ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. 1 - 56
  1. Full Papers

    1. Conversion of Hemicellulose Sugars Catalyzed by Formic Acid: Kinetics of the Dehydration of D-Xylose, L-Arabinose, and D-Glucose

      Dr. Karla Dussan, Dr. Buana Girisuta, Marystela Lopes, Dr. James J. Leahy and Prof. Michael H. B. Hayes

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403328

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      Hemicellulose’s next top model: The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass produces liquid streams with hemicellulose sugars, which can be further converted to high-value chemicals. This study investigates the reaction kinetics of the conversion of major hemicellulose sugars of biomass using formic acid as catalyst. Kinetic models are used to model the conversion of sugars in solutions obtained from the fractionation of biomass.

  2. Communications

    1. Hierarchical Zeolites and their Catalytic Performance in Selective Oxidative Processes

      Dr. Manuel Ojeda, Aida Grau-Atienza, Rafael Campos, Prof. Antonio A. Romero, Dr. Elena Serrano, Prof. Jose Maria Marinas, Prof. Javier García Martínez and Prof. Rafael Luque

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500124

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      Ambitious not siliceous: Desilicated hierarchical zeolites hold promise as catalytic systems. The feasibility of using these hierarchical zeolites, with and without iron oxide nanoparticles, in selective oxidation processes is investigated, taking advantage of terminal Al[BOND]OH groups to generate redox sites in zeolites. The test reactions, under microwave irradiation, are the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, the epoxidation of cyclohexene, and the multistep conversion of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF).

  3. Full Papers

    1. A Semi-Interpenetrating Network Approach for Dimensionally Stabilizing Highly-Charged Anion Exchange Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells

      Steve S. He, Alaina L. Strickler and Prof. Curtis W. Frank

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500133

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      A little restraint can work wonders: Increasing the ion exchange capacity of an anion exchange membrane often leads to higher conductivity at the expense of excessive swelling and decreased mechanical stability. We employ a semi-interpenetrating network architecture to dimensionally stabilize highly-charged benzyltrimethylammonium polysulfone membranes. These reinforced membranes exhibit excellent ionic conductivity and mechanical robustness.

    2. Tailoring the Properties of Ammine Metal Borohydrides for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

      Lars H. Jepsen, Dr. Morten B. Ley, Prof. Yaroslav Filinchuk, Prof. Flemming Besenbacher and Prof. Torben R. Jensen

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500029

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      Here′s my hydride, so tailor me: A series of new ammine metal borohydrides for solid-state hydrogen storage is synthesized, and the crystal structures are solved. The NH3/BH4 ratio for Mn(BH4)2nNH3 is tailored by mechanochemical treatment of the mixture Mn(BH4)2⋅6NH3-Mn(BH4)2 in different ratios. It is shown that for NH3/BH4≤1 hydrogen is released, while ammonia is released for NH3/BH4>1.

    3. Very Important Paper

      Incorporation of a Metal Oxide Interlayer using a Virus-Templated Assembly for Synthesis of Graphene-Electrode-Based Organic Photovoltaics

      Dr. Yong Man Lee, Wanjung Kim, Dr. Young Hun Kim, Jung Kyu Kim, Ji-ryang Jang, Prof. Woo-Seok Choe, Prof. Jong Hyeok Park and Prof. Pil J. Yoo

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403487

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      Virus scan: The synthesis and incorporation of a WO3 interlayer into graphene-electrode-based organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is developed by using an engineered biotemplate of M13 viruses. Owing to uniform deposition of the WO3 layer and maintenance of the electrical properties of the graphene electrode, a remarkable increase in the photoconversion efficiency (>20 %) relative to that of conventional OPVs can be obtained.

    4. Nanoporous Ru as a Carbon- and Binder-Free Cathode for Li–O2 Batteries

      Dr. Kaiming Liao, Dr. Tao Zhang, Dr. Yongqing Wang, Dr. Fujun Li, Dr. Zelang Jian, Dr. Haijun Yu and Prof. Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403371

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      Reliable ruthenium: A simple method to fabricate nanoporous Ru catalyst for Li–O2 batteries is explored. As a carbon- and binder-free cathode, the nanoporous Ru can be continuously discharged and charged for 100 cycles within a very narrow terminal voltage window and delivers a limited capacity. This good performance is due to strong adhesion of the Ru with the Ni current collector, and good permeation of O2 and electrolyte in the catalyst.

