ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. Editorials

    1. You have free access to this content
      Green Chemistry and the Environment

      Prof. Rafael Luque and Prof. Sherine Obare

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500569

      Being green: At the recent 248th ACS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, CA (USA), Professor Sherine Obara and Professor Rafael Luque brought together a number of scientists in a symposium focused on the merits of green chemistry for a sustainable future. The symposium, entitled “Green Chemistry and the Environment” offered a broad and multifaceted view on employing sustainable methods for green chemistry goals. This issue of ChemSusChem contains some of the work presented at the the symposium.

  2. Highlights

    1. Why is Anatase a Better Photocatalyst than Rutile? The Importance of Free Hydroxyl Radicals

      Gylen Odling and Dr. Neil Robertson

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500298

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      A tale of two polymorphs: Anatase is typically a more effective photocatalyst than rutile, however no consensus exists upon the reasons for this difference. Highlighted is a recent development in this area, which gives new insight into the desorption of reactive species from the surface of anatase and rutile. Following presentation of key methods and results of the highlighted work, the wider implications to other similar semiconductor photocatalysts are considered.

  3. Communications

    1. Selective Oxidation of 1,6-Hexanediol to 6-Hydroxycaproic Acid over Reusable Hydrotalcite-Supported Au–Pd Bimetallic Catalysts

      Jaya Tuteja, Dr. Shun Nishimura, Hemant Choudhary and Prof. Dr. Kohki Ebitani

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500255

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      Talcite assumptions: Au–Pd nanoparticles stabilized by N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) and on a hydrotalcite support are prepared. The supported nanoparticles are employed for the selective oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol to 6-hydroxycaproic acid in alkaline medium with 30% aq. H2O2 as oxidant. Analysis of the catalysts by a combination of spectroscopic techniques reveals electronic interactions between gold an palladium that are responsible for the catalytic performance.

  4. Cover Pictures

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      Highly Efficient Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Water Oxidation

      Anett C. Sander, Dr. Somnath Maji, Dr. Laia Francàs, Torben Böhnisch, Dr. Sebastian Dechert, Prof. Dr. Antoni Llobet and Prof. Dr. Franc Meyer

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500352

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      The Inside Back Cover picture shows the inspiration for water oxidation catalysis (WOC), that is, the light reaction of photosynthesis that produces O2, H+, and e through the use of solar energy, next to a functional mimic of nature’s oxygen-evolving complex: a new dinuclear ruthenium complex that has been designed for high activity in WOC, both chemically and electrochemically. The beneficial effect of the ligand carboxylate functions on the catalytic activity and a thorough characterization of the system are discussed in the Communication by Sander et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403344).

    2. You have free access to this content
      Dimethylaminopyridine-Supported Graft Polymer Catalyst and its Flow System

      Yoshinori Okuno, Dr. Shigeki Isomura, Takahiro Kamakura, Fumiaki Sano, Kaoru Tamahori, Takahiro Goto, Takahiro Hayashida, Yuuichi Kitagawa, Ami Fukuhara and Prof. Kazuyoshi Takeda

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500419

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      The Cover Picture shows that dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) anchored on polyethylene-graft-polyacrylic acid (g-DMAP) is a highly active and stable catalyst and that it can be used in continuous flow systems, with reactors arranged in parallel for scale up. This newly developed heterogeneous organocatalyst was tested in continuous acylation, in which it performed better than DMAP supported on polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene, giving rise to a turnover number of 560 under mild reaction conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Okuno et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500092).

    3. You have free access to this content
      Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass

      Thanh Yen Nguyen, Dr. Charles M. Cai, Dr. Rajeev Kumar and Prof. Charles E. Wyman

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500515

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      The Inside Cover depicts a novel cellulosic biomass pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) that uses THF to greatly enhance sugar and ethanol yields from dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover. CELF removed and recovered hemicellulose sugars and most of the lignin to produce highly digestible cellulose that was hydrolyzed to glucose using 90 % less enzymes than dilute-acid pretreatment. Sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose were over 95 % of theoretical, and over 90 % ethanol yields were obtained by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). More details can be found in the Full Paper by Nguyen et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403045).

    4. You have free access to this content
      Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel

      Dr. Eric R. Sacia, Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Matthew H. Deaner, Konstantinos A. Goulas, Prof. F. Dean Toste and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500556

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      The Back Cover shows a depiction of the carbon cycle for a tunable set of chemistry that can be used to synthesize exceptional jet fuel via n-alkyl methyl ketones. In this work, methyl ketones, which can be derived from biomass in either chemical or hybrid biological–chemical pathways, are selectively transformed to cyclic trimers by aldol condensation and Michael addition. By altering the ratio of starting methyl ketones, an alkane blend can be generated after hydrodeoxygenation that not only satisfies the low freezing point necessary for jet fuel, but also the broad volatility distribution typical of petroleum-derived fuels. The carbon generated by combustion of these fuels then produces further biomass, completing the carbon cycle. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Sacia et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500002).

