ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. 1 - 78
  1. Communications

    1. Triple-Conducting Layered Perovskites as Cathode Materials for Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Junyoung Kim, Sivaprakash Sengodan, Goeun Kwon, Dong Ding, Jeeyoung Shin, Meilin Liu and Guntae Kim

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402351

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      Triple play: Proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H+-SOFCs) have received a great deal of attention for intermediate-temperature SOFCs. However, the performance of the H+-SOFCs is limited by the cathode material. Triple-conducting oxide cathodes could enhance the electrochemical performance by extending the electrochemically active site to the entire surface of cathode.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Thiocyanate-Free Ruthenium(II) Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Cobalt Redox Couple

      Dr. Kuan-Lin Wu, Dr. John N. Clifford, Sheng-Wei Wang, Dr. Yella Aswani, Prof. Emilio Palomares, Maria Grazia Lobello, Edoardo Mosconi, Prof. Filippo De Angelis, Wan-Ping Ku, Prof. Yun Chi, Dr. Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Prof. Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402030

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      Co-ping with being sensitive: Two thiocyanate-free ruthenium(II) sensitizers, TFRS-41 and TFRS-42 with distinctive dialkoxyphenyl thienyl substituents are tested for potential applications in dye-sensitized solar cells with a [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+-based (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) electrolyte. Through proper control of peripheral substituents good cell performance characteristics are recorded for sensitizer TFRS-42.

    2. Engineering the Electrochemical Capacitive Properties of Graphene Sheets in Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes by Correct Selection of Anions

      Minjie Shi, Prof. Shengzhong Kou and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402275

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      What a way to behave! The electrochemical behavior of graphene sheets (GSs) in a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the same cation and different anions is systematically studied. Viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight of the ILs all affect the electrochemical characteristics of GSs.

  3. Reviews

    1. Sonochemistry: What Potential for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Platform Chemicals?

      Dr. Gregory Chatel, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier and Dr. François Jérôme

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402289

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      Blowing up wood speedily: This Review focuses on the use of ultrasound to produce chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The potential of sonochemistry is high, but the technology is mainly used for production of low-value chemicals such as biodiesel or as simple method for pretreatment or extraction. Herein, we show that the access to added-value chemicals can be easily and sometimes solely obtained by the use of ultrasound.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

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      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

  5. Cover Pictures

    1. Advances in Asymmetric Borrowing Hydrogen Catalysis

      Dr. Dirk Hollmann

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402731

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      The Inside Cover image shows two simple methods for the production of chiral alcohols and amines starting from racemic alcohols. A powerful strategy is the borrowing hydrogen methodology, which combines transfer hydrogenation (avoidance of direct usage of hydrogen) with an intermediate reaction, such as condensation or α-alkylation, without necessary separation processes. Depending on the conditions, either subsequent asymmetric organocatalysis or asymmetric reduction of imines takes place. More details can be found in the Highlight by Dirk Hollmann on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402320).

  6. Highlights

    1. Oxidant-Free Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions via Hydrogen Evolution

      Ke-Han He and Prof. Dr. Yang Li

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402606

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      Oxidant-free dehydrogenative coupling reactions: Recently, coupling reactions have followed a novel strategy for the construction of C[BOND]C, C[BOND]N, C[BOND]P, and S[BOND]S bonds by dehydrogenation without using any extra oxidant, via H2 evolution. These breakthroughs inspire a new direction in the construction of chemical bonds, towards more sustainable, highly atom-economical, and environmentally benign synthetic methods.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Biomimetic Nanostructuring of Copper Thin Films Enhances Adhesion to the Negative Electrode Laminate in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Ziyan Zheng, Dr. Zhihui Wang, Xiangyun Song, Dr. Shidi Xun, Dr. Vincent Battaglia and Dr. Gao Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402543

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      Let′s stick together: Delamination is a common cause of battery failure. Thin films of copper current collectors are nanostructured by chemical treatment to increase their adhesion to the anode. Nanorod arrays on the surface of treated copper current collectors are very similar to the structure of spatulas in a gecko’s foot. The electrochemical performance of batteries using these electrodes is not compromised by the biomimetic modification.

    2. Enabling LiTFSI-based Electrolytes for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Linear Fluorinated Carbonates as (Co)Solvent

      Julian Kalhoff, Dominic Bresser, Marco Bolloli, Dr. Fannie Alloin, Prof. Jean-Yves Sanchez and Prof. Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402502

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      LiTFSI for safety: The utilization of LiTFSI as electrolyte salt in lithium-ion batteries is enabled by the use of fluorinated carbonates, which form a protective aluminum fluoride film on the current collector surface that avoids anodic dissolution. Electrochemical characterization of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells with these new electrolyte solvents reveals that they allow to replace toxic LiPF6 by the chemically and thermally stable and safer LiTFSI as conductive electrolyte salt.

    3. Efficient Water-Splitting Device Based on a Bismuth Vanadate Photoanode and Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

      Lihao Han, Dr. Fatwa F. Abdi, Prof. Dr. Roel van de Krol, Dr. Rui Liu, Dr. Zhuangqun Huang, Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Lewerenz, Prof. Dr. Bernard Dam, Prof. Dr. Miro Zeman and Dr. Arno H. M. Smets

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402456

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      W-inning combination: A photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) water-splitting device based on a tungsten-doped bismuth vanadate photoanode and a thin-film silicon solar cell is reported. A record solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency for metal oxide based water-splitting devices is achieved by simultaneously enhancing light trapping in the photoanode and improving spectral utilization through the integration of a silicon solar cell.