  4. Cover Pictures

    1. Selective Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Active Ruthenium–Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

      Yasuyuki Takeda, Tomohiro Shoji, Dr. Hideo Watanabe, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa, Prof. Kazu Okumura and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500279

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      The Inside Back Cover picture pictures a MoOx-modified Ru catalyst (Ru–MoOx catalyst) and illustrates how the hydrogenation reaction of L-lactic acid occurs over the Ru–MoOx catalyst in aqueous phase. A small amount of MoOx on Ru catalyst (Mo/Ru=1:16) significantly enhanced the activity in this reaction (about 5–6 fold) and provided (S)-1,2-propanediol in high yield with retention of the substrate configuration. The structure of the Ru–MoOx catalyst in the picture, with MoOx dispersed on the Ru metal, was determined by spectroscopic studies and kinetic measurements. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Takeda et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403011).

    2. Metal-Catalyst-Free Carbohydrazide Fuel Cells with Three-Dimensional Graphene Anodes

      Ji Qi, Neeva Benipal, Dr. Hui Wang, David J. Chadderdon, Yibo Jiang, Wei Wei, Prof. Yun Hang Hu and Prof. Wenzhen Li

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500234

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      The Back Cover features prototypes of anode-metal-free and completely metal-free anion exchange membrane fuel cells. The fuel cells are powered by the carbohydrazide oxidation reaction over 3D graphene as anode catalyst and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as cathode, generating a high peak power density. The average electron number electrochemically extracted from one carbohydrazide molecule is 4.9, indicating the existence of C[BOND]N bond activation, which is a key factor contributing to high fuel utilization efficiency. These results open a new research arena for exploring the electrocatalytic properties of advanced nanocarbon materials and developing inexpensive fuel cells. More details can be found in the Communication by Qi et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403032).

    3. From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Furans via 5-Acetoxymethylfurfural as an Alternative to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

      Eun-Sil Kang, Yeon-Woo Hong, Da Won Chae, Bora Kim, Prof. Dr. Baekjin Kim, Prof. Dr. Yong Jin Kim, Prof. Dr. Jin Ku Cho and Prof. Dr. Young Gyu Kim

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500250

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      The Inside Cover picture shows a route for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into useful furan derivatives via 5-acetoxymethylfurfural (AMF). AMF could be produced in good-to-excellent yields from 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF) and alkylammonium acetates, both of which could be obtained directly from biomass. Advantageous properties of AMF such as hydrophobicity and thermal stability allowed its practical isolation and purification, affording a highly pure product of up to 99.9% as a white solid. Further transformations of AMF into various promising furanic compounds were also achieved, demonstrating that AMF could be an alternative to well-known 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). More details can be found in the Full Paper by Kang et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403252).

  5. Cover Profiles

    1. Cross-Metathesis of Biosourced Fatty Acid Derivatives: A Step Further Toward Improved Reactivity

      Dr. Paul Vignon, Tom Vancompernolle, Dr. Jean-Luc Couturier, Dr. Jean-Luc Dubois, Prof. André Mortreux and Dr. Régis M. Gauvin

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403366

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      “Olefin metathesis is a beautiful synthetic tool that emerged in an industrial context and blossomed in the academia….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image is presented in the Cover Profile. More details can be found in the Communication by Vignon et al.: 10.1002/cssc.201403170. View the Front Cover here: 10.1002/cssc.201403365.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Mesoporous Carbon Nitride-Tungsten Oxide Composites for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

      Dr. Kamalakannan Kailasam, Prof. Dr. Anna Fischer, Guigang Zhang, Dr. Jinshui Zhang, Dr. Michael Schwarze, Marc Schröder, Prof. Dr. Xinchen Wang, Prof. Dr. Reinhard Schomäcker and Prof. Dr. Arne Thomas

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403278

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      CN/WO3 composites for enhanced H2 evolution: Mesoporous CN/WO3 composites prepared by a simple dispersion method are efficient photocatalysts for enhanced hydrogen production from water. Compared to other nonporous composites based on carbon nitrides, a twofold increase in activity is observed, which is attributed to the high surface area and efficient solid-state Z-scheme-induced charge separation in these composites.

