ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. 1 - 52
  1. Full Papers

    1. Green Synthesis of Ni–Nb oxide Catalysts for Low-Temperature Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane

      Dr. Haibo Zhu, Dr. Devon C. Rosenfeld, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum, Valérie Caps and Prof. Jean-Marie Basset

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403181

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      Nickel and dime: A very simple and efficient solid-state synthesis method (solid grinding) that does not require the use of any solvent leads to active and selective Ni–Nb oxide catalysts for the low-temperature oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene. This solvent-free preparation is a promising and sustainable alternative for the synthesis of Ni–Nb oxide catalysts for the low-temperature ODH of ethane.

    2. In situ Generation of Ni Nanoparticles from Metal–Organic Framework Precursors and Their Use for Biomass Hydrodeoxygenation

      Dr. Tadeja Birsa Čelič, Miha Grilc, Prof. Dr. Blaž Likozar and Prof. Dr. Nataša Novak Tušar

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403300

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      MOFing about bio-oil: In situ generated Ni nanoparticles from MOF precursor MIL-77(Ni) exhibited a high hydrodeoxygenation activity and effectively converted wood-derived oil into the polar and non-polar phase with a significantly lower viscosity and oxygen content within 60 min at 300 °C and 8 MPa of H2 pressure. The contribution represents a key step in the design of the catalyst precursors for the sustainable hydrogenation of liquefied lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  2. Viewpoints

    1. Across the Board: Brent H. Shanks

      Prof. Brent H. Shanks

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500227

      Biobased platform chemicals: Brent H. Shanks, a member of ChemSusChem′s International Advisory Board, discusses how biobased platform technologies can be used to breathe new life into traditional, petroleum-based chemical processes. The synthesis of these platform molecules using a wide variety of (also biobased) methods can yield drop-in chemicals or novel compounds of so far unknown utility.

  3. Communications

    1. Bifunctional Metal-Free Catalysis of Mesoporous Noble Carbons for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions

      Dr. Ken Sakaushi, Dr. Tim-Patrick Fellinger and Prof. Dr. Markus Antonietti

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500102

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      Noble carbon: A new class of conducting carbon-based materials, nitrogen-doped or so called “noble carbons” are found to work for both electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. This unique electrocatalytic property is applied to a non-aqueous lithium–oxygen battery system and shows the promising functions of noble carbons as a new and affordable candidate for efficient electrocatalysts towards many electrochemical applications.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Potential of Sustainable Hierarchical Zeolites in the Valorization of α-Pinene

      Nicolas Nuttens, Dr. Danny Verboekend, Aron Deneyer, Joost Van Aelst and Prof. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403457

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      Who’s the boss? Base-leached hierarchical ZSM-5, beta and USY are studied in the conversion of α-pinene, which is a biomass side stream in the wood processing industry. An overall organic-free synthesis of hierarchical USY is described and the catalytic performance is closely examined.

    2. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-HMF into 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid with Pt Catalysts Supported on TiO2- and ZrO2-Based Supports

      Hicham Ait Rass, Nadine Essayem and Michèle Besson

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403390

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      Back to bases: The addition of increasing amounts of NaHCO3 soluble base improved significantly the catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 in HMF oxidation to FDCA by accelerating the oxidation rate of the aldehyde group. Moreover, the promotion of the catalyst with bismuth yielded a Pt[BOND]Bi/TiO2 catalytic system (with Na2CO3 as the weak base) with improved activity and stability with respect to the monometallic catalyst.

  5. Communications

    1. Efficient, Chemical-Catalytic Approach to the Production of 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Oxidation of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid With Hydrogen Peroxide

      Dr. Linglin Wu, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500025

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      Just say no to fermentation: The first selective, chemical-catalytic approach to renewable 3-hydroxypropanoic acid (HPA) has been accomplished by gentle oxidation of biomass-derived levulinic acid with hydrogen peroxide and hydrogenolysis of the resulting hydroperoxide intermediate. HPA is a green building block of major potential for the production of renewable acrylate derivatives.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Discharge Performance of Solid-State Oxygen Shuttle Metal–Air Battery Using Ca-Stabilized ZrO2 Electrolyte

      Dr. Atsushi Inoishi, Hack-Ho Kim, Dr. Takaaki Sakai, Dr. Young-Wan Ju, Dr. Shintaro Ida and Prof. Tatsumi Ishihara

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403151

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      Shuttle takes off: Oxygen-shuttle metal–air batteries with a Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte are studied by using various metals as anode. A strong reducing environment in the anode chamber decreases the ohmic and polarization resistance of the anode with n-type conduction generated in the electrolyte. However, only mildly reducing metals can be used in rechargeable metal–air batteries as the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge.

