entry into the food chain.

    4. Electrochemical Degradation of Triclosan at a Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 Anode

      Dusmant Maharana, Junfeng Niu, Neti Nageswara Rao, Zesheng Xu and Jianghong Shi

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400180

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      Electrochemical degradation of refractory organic pollutants is an effective method to eliminate these pollutants from water. The results suggest that the degradation efficiency attained >99.9% during 5 min of electrolysis by the Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anodes. It can be used preliminary for the rapid degradation of triclosan in waste water.

  10. Short Communications

    1. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer by Esterification of Renewable Citric Acid Using Modified Zeolite

      Kakasaheb Y. Nandiwale, Sanjay P. Borikar and Vijay V. Bokade

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400189

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      The use of H-ZSM-5 (HZ-5) and its micro–mesopore composites (M-HZ-5) as heterogeneous catalysts for the esterification of renewable citric acid (wasted oranges) with ethanol (bio-ethanol) to synthesize non-toxic triethyl citrate plasticizer in a closed batch system is reported. This study opens new avenues as far as following the principles of green chemistry in terms of renewable synthesis routes, non-toxic products and waste minimization.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Baseflow Recession Analysis for Flood-Prone Black Sea Watersheds in Turkey

      Hafzullah Aksoy and Hartmut Wittenberg

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400199

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      There is a consensus that discharges in rivers during flow recession and low flows consist mainly of baseflow, i.e., outflow from the shallow groundwater reservoirs and interflow. However, also during floods, the contribution of the baseflow is significant. This is shown for the time series of daily flows of two catchments in the flood-prone Black Sea region of Turkey. A nonlinear reservoir algorithm is applied for baseflow separation and analysis. Groundwater recharge, outflow and evaporation losses depend highly on seasonality and flow magnitude.

  12. Research Papers

    1. Environmental Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Freshwater Sediment, Serbia

      Sanja M. Sakan, Gordana J. Dević, Dubravka J. Relić, Ivan B. Anđelković, Nenad M. Sakan and Dragana S. Đorđević

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400275

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      The aim of this study was to assess the level of heavy metals pollution and enrichment in surface freshwater sediments in Serbia. Enrichment factor values indicate nil to moderate enrichment for all studied elements, except for Cd, Cu, and Zn on some areas, where enrichment was, in some cases, even severe. The results suggest the possibility of using Co as normalisation element in further research.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Solid Phase Extraction of Trace Elements in Water and Tissue Samples on a Mini Column with Diphenylcarbazone Impregnated Nano-TiO2 and Their Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

      Sıtkı Baytak and Zikri Arslan

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400348

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      Diphenylcarbazone (DPC) was impregnated onto TiO2 nanoparticles (n-TiO2). The resulting sorbent is environmentally friendly and suitable for the quantitative sorption of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions between pH 8.0 and 8.3. The results showed that the DPC-impregnated n-TiO2 sorbent possesses high capacity and stability for the preconcentration of large volumes of natural water samples to achieve accurate multi-element determination by ICP-OES.

    2. Chemometric Interpretation on the Occurrence of Endocrine Disruptors in Source Water from Malaysia

      Veerasingan Armugam Santhi, Hafizan Juahir, Ananthy Retnam and Ali Mohd Mustafa

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300777

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      Source water data consisting of physical and chemical parameters for 25 drinking water treatment plants were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis: cluster analysis reduced the number of sites and parameters, while discriminant analysis identified spatial and seasonal variations with data reduction, and principal component analysis identified pollution sources. The results suggest that multivariate statistical analysis is a useful tool for managing source water.

  14. Research Papers

    1. Different Effects of a By-product From Olive Oil Extraction on S-Metolachlor and Bentazone Soil Fate

      Ana I. Cañero, Lucía Cox, Alegría Cabrera and Juan Cornejo

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400233

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      The use of olive oil mill waste as soil amendment greatly reduced the leaching of the herbicide S-metolachlor. However, bentazone leaching was only slightly delayed upon amendment. Thus, olive oil mill waste can be used to reduce the off-site movement of S-metolachlor due to the increase in soil sorption.

  15. Research Articles

    1. A Preliminary Study on the Occurrence of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in the River Basins and Their Removal in Two Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants in Chongqing, China

      Qing Yan, Yi-Xin Zhang, Jia Kang, Xiu-Mei Gan, Peng Xu-Y, Jin-Song Guo and Xu Gao

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400039

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      Information about occurrence and fate of PhACs in drinking water systems is very important in order to evaluate potential negative ecological and human health effects. The obtained results provide the information whether the conventional DWTPs are able to eliminate 21 commonly used PhACs in water sources and water plants in Chongqing, China, and provide knowledge about treatment alternatives or complementary treatment processes.