  5. Cover Profiles

    1. Dimethylaminopyridine-Supported Graft Polymer Catalyst and its Flow System

      Yoshinori Okuno, Dr. Shigeki Isomura, Takahiro Kamakura, Fumiaki Sano, Kaoru Tamahori, Takahiro Goto, Takahiro Hayashida, Yuuichi Kitagawa, Ami Fukuhara and Prof. Kazuyoshi Takeda

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500420

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      “Reactivity of a catalyst supported by a graft polymer was dramatically higher compared to a catalyst bound to a cross-linked polymer….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image is presented in the Cover Profile. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Okuno et al.: 10.1002/cssc.201500092. View the Front Cover here: 10.1002/cssc.201500419.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Capacitive Deionization using Biomass-based Microporous Salt-Templated Heteroatom-Doped Carbons

      Slawomir Porada, Florian Schipper, Mesut Aslan, Markus Antonietti, Volker Presser and Tim-Patrick Fellinger

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500166

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      Salty carbons: Heteroatom-doped carbons lead to improved properties in a number of classic carbon applications. Is this also true for capacitive desalination? A first study shows interesting salt adsorption capacities but low charge efficiencies.

  7. Communications

    1. The Effect of Different Phosphorus Chemical States on an Onion-like Carbon Surface for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Xiaoyan Sun, Junyuan Xu, Yuxiao Ding, Dr. Bingsen Zhang, Zhenbao Feng and Prof. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500154

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      Peeling back the layers: The bonding state of phosphorus on nanocarbon has a significant effect on the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction. The formation of C[BOND]O[BOND]P bonds improves the activity, whereas C[BOND]P bonds have an adverse effect on stabilizing key intermediates during the reaction owing to the distorted graphitic structure.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis and Nanostructures of Metal Selenide Precursors for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Ji-Hyun Cha, Se Jin Noh and Prof. Duk-Young Jung

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403464

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      GaGa over nanoparticles: Variation of the gallium concentration in Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 nanoparticles (CIGSe NPs is investigated by sonochemical synthesis in hydrazine/ethylene glycol solution. The CIGSe device prepared by the nanoink solution based process exhibits a conversion efficiency of 5.17 %.

    2. Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Silicon and Composite Films of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes

      LePing Yu, Dr. Daniel Tune, Dr. Cameron Shearer and Prof. Joseph Shapter

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500169

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      Composite electrode: Graphene oxide (GO) sheets are used as the surfactant to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water to prepare GO/CNT electrodes that are applied on silicon to form a heterojunction that can be used in solar cells.

    3. Iridium Oxide Coatings with Templated Porosity as Highly Active Oxygen Evolution Catalysts: Structure-Activity Relationships

      Michael Bernicke, Dr. Erik Ortel, Tobias Reier, Arno Bergmann, Jorge Ferreira de Araujo, Prof. Dr. Peter Strasser and Dr. Ralph Kraehnert

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402988

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      Recipe for success: We report the synthesis and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of highly active IrO2 catalysts. A systematic study of the influence of the calcination temperature and film thickness on the morphology, phase composition, accessible surface area, and OER activity reveals that the catalytic performance is controlled by the accessible surface area and intrinsic activity per accessible site.

    4. Environmentally Friendly Carbon-Preserving Recovery of Noble Metals From Supported Fuel Cell Catalysts

      Dr. R. Latsuzbaia, Dr. E. Negro and Dr. G. J. M. Koper

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500019

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      Platinum recovery: Noble metal catalyst nanoparticles are typically used as electrocatalysts in fuel cells. The main problem of these catalysts is their degradation during operation, making their recovery after use an important issue. We present an in situ strategy to recover platinum from a fuel cell catalyst under mild conditions by electrochemical potential cycling, with minimal corrosion of the carbon support and possibility of the catalyst regeneration.

  9. Communications

    1. Fluorinated Alcohols as Activators for the Solvent-Free Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide into Epoxides

      Sandro Gennen, Dr. Margot Alves, Dr. Raphaël Méreau, Dr. Thierry Tassaing, Prof. Bernard Gilbert, Prof. Christophe Detrembleur, Prof. Christine Jerome and Dr. Bruno Grignard

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500103

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      Lockdown: The addition of hydrogen-bond donors with hexafluoroalcohol functionalities to onium salts provides highly efficient bicomponent organocatalysts for the fast and selective chemical fixation of CO2 into epoxides under mild and solvent-free experimental conditions. Online kinetic studies under pressure combined with NMR titrations and DFT calculations allow to understand the synergistic effect responsible for the remarkable catalytic activity of the organocatalyst.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Electrolyte Mixtures Based on Ethylene Carbonate and Dimethyl Sulfone for Li-Ion Batteries with Improved Safety Characteristics

      Dr. Andreas Hofmann, Matthias Migeot, Eva Thißen, Dr. Michael Schulz, Dr. Ralf Heinzmann, Dr. Sylvio Indris, Dr. Thomas Bergfeldt, Boxia Lei, Dr. Carlos Ziebert and Prof. Dr. Thomas Hanemann

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500263

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      Safer solvents: A novel solvent mixture for Li-ion batteries is developed based on ethylene carbonate and dimethyl sulfone. The system shows significantly improved safety characteristics, yet maintains accurate cell performance and excellent long-term stability. The mixture may be interesting for other applications too, such as supercapacitors or other Li-based technologies.

    2. Synthesis of Porous δ-MnO2 Submicron Tubes as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Li–O2 Batteries

      Peng Zhang, Dongfei Sun, Mu He, Junwei Lang, Prof. Shan Xu and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500306

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      Battery powered: Tubular δ-MnO2 is developed by a facile template-induced hydrothermal method. The synthesized δ-MnO2 exhibits a porous tube wall assembled by highly dispersed tiny nanosheets, which facilitates the diffusion of electrolyte and oxygen. As an electrocatalyst in Li–O2 batteries, the δ-MnO2 tubes exhibit suppressed overpotentials, superior rate properties, and good cycle stability.

