ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. Cover Pictures

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

    2. Rapid Double-Dye-Layer Coating for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using a New Method

      Cho-long Jung, Chi-Hwan Han, Prof. Doo Kyung Moon and Prof. Yongseok Jun

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402948

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      The Back Cover picture illustrates a dye-multi-layered working electrode that has been prepared by applying a novel method. The new method using viscous solvents such as ethylene glycol and glycerol shortens the dye coating time to the minute scale and makes it possible to position the dye coating at a specific depth of the working electrode within minutes. This method is useful for extending sunlight harvesting by application of various dyes with different light absorption peaks. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Jung et al on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402232).

  2. Full Papers

    1. Hole-Transporting Small Molecules Based on Thiophene Cores for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dr. Hairong Li, Kunwu Fu, Dr. Pablo P. Boix, Prof. Lydia H. Wong, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402587

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      Core of the material: Two new electron-rich molecules containing thiophene and bithiophene cores and arylamine side groups are described. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite-based solar cell devices, good power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G solar simulation are obtained.

  3. Communications

    1. Rapid Conversion of Sorbitol to Isosorbide in Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids under Microwave Irradiation

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kengo Murata, Yoshiki Tanaka, Tomoki Okagawa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Dr. Kouji Kaiso and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402655

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      As easy as cooking instant food! Only 10 min of microwave irradiation efficiently converts sorbitol in hydrophobic ionic liquids to isosorbide. A catalytic amount of acid accelerates the reaction. Separation of ionic liquids and isosorbide is easily achieved by an extraction method and recovered ionic liquids can be used in several iterations of the reaction.

    2. Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines

      Lipeng Wu, Dr. Ivana Fleischer, Dr. Min Zhang, Dr. Qiang Liu, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke , Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402626

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      Tertiary education: The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3(CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45–76 %) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

  4. Full Papers

    1. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Nanoporous Materials Based on Poly(ionic liquid)s

      Dr. Itxaso Azcune, Dr. Ignacio García, Dr. Pedro M. Carrasco, Dr. Aratz Genua, Dr. Marek Tanczyk, Dr. Manfred Jaschik, Prof. Krzysztof Warmuzinski, Germán Cabañero and Dr. Ibon Odriozola

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402593

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      Jagged little PIL: We present a very simple and convenient strategy to prepare nanoporous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in a sustainable and scalable manner. An ionic liquid (IL) analogous to the polymerizable IL is used as the solvent and porogen, which can be extracted after polymerization and recycled for further use. The resulting nanoporous materials have been investigated as CO2 sorbents.

  5. Communications

    1. Metal–Nitrogen Doping of Mesoporous Carbon/Graphene Nanosheets by Self-Templating for Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

      Shuang Li, Dr. Dongqing Wu, Dr. Haiwei Liang, Jinzuan Wang, Dr. Xiaodong Zhuang, Dr. Yiyong Mai, Dr. Yuezeng Su and Prof. Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402680

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      Double doping strategy: Highly efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared by a self-templating strategy. The strategy yields carbon/graphene nanosheets that are doped by both transition metals and nitrogen, having a unique two-dimensional morphology and tunable meso-scale porosity. The as-prepared iron–cobalt catalysts exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the ORR and are stable in both alkaline and acidic media.

  6. Cover Profiles

    1. Redox-Initiated Hydrogel System for Detection and Real-Time Imaging of Cellulolytic Enzyme Activity

      Klara H. Malinowska, Tobias Verdorfer, Aylin Meinhold, Lukas F. Milles, Victor Funk, Prof. Dr. Hermann E. Gaub and Dr. Michael A. Nash

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402796

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      “Part of the solution to the global energy problem will rely on efficient biological conversion of cellulose into fuels and chemicals…..” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201402796). View the Front Cover on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201402797).