  7. Cover Pictures

    1. Cross-Metathesis of Biosourced Fatty Acid Derivatives: A Step Further Toward Improved Reactivity

      Dr. Paul Vignon, Tom Vancompernolle, Dr. Jean-Luc Couturier, Dr. Jean-Luc Dubois, Prof. André Mortreux and Dr. Régis M. Gauvin

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403365

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      The Front Cover picture shows how the conversion of fatty esters derived from sunflower by ruthenium-catalyzed cross-metathesis can be more efficiently performed when the reaction partner is an internal functionalized olefin. A switch from methyl acrylate to methyl crotonate as a reagent allows use of decreased catalyst loading for the efficient formation of the monomer precursors of polyesters, while retaining high selectivity. More details can be found in the Communication by Vignon et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403170).

  8. Full Papers

    1. Nanotubular Heterostructure of Tin Dioxide/Titanium Dioxide as a Binder-Free Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Myungjun Kim, Joobong Lee, Seonhee Lee, Seongrok Seo, Dr. Changdeuck Bae and Prof. Hyunjung Shin

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500005

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      Solid foundations: Arrays of TiO2, SnO2, heterotubular TiO2/SnO2, and TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 as binder-free anodes in lithium-ion batteries are successfully synthesized by using template-assisted atomic-layer deposition (ALD), which enables not only precise structural control, but also suppression of a large volume change in SnO2.

    2. Nanocomposite Membranes based on Polybenzimidazole and ZrO2 for High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

      Dr. Graeme Nawn, Dr. Giuseppe Pace, Dr. Sandra Lavina, Dr. Keti Vezzù, Dr. Enrico Negro, Dr. Federico Bertasi, Prof. Stefano Polizzi and Prof. Vito Di Noto

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403049

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      The new star in the fuel cell: The development of thermally stable polymer exchange membranes that demonstrate conductivity under anhydrous conditions remains a significant goal for fuel cell technology. This paper describes the structure–property relationships of composite membranes consisting of poly[2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole] impregnated with a ZrO2 nanofiller that has a high ionic conductivity at 185 °C.

  9. Reviews

    1. Boundary Engineering for the Thermoelectric Performance of Bulk Alloys Based on Bismuth Telluride

      Hyeona Mun, Prof. Soon-Mok Choi, Prof. Kyu Hyoung Lee and Prof. Sung Wng Kim

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403485

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      Boundary engineering for thermoelectrics: For a further enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit, boundary engineering is demonstrated as one of the most effective ways to enhance the thermoelectric performance of conventional thermoelectric materials such as Bi2Te3, PbTe, and SiGe alloys. We review the boundary engineering strategy into two parts; 1) grain boundary engineering and 2) phase boundary engineering using Bi2Te3-based bulk alloys.

  10. Communications

    1. Solvent-Enabled Nonenyzmatic Sugar Production from Biomass for Chemical and Biological Upgrading

      Prof. Dr. Jeremy S. Luterbacher, Dr. David Martin Alonso, Jacqueline M. Rand, Ydna M. Questell-Santiago, Jher Hau Yeap, Prof. Dr. Brian F. Pfleger and Prof. Dr. James A. Dumesic

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403418

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      Super phenolic solvents: Biomass-derived carbohydrates represent an attractive source of renewable carbon due to their many chemical and biological conversion routes to fuels and chemicals. In a nonenzymatic biomass deconstruction process for producing carbohydrates, separating a mixture of γ-valerolactone (GVL) and water used in the process is a key step. We demonstrate that phenolic solvents are highly effective at separating GVL and can be used to detoxify the biomass-derived mixture for fermentation.

  11. Full Papers

    1. First Pinacol Coupling in Emulsified Water: Key Role of Surfactant and Impact of Alternative Activation Technologies

      Dr. Muriel Billamboz and Prof. Christophe Len

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500108

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      Emulsion as the solution: Combining surfactant effects with acoustic cavitation allowed the design of a novel, fast, and efficient protocol for pinacol coupling of aromatic and α,β-unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes in water. This protocol could be applied to natural high-value compounds such as citral A. The use of IgepalCO520, a neutral surfactant, led to the successful conversion of aromatic or α,β-unsaturated aliphatic carbonyl compounds in moderate-to-excellent yield.

    2. Iodide-Free Ionic Liquid with Dual Redox Couples for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage

      Chun-Ting Li, Dr. Chuan-Pei Lee, Chi-Ta Lee, Dr. Sie-Rong Li, Dr. Shih-Sheng Sun and Prof. Kuo-Chuan Ho

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403204

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      Split personality: The ionic-liquid mediator 1-butyl-3-{2-oxo-2-[(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)amino]ethyl}-1H-imidazol-3-ium selenocyanate (ITSeCN), possesses dual redox channels of imidazolium-functionalized 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl (TEMPO) and selenocyanate, in which TEMPO and selenocyanate operate as the cationic and anionic redox couples, respectively. A dye-sensitized solar cell coupled with ITSeCN electrolyte and CoSe counter electrode reaches a high efficiency of 9.01 % with high open-circuit voltage.