    3. On the Origin of the Improvement of Electrodeposited MnOx Films in Water Oxidation Catalysis Induced by Heat Treatment

      Munirah Khan, Jie Xiao, Fengling Zhou, Mikhail Yablonskikh, Douglas R. MacFarlane, Leone Spiccia and Emad F. Aziz

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500330

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      Show me the lost water: Heat treatment of manganese oxide (MnOx) films leads to successive losses of adsorbed water on the material surface at 50 °C and structural water in bulk at 90 and 120 °C. The loss of the structural water embedded in birnessite phase at 90 °C triggers the transformation of a small amount of birnessite into an Mn3O4 phase, and results in a significant improvement in catalytic performance.

  11. Communications

    1. An Amorphous Carbon Nitride Composite Derived from ZIF-8 as Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Jing-Min Fan, Jia-Jia Chen, Qian Zhang, Bin-Bin Chen, Jun Zang, Ming-Sen Zheng and Quan-Feng Dong

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500192

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      Yes we ACN: A composite of amorphous carbon nitride (ACN) and zinc oxide is a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries. The composite exhibits excellent cycling stability, rate capability, and thermal stability. The performance is a combination of the sodium ion intercalation chemistry afforded by the carbon nitride and the structural stability imparted by the zinc oxide.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Thermoelectric Properties of Nanowires with a Graphitic Shell

      Jong Woon Lee, Dr. Eun Kyung Lee, Dr. Byung Sung Kim, Dr. Jae Hyun Lee, Hee Goo Kim, Hyeon Sik Jang, Dr. Sung Woo Hwang, Dr. Byoung Lyong Choi and Prof. Dr. Dongmok Whang

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403492

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      Cool under fire: The electrical and thermal properties of Si and SiO2 nanowires with a few-layer graphitic shell are explored; these structures exhibit enhanced electrical properties but no increase in thermal conductivity. Phonons are transported through the core nanowire, which has a large cross-sectional area relative to that of the graphitic shell, and the main current path is the graphitic shell owing to its good electrical conductivity.

    2. Improvement of Energy Capacity with Vitamin C Treated Dual-Layered Graphene–Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Jin Won Kim, Joey D. Ocon, Dr. Ho-Sung Kim and Prof. Dr. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500111

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      Take your vitamins: a dual-layered cathode design based on a sulfur-nanoparticle–graphene composite as the sulfur active layer and vitamin C reduced graphene oxide as the polysulfide absorption layer with high energy and power densities is proposed (over 600 mAh g−1 for 100 cycles at 1C).

  13. Communications

    1. Mild and Robust Redox-Neutral Pd/C-Catalyzed Lignol β-O-4′ Bond Cleavage Through a Low-Energy-Barrier Pathway

      Maxim V. Galkin, Dr. Christian Dahlstrand and Dr. Joseph S. M. Samec

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500117

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      Don′t, cleave me this way: A Pd/C catalyzed redox neutral C[BOND]O bond cleavage of 2-aryloxy-1-arylethanols has been developed. The reactions are carried out at mild conditions to yield the aryl ketones in near quantitative yields. Addition of catalytic amounts of a hydrogen source activates the catalyst sites, and allow to perform the reactions under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies support a transfer hydrogenolysis pathway.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Improving the Thermochemical Energy Storage Performance of the Mn2O3/Mn3O4 Redox Couple by the Incorporation of Iron

      Alfonso J. Carrillo, Prof. David P. Serrano, Dr. Patricia Pizarro and Dr. Juan M. Coronado

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500148

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      Iron out the creases: The performance of the Mn2O3/Mn3O4 redox couple for thermochemical heat storage is improved significantly by Fe incorporation. The presence of such metal cations is especially beneficial to enhance the oxidation kinetics and counteracts the limitations caused by particle sintering. In particular, addition of 20 % Fe boosts the efficiency, resulting in high cyclability, improved kinetics, and an elevated energy storage density.

    2. Design Principles of Perovskites for Thermochemical Oxygen Separation

      Miriam Ezbiri, Dr. Kyle M. Allen, Dr. Maria E. Gàlvez, Dr. Ronald Michalsky and Prof. Dr. Aldo Steinfeld

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500239

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      Heat and pump thermochemically: Gas-phase O2 separation often limits the solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency of solar-driven thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting. A method is proposed by which O2 is separated from gas mixtures through “pumping” O2 against a partial pressure gradient using metal oxide redox materials and low-temperature solar-thermal process heat. Design principles for perovskite reactants are developed and demonstrated.

  15. Communications

    1. Visible Light-Driven Atom Transfer Radical Addition to Olefins using Bi2O3 as Photocatalyst

      Dr. Paola Riente and Prof. Dr. Miquel A. Pericàs

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403466

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      Let the sunshine in: Bismuth oxide, an inexpensive and non-toxic semiconductor, efficiently converts sunlight into chemical energy. The atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) of organobromides to terminal olefins is efficiently promoted by Bi2O3 (1 mol %) under the influence of actual or simulated sunlight.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Ceramic Lithium Ion Conductor to Solve the Anode Coking Problem of Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Dr. Wei Wang, Feng Wang, Yubo Chen, Jifa Qu, Prof. Moses O. Tadé and Prof. Zongping Shao

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500028

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      No coke without fire: The high Li+ conductivity of Li0.33La0.56TiO3 (LLTO) in the Ni/LLTO catalyst successfully compensates surface lithium loss caused by evaporation through bulk diffusion and leads to a much better coking resistance, which is beneficial for the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cells.