  7. Full Papers

    1. Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes

      Rui Huang, Dr. Hong Yang Liu, Dr. Bing Sen Zhang, Xiao Yan Sun, Prof. Chang Hai Liang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su, Bao Ning Zong and Jun Feng Rong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402457

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      ODHing on phosphate: Phosphate-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a novel catalyst for isopentane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) show increased selectivity towards dehydrogenation compared to the conventional V-Mg-O catalysts. The catalytic properties during ODH are strongly dependent on amount of phosphate loading on the CNTs. Phosphorous oxides can not only inhibit the generation of electrophilic oxygen species but also cover selective sites (C[DOUBLE BOND]O groups) with increasing loading.

    2. Lead Methylammonium Triiodide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: An Interfacial Charge-Transfer Investigation

      Xiaobao Xu, Hua Zhang, Kun Cao, Jin Cui, Jianfeng Lu, Xianwei Zeng, Prof. Yan Shen and Prof. Mingkui Wang

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402566

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      Recombining holes and electrons: CH3NH3PbI3-based p–n heterojunction solar cells with anatase TiO2 nanocuboids, in combination with carbon as a counter electrode, are described. The effect of 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene as a hole-transport material is also investigated.

  8. Minireviews

    1. Upgrading Carbon Dioxide by Incorporation into Heterocycles

      Dr. Bing Yu and Prof. Dr. Liang-Nian He

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402837

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      CO2 in heterocycles: Direct incorporation of CO2 as the entire “CO2” moiety or “C[DOUBLE BOND]O” fragments into organic substrates can be successfully performed by carbonylative/carboxylative cyclization of the nitrogen/oxygen/carbon-nucleophilic species with CO2 or initiated by C[BOND]H bond activation, resulting in the formation of various heterocycles. These techniques stimulate further interest in upgrading CO2 from a waste into an ideal and sustainable chemical feedstock in organic synthesis.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Pd/Ni–Co Catalyst for Hydrogen Production by Chemical Looping Coupled With Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid

      Dr. Javier Fermoso, Dr. María V. Gil, Dr. Fernando Rubiera and Prof. De Chen

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402675

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      Combined power for hydrogen: High-purity H2 is obtained from the sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR) of biomass-derived compounds. A Ni–Co catalyst derived from a hydrotalcite-like material has been promoted with Pd to eliminate the catalyst reduction step after regeneration of the CO2 sorbent with air. Thus, the proposed Pd/Ni–Co HT catalyst may function as an oxygen carrier in a chemical loop coupled to the SESR process, supplying heat in situ for the regeneration reaction.

    2. Synthesis of 1,4:3,6-Dianhydrohexitols Diesters from the Palladium-Catalyzed Hydroesterification Reaction

      Dr. Romain Pruvost, Jérôme Boulanger, Dr. Bastien Léger, Prof. Anne Ponchel, Prof. Eric Monflier, Dr. Mathias Ibert, Prof. André Mortreux, Dr. Thomas Chenal and Prof. Mathieu Sauthier

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402584

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      An ester is born: The hydroesterification of α-olefins with isosorbide allows a straightforward access to diesters according to a catalytic and highly atom-economical pathway. With optimized reaction conditions, the diesters can be synthesized selectively with high yields using a palladium catalyst. The reaction conditions can be scaled up to 100-gram-scale synthesis under solvent-free conditions.

    3. Proton Conductivity of Naphthalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde Resin-Doped Mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Composites

      Jonathan P. Turley, Frederik Romer, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Prof. Marcos L. Dias, Prof. Mark E. Smith, Dr. John V. Hanna and Prof. David M. Antonelli

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402546

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      Use your membrane: A series of mesoporous Nb and Ta oxide polymer composites of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde resin is synthesized and characterized. The effect on proton conductivity of changing pore size and metal in the mesostructure of the polymer composite is studied. All composites exhibit conductivities that surpass that of the Nafion standard and may have promising applications in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    4. Immobilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Stable and Reusable Catalysts for Hydrazine-Mediated Nitro Reductions in Continuous Flow

      Mojtaba Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Bartholomäus Pieber, Dr. Toma Glasnov and Prof. Dr. C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402455

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      Support it! A simple and convenient experimental procedure for the effective immobilization of Fe3O4 nanocrystals on alumina is presented. This supported catalyst shows excellent behavior for reduction of nitroarenes to anilines in continuous-flow formats over a prolonged time period at high productivity rates without leaching of the catalyst.

