ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling

Impact Factor: 7.475

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 17/152 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

VIEW

  1. 1 - 49
  1. Full Papers

    1. Chemically Stable Perovskites as Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: La-Doped Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ

      Junyoung Kim, Sihyuk Choi, Areum Jun, Prof. Hu Young Jeong, Prof. Jeeyoung Shin and Prof. Guntae Kim

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301401

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      A-site for sore eyes: Although Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (BSCF) has won tremendous attention as a cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells, wide application of BSCF is impeded by phase instabilities under operating conditions. A chemically stable SOFC cathode material is reported based on La-doping into the A-site of BSCF and provides excellent structural stability and high oxygen reduction activity at intermediate temperature operation.

    2. Photocatalysis with Chromium-Doped TiO2: Bulk and Surface Doping

      Dr. Samy Ould-Chikh, Dr. Olivier Proux, Dr. Pavel Afanasiev, Dr. Lhoussain Khrouz, Dr. Mohamed N. Hedhili, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum, Dr. Moussab Harb, Dr. Christophe Geantet, Prof. Jean-Marie Basset and Dr. Eric Puzenat

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300922

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      It’s classified! The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two types of modified titania are discussed: one with CrIII doped in the bulk and one with CrOOH clusters on the TiO2 surface (see picture). Both series show visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. However, surface modification appears to be a more efficient strategy.

  2. Communications

    1. Two-Electron Carbon Dioxide Reduction Catalyzed by Rhenium(I) Bis(imino)acenaphthene Carbonyl Complexes

      Engelbert Portenkirchner, Elham Kianfar, Prof. Dr. Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci and Prof. Dr. Günther Knör

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301116

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      Multielectron transfer catalysis: A series of deeply colored rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes with bis(imino)acenaphthene ligands (i.e., [Re(BIAN)(CO)3]Cl) is successfully tested as novel homogeneous catalysts for the two-electron reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO). Variation of the ligand substitution pattern in proximity to the metal center has a significant influence on the catalytic performance of these systems.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Three-Phase Catalytic System of H2O, Ionic Liquid, and VOPO4–SiO2 Solid Acid for Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

      Chengcheng Tian, Xiang Zhu, Dr. Song-Hai Chai, Dr. Zili Wu, Andrew Binder, Dr. Suree Brown, Dr. Lin Li, Dr. Huimin Luo, Dr. Yanglong Guo and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400119

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      Set phases to stun! A three-phase catalytic system, consisting of an aqueous phase, a hydrophobic ionic-liquid phase, and a solid-acid catalyst phase of nanostructured vanadium phosphate and mesostructured cellular foam is developed for efficient conversion of biomass-derived fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. This unique three-phase catalytic system opens up an alternative avenue for making solid-acid catalyst systems with controlled microenvironment.

  4. Minireviews

    1. Metabolic Engineering: The Ultimate Paradigm for Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

      Dr. Vikramaditya G. Yadav and Prof. Gregory Stephanopoulos

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301219

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      The ′pathway′ to a manufacturing renaissance: A new vision for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, is described. This new manufacturing paradigm saliently allows rapid optimization of production variables as well as facile scale-up from gram to ton scales to meet material requirements for clinical trials. These benefits imply that manufacturing can also double up as valuable tool for drug discovery.

  5. Communications

    1. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282

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      Photo workflow: A simple and straightforward photocatalytic method for perfluoroalkylation in continuous flow is developed. A photo-microreactor, constructed from commercially available components, enables accelerated photocatalysis employing [Ru(bpy)3Cl2] as photocatalyst under irradiation by blue LED light. A series of electron-rich hetero-aromatics is successfully trifluoromethylated within 8–16 min. Also, a selection of hetero-aromatics is perfluoroalkylated within 10–20 min.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Fe3O4/Carbon Hybrid Nanoparticle Electrodes for High-Capacity Electrochemical Capacitors

      Jun Seop Lee, Dong Hoon Shin, Jaemoon Jun, Choonghyeon Lee and Prof. Dr. Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301188

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      Of nozzles and electrons: Hybrid Fe3O4/carbon nanoparticles are prepared by using a three-step synthesis: dual-nozzle electrospraying, vapor deposition polymerization, and carbonization. The hybrid nanoparticles consist of porous Fe3O4 nanoneedles coated with a thin carbon layer and carbon particles and are used for preparing electrochemical capacitor electrodes with, owing to synergistic effects of carbon and Fe3O4, high specific capacitance and good cycle stability.

