ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.657

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 18/157 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

VIEW

  1. 1 - 43
  1. Reviews

    1. Levulinic Acid Biorefineries: New Challenges for Efficient Utilization of Biomass

      Filoklis D. Pileidis and Prof. Maria-Magdalena Titirici

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501405

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Refined and ready: Lignocellulosic biomass upgrade through the use of levulinic acid offers a wide array of products with a variety of applications ranging from fuel additives to biobased chemicals, green solvents, biopolymers, and biofertilizers.

  2. Communications

    1. The Role of MgCl2 as a Lewis Base in ROMgCl–MgCl2 Electrolytes for Magnesium-Ion Batteries

      Dr. Baofei Pan, Dr. Jinhua Huang, Meinan He, Dr. Scott M. Brombosz, Dr. John T. Vaughey, Dr. Lu Zhang, Dr. Anthony K. Burrell, Dr. Zhengcheng Zhang and Dr. Chen Liao

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501557

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Switching roles: A series of strong Lewis-acid-free alkoxide/siloxide-based Mg electrolytes are developed with remarkable oxidative stability up to 3.5 V (vs. Mg/Mg2+). Despite the perception of ROMgCl (R=alkyl, silyl) as a strong base, ROMgCl acts like a Lewis acid, whereas the role of MgCl2 is unambiguously demonstrated as a Lewis base through the identification of the key intermediate using single-crystal X-ray crystallography.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Evaluation of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Porous Polymer Networks for CO2-Capture Applications

      Wolfgang M. Verdegaal, Kecheng Wang, Dr. Julian P. Sculley, Prof. Dr. Mario Wriedt and Prof. Dr. Hong-Cai Zhou

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501464

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      Capture-all: The physical properties of a diverse set of porous materials are experimentally obtained, fed into a carbon-capture model, and evaluated according to the working capacity of CO2 separated from flue gas per energy by comparing seven different carbon-capture scenarios. This method provides a tool for researchers to make more meaningful comparisons of their data to literature results.

    2. Hybrid Amine-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Robust Bifunctional Catalyst for Atmospheric Pressure Fixation of Carbon Dioxide using Cyclic Carbonates

      Vitthal B. Saptal, Prof. Takehiko Sasaki, Kei Harada, Dr. Daisuke Nishio-Hamane and Prof. Bhalchandra M. Bhanage

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501438

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      Re-cyclo-addition: Amine-functionalized graphene oxide (AP-GO) is presented as an environmentally-benign carbocatalyst for the conversion of epoxides to cyclic carbonates using CO2. The synthesis and characterization of this catalyst is described, along with thorough optimization of the reaction conditions for the carbocatalyzed cycloaddition reaction under mild temperatures and pressures. AP-GO is proved to be a highly active catalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and can be recycled up to seven times without losing its catalytic activity.

    3. Metal-free Nanoporous Carbon as a Catalyst for Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4

      Wanlu Li, Dr. Mykola Seredych, Prof. Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón and Prof. Teresa J. Bandosz

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501575

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      Double doped! S,N-doped polymer-derived carbons are studied as electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4. Higher Faradaic efficiencies are obtained on dual S,N-doped carbon than on its S-doped counterpart. The presence of positively charged sites and the incorporation of functional groups promotes the electrochemical reduction of CO2 and the ultra-micropores enhance the reduction of CO2 to CH4.

    4. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Humins in Mixtures of Formic Acid/2-Propanol with Supported Ruthenium Catalysts

      Yuehu Wang, Dr. Shilpa Agarwal, Dr. Arjan Kloekhorst and Prof. Dr. Here Jan Heeres

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501371

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Catalytic back up: The catalytic hydrotreatment of humins, which are the solid byproducts from the conversion of C6 sugars into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, by using supported ruthenium catalysts is described. Reactions are carried out in a batch setup with a hydrogen donor (formic acid (FA) in isopropanol (IPA) or hydrogen gas), with humins obtained from d-glucose (see figure).