    2. High-Throughput Screening of Thin-Film Semiconductor Material Libraries II: Characterization of Fe[BOND]W[BOND]O Libraries

      Robert Meyer, Kirill Sliozberg, Dr. Chinmay Khare, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Prof. Dr. Alfred Ludwig

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402918

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      Search for new solar water splitting materials: The combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening of the Fe[BOND]W[BOND]O system using more than 1000 different measurement areas located on three material libraries are presented. Correlations between increased photocurrent density and crystallinity, especially for the phases WO3 and W5O14 and less distinct but still apparent for the Fe2O6W phase, are revealed.

    3. High-Throughput Screening of Thin-Film Semiconductor Material Libraries I: System Development and Case Study for Ti[BOND]W[BOND]O

      Kirill Sliozberg, Dr. Dominik Schäfer, Dr. Thomas Erichsen, Robert Meyer, Dr. Chinmay Khare, Prof. Dr. Alfred Ludwig and Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402917

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      The dark box of photoelectrochemistry: An optical scanning droplet cell (OSDC) automatically records photoelectrochemical data on small selected measurement areas within sputtered thin-film material libraries. Intensity-dependent photopotentials and -currents, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic photocurrents, as well as photocurrent (action) spectra are reproducibly acquired and demonstrated for a Ti[BOND]W[BOND]O case study.

  7. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Water Oxidation

      Anett C. Sander, Dr. Somnath Maji, Dr. Laia Francàs, Torben Böhnisch, Dr. Sebastian Dechert, Prof. Dr. Antoni Llobet and Prof. Dr. Franc Meyer

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403344

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      Design is possible: A new binuclear ruthenium-based water oxidation catalyst is presented that combines multiple beneficial structural elements for lowering the metal ions’ redox potentials, enhancing catalyst durability, and favoring the catalytic process. This leads to an impressive initial turnover frequency of 1.4 s−1 in CeIV-mediated water oxidation and high electrocatalytic activity. Spectroscopic and electrochemical signatures reflect the well-designed molecular properties.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Facile Synthesis and Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalysis of Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composite Semiconductors

      Huiquan Li, Yuxing Liu, Xing Gao, Cong Fu and Prof. Xinchen Wang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500024

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      Photo finish: Graphitic carbon nitride (CN) and B-modified graphitic carbon nitride (CNB) organic–organic isotype semiconductors are fabricated by a facile calcination method. The recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes in CN-CNB is reduced, which thus enhances the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity in water splitting and improves the photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange and phenol under visible-light irradiation.

  9. Reviews

    1. Catalytic Total Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Derived Polyfunctionalized Substrates to Alkanes

      Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa, Sibao Liu, Dr. Masazumi Tamura and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403330

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      Final step to bioalkanes: The total hydrodeoxygenation of oxygenates to alkanes is an inevitable step in the production of biofuels that are totally compatible with fossil fuels. The selection of suitable catalysts and reaction conditions is summarized for each type of substrate.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Efficiency of a Core/Shell Array Photoanode Enhanced by a Dual Suppression Strategy

      Wanhong He, Dr. Ye Yang, Liren Wang, Junjiao Yang, Prof. Xu Xiang, Prof. Dongpeng Yan and Prof. Feng Li

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403294

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      You need to wear a coat! A core/shell array photoanode with an ultrathin overlayer is obtained by a photoassisted modification and deposition (PMD) strategy, which results in the simultaneous suppression of surface carrier recombination and back reactions during photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    2. Structure–Property Relationships: Asymmetric Alkylphenyl-Substituted Anthracene Molecules for Use in Small-Molecule Solar Cells

      Dr. Yu Jin Kim, Dr. Eun Soo Ahn, Dr. Sang Hun Jang, Dr. Tae Kyu An, Prof. Soon-Ki Kwon, Prof. Dae Sung Chung, Prof. Yun-Hi Kim and Prof. Chan Eon Park

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402994

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      Need for space: The nature of thiophene in asymmetric anthracene-based small molecules is determined, and its effect on the crystallization behavior and formation of crystalline domains in the solid state are investigated. The crystalline nature of these small molecules is correlated with the properties of the resulting solar cell device.

