ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

VIEW

  1. 1 - 45
  1. Communications

    1. Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402605

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      Cascading biomass breakdown: The physicochemical recalcitrance of cellulose limits its rapid and cost-effective degradation. An integrated enzymatic and chemocatalytic process for cascading deconstruction of cellulose into fructose and dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is reported. The reactions are performed sequentially by using mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) catalysts loaded with Fe3O4 as solid supports for enzyme (cellulase, isomerase) immobilization and acid functionalization (SO3H).

  2. Full Papers

    1. Complete Chemical Hydrolysis of Cellulose into Fermentable Sugars through Ionic Liquids and Antisolvent Pretreatments

      Silvia Morales-delaRosa, Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin and Prof. Dr. Jose L. G. Fierro

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402466

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      Back to basics: A relatively simple methodology for efficiently deconstructing cellulose into monomeric glucose, which is easier to transform into a variety of platform molecules for the production of chemicals and fuels, is described.

  3. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

      Sushumna Shukla, Patrick de Wit, Dr. Mieke W. J. Luiten-Olieman, Emiel J. Kappert, Prof. Dr. Arian Nijmeijer and Prof. Dr. Nieck E. Benes

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402483

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      Fibers are good for you: A method that avoids harmful solvents (using water instead) is presented for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio. The method is based bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous particle loaded sodium alginate solution during wet spinning, enables fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics, and completely avoids the use of malignant organic solvents and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods.

    2. Assessing the Utility of Bipolar Membranes for use in Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Cells

      Nella M. Vargas-Barbosa, Dr. Geoffrey M. Geise, Prof. Michael A. Hickner and Prof. Thomas E. Mallouk

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402535

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      Use your ′branes: A bipolar membrane enables high- and low-pH solutions to be used on two sides of a water electrolysis cell. Steady-state membrane and solution resistances, electrode overpotentials, and pH gradients are measured at current densities relevant to solar photoelectrolysis, revealing that overall losses in a bipolar membrane-based cell can be minimized when strongly acidic and basic electrolytes are used on the cathode and anode sides of the cell, respectively.

    3. AgTFSI as p-Type Dopant for Efficient and Stable Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Jing Huang, Prof. Hans Ågren, Prof. Lars Kloo, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402678

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      Hole is other dopants: A silver-based salt, silver bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (AgTFSI), is an effective p-type dopant for the triarylamine-based, organic hole-transport material Spiro-MeOTAD. The doped material, when applied in solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of these devices by as much as 20 %, as compared to devices based on the commonly used dopant oxygen.

    4. Control of Thickness and Chemical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposition Overcoats for Stabilizing Cu/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

      Dr. Brandon J. O'Neill, Dr. Canan Sener, David H. K. Jackson, Prof. Thomas F. Kuech and Prof. James A. Dumesic

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402832

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      Don′t overdo it: In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of furfural, an important biorefining platform in biomass conversion, overcoating a Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst eliminates irreversible deactivation. Physical and chemical modification of stabilizing atomic layer deposition overcoats can reduce acidity and reduce the rate of deactivation during furfural hydrogenation, making such control an effective method to increase rate per gram of catalyst.

    5. Use of Bipolar Membranes for Maintaining Steady-State pH Gradients in Membrane-Supported, Solar-Driven Water Splitting

      Michael B. McDonald, Prof. Shane Ardo, Prof. Nathan S. Lewis and Prof. Michael S. Freund

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402288

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      Grad students: Bipolar membranes are capable of maintaining a pH gradient, which can realize the introduction of novel earth-abundant catalysts into solar-driven water-splitting devices. A device configuration involving bipolar membrane-supported photoelectrode arrays is proposed with two different pH on each side, and materials to minimize the membrane overpotential and meet solar requirements simultaneously are discussed.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Life Cycle Analysis within Pharmaceutical Process Optimization and Intensification: Case Study of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Production

      Dr. Denise Ott, Dr. Dana Kralisch, Ivana Denčić, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel, Yosra Laribi, Philippe D. Perrichon, Charline Berguerand, Prof. Dr. Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker and Dr. Patrick Loeb

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402313

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      Taken as a whole: This study deals with holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process to identify bottlenecks, improve potentials, and determine new directions for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development activities.