  4. Communications

    1. Design of Highly Selective Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of KA-Oil using Continuous-Flow Chemistry

      Arran M. Gill, Dr. Christopher S. Hinde, Dr. Rowan K. Leary, Dr. Matthew E. Potter, Andrea Jouve, Dr. Peter P. Wells, Prof. Paul A. Midgley, Prof. John M. Thomas and Dr. Robert Raja

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501264

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      Revealed: Isolation by activation! Platinum, palladium and gold nanoparticles are generated in situ by anion extrusion from porous framework architectures. Spectroscopic and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal that activation conditions are crucial for the generation of isolated active centers. The design strategy affords highly active and selective catalysts for the industrially significant aerobic oxidation of KA-oil under continuous-flow conditions.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Co-Doped Graphene Monolith for Supercapacitors

      Yangyang Wen, Dr. Thomas E. Rufford, Dr. Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova and Prof. Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501303

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      Monoliths for supercapacitors: A single precursor melamine phosphate is used to synthesize nitrogen/phosphorous-co-doped graphene (N/P-G) monoliths by a facile hydrothermal method. The resultant N/P-G monoliths not only exhibit excellent capacitive performance in supercapacitors but are also stabilized at 1.6 V in aqueous electrolyte, delivering a high energy density.

    2. Very Important Paper

      Comprehensive Insights into the Reactivity of Electrolytes Based on Sodium Ions

      Dr. Gebrekidan Gebresilassie Eshetu, Dr. Sylvie Grugeon, Dr. Huikyong Kim, Dr. Sangsik Jeong, Dr. Liming Wu, Dr. Gregory Gachot, Prof. Dr. Stephane Laruelle, Prof. Dr. Michel Armand and Prof. Dr. Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501605

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      Run with DMC: We report a systematic investigation of Na-based electrolytes that comprise various Na salts and solvent mixtures [ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/diethyl carbonate (DEC), and EC/propylene carbonate (PC)] as well as ionic liquids, with respect to the Al current collector stability, formation of soluble degradation compounds, reactivity towards sodiated hard carbon, and solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation.

    3. Hydrogen from Water over Openly-Structured Graphitic Carbon Nitride Polymer through Photocatalysis

      Dr. Zhijun Huang, Fengbo Li, Bingfeng Chen and Prof. Guoqing Yuan

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501520

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microstructure effect: Openly-structured g-C3N4 microspheres are developed through a well-controlled strategy. These materials, along with a Pt co- catalyst, show high catalytic activity for direct hydrogen evolution from water under a 300 W Xe lamp with a cut-off filter (>420 nm) and excellent stability of their chemical properties and open 3 D microstructures.

    4. Hierarchical Zeolites with Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Domains for Carbon Dioxide Capture

      Dr. Tien Hoa Nguyen, Sungjune Kim, Prof. Dr. Minyoung Yoon and Prof. Dr. Tae-Hyun Bae

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201600004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      How do you say…zeolite: In view of the rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the implementation of carbon capture technologies has been suggested to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel-burning processes. Hierarchical LTA zeolites with amine-functionalized mesoporous domains are synthesized and shown to capture large amounts of CO2, due to CO2 capture by both the zeolite and the amine.

  6. Cover Profiles

    1. Metal-Free Chemoselective Oxidative Dehomologation or Direct Oxidation of Alcohols: Implication for Biomass Conversion

      Dr. Sun Min Kim, Hun Yi Shin, Dong Wan Kim and Prof. Dr. Jung Woon Yang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201600098

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      “Based on the idea of how a grinder works, we think complex molecules are cleaved…” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the Cover image is presented in the Cover Profile. Read the full text of the corresponding research at 10.1002/cssc.201501359. View the Front Cover here: 10.1002/cssc.201600097.

  7. Cover Pictures

    1. Metal-Free Chemoselective Oxidative Dehomologation or Direct Oxidation of Alcohols: Implication for Biomass Conversion

      Dr. Sun Min Kim, Hun Yi Shin, Dong Wan Kim and Prof. Dr. Jung Woon Yang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201600097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Cover picture shows the conversion of lignin model compounds to phenol and benzoic acid as platform chemicals through a sodium tert-butoxide (NaOtBu)-mediated oxidative dehomologation reactions under oxygen atmosphere. This result raises the possibility for biomass conversion of natural lignin compounds. More details can be found in the Communication by Kim et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501359).

  8. Full Papers

    1. Hydrothermal Synthesis of TiO2@SnO2 Hybrid Nanoparticles in a Continuous-Flow Dual-Stage Reactor

      Henrik L. Hellstern, Dr. Martin Bremholm, Dr. Aref Mamakhel, Dr. Jacob Becker and Prof. Bo B. Iversen

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501199

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Easy composites: TiO2@SnO2 nanocomposites are synthesized in a dual-stage continuous-flow reactor under hydrothermal conditions. Temperature and pH are found to direct growth of SnO2 directly on TiO2 into either a hybrid nanoparticle or mixed TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles. The nanocomposites consist of 9 nm core anatase nanoparticles decorated by multiple 2 nm SnO2 nanocrystallites.