  12. Communications

    1. The Direct Conversion of Sugars into 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid in a Triphasic System

      Dr. Guangshun Yi, Siew Ping Teong and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500118

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      You can′t win if you don′t tri: The one-pot conversion of sugars into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is demonstrated in a triphasic reactor. Sugars are first converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in Phase I, the HMF in Phase I is then extracted into Phase II and transferred to Phase III, where it is converted into FDCA. Overall FDCA yields of 78 % and 50 % are achieved from fructose and glucose, respectively.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Boosting Properties of 3D Binder-Free Manganese Oxide Anodes by Preformation of a Solid Electrolyte Interphase

      Dr. Haitao Zhou, Xuehang Wang, Dr. Edel Sheridan and Prof. De Chen

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403393

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      Full on: A complete solid electrolyte interphase layer is preformed on a pristine 3 D binder-free MnOy-based electrode using a new electrolytic cell, which results in a big boost in the specific energy and cycling stability for the MnOy/LiMn2O4 full cells.

  14. Communications

    1. A Dry Platform for Separation of Proteins from Biomass-Containing Polysaccharides, Lignin, and Polyphenols

      Dr. Abdellatif Barakat, Dr. François Jérôme and Dr. Xavier Rouau

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403473

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      License to mill: Proteins were continuously extracted from polysaccharides, lignin, and polyphenol by combining ultrafine milling with electrostatic separation. Such a fractionation process does not involve any solvent, catalyst, or external source of heating. In addition, this dry process is compatible with downstream enzymatic reactions, thus opening an attractive route for producing valuable chemicals from biomass.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Rationally Designed n–n Heterojunction with Highly Efficient Solar Hydrogen Evolution

      Miao Xu, Tiannan Ye, Dr. Fang Dai, Jindi Yang, Dr. Jingmei Shen, Qingquan He, Wenlong Chen, Na Liang, Dr. Jiantao Zai and Prof. Xuefeng Qian

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403334

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      New junction: A rationally designed n–n heterojunction based on CdS-ZnWO4 semiconductor is proposed. Unlike conventional n–n heterojunctions, ZnWO4 has a more negative conduction band and a more positive valence band compared with CdS. The heterojunctions show a high solar H2 evolution activity, and a plausible mechanism of the enhanced performances of the heterojunctions is also proposed.

    2. β-Functionalized Push–Pull Porphyrin Sensitizers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Conjugated Spacers

      Dr. Masatoshi Ishida, Daesub Hwang, Dr. Zhan Zhang, Yung Ji Choi, Juwon Oh, Dr. Vincent M. Lynch, Dr. Dong Young Kim, Prof. Dr. Jonanthan L. Sessler and Prof. Dr. Dongho Kim

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500085

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      Pushing through it: A series of new β-functionalized push–pull-structured porphyrin dyes are synthesized. Together, these dyes allow the effect of the π-conjugated spacer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to be assessed. The highest conversion efficiency in the present study (8.2 %) is achieved by using a doubly β-butadiene-linked porphyrin as the sensitizer with a cobalt-based redox shuttle as the mediator.

    3. Photocatalytic Direct Conversion of Ethanol to 1,1- Diethoxyethane over Noble-Metal-Loaded TiO2 Nanotubes and Nanorods

      Dr. Hongxia Zhang, Yupeng Wu, Li Li and Prof. Zhenping Zhu

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403305

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      Direct conversion: TiO2 nanotubes and nanorods loaded with platinum can efficiently promote the direct conversion of ethanol into 1,1-diethoxyethane and H2 under UV irradiation through a tandem reaction process consisting of a photocatalytic dehydrogenation step and a self-feeding H+-catalyzed acetalization step.

    4. From Epoxidized Linseed Oil to Bioresin: An Overall Approach of Epoxy/Anhydride Cross-Linking

      Jean-Mathieu Pin, Prof. Nicolas Sbirrazzuoli and Prof. Alice Mija

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403262

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      Hard as nails: This work focuses on epoxidized linseed oil in copolymerization reactions with anhydrides, generating high crosslinked networks with 60 % to 70% bio-renewable ratio. Elaborated networks meet the criteria of materials having semi-ductile behavior, high glass transition temperatures, good impact strengths and thermal stability. These performances can be explained by a very dense architecture and a maximal conversion of reactions.