    2. Efficient Synthesis of Amides and Esters from Alcohols under Aerobic Ambient Conditions Catalyzed by a Au/Mesoporous Al2O3 Nanocatalyst

      Dr. Leng Leng Chng, Dr. Jinhua Yang and Prof. Jackie Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403469

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      Gold for green: Gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous alumina catalyze the efficient synthesis of amides and esters from simple building blocks of readily available alcohols and amines under ambient aerobic reaction conditions (R1=aryl, alkyl, and R2=H, alkyl).

  17. Communications

    1. Interconnected Co-Entrapped, N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Film as Active Hydrogen Evolution Cathode over the Whole pH Range

      Dr. Zhicai Xing, Qian Liu, Prof. Wei Xing, Prof. Abdullah M. Asiri and Prof. Xuping Sun

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500138

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      Ensnaring Co into catalysis: Direct growth of a film consisting of interconnected Co-entrapped, N-doped carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth (Co-NCNT/CC) leads to a high loading of catalyst and its strong coupling with CC. Co-NCNT/CC can be used as a flexible 3D carbon electrode with low metal content that has a high activity for hydrogen evolution activity and is stable over the whole pH range (0–14).

  18. Full Papers

    1. A Rational Approach to CO2 Capture by Imidazolium Ionic Liquids: Tuning CO2 Solubility by Cation Alkyl Branching

      Dr. Marta C. Corvo, Dr. João Sardinha, Dr. Teresa Casimiro, Dr. Graciane Marin, Prof. Dr. Marcus Seferin, Prof. Dr. Sandra Einloft, Dr. Sonia C. Menezes, Prof. Dr. Jairton Dupont and Prof. Dr. Eurico J. Cabrita

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500104

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      Catch and retain: Introduction of a methyl group at the side chain of the imidazolium cation of an ionic liquid (IL) enhances CO2 solubility. High-pressure NMR (HP NMR) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics data show that CO2 uptake is a direct consequence of the liquid structure of the IL, which provides a matrix with a sponge-like nature to solubilize CO2 without perturbing the supramolecular arrangement.

    2. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

      Hee-Chang Youn, Dr. Seong-Min Bak, Myeong-Seong Kim, Dr. Cherno Jaye, Dr. Daniel A. Fischer, Dr. Chang-Wook Lee, Dr. Xiao-Qing Yang, Dr. Kwang Chul Roh and Prof. Kwang-Bum Kim

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500122

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      Between the sheets: Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) shows excellent electrochemical performance and stability as an electrode material for electrical double-layer capacitors due to its high surface area and electrical conductivity. The two-step synthesis incorporates nitrogen into the hexagonal carbon lattice and restores π conjugation.

    3. Promoting Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Solubilization and Depolymerization of Cellulose from Raw Biomass Materials in Water

      Zhicheng Jiang, Jian Yi, Dr. Jianmei Li, Ting He and Prof. Dr. Changwei Hu

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500158

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      Break it down: Cellulose, as the most abundant component in lignocellulosic biomass, is a preferable feedstock to produce biofuel and chemicals. However, its solubilization remains a challenge. Cl can interact strongly with the end [BOND]OH groups of the glucose unit to result in the enhanced solubilization and depolymerization of cellulose in biomass into oligomers with molecular weights from 200–400 Da.

    4. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield – A Case for Superior CO2 Capture

      Dr. Srinivas Gadipelli and Prof. Zheng Xiao Guo

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403402

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      Carbon control: A detailed structural analysis is performed for MOF-derived nanoporous carbons, using ZIF-8 as a case study as one of the most commonly used precursors. The controlled carbonization of ZIF-8 yields very different porous carbons with variation of the activated C and N sites. The sample prepared at around 700 °C shows a high content of highly active N functional groups. The samples have enhanced CO2 uptake, binding, and selectivity due to the N and Zn sites.

    5. Peculiar Properties of Mesoporous Synthetic Carbon/Graphene Phase Composites and their Effect on Supercapacitive Performance

      Dr. Mykola Seredych, Prof. Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón and Prof. Teresa J. Bandosz

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500156

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      Nowhere to GO: Mesoporous carbon/graphite oxide (GO) composites are synthesized. The composites and the initial carbon have the same pore-size distributions but show significant differences in their surface chemistry, wettability, and conductivity. Chemical interactions between carbon and GO affect the capacitive performance and photoactivity. Features other than textural properties increase the capacitive performance by more than 100 %.

    6. Highly Efficient Oxygen-Storage Material with Intrinsic Coke Resistance for Chemical Looping Combustion-Based CO2 Capture

      Qasim Imtiaz, Alexey Kurlov, Prof. Dr. Jennifer Lilia Marguerite Rupp and Prof. Dr. Christoph Rüdiger Müller

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403426

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      Head in the CLOU: We report on the development of highly efficient and coke-resistant materials based on ceria-stabilized copper oxide as CO2-capture architectures based on chemical looping combustion.