  5. Communications

    1. Thin-Film Silicon for Flexible Metal–Air Batteries

      Ahmed Garamoun, Dr. Markus B. Schubert and Prof. Dr. Jürgen H. Werner

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402463

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      Roll with it! Silicon is a promising candidate material for metal–air batteries because of its high theoretical energy density. Depositing thin films of doped amorphous silicon on ultrathin flexible foil substrates opens the door for flexible and rollable Si–air batteries with high specific and volumetric energy density. It is expected that avoiding self-discharge and enhancing specific capacity can be realized by using different electrolytes and modifying the silicon anodes.

  6. Cover Pictures

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

  7. Full Papers

    1. Hole-Transporting Small Molecules Based on Thiophene Cores for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dr. Hairong Li, Kunwu Fu, Dr. Pablo P. Boix, Prof. Lydia H. Wong, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402587

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      Core of the material: Two new electron-rich molecules containing thiophene and bithiophene cores and arylamine side groups are described. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite-based solar cell devices, good power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G solar simulation are obtained.

  8. Communications

    1. Rapid Conversion of Sorbitol to Isosorbide in Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids under Microwave Irradiation

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kengo Murata, Yoshiki Tanaka, Tomoki Okagawa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Dr. Kouji Kaiso and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402655

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      As easy as cooking instant food! Only 10 min of microwave irradiation efficiently converts sorbitol in hydrophobic ionic liquids to isosorbide. A catalytic amount of acid accelerates the reaction. Separation of ionic liquids and isosorbide is easily achieved by an extraction method and recovered ionic liquids can be used in several iterations of the reaction.

    2. Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines

      Lipeng Wu, Dr. Ivana Fleischer, Dr. Min Zhang, Dr. Qiang Liu, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke , Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402626

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      Tertiary education: The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3(CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45–76 %) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

  9. Full Papers

    1. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Nanoporous Materials Based on Poly(ionic liquid)s

      Dr. Itxaso Azcune, Dr. Ignacio García, Dr. Pedro M. Carrasco, Dr. Aratz Genua, Dr. Marek Tanczyk, Dr. Manfred Jaschik, Prof. Krzysztof Warmuzinski, Germán Cabañero and Dr. Ibon Odriozola

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402593

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      Jagged little PIL: We present a very simple and convenient strategy to prepare nanoporous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in a sustainable and scalable manner. An ionic liquid (IL) analogous to the polymerizable IL is used as the solvent and porogen, which can be extracted after polymerization and recycled for further use. The resulting nanoporous materials have been investigated as CO2 sorbents.

  10. Communications

    1. Metal–Nitrogen Doping of Mesoporous Carbon/Graphene Nanosheets by Self-Templating for Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

      Shuang Li, Dr. Dongqing Wu, Dr. Haiwei Liang, Jinzuan Wang, Dr. Xiaodong Zhuang, Dr. Yiyong Mai, Dr. Yuezeng Su and Prof. Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402680

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      Double doping strategy: Highly efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared by a self-templating strategy. The strategy yields carbon/graphene nanosheets that are doped by both transition metals and nitrogen, having a unique two-dimensional morphology and tunable meso-scale porosity. The as-prepared iron–cobalt catalysts exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the ORR and are stable in both alkaline and acidic media.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes

      Rui Huang, Dr. Hong Yang Liu, Dr. Bing Sen Zhang, Xiao Yan Sun, Prof. Chang Hai Liang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su, Bao Ning Zong and Jun Feng Rong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402457

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      ODHing on phosphate: Phosphate-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a novel catalyst for isopentane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) show increased selectivity towards dehydrogenation compared to the conventional V-Mg-O catalysts. The catalytic properties during ODH are strongly dependent on amount of phosphate loading on the CNTs. Phosphorous oxides can not only inhibit the generation of electrophilic oxygen species but also cover selective sites (C[DOUBLE BOND]O groups) with increasing loading.