  8. Communications

    1. High-Performance Photoelectrochemical Cells Based on a Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation

      Linlin Zhang, Dr. Yan Gao, Xin Ding, Dr. Ze Yu and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402561

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      Ru-bi: Two photoanodes, one based on a binuclear and the other based on a mononuclear ruthenium water oxidation catalyst in combination with a molecular photosensitizer, are prepared by using a co-adsorption method. When used in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells for visible light driven water splitting, the device using the binuclear complex as catalyst exhibits better performance. Differing reaction mechanisms can explain the difference in catalytic activity.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Carbon Nanofibers Modified with Heteroatoms as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

      Yanila Marco, Dr. Laura Roldán, Dr. Edgar Muñoz and Dr. Enrique García-Bordejé

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402363

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      Turn on, tune in: Doping carbon nanofibers with heteroatoms (B, P, N) tunes the selectivity to the alkene in the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. The selectivity is affected by the type of heteroatom and also by the compound used as the precursor as they lead to different deactivation of unselective oxygenated sites on carbon.

    2. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

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      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

    3. Tethering Metal Ions to Photocatalyst Particulate Surfaces by Bifunctional Molecular Linkers for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution

      Dr. Weili Yu, Dr. Tayirjan Isimjan, Dr. Silvano Del Gobbo, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum, Dr. Safwat Abdel-Azeim, Prof. Luigi Cavallo, Angel T. Garcia-Esparza, Prof. Kazunari Domen, Dr. Wei Xu and Prof. Kazuhiro Takanabe

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402297

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      A white-nickel ride: Modifying CdS surfaces with trace amounts of a non-noble, earth-abundant Ni complex led to enhancements in the rates of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of Na2S-Na2SO3. The methodology used to link the Ni complex to the particle surface may be universally employed in the decoration of photocatalyst surfaces for improved performance.

    4. Diglycerol-Based Polyesters: Melt Polymerization with Hydrophobic Anhydrides

      Dr. Deivasagayam Dakshinamoorthy, Allison K. Weinstock, Prof. Krishnan Damodaran, Dr. David F. Iwig and Prof. Robert T. Mathers

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402249

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      Replacing petroleum-based chemicals: Plant-based diglycerol polymerizes with bio-derived anhydride monomers to satisfy most of the 12 principles of green chemistry. The ambient temperature monomer synthesis, low E factors (<2), large amount of bio-based content (>75 %), solvent free polymerization, and polymer degradability represent key factors in the design of these hydrophobic polyesters.

  10. Cover Profiles

    1. Energy and Chemicals from the Selective Electrooxidation of Renewable Diols by Organometallic Fuel Cells

      Marco Bellini, Dr. Manuela Bevilacqua, Dr. Jonathan Filippi, Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi, Dr. Andrea Marchionni, Dr. Hamish A. Miller, Dr. Werner Oberhauser, Dr. Francesco Vizza, Samuel P. Annen and Prof. Dr.  H. Grützmacher

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402750

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      “The objective is to produce hydrogen while spending as little electrical energy as possible…..” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201402316). View the Front Cover on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201402749).

  11. Cover Pictures

    1. Energy and Chemicals from the Selective Electrooxidation of Renewable Diols by Organometallic Fuel Cells

      Marco Bellini, Dr. Manuela Bevilacqua, Dr. Jonathan Filippi, Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi, Dr. Andrea Marchionni, Dr. Hamish A. Miller, Dr. Werner Oberhauser, Dr. Francesco Vizza, Samuel P. Annen and Prof. Dr.  H. Grützmacher

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402749

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      The Front Cover image is an allegorical representation of the organometallic fuel cell (OMFC) system described in the paper of F. Vizza, H. Grützmacher et al. The dance of the three graces is the fulcrum: they dance together forming a circle representing the three organometallic complexes of the catalytic cycle for the selective electro-oxidation of diols obtained from renewable resources to the corresponding carboxylate compounds. Simultaneously, the electrons (Eros) move towards the cathode electrode (Flora and Zephyr), where oxygen is reduced to OH producing energy. More details can be found in the Communication on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402316), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402750).

  12. Communications

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378

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      With our powers combined: A library of 20 UiO-66-derived metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is synthesized following a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. The MOFs have excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12 together with high carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake capacities and selectivities. These features make them promising adsorbents in adsorption-based CO2 separations such as post-combustion CO2 capture and upgrading natural gas.

    2. Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium–Tin Bimetallic Catalyst

      Dr. Jong-Min Lee, Dr. Pravin P. Upare, Prof. Jong-San Chang, Dr. Young Kyu Hwang, Jeong Ho Lee, Dr. Dong Won Hwang, Dr. Do-Young Hong, Dr. Seung Hwan Lee, Myung-Geun Jeong, Prof. Young Dok Kim and Prof. Young-Uk Kwon

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402311

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      True convert: A hybrid conversion process for the selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose is developed. Bimetallic ruthenium–tin catalysts supported on zinc oxide (Ru–Sn/ZnO) show good performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol, as well as good long-term performance.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Methanol Steam Reforming Promoted by Molten Salt-Modified Platinum on Alumina Catalysts

      Matthias Kusche, Dr. Friederike Agel, Dr. Nollaig Ní Bhriain, Andre Kaftan, Dr. Mathias Laurin, Prof. Dr. Jörg Libuda and Prof. Dr. Peter Wasserscheid

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402357

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      Molten salts might have a new life: Platinum-on-alumina catalysts are boosted in their selectivity and activity for methanol steam reforming by a surface coating with basic and hygroscopic alkali salts. As evidenced by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies, alkali doping through the salt coating is an important factor for this enhanced performance.