    5. Green Synthesis of Ni–Nb oxide Catalysts for Low-Temperature Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane

      Dr. Haibo Zhu, Dr. Devon C. Rosenfeld, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum, Valérie Caps and Prof. Jean-Marie Basset

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403181

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      Nickel and dime: A very simple and efficient solid-state synthesis method (solid grinding) that does not require the use of any solvent leads to active and selective Ni–Nb oxide catalysts for the low-temperature oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene. This solvent-free preparation is a promising and sustainable alternative for the synthesis of Ni–Nb oxide catalysts for the low-temperature ODH of ethane.

    6. In situ Generation of Ni Nanoparticles from Metal–Organic Framework Precursors and Their Use for Biomass Hydrodeoxygenation

      Dr. Tadeja Birsa Čelič, Miha Grilc, Prof. Dr. Blaž Likozar and Prof. Dr. Nataša Novak Tušar

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403300

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      MOFing about bio-oil: In situ generated Ni nanoparticles from MOF precursor MIL-77(Ni) exhibited a high hydrodeoxygenation activity and effectively converted wood-derived oil into the polar and non-polar phase with a significantly lower viscosity and oxygen content within 60 min at 300 °C and 8 MPa of H2 pressure. The contribution represents a key step in the design of the catalyst precursors for the sustainable hydrogenation of liquefied lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  16. Communications

    1. Bifunctional Metal-Free Catalysis of Mesoporous Noble Carbons for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions

      Dr. Ken Sakaushi, Dr. Tim-Patrick Fellinger and Prof. Dr. Markus Antonietti

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500102

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      Noble carbon: A new class of conducting carbon-based materials, nitrogen-doped or so called “noble carbons” are found to work for both electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. This unique electrocatalytic property is applied to a non-aqueous lithium–oxygen battery system and shows the promising functions of noble carbons as a new and affordable candidate for efficient electrocatalysts towards many electrochemical applications.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Potential of Sustainable Hierarchical Zeolites in the Valorization of α-Pinene

      Nicolas Nuttens, Dr. Danny Verboekend, Aron Deneyer, Joost Van Aelst and Prof. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403457

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      Who’s the boss? Base-leached hierarchical ZSM-5, beta and USY are studied in the conversion of α-pinene, which is a biomass side stream in the wood processing industry. An overall organic-free synthesis of hierarchical USY is described and the catalytic performance is closely examined.

    2. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-HMF into 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid with Pt Catalysts Supported on TiO2- and ZrO2-Based Supports

      Hicham Ait Rass, Nadine Essayem and Michèle Besson

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403390

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      Back to bases: The addition of increasing amounts of NaHCO3 soluble base improved significantly the catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 in HMF oxidation to FDCA by accelerating the oxidation rate of the aldehyde group. Moreover, the promotion of the catalyst with bismuth yielded a Pt[BOND]Bi/TiO2 catalytic system (with Na2CO3 as the weak base) with improved activity and stability with respect to the monometallic catalyst.

  18. Communications

    1. Efficient, Chemical-Catalytic Approach to the Production of 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Oxidation of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid With Hydrogen Peroxide

      Dr. Linglin Wu, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500025

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      Just say no to fermentation: The first selective, chemical-catalytic approach to renewable 3-hydroxypropanoic acid (HPA) has been accomplished by gentle oxidation of biomass-derived levulinic acid with hydrogen peroxide and hydrogenolysis of the resulting hydroperoxide intermediate. HPA is a green building block of major potential for the production of renewable acrylate derivatives.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Discharge Performance of Solid-State Oxygen Shuttle Metal–Air Battery Using Ca-Stabilized ZrO2 Electrolyte

      Dr. Atsushi Inoishi, Hack-Ho Kim, Dr. Takaaki Sakai, Dr. Young-Wan Ju, Dr. Shintaro Ida and Prof. Tatsumi Ishihara

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403151

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      Shuttle takes off: Oxygen-shuttle metal–air batteries with a Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte are studied by using various metals as anode. A strong reducing environment in the anode chamber decreases the ohmic and polarization resistance of the anode with n-type conduction generated in the electrolyte. However, only mildly reducing metals can be used in rechargeable metal–air batteries as the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge.