    5. Scalable Integration of Li5FeO4 towards Robust, High-Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors

      Dr. Min-Sik Park, Young-Geun Lim, Dr. Soo Min Hwang, Prof. Jung Ho Kim, Prof. Jeom-Soo Kim, Prof. Shi Xue Dou, Prof. Jaephil Cho and Dr. Young-Jun Kim

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402397

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      Lithium sourcing: A single-phase Li5FeO4 is developed, which features a large first charge capacity (Li+ extraction) and irreversibility for efficient Li+ predoping into the negative electrode. The unique properties of Li5FeO4 render it an excellent lithium-source additive. This innovative strategy provides an effective solution for improving the volumetric energy density as well as the safety of lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

  10. Communications

    1. Silicon Nanowire Photocathodes for Light-Driven Electroenzymatic Synthesis

      Dr. Sahng Ha Lee, Gyeong Min Ryu, Dong Heon Nam, Dr. Jae Hong Kim and Prof. Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402469

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      Photoelectroenzymatic synthesis: A photoelectrochemical NADH regeneration system is realized by using platinum nanoparticle-decorated, p-type silicon nanowires (Pt-SiNWs) as a photocathode. Pt-SiNWs enable an efficient electron transfer from an electrode to NAD+, which facilitates photoelectroenzymatic synthesis of L-glutamate at a low applied potential. This approach is applicable to a wide range of cofactor-dependent redox enzymatic synthesis without the requirement of sacrificial electron donors.

  11. Cover Pictures

    1. Redox-Initiated Hydrogel System for Detection and Real-Time Imaging of Cellulolytic Enzyme Activity

      Klara H. Malinowska, Tobias Verdorfer, Aylin Meinhold, Lukas F. Milles, Victor Funk, Prof. Dr. Hermann E. Gaub and Dr. Michael A. Nash

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402797

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      On the Front Cover, cellulolytic enzymes break down plant fibers into fermentable sugars, providing a route to biofuel production. A hydrogel reagent signaling (HyReS) system is developed that converts oligosaccharides produced during biomass hydrolysis into a fluorescent hydrogel. When combined with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, this system allows the real-time detection and localization of enzyme activity. More details can be found in the Full Paper on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402428), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402796).

  12. Full Papers

    1. Gluconic Acid from Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oils: Specialty Chemicals from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

      Dr. Daniel Santhanaraj, Dr. Marjorie R. Rover, Prof. Daniel E. Resasco, Prof. Robert C. Brown and Prof. Steven Crossley

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402431

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      Chemicals from pyrolysis: We demonstrate the production of gluconic acid from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. Because a relatively clean anhydrosugar solution is obtained, a simple contact with activated carbon removes the impurities to produce gluconic acid. The purity of the stream offers potential for long catalyst lifetimes, with no measurable decrease in catalyst activity after oxidation.

    2. Operando and In situ X-ray Spectroscopies of Degradation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Thin Film Cathodes in Fuel Cells

      Samson Y. Lai, Dr. Dong Ding, Dr. Mingfei Liu, Prof. Meilin Liu and Prof. Faisal M. Alamgir

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402670

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      Phantom of the operando: Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together formulate a deeper understanding of how water vapor and carbon dioxide instigate degradation in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes during operation. The results from the operando experiment are distinctly different compared to the combined results of the individual in situ experiments, emphasizing the uniqueness of operando experiments.

    3. Continuous-Flow Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Revolutionary Reduction of the Amino Acid Excess

      Dr. István M. Mándity, Balázs Olasz, Dr. Sándor B. Ötvös and Prof. Dr. Ferenc Fülöp

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402436

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      Pep talk: A highly efficient continuous-flow technique for the synthesis of peptides is reported. The method uses only 1.5 equivalents of amino acid during coupling, while yielding virtually quantitative conversions, allowing to incorporate exotic and expensive artificial amino acids in a highly economic and more sustainable manner.