    2. Design of a Metal-Promoted Oxide Catalyst for the Selective Synthesis of Butadiene from Ethanol

      Vitaly L. Sushkevich, Prof. Irina I. Ivanova, Vitaly V. Ordomsky and Dr. Esben Taarning

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402346

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      Losing H2: Metal-promoted oxides supported on silica are efficient catalysts for butadiene synthesis from ethanol. The metal promoters allow ethanol dehydrogenation, the metal oxide components are efficient in acetaldehyde condensation and reduction of crotonaldehyde with ethanol, whereas the silica support allows the dehydration steps. The optimized catalyst provides 74 mol % selectivity to butadiene at 88 % ethanol conversion at 593 K.

    3. Redox-Initiated Hydrogel System for Detection and Real-Time Imaging of Cellulolytic Enzyme Activity

      Klara H. Malinowska, Tobias Verdorfer, Aylin Meinhold, Lukas F. Milles, Victor Funk, Prof. Dr. Hermann E. Gaub and Dr. Michael A. Nash

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402428

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      HyReS development: A hydrogel reagent signaling (HyReS) system converts oligosaccharides produced during biomass hydrolysis into a fluorescent hydrogel. This system for assaying cellulolytic enzyme activity serves as a versatile platform on both soluble and insoluble substrates. When combined with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, it provides a spatially resolved method for chemical imaging of biomass degradation in real time.

    4. Recycling of Carbon Dioxide and Acetate as Lactic Acid by the Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

      Dr. Giuliana d'Ippolito, Dr. Laura Dipasquale and Dr. Angelo Fontana

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402155

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      Bacterial sequestration: A new pathway for the capture of carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-producing bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana is described. The cells operate as micro-bioreactors to produce lactic acid from acetate and carbon dioxide. Lactic acid is released in the medium and can be easily retrieved. The process does not affect the production of hydrogen; thus achieving carbon sequestration, production of the energy vector, and lactic acid synthesis.

    5. One-Pot Transformation of Cellobiose to Formic Acid and Levulinic Acid over Ionic-Liquid-based Polyoxometalate Hybrids

      Dr. Kaixin Li, Linlu Bai, Prince Nana Amaniampong, Dr. Xinli Jia, Prof. Jong-Min Lee and Prof. Yanhui Yang

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402157

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      Efficient biomass conversion by ionic liquid-based hybrids: Multifunctional ionic liquid-based polyoxometalate (IL-POM) hybrids are found to markedly promote the one-pot transformation of cellobiose into levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) and to be easily recovered and reused due to their self-separation behavior. A green and efficient synthesis of LA and FA from biomass materials is developed for the production of high-value chemicals.

  14. Communications

    1. Biological Construction of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electron Transfer Pathways in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Ippei Inoue, Kiyoshi Watanabe, Hirofumi Yamauchi, Prof. Dr. Yasuaki Ishikawa, Dr. Hisashi Yasueda, Prof. Dr. Yukiharu Uraoka and Prof. Dr. Ichiro Yamashita

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402514

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      Tube light: A nanocomposite of TiO2-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is synthesized by using a cage-shaped protein supramolecule with SWNT-binding and Ti-mineralization bifunctionality. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use the SWNT–TiO2 nanocomposite show decreased electrical resistance (by 50 %) and improved power conversion efficiency (by 120 %) compared to SWNT-free reference DSSCs.

    2. Ecofriendly Porphyrin Synthesis by using Water under Microwave Irradiation

      César A. Henriques, Dr. Sara M. A. Pinto, Dr. Gilberto L. B. Aquino, Dr. M. Pineiro, Dr. Mário J. F. Calvete and Dr. Mariette M. Pereira

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402464

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      Micro-Porph′in-Power Rangers: Water, under microwave irradiation and at high temperatures, aids the synthesis of meso-substituted porphyrins. By using very high concentrations, the use of solvent can be minimized, and the solvents that are used are less toxic. Also, expensive oxidants are avoided. The sustainability merits of the reaction are evident from its E Factor of 35; the lowest obtained for porphyrin synthesis thus far.

    3. Photocatalytic Water Oxidation by Molecular Assemblies Based on Cobalt Catalysts

      Xu Zhou, Dr. Fei Li, Hua Li, Biaobiao Zhang, Fengshou Yu and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402195

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      Cycling is good for you: Ruthenium chromophore–cobalt catalyst assemblies in linear and macrocyclic configurations are prepared by a simple method. In buffer solution (NaHCO3, pH 7) the macrocyclic assembly exhibits a remarkably enhanced activity towards photocatalytic water oxidation compared to linear and multicomponent systems: the Ru–Co metallocycle′s activity is one order of magnitude higher than that of a multicomponent system and exceeds that of a linear assembly by a factor of five.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Mesoporous Carbon-TiO2 Beads with Nanotextured Surfaces as Photoanodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Li Na Quan, Yoon Hee Jang, Yu Jin Jang, Jihyeon Kim, Prof. Wonmok Lee, Prof. Jun Hyuk Moon and Prof. Dong Ha Kim

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402277

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      Pores having a ball: A new and creative strategy for the fabrication of hierarchical mesoporous TiO2 (mTiO2) and mesoporous carbon-TiO2 (mC-TiO2) beads has been developed. Based on complementary colloid self-assembly and direct conversion of triblock copolymer P123 containing inorganic precursors, beads with highly roughened surfaces at the nanoscale have been obtained. In addition, their role as modifier of photoanodes in the efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells has been discussed.