    2. Lead Methylammonium Triiodide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: An Interfacial Charge-Transfer Investigation

      Xiaobao Xu, Hua Zhang, Kun Cao, Jin Cui, Jianfeng Lu, Xianwei Zeng, Prof. Yan Shen and Prof. Mingkui Wang

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402566

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      Recombining holes and electrons: CH3NH3PbI3-based p–n heterojunction solar cells with anatase TiO2 nanocuboids, in combination with carbon as a counter electrode, are described. The effect of 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene as a hole-transport material is also investigated.

  12. Minireviews

    1. Upgrading Carbon Dioxide by Incorporation into Heterocycles

      Dr. Bing Yu and Prof. Dr. Liang-Nian He

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402837

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      CO2 in heterocycles: Direct incorporation of CO2 as the entire “CO2” moiety or “C[DOUBLE BOND]O” fragments into organic substrates can be successfully performed by carbonylative/carboxylative cyclization of the nitrogen/oxygen/carbon-nucleophilic species with CO2 or initiated by C[BOND]H bond activation, resulting in the formation of various heterocycles. These techniques stimulate further interest in upgrading CO2 from a waste into an ideal and sustainable chemical feedstock in organic synthesis.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Pd/Ni–Co Catalyst for Hydrogen Production by Chemical Looping Coupled With Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid

      Dr. Javier Fermoso, Dr. María V. Gil, Dr. Fernando Rubiera and Prof. De Chen

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402675

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      Combined power for hydrogen: High-purity H2 is obtained from the sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR) of biomass-derived compounds. A Ni–Co catalyst derived from a hydrotalcite-like material has been promoted with Pd to eliminate the catalyst reduction step after regeneration of the CO2 sorbent with air. Thus, the proposed Pd/Ni–Co HT catalyst may function as an oxygen carrier in a chemical loop coupled to the SESR process, supplying heat in situ for the regeneration reaction.

    2. Synthesis of 1,4:3,6-Dianhydrohexitols Diesters from the Palladium-Catalyzed Hydroesterification Reaction

      Dr. Romain Pruvost, Jérôme Boulanger, Dr. Bastien Léger, Prof. Anne Ponchel, Prof. Eric Monflier, Dr. Mathias Ibert, Prof. André Mortreux, Dr. Thomas Chenal and Prof. Mathieu Sauthier

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402584

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      An ester is born: The hydroesterification of α-olefins with isosorbide allows a straightforward access to diesters according to a catalytic and highly atom-economical pathway. With optimized reaction conditions, the diesters can be synthesized selectively with high yields using a palladium catalyst. The reaction conditions can be scaled up to 100-gram-scale synthesis under solvent-free conditions.

    3. Proton Conductivity of Naphthalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde Resin-Doped Mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Composites

      Jonathan P. Turley, Frederik Romer, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Prof. Marcos L. Dias, Prof. Mark E. Smith, Dr. John V. Hanna and Prof. David M. Antonelli

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402546

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      Use your membrane: A series of mesoporous Nb and Ta oxide polymer composites of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde resin is synthesized and characterized. The effect on proton conductivity of changing pore size and metal in the mesostructure of the polymer composite is studied. All composites exhibit conductivities that surpass that of the Nafion standard and may have promising applications in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    4. Immobilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Stable and Reusable Catalysts for Hydrazine-Mediated Nitro Reductions in Continuous Flow

      Mojtaba Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Bartholomäus Pieber, Dr. Toma Glasnov and Prof. Dr. C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402455

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      Support it! A simple and convenient experimental procedure for the effective immobilization of Fe3O4 nanocrystals on alumina is presented. This supported catalyst shows excellent behavior for reduction of nitroarenes to anilines in continuous-flow formats over a prolonged time period at high productivity rates without leaching of the catalyst.