    2. Production of Clean Pyrolytic Sugars for Fermentation

      Dr. Marjorie R. Rover, Patrick A. Johnston, Tao Jin, Ryan G. Smith, Prof. Robert C. Brown and Prof. Laura Jarboe

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301259

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      Sugars recovery: The recovery of two value-added products from the fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, a concentrated sugar-rich solution, and phenolic oligomer-rich raffinate, is studied. The results suggest that the sugars recovered are promising alternatives for fermentation to ethanol, whereas the phenolic oligomers show potential for the production of aromatic chemicals, resins, binders, coatings, adhesives, carbon fibers, and asphalt.

    3. Excavated Fe-N-C Sites for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Beomgyun Jeong, Dongyoon Shin, Dr. Hongrae Jeon, Joey D. Ocon, Prof. Bongjin Simon Mun, Dr. Jaeyoon Baik, Dr. Hyun-Joon Shin and Prof. Dr. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301374

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pt-free ORR catalyst: Fe-modified N-doped carbon nanofibers (Fe-N-CNFs) are a promising non-Pt catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A pulverization approach to effectively excavate a larger number of active sites embedded in the Fe-N-CNFs for the ORR is possible. Facile ball milling results in a significant enhancement in the Fe-based ORR active sites and the corresponding ORR activity of the Fe-N-CNFs.

  7. Communications

    1. Hollow Melon-Seed-Shaped Lithium Iron Phosphate Micro- and Sub-Micrometer Plates for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Dr. Xian-Feng Yang, Dr. Jin-Hua Yang, Dr. Yu Lin Zhong, Vincent Gariepy, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Dr. Karim Zaghib and Prof. Jackie Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400152

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      Hollow for better performance: Hollow melon-seed-shaped olivine-type lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) micro- and sub-micrometer plates are synthesized for the first time. A possible growth mechanism including nucleation, anisotropic growth, selective etching, and reverse recrystallization is proposed. This study illustrates a new approach for the growth of inorganic hollow materials for energy-related applications such as lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Zr4+ Doping in Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Open Li+ Diffusion Paths through Structural Imperfection

      Jae-Geun Kim, Dr. Min-Sik Park, Dr. Soo Min Hwang, Prof. Yoon-Uk Heo, Dr. Ting Liao, Dr. Ziqi Sun, Jong Hwan Park, Dr. Ki Jae Kim, Dr. Goojin Jeong, Dr. Young-Jun Kim, Prof. Jung Ho Kim and Prof. Shi Xue Dou

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301393

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      Distorted lattice: Zr4+ is doped into a 1 D spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanostructure and the resulting electrochemical properties are explored through a combined theoretical and experimental investigation. The improved electrochemical performance resulting from incorporation of Zr4+ in the LTO is due to lattice distortion and, thereby, enlarged Li+ diffusion paths rather than to a change in the electronic structure.

    2. A Natural Carbonized Leaf as Polysulfide Diffusion Inhibitor for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cells

      Sheng-Heng Chung and Prof. Arumugam Manthiram

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301287

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      Force of nature: A natural carbonized leaf (CL) covering a sulfur cathode utilizes a polysulfide locking-film on one side to suppress polysulfide diffusion and an electrolyte reservoir on the other side to absorb the electrolyte containing dissolved polysulfides. The CL inhibitor turns a critical organ of higher plants into a key component of highly reversible lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery cells.