  9. Communications

    1. Compositional and Interfacial Modification of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition

      Se Won Seo, Jong-Ok Jeon, Jung Woo Seo, Yi Yin Yu, Dr. Jeung-hyun Jeong, Dr. Doh-Kwon Lee, Dr. Honggon Kim, Prof. Dr. Min Jae Ko, Dr. Hae Jung Son, Prof. Dr. Ho Won Jang and Prof. Dr. Jin Young Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501256

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin films modified: A highly efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)-based thin-film solar cell is prepared using an electrochemical deposition method followed by thermal annealing. As a result of the compositional and interfacial modification of the CZTSSe thin film, the conversion efficiency can be increased up to 9.9 %, which is the highest efficiency among the CZTSSe-based thin-film solar cells prepared through electrochemical deposition.

    2. Thickness- and Particle-Size-Dependent Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Thin-Layer Porous Silver Electrodes

      Lin Zhang, Dr. Zhiyong Wang, Nada Mehio, Prof. Xianbo Jin and Prof. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501637

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silver for the porous: The electrochemical reduction of CO2 can not only convert it back into fuels is also an efficient manner to store forms of renewable energy. Highly porous silver film electrodes are prepared with controllable thicknesses and sizes of primary particles. The morphology of the film′s particles has a large influence on the electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced CO2 Resistance for Robust Oxygen Separation Through Tantalum-doped Perovskite Membranes

      Chi Zhang, Hao Tian, Dong Yang, Dr. Jaka Sunarso, Dr. Jian Liu and Prof. Shaomin Liu

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501395

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CO2 resistance: New Ta-doped perovskite oxide compositions (SrFe1−xTaxO3−δ) for application as oxygen permeation membranes are synthesized and characterized. The cubic structure can be formed with as low as 5 mol % of Ta substituting Fe in the lattice. As evidenced by FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and long-term permeation tests under CO2-containing atmosphere, Ta-doped SrFe0.95Ta0.05O3−δ oxide has lower basicity (relative to SrFeO3−δ) and thus enhanced CO2 resistance.

  11. Communications

    1. High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a S,N-Heteropentacene-based D–A Hole-Transport Material

      Dr. Dongqin Bi, Dr. Amaresh Mishra, Dr. Peng Gao, Dr. Marius Franckevičius, Christopher Steck, Dr. Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Prof. Peter Bäuerle, Prof. Michael Grätzel and Prof. Anders Hagfeldt

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501510

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Alternative transport: A novel hole-transport material based on S,N-heteropentacene is reported for perovskite solar cells, exhibiting excellent power conversion efficiency of 16.9 % in the absence of p-type dopants. This represents a significant advancement in the field of alternative hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Very Important Paper

      Synthesis of Titania@Carbon Nanocomposite from Urea-Impregnated Cellulose for Efficient Lithium and Sodium Batteries

      Aurélien Henry, Dr. Nicolas Louvain, Dr. Olivier Fontaine, Prof. Lorenzo Stievano, Dr. Laure Monconduit and Prof. Bruno Boury

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501561

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      Electrodes from cellulose: Reactive mineralization has been developed to modify cellulose. Pre-impregnation of cellulose filter paper with urea affects the morphology of the oxide—a unique superstructure of TiO2 nanoflowers is obtained—and provides doping to carbon left by pyrolytic conversion of cellulose. The resulting electrode material can be used in highly efficient Li and Na batteries.

    2. Efficient Water Splitting Catalyzed by Cobalt Phosphide-Based Nanoneedle Arrays Supported on Carbon Cloth

      Dr. Peng Wang, Dr. Fang Song, Prof. Dr. Rose Amal, Prof. Dr. Yun Hau Ng and Prof. Dr. Xile Hu

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501599

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pin-point catalysis: CoP-based nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth are investigated as efficient and durable bifunctional catalysts for overall water splitting. The catalyst exhibits remarkable activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media. The specific active species in the nanoneedles is identified and compared to commonly used OER and HER catalysts.