    2. High-Throughput Screening of Thin-Film Semiconductor Material Libraries II: Characterization of Fe[BOND]W[BOND]O Libraries

      Robert Meyer, Kirill Sliozberg, Dr. Chinmay Khare, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Prof. Dr. Alfred Ludwig

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402918

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      Search for new solar water splitting materials: The combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening of the Fe[BOND]W[BOND]O system using more than 1000 different measurement areas located on three material libraries are presented. Correlations between increased photocurrent density and crystallinity, especially for the phases WO3 and W5O14 and less distinct but still apparent for the Fe2O6W phase, are revealed.

    3. High-Throughput Screening of Thin-Film Semiconductor Material Libraries I: System Development and Case Study for Ti[BOND]W[BOND]O

      Kirill Sliozberg, Dr. Dominik Schäfer, Dr. Thomas Erichsen, Robert Meyer, Dr. Chinmay Khare, Prof. Dr. Alfred Ludwig and Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402917

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      The dark box of photoelectrochemistry: An optical scanning droplet cell (OSDC) automatically records photoelectrochemical data on small selected measurement areas within sputtered thin-film material libraries. Intensity-dependent photopotentials and -currents, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic photocurrents, as well as photocurrent (action) spectra are reproducibly acquired and demonstrated for a Ti[BOND]W[BOND]O case study.

  20. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Water Oxidation

      Anett C. Sander, Dr. Somnath Maji, Dr. Laia Francàs, Torben Böhnisch, Dr. Sebastian Dechert, Prof. Dr. Antoni Llobet and Prof. Dr. Franc Meyer

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403344

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      Design is possible: A new binuclear ruthenium-based water oxidation catalyst is presented that combines multiple beneficial structural elements for lowering the metal ions’ redox potentials, enhancing catalyst durability, and favoring the catalytic process. This leads to an impressive initial turnover frequency of 1.4 s−1 in CeIV-mediated water oxidation and high electrocatalytic activity. Spectroscopic and electrochemical signatures reflect the well-designed molecular properties.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Facile Synthesis and Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalysis of Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composite Semiconductors

      Huiquan Li, Yuxing Liu, Xing Gao, Cong Fu and Prof. Xinchen Wang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500024

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      Photo finish: Graphitic carbon nitride (CN) and B-modified graphitic carbon nitride (CNB) organic–organic isotype semiconductors are fabricated by a facile calcination method. The recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes in CN-CNB is reduced, which thus enhances the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity in water splitting and improves the photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange and phenol under visible-light irradiation.

  22. Reviews

    1. Catalytic Total Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Derived Polyfunctionalized Substrates to Alkanes

      Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa, Sibao Liu, Dr. Masazumi Tamura and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403330

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      Final step to bioalkanes: The total hydrodeoxygenation of oxygenates to alkanes is an inevitable step in the production of biofuels that are totally compatible with fossil fuels. The selection of suitable catalysts and reaction conditions is summarized for each type of substrate.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Efficiency of a Core/Shell Array Photoanode Enhanced by a Dual Suppression Strategy

      Wanhong He, Dr. Ye Yang, Liren Wang, Junjiao Yang, Prof. Xu Xiang, Prof. Dongpeng Yan and Prof. Feng Li

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403294

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      You need to wear a coat! A core/shell array photoanode with an ultrathin overlayer is obtained by a photoassisted modification and deposition (PMD) strategy, which results in the simultaneous suppression of surface carrier recombination and back reactions during photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    2. Structure–Property Relationships: Asymmetric Alkylphenyl-Substituted Anthracene Molecules for Use in Small-Molecule Solar Cells

      Dr. Yu Jin Kim, Dr. Eun Soo Ahn, Dr. Sang Hun Jang, Dr. Tae Kyu An, Prof. Soon-Ki Kwon, Prof. Dae Sung Chung, Prof. Yun-Hi Kim and Prof. Chan Eon Park

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402994

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      Need for space: The nature of thiophene in asymmetric anthracene-based small molecules is determined, and its effect on the crystallization behavior and formation of crystalline domains in the solid state are investigated. The crystalline nature of these small molecules is correlated with the properties of the resulting solar cell device.