    2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Food Web of Coastal Wetlands: Distribution, Sources and Potential Toxicity

      Yu Zhang, Baoshan Cui, Qijun Zhang and Xinhui Liu

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201400305

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      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of the Yellow River Delta are of great complexity, which is due to the special location in the marine–terrestrial interlaced zone. The PAHs concentration in migratory birds was higher compared to resident birds which implied that the Yellow River Delta is contaminated to a lesser extent than other wetlands.

    3. Heavy Metal Partitioning in Sediments from Rivers Flowing Through Coal Fields in Mpumalanga, South Africa

      Stanley Moyo, Rob McCrindle, Ntebogeng Mokgalaka and Jan Myburgh

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300656

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      Fractionation of trace metals in contaminated sediments determines bioavailability of metals. Sequential extraction and chemometrics were used in conjunction to determine bioavailability and possible contributors of metals in sediments from three rivers passing through coal fields. The results reveal that most elements pose a medium risk to aquatic life.

    4. Concentrations and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Riverine Wetlands Located in the Huaihe River Watershed, China

      Hezhong Yuan, Wei Pan, Zhengjie Zhu, Qifang Geng, Pengshan Li, Dong Xie and Yuhong Liu

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300866

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      Significant deviations of the Igeo values for sediment cores were surveyed. Low Igeo values showed that the sediments below 3 cm depth and the downstream of the river were unpolluted and unpolluted to moderately polluted. Greater Igeo values in surficial sediments showed that the upper stream of the river was exposed to moderate pollution, which was attributed to the inflow of the contaminated water from domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and agriculture runoff.

    5. Efficiency of Carbohydrate Additives on the Stability of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP): HRP-Catalyzed Removal of Phenol and Malachite Green Decolorization from Wastewater

      Ellappan Kalaiarasan and Thayumanavan Palvannan

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300858

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      Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) plays an important role in the field of bioremediation and diagnostic assays. Beyond critical temperature and long storage, disruption of enzymatic activity occurs. RSM results suggest that galactose and guar gum enhanced the stability of HRP at 60°C, pH 7.4 under optimized conditions. Stabilized HRP successfully removed phenols and decolorized malachite green from wastewater.

    6. Density-Dependent Interactions Between Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle and Phytoplankton: A Mesocosm Experiment

      Hao Jiang, Dehua Zhao, Hui Zhao, Ying Cai, Delin Xu, Changfang Zhou, Xin Leng and Dong Xie

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300862

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      Hydrilla verticillata controlled the density of phytoplankton in the system that maintained it at approximately 30% of the initial level, promoted high phytoplankton diversity, and attained greater biomass and plant length at low initial phytoplankton density (7.5 × 106 cells/L).

    7. Influences of Land Use on Sediment Pollution across Multiple Spatial Scales in Taihu Basin

      Ying Cai, Dehua Zhao, Delin Xu, Hao Jiang, Mengqiu Yu, Xin Leng, Dong Xie and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300888

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      Intensive land use activities are well-known to influence the ecological properties of aquatic environment. This study suggests that the impacts of anthropogenic land use on sediment pollution might show a different characteristic spatial scale, and expanding the existing priority regions for environmental protection might be crucial to optimize their effectiveness in the Taihu Basin.

    8. Effects of Tidewater and Crab Burrowing on H2S Emission and Sulfur Storage in Spartina alterniflora Marsh

      Hui Zhao, Wen Yang, Chao Fang, Yajun Qiao, Yan Xiao, Xiaoli Cheng and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300845

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      With the rapid expansion of Spartina alterniflora in China, sulfur cycling of the S. alterniflora marsh will play a more and more important role in the global sulfur cycle. Tidewater and burrowing crabs are two main factors affecting the S. alterniflora marsh. A field experiment indicated that both tidewater and crab burrowing were key disturbing factors affecting sulfur cycling in the S. alterniflora marsh but with different aspects.

    9. Changes of Phytoplankton and Water Quality under the Regulation of Filter-Feeding Fishes and Submerged Aquatic Plants in a Large-Scale Experiment

      Qing Wang, Lu Xia, Xia Xu, Jie Fu, Shuqing An and Baozhong Wang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300865

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      Along with the increasing pollution in Taihu Lake, cyanobacteria blooms became more and more serious. The impact of filter-feeding fishes and submerged aquatic plants on phytoplankton in a large-scale experiment was investigated. The results show that the inhibition effect of filter-feeding fishes might be a better choice to control cyanobacterial blooms in large-scale engineering applications.