  13. Highlights

    1. Metal–Polysaccharide Interplay: Beyond Metal Immobilization, Graphenization-Induced-Anisotropic Growth

      Prof. Abdelkrim El Kadib

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501609

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Such sweet support: Metal–polysaccharide interplay affords, after pyrolytic transformation, highly active catalysts based on anisotropically oriented nanoparticles supported on graphene sheets.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose

      Dr. Karla Dussan, Dr. Buana Girisuta, Marystela Lopes, Dr. James J. Leahy and Prof. Michael H. B. Hayes

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501415

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Time to upgrade: An experimental study on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors relevant to the conversion of biomass into platform chemicals is presented. The results confirm that polymeric soluble lignin leads to detrimental effects on the selectivity of furfural formation from pentose sugars. Therefore, lignin separation is important prior to further hemicellulose sugar upgrading to platform chemicals.

    2. Very Important Paper

      Enhanced Organic Solar Cell Stability through the Effective Blocking of Oxygen Diffusion using a Self-Passivating Metal Electrode

      Hansol Lee, Dr. Sae Byeok Jo, Hyo Chan Lee, Dr. Min Kim, Dong Hun Sin, Hyomin Ko and Prof. Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501536

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      Smooth passivator: We report on a new strategy to enhance the environmental stability of organic solar cells. Metal top electrodes themselves serve as oxygen barrier films. Controls on metal electrode morphology greatly reduce oxygen permeation through electrodes, resulting in enhanced stability by suppressing oxidation-induced degradation pathways.

    3. Directly-Grown Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube@Polypyrrole Core–Shell Hybrid for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors

      Yesi Yesi, Indrajit Shown, Abhijit Ganguly, Trung Truc Ngo, Li-Chyong Chen and Kuei-Hsien Chen

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501495

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      Binder free and flexible: A composite consisting of a hierarchical carbon nanotube–polyppyrrole (CNT–PPy) core–shell structure directly grown on flexible carbon cloth (CC) is prepared as electrode material for supercapacitors. The optimized PPy/CNTs-CC electrode exhibits high gravimetric capacitance and excellent flexibility and cycle stability with little % capacitance loss. Symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitors utilizing this material as electrodes show very promising behavior.

    4. Continuous Preparation of Copper/Carbon Nanotube Composite Films and Application in Solar Cells

      Xiao Gang Luo, Min Le Wu, Dr. Xiao Xia Wang, Prof. Xin Hua Zhong, Ke Zhao and Prof. Jian Nong Wang

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501342

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      Easy electrode: A general strategy is developed to continuously prepare particle/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite films. A Cu/CNT composite film is demonstrated as an example. Such film exhibits excellent performance when used as a counter electrode in a quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells compared with commonly used Pt and CNT electrodes.

    5. An Interesting Class of Porous Polymer—Revisiting the Structure of Mesoporous α-d-Polysaccharide Gels

      Dr. Robin J. White, Dr. Peter S. Shuttleworth, Dr. Vitaliy L. Budarin, Dr. Mario De Bruyn, Prof. Anna Fischer and Prof. James H. Clark

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501354

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      In a spin: A combined spectroscopic approach to the unravelling of the polysaccharide organization in mesoporous xerogels reveals a unique chiral diffusion character reflective of the assembly of amylose double helices. The results demonstrate the unique nature of porous polysaccharide-derived materials, exemplified by an amylose-based system, offering vast potential for a number of high value applications, such as asymmetric catalysis and chiral separation science.

    6. Further Investigation of a Nickel-Based Homogeneous Water Oxidation Catalyst with Two cis Labile Sites

      Gang-Yi Luo, Hai-Hua Huang, Jia-Wei Wang and Prof. Tong-Bu Lu

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501474

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      Multi-catalyzing: A NiII-based homogeneous electrocatalytic water oxidation catalyst with two cis labile sites is reported, in which OAc participates in both assisting the formation of the catalytically active intermediate and the atom proton transfer during O−O bond formation.

    7. Highly Selective Oxidation of Carbohydrates in an Efficient Electrochemical Energy Converter: Cogenerating Organic Electrosynthesis

      Dr. Yaovi Holade, Dr. Karine Servat, Dr. Teko W. Napporn, Dr. Cláudia Morais, Prof. Dr. Jean-Marc Berjeaud and Prof. Dr. Kouakou B. Kokoh

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501593

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      Electrosynthesis in Fuel Cells: Utterly doable! Biomass is an extensive and endlessly renewable resource that can be converted selectively and efficiently into energy and added-value chemicals. Here, the design of a direct glucose fuel cell allows a high power density and produces as a cogeneration device, heat and added-value chemicals. This paves the way for the selective electro-oxidation of carbohydrates as fuels in a sustainable electrochemical energy converter.