    7. MnCo2O4 Nanowires Anchored on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Effective Bifunctional Catalysts for Li–O2 Battery Cathodes

      Dr. Jong Guk Kim, Youngmin Kim, Yuseong Noh and Prof. Won Bae Kim

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500123

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      Between the nanosheets: A hybrid composite system of MnCo2O4 nanowires (MCO NWs) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets is prepared for the bifunctional catalyst of a Li–O2 battery cathode. A Li–O2 battery with the MCO@RGO catalyst has high long-term durability and high energy density and could be a promising O2 cathode system for next-generation Li–O2 batteries.

    8. Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Acidic Solution

      Dr. Youngkook Kwon, Yuvraj Y. Birdja, Dr. Saeed Raoufmoghaddam and Prof. Marc T. M. Koper

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500176

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      HMF hydrogenation: Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is studied on solid metal electrodes in acidic solution (0.5 M H2SO4). The pH of the solution plays an important role in the hydrogenation of HMF: acidic conditions lower the activation energy for HMF hydrogenation and hydrogenate the furan ring further, to tetrahydrofuran.

    9. Metallo-Deuteroporphyrin as a Biomimetic Catalyst for the Catalytic Oxidation of Lignin to Aromatics

      Dr. Chenjie Zhu, Weiwei Ding, Tao Shen, Chenglun Tang, Dr. Chenguo Sun, Shichao Xu, Yong Chen, Jinglan Wu and Prof. Hanjie Ying

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500048

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      Cobalt cleavage: Metallo-deuteroporphyrins derived from natural hemin have been synthesized to mimic the cytochrome P450 enzyme for the oxidation of lignin model compounds under mild conditions. In the oxidative depolymerization of enzymolysis lignin, a significant portion of well-defined aromatic monomers is produced (see scheme).

  19. Communications

    1. Melt-Polymerization of TEMPO Methacrylates with Nano Carbons Enables Superior Battery Materials

      Dr. Alexandru Vlad, Julien Rolland, Guillaume Hauffman, Bruno Ernould and Prof. Jean-François Gohy

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500246

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      Melting polymers for batteries: Organic solvent-free melt polymerization of TEMPO methacrylates is shown not only to be cleaner and environmentally friendly, it also provides a highly cross-linked, insoluble polymer–carbon composite, in which the carbon is homogeneously dispersed on the nanoscale. Battery electrodes constructed using such a composite show superior electrochemical performances compared to state-of-art while having a low carbon content.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Carbon-Nanotubes-Supported Pd Nanoparticles for Alcohol Oxidations in Fuel Cells: Effect of Number of Nanotube Walls on Activity

      Jin Zhang, Dr. Shanfu Lu, Prof. Yan Xiang, Prof. Pei Kang Shen, Dr. Jian Liu and Prof. San Ping Jiang

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500107

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      Three′s the magic number: Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled particle size are uniformly assembled on the surface of carbon nanotubes CNTs with varying numbers of walls. Pd NPs supported on triple-walled CNTs (TWNTs) have the highest mass activity and stability for methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions, as compared to Pd NPs supported on single-walled and multi-walled CNTs.

    2. Holey Graphene Nanosheets with Surface Functional Groups as High-Performance Supercapacitors in Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte

      Dr. Cheng-Hsien Yang, Po-Ling Huang, Xu-Feng Luo, Chueh-Han Wang, Chi Li, Yi-Hsuan Wu and Prof. Jeng-Kuei Chang

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500030

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      Holey supercapacitator! Macropores and surface functional groups are created on graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via facile methods to improve supercapacitor properties in a butylmethylpyrrolidinium–dicyanamide ionic-liquid electrolyte. Showing a pseudocapacitive effect, the symmetric-electrode GNS supercapacitor with ionic-liquid electrolyte delivers good energy and power densities at 60 °C.

    3. Electron Bottleneck in the Charge/Discharge Mechanism of Lithium Titanates for Batteries

      Dr. Edgar Ventosa, Dr. Marcel Skoumal, Francisco Javier Vazquez, Dr. Cristina Flox, Prof. Jordi Arbiol and Prof. Joan Ramon Morante

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500349

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      Remember the titanates: The contributions of ionic and electrical resistances during charge/discharge are difficult to separate in solid electrodes, while the latter largely dominates in fluid electrodes. An electron bottleneck mechanism originating from the transformation of active materials from electrically insulating to conducting upon (de)lithiation explains the highly asymmetric overpotentials observed in fluid electrodes.

  21. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500314

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      The Back Cover picture shows a solution-processed thin film of semi-conducting CuFeO2 held in front of the sun. An impressive performance is reported using this material as a photocathode for the reduction of water molecules to hydrogen (as depicted in the bottom right corner) under solar radiation. In addition to being fully solution processable, the copper-based delafossite (crystal structure is shown in the top right corner) is a class of material known for being stable in aqueous environments. Moreover, it is only composed of earth-abundant materials, as suggested by the delafossite ore shown in the bottom right corner. Overall, these properties make p-type CuFeO2 a very attractive material in the quest for inexpensive, sustainable, and stable direct solar water splitting for the generation of carbon-free hydrogen. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Prévot et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146).