    3. Enhanced Conversion of Carbohydrates to the Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Designer Ionic Liquids

      Sviatlana Siankevich, Dr. Zhaofu Fei, Dr. Rosario Scopelliti, Prof. Gabor Laurenczy, Prof. Sergey Katsyuba, Prof. Ning Yan and Prof. Paul J. Dyson

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301368

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      Solvents by design: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a key platform chemical that may be obtained from various cellulosic (biomass) derivatives. Ionic liquids (ILs) facilitate the catalytic conversion of glucose into HMF. We demonstrate that the careful design of the IL cation leads to new ionic solvents that enhance the transformation of glucose and more complex carbohydrates into HMF.

    4. Modeling Practical Performance Limits of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Based on the Current State of Materials Research

      Linsey C. Seitz, Zhebo Chen, Arnold J. Forman, Blaise A. Pinaud, Jesse D. Benck and Prof. Thomas F. Jaramillo

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301030

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      How efficient can it be? Based on the current state of materials research, we model various losses in photoelectrochemical water splitting, examining devices configured in several different ways, to determine their overall solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies. The effects of different absorber configurations and various losses are quantitatively analyzed, leading to the introduction of potential engineering solutions to overcome limitations of water-splitting systems.

  9. Communications

    1. Lignol Cleavage by Pd/C Under Mild Conditions and Without Hydrogen: A Role for Benzylic C[BOND]H Activation?

      Dr. Xiaoyuan Zhou, Dr. Joyee Mitra and Prof. Thomas B. Rauchfuss

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301253

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      Cleavage within: The selective cleavage of β-O-4 bond linkage in lignin has received great attention. We developed a method using the commercially available heterogeneous catalyst, Pd/C, to cleave the C[BOND]O bond in β-O-4 linkage model compound without hydrogen. A mechanistic study shows that the present catalytic system undergoes a process different from previous reports, in which the β-benzylic-H atom in the substrates plays a critical role.

    2. Ionic Liquid Promoted Synthesis of Conjugated Carbon Nitride Photocatalysts from Urea

      Zhenzhen Lin and Prof. Xinchen Wang

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400016

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      BuILd your own semi: Simultaneous nanoarchitectual engineering and doping of a robust carbon nitride semiconductor has been demonstrated by a direct co-condensation of urea and an ionic liquid (e.g., [Bmim][BF4]), yielding boron- and fluorine-containing two-dimensional carbon nitride nanosheets with enhanced optical harvesting and charge separation capabilities for hydrogen evolution catalysis with visible light.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Isolated Boron and Nitrogen Sites on Porous Graphitic Carbon Synthesized from Nitrogen-Containing Chitosan for Supercapacitors

      Dr. Li Sun, Dr. Yu Fu, Dr. Chungui Tian, Dr. Ying Yang, Dr. Lei Wang, Jie Yin, Jing Ma, Dr. Ruihong Wang and Prof. Honggang Fu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400048

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      Bugs Ncorporated: Porous graphitic carbon having isolated boron and nitrogen centers is fabricated by a robust combination of a hydrothermal coordination and a ZnCl2-activation process from nitrogen-containing chitosan. The resultant materials exhibit superior capacitive properties and long-term stability, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of large surface area, good conductivity, and separated/isolated boron and nitrogen sites.

    2. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution from Glycerol and Water over Nickel-Hybrid Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots under Visible-Light Irradiation

      Jiu-Ju Wang, Dr. Zhi-Jun Li, Xu-Bing Li, Xiang-Bing Fan, Dr. Qing-Yuan Meng, Shan Yu, Cheng-Bo Li, Jia-Xin Li, Prof. Dr. Chen-Ho Tung and Prof. Dr. Li-Zhu Wu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400028

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      In good Nick: A simple and robust photocatalyst based on hybrid cadmium sulfide quantum dots with nickel complex active sites (Nih-CdS QDs) enables the photocatalytic production of hydrogen (H2) from glycerol and water. Using the Nih-CdS QDs allows to achieve a high rate of H2 production as well as a high turnover number over 20 h of irradiation (λ>400 nm). The performance is the highest activity known to date for H2 production from glycerol by photocatalysis.