    8. Hole-Transporting Materials Based on Twisted Bimesitylenes for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells with High Efficiency

      Dr. Yan-Duo Lin, Bo-Yu Ke, Prof. Dr. Kun-Mu Lee, Dr. Sheng Hsiung Chang, Kai-Hung Wang, Shih-Han Huang, Prof. Dr. Chun-Guey Wu, Dr. Po-Ting Chou, Samik Jhulki, Prof. Dr. Jarugu Narasimha Moorthy, Prof. Dr. Yuan Jay Chang, Prof. Dr. Kang-Ling Liau, Hsin-Cheng Chung, Prof. Dr. Ching-Yang Liu, Prof. Dr. Shih-Sheng Sun and Prof. Dr. Tahsin J. Chow

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501392

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      Stability trumps efficiency: Three hole-transport materials based on a bimesitylene core presented, and their application in perovskite solar cells is evaluated. An overall power conversion efficiency of up to 12.11 % is achieved with these new materials and stability studies show that the long-term stability of devices using the new materials is superior to commonly used spiro-OMeTAD.

    9. Ammonia Decomposition with Manganese Nitride–Calcium Imide Composites as Efficient Catalysts

      Pei Yu, Dr. Jianping Guo, Dr. Lin Liu, Peikun Wang, Dr. Guotao Wu, Fei Chang and Prof. Ping Chen

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501498

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      The Wrath of CaNH: Calcium imide (CaNH) has a strong synergistic effect on Mn6N5 in catalyzing NH3 decomposition, leading to outstanding catalytic activity. CaNH participates in the catalysis and produces a stable [Ca6MnN5]-like intermediate, lowering the activation energy for ammonia decomposition. A two-step catalytic cycle, accounting for the synergistic effect between CaNH and Mn6N5, is proposed.

    10. Conformations of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Polymers in Water

      Dr. Loukas Petridis and Dr. Jeremy C. Smith

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501350

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      Lignin conforms! Understanding the shape and conformations of low-molecular weight lignin at pretreatment temperatures is important because the lignin shape strongly influences undesirable lignin binding to cellulose, which represents a major obstacle in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Based on molecular dynamics simulations of lignin polymers, it is found that lignin in water adopts more spherical conformations with increasing degree of polymerization.

  15. Communications

    1. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage

      Fanan Wang, Dr. Jinming Xu, Dr. Xianzhao Shao, Dr. Xiong Su, Dr. Yanqiang Huang and Prof. Tao Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501376

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      What′s in store? A reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system is developed, based on a newly prepared catalyst. The catalyst comprises palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed and electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles play a synergistic role in promoting the bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

      Bahram Abdollahi Nejand, Prof. Vahid Ahmadi, Saba Gharibzadeh and Prof. Hamid Reza Shahverdi

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501273

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      New in town: The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O as a new hole-transport material for perovskite solar cells shows high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for a high rate of charge extraction. The engineered Cu2O layers show uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure. Deposition of Cu2O on a pinhole-free perovskite layer yields devices with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 8.93 %.

    2. Photocatalytic Water Oxidation over Metal Oxide Nanosheets Having a Three-Layer Perovskite Structure

      Takayoshi Oshima, Dr. Miharu Eguchi and Prof. Dr. Kazuhiko Maeda

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501237

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      Size does not matter: Water oxidation over metal oxide nanosheets is performed using IO3 as an electron acceptor. It is found that the nanosheet composition has an impact on activity whereas the sheet dimensions do not. Experimental results indicate that the reduction of IO3 is the rate-limiting step in the reaction.

    3. Electrosynthesis of Biomimetic Manganese–Calcium Oxides for Water Oxidation Catalysis—Atomic Structure and Functionality

      Diego González-Flores, Ivelina Zaharieva, Jonathan Heidkamp, Petko Chernev, Elías Martínez-Moreno, Chiara Pasquini, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Katharina Klingan, Ulrich Gernet, Prof. Dr. Anna Fischer and Prof. Dr. Holger Dau

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501399

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      Catalyst Ca-n do: Water-oxidizing calcium–manganese oxides mimic the inorganic core of the biological catalyst. The oxides are electrodeposited and modified by active-site creation through annealing at moderate temperatures. The ability to undergo redox transitions and the presence of a minority fraction of MnIII ions at catalytic potentials facilitates water-oxidation catalysis.