  22. Communications

    1. Hydrogen Production from Aqueous Solutions of Urea with Ruthenium-based Catalysts

      Dr. Shinya Furukawa, Ryohei Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Ochi, Prof. Tatsuaki Yashima and Prof. Takayuki Komatsu

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500112

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      New to the urea: An efficient catalytic system for hydrogen production from aqueous solution of urea was developed using ruthenium-based catalysts as an alternative for the existing system based on several H2 carriers. Ru/Al2O3 gave the highest catalytic performance, 92 mol % of H2 yield at 500 °C. A mechanistic study revealed that the reaction proceeds mainly via two steps; urea hydrolysis (H2NCONH2+H2O[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]2 NH3+CO2) and the following NH3 decomposition (2 NH3[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3 H2+N2).

  23. Full Papers

    1. Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel

      Dr. Eric R. Sacia, Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Matthew H. Deaner, Konstantinos A. Goulas, Prof. F. Dean Toste and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500002

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      Cool your jets! Aviation fuel requires a mixture of hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. It is demonstrated that biomass-derived n-alkyl methyl ketones undergo selective, base-catalyzed reactions to form cyclic trimer condensates in >94 % selectivity. These products are then quantitatively hydrodeoxygenated to form aviation fuels having a broad range of volatility and exceptional freezing points and energy densities when utilizing multiple starting ketones.

    2. Niobium Doping Effects on TiO2 Mesoscopic Electron Transport Layer-Based Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dong Hoe Kim, Gill Sang Han, Won Mo Seong, Jin-Wook Lee, Byeong Jo Kim, Prof. Nam-Gyu Park, Prof. Kug Sun Hong, Dr. Sangwook Lee and Prof. Hyun Suk Jung

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403478

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      Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for perovskite solar cell: TiO2 nanoparticles doped with n-type Nb5+ have a diameter of 30 nm and a pure anatase phase; they are used for fabricating perovskite solar cells. Light doping increases the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency by 10 % due to improved electron injection/transport properties of the nanoparticle-based electron transport layer.

    3. Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol in the Presence of a Recyclable Cobalt/SBA-15 Catalyst

      Maïté Audemar, Carmen Ciotonea, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier, Dr. Sébastien Royer, Adrian Ungureanu, Dr. Brindusa Dragoi, Prof. Emil Dumitriu and Dr. François Jérôme

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403398

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      The fast and the furfural: Furfuryl alcohol is produced from furfural with a yield of 88 % in the presence of a recyclable and stable Co/SBA-15 catalyst at 150 °C under H2 pressure in ethanol. This catalyst is also active and selective in the hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.

    4. Eco-Friendly Solvents for Palladium-Catalyzed Desulfitative C[BOND]H Bond Arylation of Heteroarenes

      Anoir Hfaiedh, Kedong Yuan, Prof. Hamed Ben Ammar, Prof. Bechir Ben Hassine, Dr. Jean-François Soulé and Dr. Henri Doucet

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403429

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      Green machine: We report the Pd-catalyzed regioselective direct arylation of heteroarenes using benzenesulfonyl chlorides as coupling partners through a desulfitative cross-coupling in diethyl carbonate or cyclopentyl methyl ether as green and renewable solvents. Moreover, for some substrates, solvent-free conditions also allow the arylation of heteroarenes in very high yields and regioselectivity.

    5. On the Role of Interfaces in Planar-Structured HC(NH2)2PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dong-Jin Seol, Jin-Wook Lee and Nam-Gyu Park

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403442

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      Focus on interfaces: A planar-junction perovskite solar cell composed of TiO2/formamidinium lead iodide(FAPbI3)/spiro-MeOTAD is fabricated, in which interfaces of FAPbI3 in contact with TiO2 and spiro-MeOTAD are modified to investigate the role of each interface. The TiO2/FAPbI3 interface is found to play an important role in determining short-circuit photocurrent, while the FAPbI3/spiro-MeOTAD interfacial role is involved in governing open-circuit voltage.

    6. Selective Nickel-Catalyzed Conversion of Model and Lignin-Derived Phenolic Compounds to Cyclohexanone-Based Polymer Building Blocks

      Wouter Schutyser, Sander Van den Bosch, Jan Dijkmans, Dr. Stuart Turner, Maria Meledina, Prof. Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Prof. Damien P. Debecker and Prof. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403375

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      In the Ni-ck of time: The four-step conversion of lignocellulose to caprolactones is demonstrated. One of the major challenges is the selective removal of the methoxy group from the guaiacols. Ni/CeO2 is a suitable catalyst for this reaction, yielding considerable amounts of cyclohexanols, which are prone to undergo dehydrogenation and Baeyer–Villager oxidation.

    7. Sustainable Hydrogen Production by Ethanol Steam Reforming using a Partially Reduced Copper–Nickel Oxide Catalyst

      Dr. Li-Chung Chen, Dr. Hongkui Cheng, Chih-Wei Chiang and Prof. Shawn D. Lin

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403433

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      Reformed alcoholic: A (Cu–NiO)SC catalyst (SC denotes preparation by the space-confinement method) catalyzes ethanol steam reforming effectively at 300 °C, and a hydrogen yield of approximately 5 is achieved with the ethanol completely converted. Therefore, ethanol steam reforming is a sustainable route for hydrogen production. Such a high performance is attributed to the presence of a CuNi–NiO interface, which reduces CH4 formation.