    5. Scalable Integration of Li5FeO4 towards Robust, High-Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors

      Dr. Min-Sik Park, Young-Geun Lim, Dr. Soo Min Hwang, Prof. Jung Ho Kim, Prof. Jeom-Soo Kim, Prof. Shi Xue Dou, Prof. Jaephil Cho and Dr. Young-Jun Kim

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402397

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      Lithium sourcing: A single-phase Li5FeO4 is developed, which features a large first charge capacity (Li+ extraction) and irreversibility for efficient Li+ predoping into the negative electrode. The unique properties of Li5FeO4 render it an excellent lithium-source additive. This innovative strategy provides an effective solution for improving the volumetric energy density as well as the safety of lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

  14. Communications

    1. Silicon Nanowire Photocathodes for Light-Driven Electroenzymatic Synthesis

      Dr. Sahng Ha Lee, Gyeong Min Ryu, Dong Heon Nam, Dr. Jae Hong Kim and Prof. Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402469

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      Photoelectroenzymatic synthesis: A photoelectrochemical NADH regeneration system is realized by using platinum nanoparticle-decorated, p-type silicon nanowires (Pt-SiNWs) as a photocathode. Pt-SiNWs enable an efficient electron transfer from an electrode to NAD+, which facilitates photoelectroenzymatic synthesis of L-glutamate at a low applied potential. This approach is applicable to a wide range of cofactor-dependent redox enzymatic synthesis without the requirement of sacrificial electron donors.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Gluconic Acid from Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oils: Specialty Chemicals from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

      Dr. Daniel Santhanaraj, Dr. Marjorie R. Rover, Prof. Daniel E. Resasco, Prof. Robert C. Brown and Prof. Steven Crossley

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402431

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      Chemicals from pyrolysis: We demonstrate the production of gluconic acid from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. Because a relatively clean anhydrosugar solution is obtained, a simple contact with activated carbon removes the impurities to produce gluconic acid. The purity of the stream offers potential for long catalyst lifetimes, with no measurable decrease in catalyst activity after oxidation.

    2. Operando and In situ X-ray Spectroscopies of Degradation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Thin Film Cathodes in Fuel Cells

      Samson Y. Lai, Dr. Dong Ding, Dr. Mingfei Liu, Prof. Meilin Liu and Prof. Faisal M. Alamgir

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402670

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      Phantom of the operando: Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together formulate a deeper understanding of how water vapor and carbon dioxide instigate degradation in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes during operation. The results from the operando experiment are distinctly different compared to the combined results of the individual in situ experiments, emphasizing the uniqueness of operando experiments.

    3. Continuous-Flow Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Revolutionary Reduction of the Amino Acid Excess

      Dr. István M. Mándity, Balázs Olasz, Dr. Sándor B. Ötvös and Prof. Dr. Ferenc Fülöp

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402436

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      Pep talk: A highly efficient continuous-flow technique for the synthesis of peptides is reported. The method uses only 1.5 equivalents of amino acid during coupling, while yielding virtually quantitative conversions, allowing to incorporate exotic and expensive artificial amino acids in a highly economic and more sustainable manner.

  16. Communications

    1. Novel Pathways to 2,5-Dimethylfuran via Biomass-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural

      Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402702

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      Fueling the revolution: 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a promising biofuel and key precursor for the production of renewable para-xylene, is synthesized under mild conditions and in high yield from biomass-derived 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) via hydrogenolysis of acetal and imine intermediates.

    2. Iron-Catalyzed Synthesis of Secondary Amines: On the Way to Green Reductive Aminations

      Tobias Stemmler, Dr. Annette-Enrika Surkus, Dr. Marga-Martina Pohl, Dr. Kathrin Junge and Prof. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402413

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      A well-defined carbon-supported iron-based catalyst is investigated for a one-pot multistep synthesis of secondary amines. The reductive amination of aldehydes includes the industrially relevant hydrogenation of nitroarenes to functionalized anilines as well as the conclusive reduction of the formed Schiff base. The catalytic activity of this cheap, promising catalyst is caused by a core–shell-structured iron oxide nanocomposite, which is encapsulated by individually nitrogen-enriched graphene-type layers.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Zinc-Assisted Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Dimethylfuran

      Dr. Basudeb Saha, Christine M. Bohn and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402530

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      Are you thinking what I′m zincing? The addition of zinc salt enhances the catalytic effectiveness of a palladium–carbon (Pd/C) catalyst in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by a factor of more than 3. The finding allows to use catalysts with less palladium. The synergistic effect of the zinc salt with different hydrodeoxygenation catalysts is compared to elucidate the role of the zinc component.