  13. Communications

    1. Novel Pathways to 2,5-Dimethylfuran via Biomass-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural

      Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402702

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      Fueling the revolution: 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a promising biofuel and key precursor for the production of renewable para-xylene, is synthesized under mild conditions and in high yield from biomass-derived 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) via hydrogenolysis of acetal and imine intermediates.

    2. Iron-Catalyzed Synthesis of Secondary Amines: On the Way to Green Reductive Aminations

      Tobias Stemmler, Dr. Annette-Enrika Surkus, Dr. Marga-Martina Pohl, Dr. Kathrin Junge and Prof. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402413

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      A well-defined carbon-supported iron-based catalyst is investigated for a one-pot multistep synthesis of secondary amines. The reductive amination of aldehydes includes the industrially relevant hydrogenation of nitroarenes to functionalized anilines as well as the conclusive reduction of the formed Schiff base. The catalytic activity of this cheap, promising catalyst is caused by a core–shell-structured iron oxide nanocomposite, which is encapsulated by individually nitrogen-enriched graphene-type layers.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Zinc-Assisted Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Dimethylfuran

      Dr. Basudeb Saha, Christine M. Bohn and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402530

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      Are you thinking what I′m zincing? The addition of zinc salt enhances the catalytic effectiveness of a palladium–carbon (Pd/C) catalyst in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by a factor of more than 3. The finding allows to use catalysts with less palladium. The synergistic effect of the zinc salt with different hydrodeoxygenation catalysts is compared to elucidate the role of the zinc component.

    2. Nano-Sized Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Solar Hydrogen Production

      Dr. Tarek A. Kandiel, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum and Prof. Kazuhiro Takanabe

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402525

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      Lighting the way to H2: Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 photocatalysts with a primary particle size of ≈4 nm are synthesized using a facile hot-injection method by fine-tuning the sulfur source injection temperature and aging time. Under optimized conditions, the 1.0 wt % Ru-loaded CuGa2In3S8 photocatalyst exhibits a photocatalytic H2 evolution response up to 700 nm and an apparent quantum efficiency of (6.9±0.5) % at 560 nm.

    3. From Gene Towards Selective Biomass Valorization: Bacterial β-Etherases with Catalytic Activity on Lignin-Like Polymers

      Dr. Pere Picart, Christoph Müller, Jakob Mottweiler, Lotte Wiermans, Prof. Dr. Carsten Bolm, Dr. Pablo Domínguez de María and Prof. Dr. Anett Schallmey

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402465

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      Nature takes over: New β-etherases that display catalytic activity on lignin-like fluorescence-based polymers are described for the potential of these enzymes to cleave C[BOND]O bonds selectively in macromolecules. Upon optimization of both the biocatalyst and process setup, future lignin valorization strategies are foreseeable.

    4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Performance using Cone-Calix[4]Arene Based Dyes

      Li-Lin Tan, Dr. Jun-Min Liu, Dr. Shao-Yong Li, Prof. Li-Min Xiao, Prof. Dai-Bin Kuang and Prof. Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402401

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      Sunny Cali: Novel and efficient cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes (Calix-1, Calix-2, and Calix-3) with multiple donor–π–acceptor (D–π–A) moieties are prepared and tested for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The conversion efficiency of one of the dyes is above 5 %, compared to 3.56 % for a device using rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D–π–A chain. The cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes offer higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, and better thermostability.

    5. Aminosilanes Grafted to Basic Alumina as CO2 Adsorbents—Role of Grafting Conditions on CO2 Adsorption Properties

      Dr. Sumit Bali, Dr. Johannes Leisen, Guo Shiou Foo, Prof. Carsten Sievers and Prof. Christopher W. Jones

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402373

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      Catch that carbon: Solid-oxide-supported amine sorbents for CO2 capture are amongst the most rapidly developing classes of sorbent materials for CO2 capture. Basic γ-alumina supports are used as hosts for amine sites through the grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to the alumina surface under a variety of conditions to yield the expected surface-grafted alkylamine groups.