    8. Pd/Nb2O5/SiO2 Catalyst for the Direct Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Related Compounds to Liquid Alkanes under Mild Conditions

      Yi Shao, Qineng Xia, Xiaohui Liu, Prof. Guanzhong Lu and Prof. Yanqin Wang

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500053

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      Mild mannered: Under mild conditions (170 °C, 2.5 MPa), Pd/10 %Nb2O5/SiO2 is effective for the hydrodeoxygenation reactions of 4-(2-furyl)-3-buten-2-one (the aldol adduct of furfural with acetone), palmitic acid, tristearin, and diphenyl ether (model compounds of vegetable oils, microalgae oils, and lignin) and gives high yields (>94 %) of alkanes with little C[BOND]C bond cleavage.

  24. Communications

    1. Recyclable Bifunctional Polystyrene and Silica Gel-Supported Organocatalyst for the Coupling of CO2 with Epoxides

      Dr. Christina Kohrt and Dr. Thomas Werner

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500128

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      Do it again: Polystyrene and silica-supported bifunctional ammonium salts catalyze the addition of carbon dioxide to epoxide under mild and solvent-free reaction conditions. Those catalysts can be recycled up to 13 times without loss of activity. Moreover, a wide array of cyclic carbonates can be prepared in excellent yields utilizing those immobilized metal-free catalyst.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Dimethylaminopyridine-Supported Graft Polymer Catalyst and its Flow System

      Yoshinori Okuno, Dr. Shigeki Isomura, Takahiro Kamakura, Fumiaki Sano, Kaoru Tamahori, Takahiro Goto, Takahiro Hayashida, Yuuichi Kitagawa, Ami Fukuhara and Prof. Kazuyoshi Takeda

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500092

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      To anchor catalysis: A heterogeneous organocatalyst is reported, which is prepared by anchoring dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) on polyethylene-graft-polyacrylic acid. It exhibits a higher activity than DMAP supported on polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene. Its good stability allows use in continuous flow systems. Continuous acylation was achieved in eight fixed bed reactor assembled in parallel.

    2. Organic Dyes Incorporating the Dithieno[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline Moiety for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jen-Shyang Ni, Wei-Siang Kao, Hao-Ju Chou and Prof. Jiann T. Lin

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500193

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      More acceptance: New donor–acceptor′–acceptor-type sensitizers with a rigid dithieno[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline segment comprised of electron-rich and electron-deficient units in the conjugated spacer are proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells. Their structure gives rise to broad absorption spectra and high molar extinction coefficient, resulting in power conversion efficiencies higher than that of the N719 dye.

  26. Communications

    1. Hierarchical Vanadium Pentoxide Spheres as High-Performance Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Dr. Dawei Su, Prof. Dr. Shixue Dou and Prof. Dr. Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500139

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      In higher spheres: Hierarchical V2O5 spheres are synthesized and demonstrate a preferred (110) orientation, exposing more open interlayers of its crystal structure. When tested in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared V2O5 spheres achieve high discharge capacity, superior high rate capability, and excellent cyclability. The promising electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique hierarchical spherical architecture and preferred exposure of the (110) crystal planes.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Very Important Paper

      Incorporation of a Metal Oxide Interlayer using a Virus-Templated Assembly for Synthesis of Graphene-Electrode-Based Organic Photovoltaics

      Dr. Yong Man Lee, Wanjung Kim, Dr. Young Hun Kim, Jung Kyu Kim, Ji-ryang Jang, Prof. Woo-Seok Choe, Prof. Jong Hyeok Park and Prof. Pil J. Yoo

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403487

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      Virus scan: The synthesis and incorporation of a WO3 interlayer into graphene-electrode-based organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is developed by using an engineered biotemplate of M13 viruses. Owing to uniform deposition of the WO3 layer and maintenance of the electrical properties of the graphene electrode, a remarkable increase in the photoconversion efficiency (>20 %) relative to that of conventional OPVs can be obtained.

    2. Nanotubular Heterostructure of Tin Dioxide/Titanium Dioxide as a Binder-Free Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Myungjun Kim, Joobong Lee, Seonhee Lee, Seongrok Seo, Dr. Changdeuck Bae and Prof. Hyunjung Shin

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500005

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      Solid foundations: Arrays of TiO2, SnO2, heterotubular TiO2/SnO2, and TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 as binder-free anodes in lithium-ion batteries are successfully synthesized by using template-assisted atomic-layer deposition (ALD), which enables not only precise structural control, but also suppression of a large volume change in SnO2.

  28. Reviews

    1. Boundary Engineering for the Thermoelectric Performance of Bulk Alloys Based on Bismuth Telluride

      Hyeona Mun, Prof. Soon-Mok Choi, Prof. Kyu Hyoung Lee and Prof. Sung Wng Kim

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403485

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      Boundary engineering for thermoelectrics: For a further enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit, boundary engineering is demonstrated as one of the most effective ways to enhance the thermoelectric performance of conventional thermoelectric materials such as Bi2Te3, PbTe, and SiGe alloys. We review the boundary engineering strategy into two parts; 1) grain boundary engineering and 2) phase boundary engineering using Bi2Te3-based bulk alloys.

  29. Full Papers

    1. First Pinacol Coupling in Emulsified Water: Key Role of Surfactant and Impact of Alternative Activation Technologies

      Dr. Muriel Billamboz and Prof. Christophe Len

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500108

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      Emulsion as the solution: Combining surfactant effects with acoustic cavitation allowed the design of a novel, fast, and efficient protocol for pinacol coupling of aromatic and α,β-unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes in water. This protocol could be applied to natural high-value compounds such as citral A. The use of IgepalCO520, a neutral surfactant, led to the successful conversion of aromatic or α,β-unsaturated aliphatic carbonyl compounds in moderate-to-excellent yield.