  16. Communications

    1. Efficient and Selective Hydrogen Generation from Bioethanol using Ruthenium Pincer-type Complexes

      Peter Sponholz, Dörthe Mellmann, Christoph Cordes, Dr. Pamela G. Alsabeh, Bin Li, Dr. Yang Li, Dr. Martin Nielsen, Dr. Henrik Junge, Prof. Pierre Dixneuf and Prof. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402426

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      Pinch out H2: Hydrogen is produced through aqueous phase dehydrogenation of bioethanol using ruthenium pincer-type complexes as catalysts. The complexes are highly active in a broad range of water concentrations and at mild reaction temperatures, demonstrating that hydrogen production from fermented bioethanol is feasible. A long-term reaction reaches excellent catalytic productivities with 80 000 turnover numbers.

    2. One-pot Aldol Condensation and Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-derived Carbonyl Compounds for Biodiesel Synthesis

      Dr. Laura Faba, Dr. Eva Díaz and Prof. Salvador Ordóñez

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402236

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      One step is enough! The use of bifunctional catalysts allows the integration of aldol condensation and total hydrodeoxygenation of the condensation products in a single step. Using an aqueous solution of furfural and acetone, selectivities to alkanes higher than 50 % are obtained when Pt/Mg–Zr oxides are used as catalyst. The use of organic solvent, carbonaceous supports, or mechanical mixtures of basic and metal catalysts leads to poorer results.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Unveiling the Chemistry behind the Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

      Dr. Sónia A. O. Santos, Dr. Ricardo J. B. Pinto, Prof. Dr. Sílvia M. Rocha, Dr. Paula A. A. P. Marques, Prof. Dr. Carlos Pascoal Neto, Prof. Dr. Armando J. D. Silvestre and Dr. Carmen S. R. Freire

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402126

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      How to reach GreenChemNano: We address the role of the different components of a plant extract in the reduction/stabilization of metal ions during the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles, a phenomenon that is not yet understood clearly. The behavior of the components of a Eucalyptus aqueous extract during metal-ion reduction is followed by advanced chromatographic techniques, which establishes their specific role in this process.

    2. Simulated Performance of Reactor Configurations for Hot-Water Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse

      Dr. Véronique Archambault-Léger, Prof. Dr. Xiongjun Shao and Prof. Dr. Lee R. Lynd

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402087

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      Bagasse bonus: The production of fuel from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to develop a sustainable global energy system. Sugarcane residues such as bagasse are a particularly promising feedstock, but bagasse requires pretreatment. Simulated results show that a variety of promising flow-through pretreatment configurations result in very low sugar degradation and very high fiber digestibility for subsequent microbial or enzymatic processing to biofuel.

    3. From Furfural to Fuel: Synthesis of Furoins by Organocatalysis and their Hydrodeoxygenation by Cascade Catalysis

      Dr. Benjamin L. Wegenhart, Dr. Linan Yang, Soon Cheong Kwan, Remi Harris, Prof. Dr. Hilkka I. Kenttämaa and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402056

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      Fuelling innovation: The synthesis of furoins from furfurals in high yields is demonstrated in green and renewable solvents by N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysts. The resulting furoins are used as fuel precursors using a Pd/C catalyst with acidic cocatalysts under mild conditions. With a Pd/Zeolite-β catalyst, 5,5′-dimethylfuroin is deoxygenated fully to dodecanes in high yields (76 %) and exceptional selectivity (96 %) for n-dodecane.

  18. Reviews

    1. Cascade Reactions Catalyzed by Metal Organic Frameworks

      Dr. Amarajothi Dhakshinamoorthy and Prof. Dr. Hermenegildo Garcia

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402148

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      One MOF—two opportunities: Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable attention in heterogeneous catalysis due to flexibility in synthesis, large porosity, and presence of active sites. The use of MOFs as solid catalysts is progressing fast and as result the number of papers reporting MOF catalysts for cascade, tandem, or domino processes in which two or more individual reactions are carried out simultaneously has increased considerably. Herein, the current state of the art is summarized.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

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      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

  20. Communications

    1. Energy and Chemicals from the Selective Electrooxidation of Renewable Diols by Organometallic Fuel Cells

      Marco Bellini, Dr. Manuela Bevilacqua, Dr. Jonathan Filippi, Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi, Dr. Andrea Marchionni, Dr. Hamish A. Miller, Dr. Werner Oberhauser, Dr. Francesco Vizza, Samuel P. Annen and Prof. Dr.  H. Grützmacher

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402316

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      Cellmates: Organometallic fuel cells (OMFC) catalyze the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol, simultaneously providing high power densities and chemicals of industrial importance. [Rh(OTf)(trop2NH)(PPh3)], an organometallic complex, is employed as molecular active site in an anode of an OMFC and its electrochemical performance is evaluated.

    2. Regioselective Air Oxidation of Sulfides to O,S-Acetals in a Bubble Column

      Fabian Brockmeyer and Prof. Dr. Jürgen Martens

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402310

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      Unusual bubbles: A bubble column, which is an uncommon apparatus on laboratory scale, is used in the selective oxidation of α-alkylthio-imines to O,S-acetals with the aid of atmospheric oxygen. Activated carbon is necessary as catalyst only. On that account, the use of metals or photosensitizer is abdicable. By performing the reaction in a bubble column the yield could be increased while the reaction time is reduced in comparison to common laboratory techniques.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Oxygen Separation through Robust Freeze-Cast Bilayered Dual-Phase Membranes

      Cyril Gaudillere, Julio Garcia-Fayos, María Balaguer and Prof. José M. Serra

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402324

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      Permeating through: Dual-phase oxygen-permeable asymmetric membranes with enhanced oxygen permeation are prepared by combining freeze-casting, screen-printing, and constraint-sintering techniques. The membranes are evaluated under oxyfuel operating conditions. This membrane exhibits a promising oxygen permeation value of 4.8 mL min−1 cm−2 at 1000 °C upon using Ar and air as the sweep and feed gases, respectively.