    3. CO2 Captured in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Uptake and Host–Guest Interactions

      Dr. Athanassios G. Kontos, Dr. Vlassis Likodimos, Dr. Charitomeni M. Veziri, Dr. Evangelos Kouvelos, Nikolaos Moustakas, Dr. Georgios N. Karanikolos, Dr. George Em. Romanos and Dr. Polycarpos Falaras

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301323

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      Are you Raman enough? In situ Raman investigation of the interactions of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with CO2 in practical pressure and temperature regimes (0–10 bar and 0–64 °C) correlates well with corresponding macroscopic CO2 sorption data and shows clear spectroscopic evidence of CO2 uptake (see image). Raman is found to be an easy and sensitive tool for quantifying CO2 uptake, identifying weak host–guest interactions, and elucidating CO2 sorption mechanism in ZIFs.

    4. Ionic-Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Nanostructured and Carbon-Coated Li3V2(PO4)3 for High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices

      Xiaofei Zhang, Dr. Nils Böckenfeld, Dr. Frank Berkemeier and Dr. Andrea Balducci

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301331

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      Storage solutions: Carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 displaying nanostructured morphology is easily prepared by using ionic-liquid-assisted sol–gel synthesis. This material displays improved lithium-ion diffusion and electronic conductivity and thus enhanced charge-transfer properties. Li3V2(PO4)3 prepared by this sol–gel route is a very promising cathode material for high-power electrochemical storage devices.

  11. Minireviews

    1. Substitutional Doping of Carbon Nanotubes with Heteroatoms and Their Chemical Applications

      Dr. Yexin Zhang, Prof. Dr. Jian Zhang and Prof. Dr. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301166

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      Hit the target! The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be tuned by substitutional doping with heteroatoms (B and/or N) for different applications. Based on the comprehensive understanding of the substitutional doping of CNTs, it should be possible to deliberately design doped CNTs for specific purposes.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Electrochemical Performance of Hierarchical Porous Carbon Materials Obtained from the Infiltration of Lignin into Zeolite Templates

      R. Ruiz-Rosas, M. J. Valero-Romero, D. Salinas-Torres, J. Rodríguez-Mirasol, T. Cordero, E. Morallón and D. Cazorla-Amorós

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301408

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      No limit for lignin: Hierarchical micro-/mesoporous carbon materials are prepared by the liquid-phase impregnation of zeolites with an inexpensive and renewable biopolymer, lignin. High capacitances and an outstanding rate performance are obtained as a result of the ordered arrangement of porosity and the presence of certain electroactive surface oxygen and nitrogen groups.

    2. Multifunctional Organized Mesoporous Tin Oxide Films Templated by Graft Copolymers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Jung Tae Park, Sung Hoon Ahn, Dr. Dong Kyu Roh, Chang Soo Lee and Prof. Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301215

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      Peeling back the layers: An organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) film is prepared using a graft copolymer as a template for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The improved efficiency is attributed to the antireflective property, cascadal energy band gap, good interconnectivity, and high electrical conductivity of the film.

    3. Equimolar Carbon Absorption by Potassium Phthalimide and In Situ Catalytic Conversion Under Mild Conditions

      Dr. Shuai Zhang, Dr. Yu-Nong Li, Ya-Wei Zhang, Prof. Dr. Liang-Nian He, Bing Yu, Dr. Qing-Wen Song and Xian-Dong Lang

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400133

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      In a fix: Potassium phthalimide is as an excellent absorbent for equimolar CO2 capture with simultaneous activation. The in situ catalytic conversion of captured CO2 can be successfully converted into value-added chemicals and fuel-related products under mild conditions through a carbon capture and utilization pathway, rather than going through desorption process.