  17. Minireviews

    1. Research Progress on the Indirect Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol

      Dr. Xian-Long Du, Prof. Zheng Jiang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Jian-Qiang Wang

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501013

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      A to B creatively: Recent progress for the indirect hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol is reviewed. Much emphasis is placed on discussing specific systems, including hydrogenation of CO2-derivatives (organic carbonates, carbamates, formates, cyclic carbonates, urea derivatives, and dimethylformamide), homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and cascade reactions with the aim of critically highlighting both the achievements and remaining challenges associated with this field.

  18. Communications

    1. Metal-Free Chemoselective Oxidative Dehomologation or Direct Oxidation of Alcohols: Implication for Biomass Conversion

      Dr. Sun Min Kim, Hun Yi Shin, Dong Wan Kim and Prof. Dr. Jung Woon Yang

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501359

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      No metals: A transition-metal-free chemoselective reaction (either oxidative dehomologation or direct oxidation) of alcohols is performed using the sodium tert-butoxide–oxygen system. In particular, this protocol may be used to predict the major product formed, which depends on alkyl chain length of the alcohols and reaction conditions. We also present a straightforward method for the conversion of lignin (as biomass model compound) to phenol and benzoic acid.

  19. Concepts

    1. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels

      Prof. Siglinda Perathoner, Prof. Gabriele Centi and Prof. Dangsheng Su

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501059

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      Just a little PECa: There is a need to turn the perspective of research in terms of photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) cell design and related materials to enable the implementation of these devices within a decade. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. CB=conduction band, VB=valence band.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Theoretical Insight into the Trends that Guide the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid

      Jong Suk Yoo, Rune Christensen, Prof. Dr. Tejs Vegge, Prof. Dr. Jens K. Nørskov and Dr. Felix Studt

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501197

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      Let’s make formic acid from CO2! To establish a sustainable hydrogen storage cycle using CO2 as a hydrogen carrier requires suitable catalysts that can selectively produce formic acid (HCOOH) from CO2. Herein, we propose strategies to find such catalysts based on analyzing the calculated thermodynamics of electrochemical reduction of CO2 to HCOOH and other products competing with the hydrogen evolution reaction on various metal surfaces.

  21. Minireviews

    1. Electrode Build-Up of Reducible Metal Composites toward Achievable Electrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

      Seunghwa Lee and Prof. Dr. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501112

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      Finding the active species: Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into high-value compounds by using oxidized metal electrode structures offers superior catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. Previous studies and current, differing points of view on the utilization of reducible metal composites are discussed. The approaches could hopefully help in the development of catalysts rationally designed for the CO2 electrolysis and ultimately complete carbon-recycling systems.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production

      Jieun Gwak, Myounghoon Choun and Prof. Dr. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All shapes and sizes: The electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using electrodeposited platinum catalysts with different crystallographic conformations is evaluated in alkaline media. Potential-sweep and galvanostatic methods elucidate the effects of ammonia concentration, bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current on the oxidation of ammonia. Ammonia electrolysis produces highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %.

    2. Dual-Templated Cobalt Oxide for Photochemical Water Oxidation

      Xiaohui Deng, Hans-Josef Bongard, Prof. Candace K. Chan and Dr. Harun Tüysüz

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500872

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Catalytic Templates: Mesoporous Co3O4 is prepared using a dual-templating approach whereby the mesopores inside SiO2 nanospheres, as well as the void spaces between the nanospheres, are used as templates. The effect of calcination temperature on the nanostructure morphology and catalytic activity for photochemical water oxidation is studied. CoO is also synthesized by reduction of the mesoporous Co3O4 using ethanol to yield higher turnover frequency.

  23. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500314

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Back Cover picture shows a solution-processed thin film of semi-conducting CuFeO2 held in front of the sun. An impressive performance is reported using this material as a photocathode for the reduction of water molecules to hydrogen (as depicted in the bottom right corner) under solar radiation. In addition to being fully solution processable, the copper-based delafossite (crystal structure is shown in the top right corner) is a class of material known for being stable in aqueous environments. Moreover, it is only composed of earth-abundant materials, as suggested by the delafossite ore shown in the bottom right corner. Overall, these properties make p-type CuFeO2 a very attractive material in the quest for inexpensive, sustainable, and stable direct solar water splitting for the generation of carbon-free hydrogen. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Prévot et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146).

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