    2. Unconventional Pore and Defect Generation in Molybdenum Disulfide: Application in High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries and the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

      Kan Zhang, Hwan-Jin Kim, Jeong-Taik Lee, Gee-Woo Chang, Xinjian Shi, Wanjung Kim, Ming Ma, Ki-jeong Kong, Jae-Man Choi, Min-Sang Song and Prof. Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402372

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      Improved through imperfection: Electrochemically active 3D MoS2 nanomesh/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foam is obtained based on unconventional defect and porosity generation. The foam has a high rate performance and excellent stable cyclability for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and superior activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER).

    3. Preventing the Dissolution of Lithium Polysulfides in Lithium–Sulfur Cells by using Nafion-coated Cathodes

      Soo Jung Oh, Jun Kyu Lee and Prof. Woo Young Yoon

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402318

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      My humble anode: A new system for lithium–sulfur batteries is reported. The cells comprise Nafion-coated NiCrAl/S as cathode and lithium powder as anode material. The materials hamper the dissolution of long-chain lithium polysulfides into the electrolyte, thereby improving cycling performance. Electrochemical analysis shows high initial discharge capacities, coupled to good capacity retention values after 100 cycles.

    4. Efficient Organic Sensitizers with Pyridine-N-oxide as an Anchor Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Lei Wang, Prof. Xichuan Yang, Dr. Jianghua Zhao, Dr. Fuguo Zhang, Prof. Xiuna Wang and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402208

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      Dye another day: Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells. WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part and benzothiadiazole as an electron-withdrawing bridge, showed an efficiency of 6.08 % under 100 mW cm−2 light illumination. The series of dyes showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period.

  22. Communications

    1. Tungsten Carbide–Nitride on Graphene Nanoplatelets as a Durable Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst

      Dr. Wei-Fu Chen, Jonathan M. Schneider, Dr. Kotaro Sasaki, Chiu-Hui Wang, Dr. Jacob Schneider, Shilpa Iyer, Shweta Iyer, Dr. Yimei Zhu, Dr. James T. Muckerman and Dr. Etsuko Fujita

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402454

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      Win–WN situation: A graphene nanoplatelet-supported electrocatalyst comprised of nanostructured tungsten carbide (W2C) and tungsten nitride (WN) generates hydrogen efficiently in acidic water. Anchoring the W2C–WN onto graphene nanoplatelets greatly reduces the charge transfer resistance and accelerates the proton discharge kinetics. The overpotential (η10) is 120 mV, which is among the best of non-noble metal catalysts reported to date.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performances by Molecular Engineering: Highly Efficient π-Extended Organic Sensitizers

      Dr. Roberto Grisorio, Dr. Luisa De Marco, Dr. Rita Agosta, Dr. Rosabianca Iacobellis, Dr. Roberto Giannuzzi, Dr. Michele Manca, Prof. Piero Mastrorilli, Prof. Giuseppe Gigli and Prof. Gian Paolo Suranna

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402164

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      Can I have an extension please? Two new π-extended D–A–π–A dyes are synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of an ethynylene–phenylene moiety in the π-bridge leads to remarkably higher efficiency in DSSCs compared to the sensitizer with the ethynylene–thienylene spacer due to higher electron injection, inhibition of back electron-transfer as well as dark current.

    2. Compositional Insights and Valorization Pathways for Carbonaceous Material Deposited During Bio-Oil Thermal Treatment

      Aitor Ochoa, Borja Aramburu, María Ibáñez, Dr. Beatriz Valle, Prof. Dr. Javier Bilbao, Prof. Dr. Ana G. Gayubo and Dr. Pedro Castaño

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402276

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      Differences flashed out: Carbonaceous material deposited during the thermal treatment of bio-oil (obtained in the flash pyrolysis of biomass) is an attractive solid for the biorefinery concept. Results identify the differences between the pyrolytic lignins deposited under diverse temperatures. Based on these differences, tailored valorization pathways for each lignin are proposed. In addition, specific protocols for analyzing the properties of pyrolytic lignins and solids alike are set.

    3. Free-Standing Nitrogen-doped Graphene Paper as Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium/Dissolved Polysulfide Batteries

      Kai Han, Dr. Jingmei Shen, Dr. Shiqiang Hao, Prof. Hongqi Ye, Prof. Christopher Wolverton, Prof. Mayfair C. Kung and Prof. Harold H. Kung

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402329

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      Get out of a bind: A binder-free N-doped graphene has been synthesized to use as electrodes for Li/dissolved polysulfides battery. The N-doped graphene was found to have a larger capacity to adsorb polysulfide, lower electrolyte resistance, and much slower growth of passivation film resistance. The cell exhibited superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacities and coulombic efficiencies.

    4. SBA-15-Functionalized 3-Oxo-ABNO as Recyclable Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols under Metal-Free Conditions

      Prof. Dr. Babak Karimi, Dr. Elham Farhangi, Prof. Hojatollah Vali and Saleh Vahdati

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402059

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      SABNO aerobics: The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) and its SBA-15-supported form (SABNO) are highly efficient catalysts in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of alcohols under metal-free conditions. Furthermore, SABNO can be conveniently recovered and subsequently reused at least seven times without affecting its catalytic efficiency.