    3. Surfactant Effects on the Morphology and Pseudocapacitive Behavior of V2O5⋅H2O

      Aniu Qian, Kai Zhuo, Myung Sik Shin, Woo Won Chun, Bit Na Choi and Prof. Chan-Hwa Chung

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403477

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      Morphing into it: The effect of diverse surfactants on the morphology of V2O5H2O powders is studied. The pseudocapacitive behavior of V2O5H2O powders mediated by polyethylene glycol 6000exhibit a high capacitance at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. Moreover, the V2O5H2O electrode mediated by Pluronic P-123 delivers a high capacitance with excellent stability after 200 cycles.

    4. Mitigation of Chemical Membrane Degradation in Fuel Cells: Understanding the Effect of Cell Voltage and Iron Ion Redox Cycle

      Ka Hung Wong and Dr. Erik Kjeang

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402957

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      Membrane stability controlled by iron ion dynamics: An essential, yet previously missing link in the fundamental understanding of chemical membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells is presented. An iron ion redox cycle is discovered within the membrane and catalyst layers during fuel cell operation. This redox cycle is shown to be the underlying mechanism for the cell potential dependency of the chemical degradation of the membrane, which can be mitigated by operation at intermediate cell voltages.

    5. Synergetic Effects of Al3+ Doping and Graphene Modification on the Electrochemical Performance of V2O5 Cathode Materials

      Kai Zhu, Hailong Qiu, Yongquan Zhang, Dr. Dong Zhang, Prof. Dr. Gang Chen and Prof. Dr. Yingjin Wei

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500027

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      Electrode dreams: Graphene-modified Al0.16V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanomaterial shows a high discharge capacity, good rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effects of Al3+ doping and RGO wrapping, which not only increases the structural stability of the V2O5 lattice but also improves the electrochemical kinetics of the material.

    6. Mo-Doped BiVO4 Photoanodes Synthesized by Reactive Sputtering

      Dr. Le Chen, Dr. Francesca M. Toma, Dr. Jason K. Cooper, Alan Lyon, Dr. Yongjing Lin, Dr. Ian D. Sharp and Dr. Joel W. Ager

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402984

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      Make like a thin film and split: A reactive sputtering process for the synthesis of Mo-doped BiVO4 thin film photoanodes is demonstrated. Use of an optically thin water oxidation catalyst allows for stable operation under light-driven water oxidation conditions using the front illumination geometry of relevance to the development of tandem water splitting devices.

  11. Communications

    1. Room Temperature Organocatalyzed Reductive Depolymerization of Waste Polyethers, Polyesters, and Polycarbonates

      Elias Feghali and Dr. Thibault Cantat

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500054

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      Silanes pitted against waste: The reductive depolymerization of a variety of polymeric materials based on polyethers, polyesters, and polycarbonates is described, using hydrosilanes as reductants and metal-free catalysts. This strategy enables the selective depolymerization of waste polymers as well as bio-based polyesters to functional chemicals such as alcohols and phenols at room temperature.

    2. Carbon-Supported Base Metal Nanoparticles: Cellulose at Work

      Dr. Jacco Hoekstra, Marjan Versluijs-Helder, Edward J. Vlietstra, Prof. Dr. John W. Geus and Prof. Dr. Leonardus W. Jenneskens

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403364

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      Mutually beneficial: Pyrolysis under inert conditions of base-metal-salt-loaded (CuII, NiII, CoII or FeIII) microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives homogeneously distributed carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles. Cellulose is converted into an amorphous carbon, which concurrently acts both as support and reductant. The nickel, cobalt, or iron nanoparticles catalyze the graphitization of the amorphous carbon support.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Xylose Isomerization with Zeolites in a Two-Step Alcohol–Water Process

      Dr. Marta Paniagua, Dr. Shunmugavel Saravanamurugan, Mayra Melian-Rodriguez, Prof. Juan A. Melero and Prof. Anders Riisager

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402965

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      Appropriate acidity? Large-pore zeolites efficiently isomerize xylose to form xylulose in a two-step methanol–water process with high yields compared with enzymes. The reaction pathway involves two steps: xylose isomerization to xylulose, followed by hydrolysis to form additional xylulose.