    4. The Pt-Enriched PtNi Alloy Surface and its Excellent Catalytic Performance in Hydrolytic Hydrogenation of Cellulose

      Guanfeng Liang, Limin He, Prof. Masahiko Arai and Prof. Fengyu Zhao

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301204

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      Put a Pt on it: ZSM-5-supported PtNi alloy particles with Pt-enriched alloy surface are prepared and characterized. The Pt-enriched alloy surface enhances hydrogenation activity but suppresses hydrogenolysis activity, thus resulting in high yield of hexitols. The decoration with an alloy surface offers a new approach to prevent the rapid deactivation of Ni-based catalysts in hot-compressed water.

  13. Communications

    1. Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides using Pentaerythritol and Halides as Dual Catalyst System

      Michael E. Wilhelm, Michael H. Anthofer, Dr. Mirza Cokoja, Iulius I. E. Markovits, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang A. Herrmann and Prof. Dr. Fritz E. Kühn

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301273

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      Doubleteam: The combination of pentaerytrithol with tetrabutylammonium iodide leads to an efficient catalytic system for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide (CO2) with various epoxides to cyclic carbonates. The nontoxic, metalfree, and cost-efficient dual catalysts, as well as the easy recyclability result in an exceptional sustainable organocatalytic approach for the fixation of carbon dioxide.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Pt Nanocatalysts Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Selective Conversion of Cellulose or Cellobiose to Sorbitol

      Dr. Ding Wang, Dr. Wenqi Niu, Dr. Minghui Tan, Prof. Mingbo Wu, Prof. Xuejun Zheng, Dr. Yanpeng Li and Prof. Noritatsu Tsubaki

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301123

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      Support group: Pt nanocatalysts loaded on reduced graphene oxide are prepared by a microwave-assisted ethylene glycol reduction method, and present high activity and selectivity for the conversion of cellobiose or cellulose to sorbitol. The high catalytic activity is attributed to the synergistic effects of reduced graphene oxide and the supported Pt nanoparticles.

    2. Four-Layer Tin–Carbon Nanotube Yolk–Shell Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Peng Chen, Fengdan Wu and Prof. Dr. Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301198

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      Tinception: A four-layer yolk–shell tin–carbon (Sn–C) nanotube nanostructure for application in lithium-ion batteries is designed and successfully prepared by a SnO2 nanotube-mediated method. The complex structure, designed to withstand the large volume changes associated with the use of tin anodes, offers excellent lithium-ion storage properties in terms of high capacity, long cycle life, and high rate performance.

    3. Construction of High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors from Pine-Cone-Derived High-Surface-Area Carbons

      Dr. Kaliyappan Karthikeyan, Samuthirapandiyan Amaresh, Sol Nip Lee, Prof. Xueliang Sun, Dr. Vanchiappan Aravindan, Dr. Young-Gi Lee and Prof. Yun Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301262

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      Pine cones: Not just for squirrels! Activated carbon with an ultrahigh surface area (∼3950 m2 g−1) was prepared from pine cone petals by using a chemical activation process for high-performance supercapacitor applications. The symmetric supercapacitor cell with such carbon electrodes delivered a discharge capacitance of ∼111 F g−1 with excellent capacitance retention.

    4. Peapod-Like Composite with Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Carbon Fibers as Enhanced Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

      Dr. Huijuan Zhang, Yangyang Feng, Yan Zhang, Ling Fang, Wenxiang Li, Prof. Qing Liu, Prof. Kai Wu and Prof. Yu Wang

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301394

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      Pod people: A simple and controllable method for synthesizing a peapod-like composite with Ni12P5 nanoparticles encapsulated in a carbon fiber layer is described. The obtained composite performs excellently as a Li-ion batteries anode. The peapod-like composite has numerous potential applications, in fields such as optoelectronics, electronics, specific catalysis, gas sensing, and biotechnology.