    2. β-Functionalized Push–Pull Porphyrin Sensitizers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Conjugated Spacers

      Dr. Masatoshi Ishida, Daesub Hwang, Dr. Zhan Zhang, Yung Ji Choi, Juwon Oh, Dr. Vincent M. Lynch, Dr. Dong Young Kim, Prof. Dr. Jonanthan L. Sessler and Prof. Dr. Dongho Kim

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500085

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      Pushing through it: A series of new β-functionalized push–pull-structured porphyrin dyes are synthesized. Together, these dyes allow the effect of the π-conjugated spacer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to be assessed. The highest conversion efficiency in the present study (8.2 %) is achieved by using a doubly β-butadiene-linked porphyrin as the sensitizer with a cobalt-based redox shuttle as the mediator.

    3. In situ Generation of Ni Nanoparticles from Metal–Organic Framework Precursors and Their Use for Biomass Hydrodeoxygenation

      Dr. Tadeja Birsa Čelič, Miha Grilc, Prof. Dr. Blaž Likozar and Prof. Dr. Nataša Novak Tušar

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403300

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      MOFing about bio-oil: In situ generated Ni nanoparticles from MOF precursor MIL-77(Ni) exhibited a high hydrodeoxygenation activity and effectively converted wood-derived oil into the polar and non-polar phase with a significantly lower viscosity and oxygen content within 60 min at 300 °C and 8 MPa of H2 pressure. The contribution represents a key step in the design of the catalyst precursors for the sustainable hydrogenation of liquefied lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  30. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Water Oxidation

      Anett C. Sander, Dr. Somnath Maji, Dr. Laia Francàs, Torben Böhnisch, Dr. Sebastian Dechert, Prof. Dr. Antoni Llobet and Prof. Dr. Franc Meyer

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403344

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      Design is possible: A new binuclear ruthenium-based water oxidation catalyst is presented that combines multiple beneficial structural elements for lowering the metal ions’ redox potentials, enhancing catalyst durability, and favoring the catalytic process. This leads to an impressive initial turnover frequency of 1.4 s−1 in CeIV-mediated water oxidation and high electrocatalytic activity. Spectroscopic and electrochemical signatures reflect the well-designed molecular properties.

  31. Full Papers

    1. Surfactant Effects on the Morphology and Pseudocapacitive Behavior of V2O5⋅H2O

      Aniu Qian, Kai Zhuo, Myung Sik Shin, Woo Won Chun, Bit Na Choi and Prof. Chan-Hwa Chung

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403477

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      Morphing into it: The effect of diverse surfactants on the morphology of V2O5H2O powders is studied. The pseudocapacitive behavior of V2O5H2O powders mediated by polyethylene glycol 6000exhibit a high capacitance at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. Moreover, the V2O5H2O electrode mediated by Pluronic P-123 delivers a high capacitance with excellent stability after 200 cycles.

    2. Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass

      Thanh Yen Nguyen, Dr. Charles M. Cai, Dr. Rajeev Kumar and Prof. Charles E. Wyman

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403045

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      Break it down! We describe a new pretreatment approach, co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF), that reduces plant recalcitrance by solvating biomass lignin using acidified aqueous THF solutions to improve sugar yields and reduce enzyme requirements for saccharification. Our results provide important insights into promising biomass pretreatment strategies.

    3. Sonophotodeposition of Bimetallic Photocatalysts Pd–Au/TiO2: Application to Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Methyl Formate

      Dr. Juan C. Colmenares, Paweł Lisowski, Dr. Dariusz Łomot, Dr. Olga Chernyayeva and Dr. Dmytro Lisovytskiy

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403125

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      The light of sounds in catalysis: An unconventional, soft technique that combines the advantages of sonication and photodeposition (sonophotodeposition) is reported. This offers enormous possibilities for the synthesis of a broad spectrum of mono- and bimetallic nanostructured photocatalysts for a green and sustainable photocatalytic selective oxidation of methanol to form methyl formate.

  32. Communications

    1. Singlet-Oxygen Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Continuous Flow

      Dr. Thomas S. A. Heugebaert, Prof. Dr. Christian V. Stevens and Prof. Dr.  C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403182

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      Rosy future: The selective, high yielding, singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is performed in continuous-flow mode using rose Bengal as photosensitizer. The resulting butenolide (H2MF) is shown to be a valuable bio-based polyester precursor and the procedure proved to be scalable and applicable to related bio-based furfurals.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Plasticizer and Surfactant Formation from Food-Waste- and Algal Biomass-Derived Lipids

      Dr. Daniel Pleissner, Kin Yan Lau, Prof. Chengwu Zhang and Dr. Carol Sze Ki Lin

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402888

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      Establishment of a green society by waste utilization: A sustainable process is introduced for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants from food-waste and algal lipids. Plasticizer was formed by epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids extracted from food-waste and algal biomass, heterotrophically produced from food-waste hydrolysate. Surfactant was produced by transesterification of epoxidized and saturated fatty acid methyl esters with polyglycerol for the formation of surfactants.

  34. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

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