  13. Minireviews

    1. Current Technologies, Economics, and Perspectives for 2,5-Dimethylfuran Production from Biomass-Derived Intermediates

      Dr. Basudeb Saha and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403329

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      Biomass to valuable feedstock: A concise and up-to-date analysis of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) production technologies and its further upgrade into p-xylene (pX) is given with critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics. The chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes that enable the economic production of biorenewable DMF and pX.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Governing Chemistry of Cellulose Hydrolysis in Supercritical Water

      Dr. Danilo A. Cantero, Dr. M. Dolores Bermejo and Prof. Dr. M. José Cocero

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403385

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      Just add water: A reaction mechanism for cellulose hydrolysis that can explain the huge selectivity of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water is presented. The model of the reaction mechanism has been validated by several experiments carried out in a continuous pilot plant capable at various conditions. It was found that the proton and hydroxide anion concentration in the medium due to water dissociation (represented by the ionic product of water, Kw) is the determining factor in the selectivity of the process.

  15. Communications

    1. Photocurrent Generation from Thylakoid Membranes on Osmium-Redox-Polymer-Modified Electrodes

      Dr. Hassan Hamidi, Kamrul Hasan, Dr. Sinan Cem Emek, Prof. Yusuf Dilgin, Prof. Hans-Erik Åkerlund, Prof. Per-Åke Albertsson, Prof. Dónal Leech and Prof. Lo Gorton

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403200

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      Wizards of Os: Thylakoid membranes are uniquely suited for photosynthesis owing to their distinctive structure and composition. Thylakoid membranes on electrodes modified with osmium polymers are used to generate photocurrents. The osmium polymers, of different redox potentials, are used to optimize the energy gap in the electron transfer from the photosynthetic reaction centers to the osmium polymer and the electrode.

  16. Reviews

    1. Acidic Ionic Liquids as Sustainable Approach of Cellulose and Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion without Additional Catalysts

      André M. da Costa Lopes and Rafał Bogel-Łukasik

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402950

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      Biomass with acidic ionic liquids: The unique ability of acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to catalyse lignocellulosic biomass without additional catalyst within the biorefinery approach has attracted considerable attention recently. The selective production of monosaccharides, furans and organic acids from biomass can be performed in a one-pot process under specific conditions. The acidic properties of ILs play a crucial role in biomass processing. The product and IL recovery are the main challenges of this new technology.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Silver Phosphate/Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Efficient Photocatalytic Tandem System for Oxygen Evolution

      Dr. Xiaofei Yang, Dr. Hua Tang, Dr. Jingsan Xu, Prof. Markus Antonietti and Dr. Menny Shalom

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403168

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      Composite drawing: Well-defined g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 composite materials are fabricated by using electrostatically driven assembly and ion-exchange processes. Clear evidence for the formation of a Z-scheme between the g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst with outstanding efficiency in oxygen evolution and pollutant degradation is presented. The composite material is superior in both efficiency and stability than pristine Ag3PO4 and C3N4 materials.

    2. New Iron Pyridylamino-Bis(Phenolate) Catalyst for Converting CO2 into Cyclic Carbonates and Cross-Linked Polycarbonates

      Masoumeh Taherimehr, João Paulo Cardoso Costa Sertã, Prof. Arjan W. Kleij, Dr. Christopher J. Whiteoak and Prof. Paolo P. Pescarmona

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403323

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      CO2 meets epoxides: Iron pyridylamino-bis(phenolate) complexes are highly active catalysts for the atom-efficient reaction of CO2 with a variety of epoxides. The selectivity can be switched between the cyclic or polymeric carbonate when using cyclic epoxides such as cyclohexene oxide and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinylcyclohexaneas substrates. Cross-linking of the obtained poly(vinylcyclohexene carbonate) leads to substantial increase in the Tg and chemical resistance of the polymer.