    5. Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots Supported on Gallium and Indium Oxide for Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution from Water

      Dr. Yun-xiang Pan, Huaqiang Zhuang, Jindui Hong, Dr. Zheng Fang, Hai Liu, Prof. Bin Liu, Prof. Yizhong Huang and Prof. Rong Xu

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402334

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      Dotty about H2: CdS quantum dots (QDs) supported on Pt/Ga2O3 and Pt/In2O3 enhance the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under visible light significantly. The surface properties of the oxide supports play important roles for the highly efficient H2 evolution, which include (i) the anchoring of CdS QDs and Pt nanoparticles and (ii) the efficient trapping of photogenerated electrons from CdS QDs in the presence of surface defects.

  24. Communications

    1. Vitamin B1-Catalyzed Acetoin Formation from Acetaldehyde: A Key Step for Upgrading Bioethanol to Bulk C4 Chemicals

      Dr. Ting Lu, Dr. Xiukai Li, Dr. Liuqun Gu and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402396

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      Take your vitamins: A highly selective process for the conversion of bioethanol to C4 bulk chemicals, such as 2,3-butanediol and butene, is reported. The process involves the use of a vitamin B1 (thiamine)-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed acetoin condensation as the key step to assemble two C2 acetaldehydes into a C4 product. The environmentally benign and cheap natural catalyst vitamin B1 demonstrates high selectivity, high efficiency, and high tolerance toward ethanol and water impurities in the acetoin reaction.

    2. Biological Production of Muconic Acid via a Prokaryotic 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Decarboxylase

      Xinxiao Sun, Yuheng Lin, Qipeng Yuan and Yajun Yan

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402092

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      Germ of an idea: Muconic acid is an important bulk chemical which is currently manufactured from unsustainable petroleum feedstocks. An artificial pathway is designed to enable the biosynthesis of muconic acid from renewable carbon sources. This pathway employs 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) decarboxylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    3. Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation Products Toward Biodiesel

      Dr. Sanil Sreekumar, Zachary C. Baer, Dr. Elad Gross, Dr. Sasisanker Padmanaban, Konstantinos Goulas, Gorkem Gunbas, Dr. Selim Alayoglu, Prof. Harvey W. Blanch, Prof. Douglas S. Clark and Prof. F. Dean Toste

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244

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      Free upgrade: By tailoring both biological and chemocatalytic processes, the production of sustainable biodiesel from lignocellulosic sugar is maximized. Hydrotalcite-supported copper(II) and palladium(0) catalysts are combined with a modification of the process of fermentation of acetone–butanol–ethanol to isopropanol–butanol–ethanol, producing higher concentrations of diesel-range components in the alkylation reaction.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Selective Conversion of Cellulose in Corncob Residue to Levulinic Acid in an Aluminum Trichloride–Sodium Chloride System

      Dr. Jianmei Li, Zhicheng Jiang, Libin Hu and Prof. Dr. Changwei Hu

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402384

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      With a pinch of salt: Levulinic acid is obtained in high yield and selectivity directly from the selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue in an AlCl3–NaCl system. NaCl shows a notable performance, being involved in the enhancement of yield and selectivity to levulinic acid, promoting the separation of levulinic acid from aqueous solution, and solubilizing cellulose allowing to replace expensive ionic-liquid solvents.

    2. Aerobic Oxidation of Alkylaromatics using a Lipophilic N-Hydroxyphthalimide: Overcoming the Industrial Limit of Catalyst Solubility

      Dr. Manuel Petroselli, Dr. Paola Franchi, Prof. Marco Lucarini, Dr. Carlo Punta and Dr. Lucio Melone

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402132

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      Lipophilic and selective: A new lipophilic analogous of N-hydroxyphthalimide, operating with reduced amounts of polar cosolvent, reaches the goal of promoting the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics to the corresponding hydroperoxides with good yields and high selectivity. The catalyst is selected on the basis of a study on the influence of substituents on the aromatic ring of N-hydroxyphthalimide.

    3. Synthesis of Potassium-Modified Graphitic Carbon Nitride with High Photocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Evolution

      Ming Wu, Dr. Jun-Min Yan, Xian-nian Tang, Dr. Ming Zhao and Dr. Qing Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402180

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      Visible superiority in hydrogen production! Potassium-modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets are synthesized by a facile KCl-template method using no hazardous chemicals. The resultant architecture has a high photocatalytic activity (thirteen times higher than that of pure g-C3N4) as well as good stability for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation.

    4. Effect of Preparation Method and CuO Promotion in the Conversion of Ethanol into 1,3-Butadiene over SiO2–MgO Catalysts

      Carlo Angelici, Marjolein E. Z. Velthoen, Prof. Bert M. Weckhuysen and Dr. Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402361

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      It′s a matter of kneading: The morphology strongly influences the activity of SiO2–MgO catalyst for ethanol-to-butadiene conversion. Of the catalysts tested, those obtained by wet-kneading give rise to the best catalytic performance and their structure can be correlated to activity. CuO-promotion furthermore leads to much improved yields for all SiO2–MgO catalysts. Based on UV/Vis characterization, isolated species and small clusters of CuO are proposed to be responsible for the increased selectivity towards butadiene.

    5. Laccase-Mediator System for Alcohol Oxidation to Carbonyls or Carboxylic Acids: Toward a Sustainable Synthesis of Profens

      Dr. Paola Galletti, Dr. Matteo Pori, Federica Funiciello, Roberto Soldati, Alberto Ballardini and Prof. Daria Giacomini

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402136

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      Enzyme exploitation: Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) is used in a chemoenzymatic system with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) in water for the environmentally friendly oxidation of primary alcohols into the corresponding carboxylic acids or aldehydes and of selected secondary alcohols to ketones.