    6. Nickel Complex with Internal Bases as Efficient Molecular Catalyst for Photochemical H2 Production

      Yong Yang, Prof. Mei Wang, Liqin Xue, Fengbo Zhang, Lin Chen, Dr. Mårten S. G. Ahlquist and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402381

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      Nickel is the answer: A noble-metal-free molecular system that comprises a Ni complex that bears internal bases, fluorescein as a cheap light harvester, and triethylamine, displays a turnover number up to 3230 in H2 evolution in aqueous solutions.

    7. Environmentally-Friendly Lithium Recycling From a Spent Organic Li-Ion Battery

      Dr. Stéven Renault, Dr. Daniel Brandell and Prof. Kristina Edström

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402440

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      Pre-loved lithium: A simple method is investigated for recycling lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. The method uses non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature. Up to 99 % of the capacity is retained with the recycled materials. Moreover, only a moderate quantity of lithium is lost during the course of the complete procedure.

    8. Obtaining Spruce Hemicelluloses of Desired Molar Mass by using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction

      Jussi V. Rissanen, Dr. Henrik Grénman, Dr. Chunlin Xu, Prof. Stefan Willför, Prof. Dmitry Yu Murzin and Prof. Tapio Salmi

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402282

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      Let’s spruce things up! The yield and average molar mass of hemicelluloses extracted from spruce sapwood by using pressurized hot water extraction is investigated in a cascade reactor. The influence of extraction time, temperature, pH, and chip size on extraction and hydrolysis are studied. The experimental conditions influence dramatically the molar mass of the extracted hemicelluloses with results ranging from 2 to >60 kg mol−1.

  15. Communications

    1. Selective Hydrogenation of Furan-Containing Condensation Products as a Source of Biomass-Derived Diesel Additives

      Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Eric R. Sacia and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402764

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      Furans to fuels: Production of diesel fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks has largely relied on hydrodeoxygenation of oxygenates to alkanes. However, the products of selective ring saturation have been demonstrated herein to provide diesel additives of exceptional quality with minimal H2 input. Further, a new class of heterogeneous palladium catalysts with tunable surface properties achieves excellent yields to cyclic ethers without hydrogenolysis.

    2. Doubly Renewable Cellulose Polymer for Water-Based Coatings

      Cameron J. Tristram, Jennifer M. Mason, Prof. Dr. D. Bradley G. Williams and Dr. Simon F. R. Hinkley

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402590

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      Pulp Nonfiction: Wood pulp modified with cellulose-derived levulinic acid generates a “doubly-renewable” biopolymer—with >75 % renewable content—for industrial applications. The process is scalable and the polymer may be modified to improve its physical characteristics. The utility of this biobased polymer is demonstrated by the production of a novel coating formulation.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Vertically Oriented Reduced Graphene Oxide for Methanol Electro-Oxidation

      Liming Yang, Dr. Yanhong Tang, Prof. Shenglian Luo, Prof. Chengbin Liu, Hejie Song and Dafeng Yan

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402352

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      Making reduced graphene oxide stand: A one-step electrochemical deposition is presented to prepare vertically oriented graphene oxide (VrGO) from graphene oxide solution. The vertical orientation is achieved by the assistance of metal nanoparticles. The VrGO electrocatalyst support is superior to its flat counterpart.

    2. A Facile and Green Method to Hydrophobize Films of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Silica by Laccase-Mediated Coupling of Nonpolar Colloidal Particles

      Dr. Oriol Cusola, Prof. M. Blanca Roncero, Prof. Teresa Vidal and Prof. Orlando J. Rojas

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402432

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      Multicomponent colloids: Hydrophobic particles based on dodecyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate are coupled onto the surface of cellulose nanofibrils and silica by treatment with a multicomponent colloidal system derived from a laccase-mediated reaction in the presence of a sulfonated lignin. The resulting micro- and nanostructures on the surfaces are effective for cellulose hydrophobization.