  18. Reviews

    1. Carbon Nitride in Energy Conversion and Storage: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

      Yutong Gong, Mingming Li and Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403287

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      For use later: Favorable properties of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), such as semiconductor optical properties, rich nitrogen content, and tunable porous structure, have attracted attention for applications as electrode materials or catalysts. This review describes advanced applications of g-C3N4 in energy conversion and storage.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Lewis Acid Activation of Pyridines for Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution and Conjugate Addition

      Sarah Abou-Shehada, Matthew C. Teasdale, Dr. Steven D. Bull, Dr. Charles E. Wade and Prof. Jonathan M. J. Williams

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403154

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      Pyridine gets active: For the first time, the catalytic activation of the pyridine ring towards nucleophilic aromatic substitution, conjugate addition, and Diels–Alder reactions is reported. The method utilizes a cheap, non-toxic zinc-based Lewis acid, which binds to the nitrogen of the pyridine ring and activates it towards nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The reaction tolerates a variety of incoming groups and proceeds cleanly and under mild reaction conditions.

    2. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

      Dr. Fang Zhang, Nicole LaBarge, Wulin Yang, Dr. Jia Liu and Prof. Bruce E. Logan

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403290

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      Low-grade thermal energy: A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a promising approach for the effective conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electrical power. If onsite waste heat was utilized to operate the TRAB at elevated temperatures, the maximum power density increased linearly with the operating temperature and reached a maximum of 236±8 W m−2 at 72 °C.

    3. Perovskite–Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Composite as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Lithium–Air Batteries

      Dr. Hey Woong Park, Dong Un Lee, Moon Gyu Park, Raihan Ahmed, Dr. Min Ho Seo, Prof. Linda F. Nazar and Prof. Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402986

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      OER and OER again: We introduce a perovskite La0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF) nanoparticle-based nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNT) composite (op-LN) as a novel bifunctional catalyst. This catalyst demonstrates oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances that are comparable to those of Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts, respectively, with much improved durability.

    4. Superior Capacitive Performance of Hydrochar-Based Porous Carbons in Aqueous Electrolytes

      Antonio B. Fuertes and Marta Sevilla

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403267

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      Supercapacity of biomass: KOH activation of mixtures of melamine and hydrochar allows the synthesis of highly micro-mesoporous materials in contrast to the exclusively microporous materials obtained by KOH activation of solely hydrochar. The nitrogen-doped carbons thus produced show outstanding capacitive behavior in aqueous electrolytes, namely, H2SO4 (cell voltage=1 V) and Li2SO4 (cell voltage=1.6 V).

    5. Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass

      Thanh Yen Nguyen, Dr. Charles M. Cai, Dr. Rajeev Kumar and Prof. Charles E. Wyman

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403045

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      Break it down! We describe a new pretreatment approach, co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF), that reduces plant recalcitrance by solvating biomass lignin using acidified aqueous THF solutions to improve sugar yields and reduce enzyme requirements for saccharification. Our results provide important insights into promising biomass pretreatment strategies.

    6. Sonophotodeposition of Bimetallic Photocatalysts Pd–Au/TiO2: Application to Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Methyl Formate

      Dr. Juan C. Colmenares, Paweł Lisowski, Dr. Dariusz Łomot, Dr. Olga Chernyayeva and Dr. Dmytro Lisovytskiy

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403125

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      The light of sounds in catalysis: An unconventional, soft technique that combines the advantages of sonication and photodeposition (sonophotodeposition) is reported. This offers enormous possibilities for the synthesis of a broad spectrum of mono- and bimetallic nanostructured photocatalysts for a green and sustainable photocatalytic selective oxidation of methanol to form methyl formate.

  20. Highlights

    1. The Solar Textile Challenge: How It Will Not Work and Where It Might

      Frederik C. Krebs and Markus Hösel

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403377

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      Wear the sun: Integration of flexible solar cells into textiles are highlighted by a short review of the literature followed by the identification of fundamental, scientific, technical, and practical areas of research where efficient solutions are needed before large-scale application can be envisaged. Weaving of solar cell tapes is also reported and demonstrated here as an efficient solution to control polarity, power extraction, contacting, encapsulation, and manufacture.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Activation of Ultrathin Films of Hematite for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting via H2 Treatment

      Jonathon Moir, Dr. Navid Soheilnia, Dr. Kristine Liao, Dr. Paul O'Brien, Yao Tian, Prof. Kenneth S. Burch and Prof. Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402945

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      Positively illuminating: Treatment of ultrathin films of hematite with H2 results in a photocurrent onset at approximately 1.1 V. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, this photocurrent can be correlated with a buildup of a positively charged species at the surface of the hematite film, which is only present under illumination and after H2 treatment.