    6. Synthesis of Bio-Based Methacrylic Acid by Decarboxylation of Itaconic Acid and Citric Acid Catalyzed by Solid Transition-Metal Catalysts

      Dr. Jérôme Le Nôtre, Susan C. M. Witte-van Dijk, Dr. Jacco van Haveren, Dr. Elinor L. Scott and Prof. Johan P. M. Sanders

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402117

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      Plastic from decarboxylated lemonade: Citric acid and itaconic acid can be used as feedstocks for the production of methacrylic acid. Pd, Pt, and Ru catalysts allow the decarboxylation reaction to occur in water under relatively mild conditions. This process provides an opportunity to access bio-based poly(methyl methacrylate) materials.

    7. Conversion of Toluene and Water to Methylcyclohexane and Oxygen using Niobium-Doped Strontium Titanate Photoelectrodes

      Dr. Vit Kalousek, Dr. Peng Wang, Prof. Tsutomu Minegishi, Prof. Takashi Hisatomi, Dr. Kojiro Nakagawa, Shinji Oshima, Yoshihiro Kobori, Prof. Jun Kubota and Prof. Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402133

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      No Bias! A high Faradaic efficiency is achieved for the direct photoelectrochemical conversion of toluene and water to methylcyclohexane and oxygen using light energy alone. The photoelectrochemical system consists of a Nb:SrTiO3 photoelectrode and Pt/C electrode. This is the first demonstration of the production of methylcyclohexane from toluene and water using only light energy.

    8. Porous Anionic Indium–Organic Framework with Enhanced Gas and Vapor Adsorption and Separation Ability

      Dr. Yuanbiao Huang, Zujin Lin, Hongru Fu, Dr. Fei Wang, Min Shen, Xusheng Wang and Prof. Dr. Rong Cao

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402206

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      Use MOFs, spur on sorption: A highly porous anionic metal–organic framework based on 4,4′,4′′-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyltribenzoate not only shows very high adsorption uptakes of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons, but also separates propane, acetylene, ethane, and ethylene highly selectively from methane at room temperature. Furthermore, the material demonstrates high separation selectivity for benzene over cyclohexane.

    9. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

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      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

    10. Toward New Fuel Cell Support Materials: A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene

      Dr. Min Ho Seo, Dr. Sung Mook Choi, Eun Ja Lim, In Hye Kwon, Joon Kyo Seo, Seung Hyo Noh, Prof. Won Bae Kim and Prof. Byungchan Han

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402258

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      Design of new support materials: By applying integrated first-principles calculation and experimental measurement approaches to well-defined model systems of N-doped graphene supports, fundamental mechanisms controlling the catalytic activity and structural stability of nanoscale platinum particles used for fuel cells are unveiled. This forms the basis for innovative ideas enhancing catalytic performance through a new design of support materials.

    11. An Innovative Approach for Highly Selective Direct Conversion of CO2 into Propanol using C2H4 and H2

      Stefan J. Ahlers, Dr. Ursula Bentrup, Dr. David Linke and Dr. Evgenii V. Kondratenko

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402212

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      A flowing conversion: CO2 can be continuously converted into propanol with a near 100 % selectivity through H2-assisted coupling with C2H4 over K-promoted Au/TiO2 in a single continuous-flow reactor. Thorough kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal the overall reaction scheme of products formation. The activity and selectivity strongly depend on nanoparticle size, which can be tuned by the method of Au deposition and by doping with K.

    12. Low temperature Hydrogen Reduction of High Surface Area Anatase and Anatase/β-TiO2 for High-Charging-Rate Batteries

      Dr. Edgar Ventosa, Anna Tymoczko, Kunpeng Xie, Dr. Wei Xia, Prof. Martin Muhler and Prof. Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402279

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      Kill two birds with one stone: A strategy to simultaneously tackle the two main limitations of TiO2 as negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, namely poor electrical conductivity and low lithium-ion mobility, is achieved by low temperature (275–300 °C) hydrogen annealing of TiO2 with a high surface area or a β-phase, as oxygen vacancies enhance the former issue and the high surface area or the β-phase addresses the latter.

  26. Communications

    1. Efficient Conversion of Polyamides to ω-Hydroxyalkanoic Acids: A New Method for Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kosuke Ikeda, Shuzo Suzuki, Kazunari Kato, Yugo Akinari, Dr. Tsunemi Sugimoto, Dr. Kohichi Kashiwagi, Dr. Kouji Kaiso, Hiroshi Matsumoto and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402125

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      Pay for it with plastic: Polyamides were directly converted to hydroxylcarboxylic esters or diols, chemicals that are more highly valued than simple monomeric materials, by treatment with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid. Simple depolymerization along with efficient conversion of the amino group to hydroxyl group provides these compounds in high yields. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Ion Distribution in Quaternary-Ammonium-Functionalized Aromatic Polymers: Effects on the Ionic Clustering and Conductivity of Anion-Exchange Membranes

      E. Annika Weiber and Prof. Patric Jannasch

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402223

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      Location, location, location: The water uptake and ionic conductivity of polymers with different contents and locations of cationic groups are investigated. The synthetic strategy enables careful control of the position of precisely two, three, or four ionic groups on single aromatic rings in the polymer. The close proximity of the ionic groups promotes ionic clustering, which improves the anion-exchange membrane properties significantly.

    2. Highly Crystalline Lithium Titanium Oxide Sheets Coated with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon enable High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Cuiping Han, Prof. Yan-Bing He, Prof. Baohua Li, Hongfei Li, Dr. Jun Ma, Prof. Hongda Du, Dr. Xianying Qin, Prof. Quan-Hong Yang and Prof. Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402305

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      Between the sheets: Thick sheets of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) with high crystallinity are prepared by a controlled hydrothermal reaction route. In a subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) step, the surfaces of the LTO sheets are coated with a nitrogen-doped carbon layer. The uniform layer serves to preserve the sheet morphology and improves surface stability, as in addition greatly enhances the rate and cycling performance of the LTO electrode.