    2. Nano-Sized Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Solar Hydrogen Production

      Dr. Tarek A. Kandiel, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum and Prof. Kazuhiro Takanabe

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402525

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      Lighting the way to H2: Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 photocatalysts with a primary particle size of ≈4 nm are synthesized using a facile hot-injection method by fine-tuning the sulfur source injection temperature and aging time. Under optimized conditions, the 1.0 wt % Ru-loaded CuGa2In3S8 photocatalyst exhibits a photocatalytic H2 evolution response up to 700 nm and an apparent quantum efficiency of (6.9±0.5) % at 560 nm.

    3. From Gene Towards Selective Biomass Valorization: Bacterial β-Etherases with Catalytic Activity on Lignin-Like Polymers

      Dr. Pere Picart, Christoph Müller, Jakob Mottweiler, Lotte Wiermans, Prof. Dr. Carsten Bolm, Dr. Pablo Domínguez de María and Prof. Dr. Anett Schallmey

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402465

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      Nature takes over: New β-etherases that display catalytic activity on lignin-like fluorescence-based polymers are described for the potential of these enzymes to cleave C[BOND]O bonds selectively in macromolecules. Upon optimization of both the biocatalyst and process setup, future lignin valorization strategies are foreseeable.

    4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Performance using Cone-Calix[4]Arene Based Dyes

      Li-Lin Tan, Dr. Jun-Min Liu, Dr. Shao-Yong Li, Prof. Li-Min Xiao, Prof. Dai-Bin Kuang and Prof. Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402401

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      Sunny Cali: Novel and efficient cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes (Calix-1, Calix-2, and Calix-3) with multiple donor–π–acceptor (D–π–A) moieties are prepared and tested for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The conversion efficiency of one of the dyes is above 5 %, compared to 3.56 % for a device using rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D–π–A chain. The cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes offer higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, and better thermostability.

    5. Aminosilanes Grafted to Basic Alumina as CO2 Adsorbents—Role of Grafting Conditions on CO2 Adsorption Properties

      Dr. Sumit Bali, Dr. Johannes Leisen, Guo Shiou Foo, Prof. Carsten Sievers and Prof. Christopher W. Jones

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402373

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      Catch that carbon: Solid-oxide-supported amine sorbents for CO2 capture are amongst the most rapidly developing classes of sorbent materials for CO2 capture. Basic γ-alumina supports are used as hosts for amine sites through the grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to the alumina surface under a variety of conditions to yield the expected surface-grafted alkylamine groups.

  18. Communications

    1. Doubly Renewable Cellulose Polymer for Water-Based Coatings

      Cameron J. Tristram, Jennifer M. Mason, Prof. Dr. D. Bradley G. Williams and Dr. Simon F. R. Hinkley

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402590

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      Pulp Nonfiction: Wood pulp modified with cellulose-derived levulinic acid generates a “doubly-renewable” biopolymer—with >75 % renewable content—for industrial applications. The process is scalable and the polymer may be modified to improve its physical characteristics. The utility of this biobased polymer is demonstrated by the production of a novel coating formulation.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Engineering the Electrochemical Capacitive Properties of Graphene Sheets in Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes by Correct Selection of Anions

      Minjie Shi, Prof. Shengzhong Kou and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402275

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      What a way to behave! The electrochemical behavior of graphene sheets (GSs) in a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the same cation and different anions is systematically studied. Viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight of the ILs all affect the electrochemical characteristics of GSs.

    2. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

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      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

    3. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

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      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

  20. Communications

    1. Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium–Tin Bimetallic Catalyst

      Dr. Jong-Min Lee, Dr. Pravin P. Upare, Prof. Jong-San Chang, Dr. Young Kyu Hwang, Jeong Ho Lee, Dr. Dong Won Hwang, Dr. Do-Young Hong, Dr. Seung Hwan Lee, Myung-Geun Jeong, Prof. Young Dok Kim and Prof. Young-Uk Kwon

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402311

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      True convert: A hybrid conversion process for the selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose is developed. Bimetallic ruthenium–tin catalysts supported on zinc oxide (Ru–Sn/ZnO) show good performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol, as well as good long-term performance.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

    2. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

  22. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

    2. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    3. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

    4. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

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