  15. Communications

    1. Biphasic Catalytic Conversion of Fructose by Continuous Hydrogenation of HMF over a Hydrophobic Ruthenium Catalyst

      Yanliang Yang, Dr. Zhongtian Du, Dr. Jiping Ma, Dr. Fang Lu, Junjie Zhang and Prof. Dr. Jie Xu

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301270

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      Divide and conquer: A method for direct catalytic conversion of fructose to tetrahydro-2,5-furandimethanol (THFDM) via 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) is reported. High selectivity towards THFDM is achieved by using a catalyst combination of acid and a hydrophobic ruthenium catalyst (Ru/SiO2-TM) in a water/cyclohexane biphasic system by continuous hydrogenation of generated HMF. The use of the hydrophobic Ru/SiO2-TM is the key, as it prevents hydrogenation of fructose to mannitol and sorbitol in the water phase.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Easily Regenerable Solid Adsorbents Based on Polyamines for Carbon Dioxide Capture from the Air

      Dr. Alain Goeppert, Hang Zhang, Dr. Miklos Czaun, Robert B. May, Prof. G. K. Surya Prakash, Prof. George A. Olah and Prof. S. R. Narayanan

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301114

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      As easy as breathing: Materials prepared from widely available fumed silica and polyethylenimines are used as efficient and inexpensive adsorbents for the capture of CO2 directly from the air (see picture). They can be easily regenerated under mild conditions for numerous adsorption/desorption cycles.

    2. Entropically Favored Adsorption of Cellulosic Molecules onto Carbon Materials through Hydrophobic Functionalities

      Mizuho Yabushita, Dr. Hirokazu Kobayashi, Prof. Jun-ya Hasegawa, Dr. Kenji Hara and Prof. Atsushi Fukuoka

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301296

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      Dual friendship: Hydrophobic functionality provides the primary and strong driving forces for adsorbing cellulosic molecules onto carbons (see picture). The driving forces consist of entropically driven hydrophobic interactions and CH–π hydrogen bonds, and thus, carbons can adsorb cellulosic molecules even at the high temperatures required for the conversion of cellulose.

    3. Controlling the Size and Composition of Nanosized Pt–Ni Octahedra to Optimize Their Catalytic Activities toward the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Dr. Sang-Il Choi, Shuifen Xie, Dr. Minhua Shao, Dr. Ning Lu, Dr. Sandra Guerrero, Jonathan H. Odell, Jinho Park, Dr. Jinguo Wang, Prof. Moon J. Kim and Prof. Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400051

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      Maximizing the catalytic activity: Nanosized Pt–Ni octahedra with a range of controlled sizes and compositions are synthesized. By adjusting the size and composition of the Pt–Ni octahedra, their catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction is optimized. The results of these studies may serve as a useful guideline for the future design and synthesis of advanced ORR catalysts based on Pt–Ni nanocrystals.

  17. Communications

    1. Host–Guest Nanocomposites of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Ionic Liquids with Controllable Composition

      Yuxiao Ding and Prof. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301226

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      Being a good host: A series of host–guest nanocomposites containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ionic liquids (ILs) is synthesized, exploiting the volatility of ILs under vacuum conditions. Such nanocomposites can find use in both carbon catalysis and IL catalysis. The nanocatalysts can be easily recycled from reaction systems, offering sustainable methods for practical applications.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Amphiphilic and Phase-Separable Ionic Liquids for Biomass Processing

      Ashley J. Holding, Mikko Heikkilä, Prof. Dr. Ilkka Kilpeläinen and Dr. Alistair W. T. King

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301261

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      Solving the dissolving: Hydrophobic wood-biopolymer-solvating ionic liquids are developed that are phase separable from aqueous solutions as a means of recycling. These ionic liquids are excellent solvents for cellulose in the form of their DMSO electrolyte solutions but only dissolve lignin as the pure ionic liquids.