    3. Surfactant Effects on the Morphology and Pseudocapacitive Behavior of V2O5⋅H2O

      Aniu Qian, Kai Zhuo, Myung Sik Shin, Woo Won Chun, Bit Na Choi and Prof. Chan-Hwa Chung

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403477

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      Morphing into it: The effect of diverse surfactants on the morphology of V2O5H2O powders is studied. The pseudocapacitive behavior of V2O5H2O powders mediated by polyethylene glycol 6000exhibit a high capacitance at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. Moreover, the V2O5H2O electrode mediated by Pluronic P-123 delivers a high capacitance with excellent stability after 200 cycles.

  24. Minireviews

    1. Current Technologies, Economics, and Perspectives for 2,5-Dimethylfuran Production from Biomass-Derived Intermediates

      Dr. Basudeb Saha and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403329

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      Biomass to valuable feedstock: A concise and up-to-date analysis of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) production technologies and its further upgrade into p-xylene (pX) is given with critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics. The chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes that enable the economic production of biorenewable DMF and pX.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Silver Phosphate/Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Efficient Photocatalytic Tandem System for Oxygen Evolution

      Dr. Xiaofei Yang, Dr. Hua Tang, Dr. Jingsan Xu, Prof. Markus Antonietti and Dr. Menny Shalom

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403168

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      Composite drawing: Well-defined g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 composite materials are fabricated by using electrostatically driven assembly and ion-exchange processes. Clear evidence for the formation of a Z-scheme between the g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst with outstanding efficiency in oxygen evolution and pollutant degradation is presented. The composite material is superior in both efficiency and stability than pristine Ag3PO4 and C3N4 materials.

    2. Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass

      Thanh Yen Nguyen, Dr. Charles M. Cai, Dr. Rajeev Kumar and Prof. Charles E. Wyman

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403045

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      Break it down! We describe a new pretreatment approach, co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF), that reduces plant recalcitrance by solvating biomass lignin using acidified aqueous THF solutions to improve sugar yields and reduce enzyme requirements for saccharification. Our results provide important insights into promising biomass pretreatment strategies.

    3. Sonophotodeposition of Bimetallic Photocatalysts Pd–Au/TiO2: Application to Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Methyl Formate

      Dr. Juan C. Colmenares, Paweł Lisowski, Dr. Dariusz Łomot, Dr. Olga Chernyayeva and Dr. Dmytro Lisovytskiy

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403125

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      The light of sounds in catalysis: An unconventional, soft technique that combines the advantages of sonication and photodeposition (sonophotodeposition) is reported. This offers enormous possibilities for the synthesis of a broad spectrum of mono- and bimetallic nanostructured photocatalysts for a green and sustainable photocatalytic selective oxidation of methanol to form methyl formate.

    4. Activation of Ultrathin Films of Hematite for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting via H2 Treatment

      Jonathon Moir, Dr. Navid Soheilnia, Dr. Kristine Liao, Dr. Paul O'Brien, Yao Tian, Prof. Kenneth S. Burch and Prof. Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402945

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      Positively illuminating: Treatment of ultrathin films of hematite with H2 results in a photocurrent onset at approximately 1.1 V. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, this photocurrent can be correlated with a buildup of a positively charged species at the surface of the hematite film, which is only present under illumination and after H2 treatment.

    5. From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Lactic- and Glycolic-Acid Oligomers: A Gram-Scale Microwave-Assisted Protocol

      Diego Carnaroglio, Silvia Tabasso, Beata Kwasek, Dariusz Bogdal, Emanuela Calcio Gaudino and Giancarlo Cravotto

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403183

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      Not drowning but microwaving: A flash catalytic conversion (2 min) of lignocellulosic biomass into lactic and glycolic acids under microwave irradiation is reported. The batch procedure is successfully adapted to a microwave-assisted flow process, with the aim of designing a scalable process with higher productivity. Good yields and conversions are maintained, productivity is increased and energy consumption is low.

    6. From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Furans via 5-Acetoxymethylfurfural as an Alternative to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

      Eun-Sil Kang, Yeon-Woo Hong, Da Won Chae, Bora Kim, Prof. Dr. Baekjin Kim, Prof. Dr. Yong Jin Kim, Prof. Dr. Jin Ku Cho and Prof. Dr. Young Gyu Kim

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403252

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      Alternative routes: A facile pathway to furan derivatives from lignocellulosic biomass via 5-acetoxymethylfurfural (AMF) is reported. AMF possesses advantageous properties to well-known 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and can be transformed into various promising furanic compounds in high yields.