    3. Gel-Derived Cation–π Stacking Films of Carbon Nanotube–Graphene Complexes as Oxygen Cathodes

      Dr. Tao Zhang, Dr. Hirofumi Matsuda and Prof. Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402567

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      Well stacked: Carbon nanotube–graphene complexes are processed into finely crosslinked films based on their synchronous cation–π stacking interaction with ionic liquid molecules. The gel-derived film of single-layer graphene incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes shows improved cycleability as O2 cathodes of Li–O2 batteries. Loading Ru nanoparticles into the film suppresses side reactions, stabilizing the whole cell architecture.

    4. Rapid Double-Dye-Layer Coating for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using a New Method

      Cho-long Jung, Chi-Hwan Han, Prof. Doo Kyung Moon and Prof. Yongseok Jun

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402232

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      Two dyes in a cell! Dye coating times on the TiO2 surface for dye-sensitized solar cells is minimized by employing solvent mixtures with high boiling points and suitable viscosities. Dye coating with high efficiency without degradation at high temperatures is achievable. Furthermore, this fast dye-coating method enables the fabrication of multilayer devices containing more than two dyes by controlling adsorption time at high temperatures.

    5. In Situ Encapsulation of Germanium Clusters in Carbon Nanofibers: High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Wei Wang, Ying Xiao, Xia Wang, Bing Liu and Prof. Minhua Cao

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402304

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      Home-grown talent: Hybrids materials, comprising in situ-grown germanium nanoparticles embedded within nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (Ge/N-CNFs), are prepared by using an electrospinning method. The Ge/N-CNFs are highly efficient anode materials when used in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability.

    6. Multiple Cathodic Reaction Mechanisms in Seawater Cathodic Biofilms Operating in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells

      Dr. Jerome T. Babauta, Lewis Hsu, Erhan Atci, Jeff Kagan, Bart Chadwick and Haluk Beyenal

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402377

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      Microsensors and biocathodes: Biofilms form on cathodes of sediment microbial fuel cells operating in sea water. These cathodic biofilms enhance the performance through different mechanisms. Two regions of limiting current in the biocathodes can be identified using cyclic voltammetry. By placing dissolved oxygen and pH microsensors at the biocathode surface, it is possible to distinguish between the two different cathodic reaction mechanisms operating simultaneously.

    7. New Organic Donor–Acceptor–π–Acceptor Sensitizers for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution under Visible-Light Irradiation

      Xing Li, Dr. Shicong Cui, Dan Wang, Ying Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yue Hu, Prof. Jin-gang Liu, Prof. Yitao Long, Dr. Wenjun Wu, Prof. Jianli Hua and Prof. He Tian

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402414

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      Sensitive to different needs: Two organic donor–acceptor–π–acceptor sensitizers (AQ and AP) with quinoxaline/pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine as the auxiliary acceptor are described. These sensitizers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells and as photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation (420 nm<λ<780 nm).

  17. Communications

    1. Triple-Conducting Layered Perovskites as Cathode Materials for Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Junyoung Kim, Sivaprakash Sengodan, Goeun Kwon, Dong Ding, Jeeyoung Shin, Meilin Liu and Guntae Kim

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402351

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      Triple play: Proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H+-SOFCs) have received a great deal of attention for intermediate-temperature SOFCs. However, the performance of the H+-SOFCs is limited by the cathode material. Triple-conducting oxide cathodes could enhance the electrochemical performance by extending the electrochemically active site to the entire surface of cathode.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Thiocyanate-Free Ruthenium(II) Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Cobalt Redox Couple

      Dr. Kuan-Lin Wu, Dr. John N. Clifford, Sheng-Wei Wang, Dr. Yella Aswani, Prof. Emilio Palomares, Maria Grazia Lobello, Edoardo Mosconi, Prof. Filippo De Angelis, Wan-Ping Ku, Prof. Yun Chi, Dr. Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Prof. Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402030

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      Co-ping with being sensitive: Two thiocyanate-free ruthenium(II) sensitizers, TFRS-41 and TFRS-42 with distinctive dialkoxyphenyl thienyl substituents are tested for potential applications in dye-sensitized solar cells with a [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+-based (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) electrolyte. Through proper control of peripheral substituents good cell performance characteristics are recorded for sensitizer TFRS-42.