  19. Minireviews

    1. In Situ Studies of Solvothermal Synthesis of Energy Materials

      Dr. Kirsten M. Ø. Jensen, Dr. Christoffer Tyrsted, Dr. Martin Bremholm and Prof. Dr. Bo B. Iversen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301042

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      In the thick of it: In situ X-ray and neutron studies of solvothermal and hydrothermal reactions can yield new information on the synthesis of energy material and map the structure–synthesis relationship. Various approaches to in situ powder diffraction and total scattering are reviewed. This review discusses experimental methods as well as strategies for data analysis and highlights the chemical insights that can be obtained from in situ experiments.

  20. Concepts

    1. CO2 Recycling: A Key Strategy to Introduce Green Energy in the Chemical Production Chain

      Prof. Siglinda Perathoner and Prof. Gabriele Centi

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300926

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      Measuring up: The introduction of renewable energy in the chemical production chain is a key strategic factor both to realize a sustainable, resource-efficient, low-carbon economy and society and to drive innovation and competiveness in the chemical production. Carbon dioxide (CO2) recycling is one possible option. This Concept discusses this concept in terms of motivations, perspectives, and impact as well as technical barriers to achieve this goal.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Hydrogenolysis of Cellulose over Cu-Based Catalysts—Analysis of the Reaction Network

      Dr. Kameh Tajvidi, Dr. Peter J. C. Hausoul and Prof. Dr. Regina Palkovits

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300978

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      In the web: A series of polyols and carbohydrates with increasing carbon-chain length as well as cellulose are screened in the CuO/ZnO/Al2O3-catalyzed hydrogenolysis reaction. Analysis of the obtained product mixtures provides insight into the reaction network. For cellulose, an additional depolymerization mechanism is proposed to account for the observed product distribution.

    2. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

      Zhiwei Ge, Feng Ye and Prof. Yulong Ding

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300878

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      If you can’t stand the heat: Interfacial energy differences in microstructured composite thermal energy storage materials are used to manipulate the microstructures of the composites and achieve excellent thermal and chemical stabilities, good cyclic heating–cooling performance, and high energy storage density. High thermal conductivities are achieved through the addition of a highly thermal conductive carbon material.

  22. Communications

    1. History Effects in Lithium–Oxygen Batteries: How Initial Seeding Influences the Discharge Capacity

      Dr. Ali Rinaldi, Olivia Wijaya, Prof. Harry E. Hoster and Dr. Denis Y. W. Yu

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300986

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      History lesson: The discharge product will at some point form the surface of the ongoing electrochemical reaction in Li–O2 battery. The nature of Li2O2 deposits are crucial for a battery’s capacity performance. The discharge profiles of carbon cathodes that are precovered by Li2O2 seed layers are compared. The layers are Coulometrically equal but are deposited at varying deposition rates, and demonstrate how faster initial seeding leads to lower total discharge capacities.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Coaxial Carbon/Metal Oxide/Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

      Dr. Fengliu Lou, Dr. Haitao Zhou, Dr. Trung Dung Tran, Marthe Emelie Melandsø Buan, Prof. Fride Vullum-Bruer, Prof. Magnus Rønning, Prof. John Charles Walmsley and Prof. De Chen

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300461

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      Arrays provide it: Coaxial carbon/metal oxide/aligned carbon nanotube arrays over stainless-steel foil have been designed and tested as binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries. The coaxial arrays show high performance in terms of initial Coulombic efficiency, capacity, stability, and rate capability. The outer carbon layer is a key component for high performance, and performance improvement mechanisms are investigated.