    2. From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Lactic- and Glycolic-Acid Oligomers: A Gram-Scale Microwave-Assisted Protocol

      Diego Carnaroglio, Silvia Tabasso, Beata Kwasek, Dariusz Bogdal, Emanuela Calcio Gaudino and Giancarlo Cravotto

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403183

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      Not drowning but microwaving: A flash catalytic conversion (2 min) of lignocellulosic biomass into lactic and glycolic acids under microwave irradiation is reported. The batch procedure is successfully adapted to a microwave-assisted flow process, with the aim of designing a scalable process with higher productivity. Good yields and conversions are maintained, productivity is increased and energy consumption is low.

    3. From Lignocellulosic Biomass to Furans via 5-Acetoxymethylfurfural as an Alternative to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

      Eun-Sil Kang, Yeon-Woo Hong, Da Won Chae, Bora Kim, Prof. Dr. Baekjin Kim, Prof. Dr. Yong Jin Kim, Prof. Dr. Jin Ku Cho and Prof. Dr. Young Gyu Kim

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403252

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      Alternative routes: A facile pathway to furan derivatives from lignocellulosic biomass via 5-acetoxymethylfurfural (AMF) is reported. AMF possesses advantageous properties to well-known 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and can be transformed into various promising furanic compounds in high yields.

    4. Titania-Supported Catalysts for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation: Influence of Support and its Impact on γ-Valerolactone Yield

      Dr. A. M. Ruppert, Dr. J. Grams, Dr. M. Jędrzejczyk , J. Matras-Michalska, Dr. N. Keller, K. Ostojska and Dr. P. Sautet

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403332

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      What lies beneath: A number of different titanias are implemented as supports for Ru and Pt catalysts. It is shown that various morphologies and phases of titania influence the physicochemical properties of the studied catalysts in different ways. The best catalytic performance in levulinic acid hydrogenation is achieved in the case of mixed rutile/anatase-supported ruthenium catalyst.

    5. Mechanism of Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Glucose Dehydration

      Dr. Liu Yang, Dr. George Tsilomelekis, Dr. Stavros Caratzoulas and Dr. Dionisios G. Vlachos

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403264

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      Glucose dehydration: The DFT-based microkinetic modeling of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of glucose is in excellent agreement with experimental kinetic data. The rate-limiting step is the first dehydration of protonated glucose. Isotopic tracing NMR spectroscopy reveals that glucose dehydrates through a cyclic path and the majority of glucose is consumed by the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural intermediate at low conversions.

    6. Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146

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      Make the cut: Inexpensive and facile processing aid optimization and allow for insights into the limitations of delafossite CuFeO2, which is a promising material for photoelectrochemical energy conversion. A sol–gel-based technique to prepare thin films of p-type delafossite CuFeO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass is described.

    7. Selective Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Active Ruthenium–Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

      Yasuyuki Takeda, Tomohiro Shoji, Dr. Hideo Watanabe, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa, Prof. Kazu Okumura and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403011

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      Minor adjustment for major effects: Modification of supported ruthenium catalysts with a small amount of molybdenum oxide (Ru[BOND]MoOx/C, Ru[BOND]MoOx/SiO2) enhances the catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of L-lactic acid to give (S)-1,2-propanediol with high selectivity. The turnover frequency is roughly four times higher than over Ru/C. The results reported are encouraging for the design of selective hydrogenation catalysts and the development of synthesis methods of alcohols.

  22. Communications

    1. Singlet-Oxygen Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Continuous Flow

      Dr. Thomas S. A. Heugebaert, Prof. Dr. Christian V. Stevens and Prof. Dr.  C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403182

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      Rosy future: The selective, high yielding, singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is performed in continuous-flow mode using rose Bengal as photosensitizer. The resulting butenolide (H2MF) is shown to be a valuable bio-based polyester precursor and the procedure proved to be scalable and applicable to related bio-based furfurals.