    2. Engineering the Electrochemical Capacitive Properties of Graphene Sheets in Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes by Correct Selection of Anions

      Minjie Shi, Prof. Shengzhong Kou and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402275

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      What a way to behave! The electrochemical behavior of graphene sheets (GSs) in a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the same cation and different anions is systematically studied. Viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight of the ILs all affect the electrochemical characteristics of GSs.

  19. Reviews

    1. Sonochemistry: What Potential for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Platform Chemicals?

      Dr. Gregory Chatel, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier and Dr. François Jérôme

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402289

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      Blowing up wood speedily: This Review focuses on the use of ultrasound to produce chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The potential of sonochemistry is high, but the technology is mainly used for production of low-value chemicals such as biodiesel or as simple method for pretreatment or extraction. Herein, we show that the access to added-value chemicals can be easily and sometimes solely obtained by the use of ultrasound.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

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      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

  21. Highlights

    1. Oxidant-Free Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions via Hydrogen Evolution

      Ke-Han He and Prof. Dr. Yang Li

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402606

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      Oxidant-free dehydrogenative coupling reactions: Recently, coupling reactions have followed a novel strategy for the construction of C[BOND]C, C[BOND]N, C[BOND]P, and S[BOND]S bonds by dehydrogenation without using any extra oxidant, via H2 evolution. These breakthroughs inspire a new direction in the construction of chemical bonds, towards more sustainable, highly atom-economical, and environmentally benign synthetic methods.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Biomimetic Nanostructuring of Copper Thin Films Enhances Adhesion to the Negative Electrode Laminate in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Ziyan Zheng, Dr. Zhihui Wang, Xiangyun Song, Dr. Shidi Xun, Dr. Vincent Battaglia and Dr. Gao Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402543

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      Let′s stick together: Delamination is a common cause of battery failure. Thin films of copper current collectors are nanostructured by chemical treatment to increase their adhesion to the anode. Nanorod arrays on the surface of treated copper current collectors are very similar to the structure of spatulas in a gecko’s foot. The electrochemical performance of batteries using these electrodes is not compromised by the biomimetic modification.

    2. Enabling LiTFSI-based Electrolytes for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Linear Fluorinated Carbonates as (Co)Solvent

      Julian Kalhoff, Dominic Bresser, Marco Bolloli, Dr. Fannie Alloin, Prof. Jean-Yves Sanchez and Prof. Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402502

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      LiTFSI for safety: The utilization of LiTFSI as electrolyte salt in lithium-ion batteries is enabled by the use of fluorinated carbonates, which form a protective aluminum fluoride film on the current collector surface that avoids anodic dissolution. Electrochemical characterization of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells with these new electrolyte solvents reveals that they allow to replace toxic LiPF6 by the chemically and thermally stable and safer LiTFSI as conductive electrolyte salt.

    3. Efficient Water-Splitting Device Based on a Bismuth Vanadate Photoanode and Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

      Lihao Han, Dr. Fatwa F. Abdi, Prof. Dr. Roel van de Krol, Dr. Rui Liu, Dr. Zhuangqun Huang, Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Lewerenz, Prof. Dr. Bernard Dam, Prof. Dr. Miro Zeman and Dr. Arno H. M. Smets

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402456

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      W-inning combination: A photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) water-splitting device based on a tungsten-doped bismuth vanadate photoanode and a thin-film silicon solar cell is reported. A record solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency for metal oxide based water-splitting devices is achieved by simultaneously enhancing light trapping in the photoanode and improving spectral utilization through the integration of a silicon solar cell.