  24. Reviews

    1. Fischer–Tropsch Reaction on a Thermally Conductive and Reusable Silicon Carbide Support

      Dr. Yuefeng Liu, Prof. Ovidiu Ersen, Dr. Christian Meny, Dr. Francis Luck and Dr. Cuong Pham-Huu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300921

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      Eliminating the hot spot: Thermally conductive materials are explored as catalyst supports in the strongly exothermic Fischer–Tropsch (FT) process, which is a key method used in the conversion of natural gas, coal, and biomass into clean fuels. The role that the β-SiC- or carbon-based conductive support plays in the improved performance of the FT reaction in terms of long-term stability and long-chain hydrocarbon selectivity are evaluated.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination

      Dr. Jie Xiao, Dr. Praveen Meduri, Honghao Chen, Dr. Zhiguo Wang, Dr. Fei Gao, Dr. Jianzhi Hu, Dr. Ju Feng, Mary Hu, Dr. Sheng Dai, Dr. Suree Brown, Dr. Jamie L. Adcock, Dr. Zhiqun Deng, Dr. Jun Liu, Dr. Gordon L. Graff, Dr. Ilhan A. Aksay and Dr. Ji-Guang Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301066

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      Energetics of defects on graphene: The chemical composition and structural evolution of graphene during fluorination is investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical simulations, which provides a novel method to study defect chemistry. In a model electrode, the energy/power ratio of as-prepared fluorinated graphene is tunable by modifying the C/F ratio, demonstrating both an informative fundamental phenomenon as well as a promising practical use for energy storage

  26. Cover Pictures

    1. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

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      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

  27. Minireviews

    1. Functionalized Graphene-Based Cathode for Highly Reversible Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Jin Won Kim, Joey D. Ocon, Dr. Dong-Won Park and Prof. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300782

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      Graphene again: Moving beyond Li ion chemistry to produce batteries that are safer, less expensive, operate longer, and have greater energy density has long been the holy grail in the field of electrochemistry and energy research. Herein, we highlight the challenges in the development of S cathodes in Li S batteries (LSB) and argue why functionalized graphene–S or graphene-oxide–S composites might be the solution to finally push LSB towards commercialization.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Water Oxidation by Amorphous Cobalt-Based Oxides: Volume Activity and Proton Transfer to Electrolyte Bases

      Katharina Klingan, Franziska Ringleb, Dr. Ivelina Zaharieva, Jonathan Heidkamp, Dr. Petko Chernev, Diego Gonzalez-Flores, Dr. Marcel Risch, Dr. Anna Fischer and Prof. Dr. Holger Dau

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301019

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      It’s what’s inside that counts! Amorphous oxides are a high-interest material class in energy science. Rather than at the outer surface, catalysis of water oxidation by an amorphous cobalt oxide takes place inside the hydrated oxide material. Unprotonated buffer molecules of the electrolyte solution are likely to pick up protons at the surface of the catalyst material (see picture).

  29. Minireviews

    1. Fischer–Tropsch Catalysts for the Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels with High Selectivity

      Prof. Dr. Qinghong Zhang, Kang Cheng, Dr. Jincan Kang, Dr. Weiping Deng and Prof. Dr. Ye Wang

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300797

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      Split personality: Bifunctional catalysts containing both active metal (metal carbide) nanoparticles for CO hydrogenation and acid sites for hydrocracking/isomerization are very promising for the selective production of gasoline or diesel fuel (see picture). The control of secondary reactions by using new solid-acid materials, such as mesoporous zeolites, leads to outstanding product selectivity.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Base-Free Oxidation of Glycerol Using Titania-Supported Trimetallic Au–Pd–Pt Nanoparticles

      Dr. Simon A. Kondrat, Dr. Peter J. Miedziak, Mark Douthwaite, Dr. Gemma L. Brett, Dr. Thomas E. Davies, Dr. David J. Morgan, Dr. Jennifer K. Edwards, David W. Knight, Prof. Christopher J. Kiely, Prof. Stuart H. Taylor and Prof. Graham J. Hutchings

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300834

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      The noble trio: Base-free selective oxidation of glycerol is investigated using trimetallic Au–Pd–Pt nanoparticles supported on titania and their corresponding bimetallic catalysts. Increased activity is observed for the trimetallic Au–Pd–Pt/TiO2 catalyst, with retention of selectivity towards C3 products.

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