  16. Research Article

    1. High Soil Sulfur Promotes Invasion of Exotic Spartina alterniflora into Native Phragmites australis Marsh

      Lu Xia, Wen Yang, Hui Zhao, Yan Xiao, Hua Qing, Changfang Zhou and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300883

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      Spartina alterniflora, a blacklist invasive species in China, actively accumulate and store sulfur in their tissues, leading to a high sulfide concentration in the invaded environment. S. alterniflora may be using high sulfur as a chemical weapon in successful (out)competition with the indigenous species, Phragmites australis.

  17. Research Articles

    1. The Role of Environmental and Spatial Processes in Structuring Stream Macroinvertebrates Communities in a Large River Basin

      Yun Wan, Lili Xu, Jin Hu, Chi Xu, An Wan, Shuqing An and Yushun Chen

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300861

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Relative impacts of local environmental (physicochemical variables) and spatial (generated by overland and watercourse distances among sites) variables on the structure of macroinvertebrates were evaluated using variation partitioning methods. The results showed that both space and environment had significant effects on macroinvertebrates community composition.

    2. Effects of Salinity on the Photosynthesis of Two Poaceous Halophytes

      Changfang Zhou, Wenyan Shen, Changmei Lu, Hanxing Wang, Yan Xiao, Yongqiang Zhao and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300840

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      The study with two Poaceous halophytes, C4 Spartina alterniflora and C3 Phragmites australis, with a series of salinities showed an increase in stomatal conductance with increased salinities for both species, indicating that the difference on photosynthesis could not be simply explained by stomatal conductance and CO2-concentrating capacity. Thus, there should be some other mechanism that facilitates the C4 photosynthetic pathway under high salinity.

    3. Nitrogen Removal by Ecological Purification and Restoration Engineering in a Polluted River

      Li-Jun Ren, Teng Wen, Wei Pan, Yu-shun Chen, Li-Li Xu, Lu-Ji Yu, Chun-Yan Yu, Yan Zhou and Shu-Qing An

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300854

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      An excessive amount of nitrogen (N) is extremely harmful to rivers, in particular the inorganic forms of nitrogen. The effects of four river restoration techniques on N removal along a polluted river were analyzed. Experimental evidence suggests that restoration effects exhibited spatial and temporal variations: higher removal appeared during the warm months, except NO3-N.

    4. Effects of Connection Mode and Hydraulic Retention Time on Wastewater Pollutants Removal in Constructed Wetland Microcosms

      Li-Jun Ren, Li-Li Xu, Yu-Yuan Zhang, Wei Pan, Sheng-Lai Yin, Yan Zhou, Lu-Ji Yu, Yu-Shun Chen and Shu-Qing An

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300842

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      The pollutant removal efficiency among constructed wetland (CW) systems varies considerably due to its design and operating characteristics. A series of multi-stage connected CW microcosms were studied and the experimental evidence suggests that multi-stage coupled CW with an appropriate hydraulic retention time can be a comprehensive and effective method for urban wastewater treatment.

    5. Longitudinal Changes in Water Quality to Landscape Gradients Along Sha River Basin

      Teng Wen, Sheng Sheng, Chi Xu, Delin Xu, Yun Wan and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300889

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      Response of water quality to landscape changes along the longitudinal scale of Sha River Basin was investigated in this study. Middle and lower reaches are more responsible for water quality deterioration, and urbanization is the primary cause. Response curve results indicated that a lower urban land percentage (<20%) was appropriate for keeping water quality from further degradation.

    6. Genetic Diversity, Ecotype Hybrid, and Mixture of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Coastal China

      Lu Xia, Hui Zhao, Wen Yang and Shuqing An

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300882

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined the genetic variation and the possible existence and distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. We collected and analyzed 144 samples from seven populations throughout coastal China (21.6°–38.6°N; 109.7°–121.8°E) using amplified fragment length polymorphisms markers.

    7. Effects of Ammonia Nitrogen and Sediment Nutrient on Growth of the Submerged Plant Vallisneria natans

      Zhengjie Zhu, Hezhong Yuan, Ying Wei, Pengshan Li, Peihua Zhang and Dong Xie

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300878

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The findings of the paper indicate that high ammonia nitrogen (>8 mg L−1) of the water column inhibits the growth of Vallisneria natans and high sediments nutrient promotes its growth. When using V. natans for water ecological restoration, the water should meet the ammonia nitrogen contents <8 mg L−1. Moreover, dredging eutrophication sediment is probably not necessary.

    8. Soil Washing for Reduction of Aromatic and Aliphatic Contaminants in Soil

      Saeid Gitipour, Mahsa Hedayati and Edris Madadian

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/clen.201100609

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      The results of the study indicate that sand and gravel presented the highest removal efficiencies (92.34 and 92.39%) for both aliphatic and aromatic contaminants at 40°C. These values were almost 11% higher than the samples tested at room temperature. It could be concluded that an increase in temperature could enhance the movement of the reagent molecules.

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