    7. Titania-Supported Catalysts for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation: Influence of Support and its Impact on γ-Valerolactone Yield

      Dr. A. M. Ruppert, Dr. J. Grams, Dr. M. Jędrzejczyk , J. Matras-Michalska, Dr. N. Keller, K. Ostojska and Dr. P. Sautet

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403332

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      What lies beneath: A number of different titanias are implemented as supports for Ru and Pt catalysts. It is shown that various morphologies and phases of titania influence the physicochemical properties of the studied catalysts in different ways. The best catalytic performance in levulinic acid hydrogenation is achieved in the case of mixed rutile/anatase-supported ruthenium catalyst.

    8. Mechanism of Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Glucose Dehydration

      Dr. Liu Yang, Dr. George Tsilomelekis, Dr. Stavros Caratzoulas and Dr. Dionisios G. Vlachos

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403264

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      Glucose dehydration: The DFT-based microkinetic modeling of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of glucose is in excellent agreement with experimental kinetic data. The rate-limiting step is the first dehydration of protonated glucose. Isotopic tracing NMR spectroscopy reveals that glucose dehydrates through a cyclic path and the majority of glucose is consumed by the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural intermediate at low conversions.

    9. Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146

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      Make the cut: Inexpensive and facile processing aid optimization and allow for insights into the limitations of delafossite CuFeO2, which is a promising material for photoelectrochemical energy conversion. A sol–gel-based technique to prepare thin films of p-type delafossite CuFeO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass is described.

    10. Selective Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Active Ruthenium–Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

      Yasuyuki Takeda, Tomohiro Shoji, Dr. Hideo Watanabe, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa, Prof. Kazu Okumura and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403011

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      Minor adjustment for major effects: Modification of supported ruthenium catalysts with a small amount of molybdenum oxide (Ru[BOND]MoOx/C, Ru[BOND]MoOx/SiO2) enhances the catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of L-lactic acid to give (S)-1,2-propanediol with high selectivity. The turnover frequency is roughly four times higher than over Ru/C. The results reported are encouraging for the design of selective hydrogenation catalysts and the development of synthesis methods of alcohols.

  26. Communications

    1. Singlet-Oxygen Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Continuous Flow

      Dr. Thomas S. A. Heugebaert, Prof. Dr. Christian V. Stevens and Prof. Dr.  C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403182

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      Rosy future: The selective, high yielding, singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is performed in continuous-flow mode using rose Bengal as photosensitizer. The resulting butenolide (H2MF) is shown to be a valuable bio-based polyester precursor and the procedure proved to be scalable and applicable to related bio-based furfurals.

    2. Metal-Catalyst-Free Carbohydrazide Fuel Cells with Three-Dimensional Graphene Anodes

      Ji Qi, Neeva Benipal, Dr. Hui Wang, David J. Chadderdon, Yibo Jiang, Wei Wei, Prof. Yun Hang Hu and Prof. Wenzhen Li

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403032

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      We had met before: The commercialization of fuel cells is hindered by the limited reserves of metals. Metal-catalyst-free fuel cells powered by the carbohydrazide oxidation reaction over 3D graphene as anode catalyst and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as cathode are demonstrated. The average number of electrons electrochemically extracted from a single carbohydrazide molecule indicates activation of carbon–nitrogen bonds, a key factor contributing to high fuel utilization efficiency.

    3. Cross-Metathesis of Biosourced Fatty Acid Derivatives: A Step Further Toward Improved Reactivity

      Dr. Paul Vignon, Tom Vancompernolle, Dr. Jean-Luc Couturier, Dr. Jean-Luc Dubois, Prof. André Mortreux and Dr. Régis M. Gauvin

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403170

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      Howdy, partner! The use of internal functionalized olefins as partners in the cross-metathesis of biosourced fatty acid methyl esters affords a monomer for polyester synthesis with high efficiency, despite low catalytic loading and minimal substrate purification.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Plasticizer and Surfactant Formation from Food-Waste- and Algal Biomass-Derived Lipids

      Dr. Daniel Pleissner, Kin Yan Lau, Prof. Chengwu Zhang and Dr. Carol Sze Ki Lin

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402888

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      Establishment of a green society by waste utilization: A sustainable process is introduced for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants from food-waste and algal lipids. Plasticizer was formed by epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids extracted from food-waste and algal biomass, heterotrophically produced from food-waste hydrolysate. Surfactant was produced by transesterification of epoxidized and saturated fatty acid methyl esters with polyglycerol for the formation of surfactants.

  28. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

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