    2. Metal-Catalyst-Free Carbohydrazide Fuel Cells with Three-Dimensional Graphene Anodes

      Ji Qi, Neeva Benipal, Dr. Hui Wang, David J. Chadderdon, Yibo Jiang, Wei Wei, Prof. Yun Hang Hu and Prof. Wenzhen Li

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403032

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      We had met before: The commercialization of fuel cells is hindered by the limited reserves of metals. Metal-catalyst-free fuel cells powered by the carbohydrazide oxidation reaction over 3D graphene as anode catalyst and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as cathode are demonstrated. The average number of electrons electrochemically extracted from a single carbohydrazide molecule indicates activation of carbon–nitrogen bonds, a key factor contributing to high fuel utilization efficiency.

    3. Cross-Metathesis of Biosourced Fatty Acid Derivatives: A Step Further Toward Improved Reactivity

      Dr. Paul Vignon, Tom Vancompernolle, Dr. Jean-Luc Couturier, Dr. Jean-Luc Dubois, Prof. André Mortreux and Dr. Régis M. Gauvin

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403170

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      Howdy, partner! The use of internal functionalized olefins as partners in the cross-metathesis of biosourced fatty acid methyl esters affords a monomer for polyester synthesis with high efficiency, despite low catalytic loading and minimal substrate purification.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Synthesis of Lithium Iron Phosphate/Carbon Microspheres by Using Polyacrylic Acid Coated Iron Phosphate Nanoparticles Derived from Iron(III) Acrylate

      Dongwei Xu, Prof. Yan-Bing He, Xiaodong Chu, Dr. Zhaojun Ding, Prof. Baohua Li, Jianfu He, Prof. Hongda Du, Xianying Qin and Prof. Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403060

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      Under cover: Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4/C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performances are synthesized from nanoparticles. A complete carbon coating on the surface of the primary nanoparticles, derived from carbonation of the in situ polymerized PAA layer, controls the grain growth effectively and greatly enhances the electronic and ionic conductivities of the LiFePO4/C electrode.

    2. Plasticizer and Surfactant Formation from Food-Waste- and Algal Biomass-Derived Lipids

      Dr. Daniel Pleissner, Kin Yan Lau, Prof. Chengwu Zhang and Dr. Carol Sze Ki Lin

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402888

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      Establishment of a green society by waste utilization: A sustainable process is introduced for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants from food-waste and algal lipids. Plasticizer was formed by epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids extracted from food-waste and algal biomass, heterotrophically produced from food-waste hydrolysate. Surfactant was produced by transesterification of epoxidized and saturated fatty acid methyl esters with polyglycerol for the formation of surfactants.

  24. Communications

    1. Effects of Catalyst Pore Structure and Acid Properties on the Dehydration of Glycerol

      Youngbo Choi, Hongseok Park, Yang Sik Yun and Prof. Dr. Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402925

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      Combined action: Hierarchically mesoporous acidic nanocatalysts with different acidic properties are used for the dehydration of glycerol. A comparison of the nanocatalysts with microporous and mesoporous acid-catalysts verifies the benefits of hierarchical pores on enhancing the apparent activity and stability of the catalyst, but also highlights that overall catalytic performance is determined by the combined action of porous and acidic properties.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 Catalysts for the Conversion of Ethanol into Butadiene

      Wout Janssens, Dr. Ekaterina V. Makshina, Pieter Vanelderen, Dr. Filip De Clippel, Kristof Houthoofd, Stef Kerkhofs, Prof. Dr. Johan A. Martens, Prof. Dr. Pierre A. Jacobs and Prof. Dr. Bert F. Sels

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402894

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      Renewable route to butadiene: A silver-loaded MgO-SiO2 catalyst is active in the direct formation of butadiene from ethanol. Preparation steps have significant impact on internal organization of the final catalyst in terms of redox-acid/base properties. Based on extensive characterizations, a model is constructed to describe the catalytic activity of this system.

  26. Communications

    1. Selective Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Sorbitol to Fructose and Sorbose

      Dr. Youngkook Kwon, Dr. Ed de Jong, Dr. Jan Kees van der Waal and Prof. Dr. Marc T. M. Koper

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402880

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      New cats on the block: A new electrocatalytic method for the selective electrochemical oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose is developed by using a platinum electrode promoted by p-block metal atoms. By studying a range of C4, C5, and C6 polyols, it is found that the promoter interferes with the stereochemistry of the polyol and thereby modifies its reactivity.

  27. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

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