    3. Green Acetylation of Solketal and Glycerol Formal by Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts to Form a Biodiesel Fuel Additive

      Dr. Jennifer R. Dodson, Thays d C. M. Leite, Nathália S. Pontes, Dr. Bianca Peres Pinto and Prof. Claudio J. A. Mota

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402070

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      One man’s waste is another’s treasure: Acetylated acetals from solketal and glycerol formal can act as useful additives for biodiesel from the upgrading of waste glycerol. A solventless, heterogeneously catalyzed route for the production of acetylated additives with high conversions and selectivities is described. Reaction variables are examined and explained in terms of reactivity, thermodynamics, and reaction mechanisms.

    4. Cobalt-Phosphate-Assisted Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by Arrays of Molybdenum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorods

      Dr. Yan-Gu Lin, Prof. Yu-Kuei Hsu, Ying-Chu Chen, Bing-Wei Lee, Prof. Jih-Shang Hwang, Dr. Li-Chyong Chen and Dr. Kuei-Hsien Chen

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402025

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      Molybdenum and Co: A photocatalytic system comprising an array of zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) doped with molybdenum is reported. The addition of cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) further enhances the performance of the Zn1−xMoxO NR-array photoanodes. The results demonstrate that the system can serve as visible-light-sensitive photofunctional electrodes to fundamentally improve the performance of ZnO-based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

  28. Communications

    1. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

      Dr. Ruiguo Cao, Dr. Eric D. Walter, Dr. Wu Xu, Dr. Eduard N. Nasybulin, Dr. Priyanka Bhattacharya, Dr. Mark E. Bowden, Mark H. Engelhard and Dr. Ji-Guang Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402315

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      Chasing radicals: The fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries is essential for the further development of these batteries. Here, we systematically investigated the ORR/OER reaction mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    2. Paving the Way for Using Li2S Batteries

      Dr. Rui Xu, Dr. Xiaofeng Zhang, Cun Yu, Dr. Yang Ren, Prof. James C. M. Li and Dr. Ilias Belharouak

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402177

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      Electrolyte my fire: Lithium disulfide (Li2S) cathode has gained great attention in Li–S battery research recently. However, Li2S does not provide the full extent of its capacity in the cell because it is barely active due to its highly insulating character. The use of a non-conventional electrolyte in a Li2S battery is described. This electrolyte significantly improved the electrochemical activity of Li2S by delivering high capacity and good cycling.

    3. Metal–Organic Frameworks at Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Yafeng Li, Caiyun Chen, Xun Sun, Jie Dou and Prof. Mingdeng Wei

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402143

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      Timing is everything: ZIF-8, a widely studied metal–organic framework material, is used to modify titania/dye/electrolyte interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells. The use of a facile post-treatment strategy, instead of a pretreatment one, solves the problem of severely decreased short-circuit photocurrents. The tight adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 surface is a key point for efficient photocurrent output, and leads to an improved performance.

    4. Post-Synthetic Modification of Hangman Porphyrins Synthesized on the Gram Scale

      Daniel J. Graham, Dr. Shao-Liang Zheng and Dr. Daniel G. Nocera

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402242

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      Not a noose-ance anymore! Hangman porphyrins can now be synthesized on the gram scale from inexpensive starting materials. Using these hangman porphyrins as ligands for transition metals allows control of the nature of the secondary coordination sphere. Post-synthetic modification is used to introduce a wide range of hanging groups with tailored characteristics that facilitate proton delivery during electrocatalysis.

    5. Visible-Light-Enhanced Electrocatalysis and Bioelectrocatalysis Coupled in a Miniature Glucose/Air Biofuel Cell

      Dr. Lingling Zhang, Dr. Zhikun Xu, Dr. Baohua Lou, Dr. Lei Han, Dr. Xiaowei Zhang and Prof. Shaojun Dong

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402325

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      BFCs forever: A miniature glucose/air biofuel cell (BFC) converts both chemical and light energy into electricity. The power output of the BFC exhibits an enhancement by a factor of ca. 22 upon visible-light illumination, with excellent stability and a fast photoresponse. Fabricating a BFC in this manner provides an energy conversion model that offers high efficiency at low cost, paving an avenue for practical solar energy conversion on a large scale.

    6. Coupled Near- and Far-Field Scattering in Silver Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency, Stable, and Thin Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Gede Widia Pratama Adhyaksa, Se-Woong Baek, Dr. Ga In Lee, Dong Ki Lee, Prof. Jung-Yong Lee and Prof. Jeung Ku Kang

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402146

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      Near, far, wherever you are: Synergy through coupling of near- and far-field scattering of size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) improves the efficiency of thin dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Far-field scattering is critical in the electrolyte while near-field scattering is efficient in the photo-electrode. The size of the AgNPs affects both the photon-to-current efficiency in the electrolyte and in the photo-electrode. Use of a nonvolatile ionic liquid prevents corrosion of the nanoparticles. In addition, the DSSCs show excellent stability.

  29. Highlights

    1. Advances in Asymmetric Borrowing Hydrogen Catalysis

      Dr. Dirk Hollmann

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402320

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      Borrowing extends opportunities: Borrowing hydrogen (BH) catalysis represents a powerful and environmental alternative to known C[BOND]C, C[BOND]N, and C[BOND]O formation schemes. Recently, two important approaches have been published that extended this methodology to asymmetric catalysis. A short discussion combined with a perspective for the asymmetric BH is presented in this highlight.

  30. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

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      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

    2. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    3. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

    4. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

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