  23. Communications

    1. High-Performance Photoelectrochemical Cells Based on a Binuclear Ruthenium Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation

      Linlin Zhang, Dr. Yan Gao, Xin Ding, Dr. Ze Yu and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402561

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      Ru-bi: Two photoanodes, one based on a binuclear and the other based on a mononuclear ruthenium water oxidation catalyst in combination with a molecular photosensitizer, are prepared by using a co-adsorption method. When used in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells for visible light driven water splitting, the device using the binuclear complex as catalyst exhibits better performance. Differing reaction mechanisms can explain the difference in catalytic activity.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

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      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

    2. Diglycerol-Based Polyesters: Melt Polymerization with Hydrophobic Anhydrides

      Dr. Deivasagayam Dakshinamoorthy, Allison K. Weinstock, Prof. Krishnan Damodaran, Dr. David F. Iwig and Prof. Robert T. Mathers

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402249

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      Replacing petroleum-based chemicals: Plant-based diglycerol polymerizes with bio-derived anhydride monomers to satisfy most of the 12 principles of green chemistry. The ambient temperature monomer synthesis, low E factors (<2), large amount of bio-based content (>75 %), solvent free polymerization, and polymer degradability represent key factors in the design of these hydrophobic polyesters.

  25. Communications

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378

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      With our powers combined: A library of 20 UiO-66-derived metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is synthesized following a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. The MOFs have excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12 together with high carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake capacities and selectivities. These features make them promising adsorbents in adsorption-based CO2 separations such as post-combustion CO2 capture and upgrading natural gas.

    2. Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium–Tin Bimetallic Catalyst

      Dr. Jong-Min Lee, Dr. Pravin P. Upare, Prof. Jong-San Chang, Dr. Young Kyu Hwang, Jeong Ho Lee, Dr. Dong Won Hwang, Dr. Do-Young Hong, Dr. Seung Hwan Lee, Myung-Geun Jeong, Prof. Young Dok Kim and Prof. Young-Uk Kwon

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402311

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      True convert: A hybrid conversion process for the selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose is developed. Bimetallic ruthenium–tin catalysts supported on zinc oxide (Ru–Sn/ZnO) show good performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol, as well as good long-term performance.

  26. Full Papers

    1. Redox-Initiated Hydrogel System for Detection and Real-Time Imaging of Cellulolytic Enzyme Activity

      Klara H. Malinowska, Tobias Verdorfer, Aylin Meinhold, Lukas F. Milles, Victor Funk, Prof. Dr. Hermann E. Gaub and Dr. Michael A. Nash

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402428

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      HyReS development: A hydrogel reagent signaling (HyReS) system converts oligosaccharides produced during biomass hydrolysis into a fluorescent hydrogel. This system for assaying cellulolytic enzyme activity serves as a versatile platform on both soluble and insoluble substrates. When combined with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, it provides a spatially resolved method for chemical imaging of biomass degradation in real time.

  27. Communications

    1. Biological Construction of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electron Transfer Pathways in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Ippei Inoue, Kiyoshi Watanabe, Hirofumi Yamauchi, Prof. Dr. Yasuaki Ishikawa, Dr. Hisashi Yasueda, Prof. Dr. Yukiharu Uraoka and Prof. Dr. Ichiro Yamashita

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402514

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      Tube light: A nanocomposite of TiO2-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is synthesized by using a cage-shaped protein supramolecule with SWNT-binding and Ti-mineralization bifunctionality. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use the SWNT–TiO2 nanocomposite show decreased electrical resistance (by 50 %) and improved power conversion efficiency (by 120 %) compared to SWNT-free reference DSSCs.

    2. Ecofriendly Porphyrin Synthesis by using Water under Microwave Irradiation

      César A. Henriques, Dr. Sara M. A. Pinto, Dr. Gilberto L. B. Aquino, Dr. M. Pineiro, Dr. Mário J. F. Calvete and Dr. Mariette M. Pereira

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402464

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      Micro-Porph′in-Power Rangers: Water, under microwave irradiation and at high temperatures, aids the synthesis of meso-substituted porphyrins. By using very high concentrations, the use of solvent can be minimized, and the solvents that are used are less toxic. Also, expensive oxidants are avoided. The sustainability merits of the reaction are evident from its E Factor of 35; the lowest obtained for porphyrin synthesis thus far.

    3. One-pot Aldol Condensation and Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-derived Carbonyl Compounds for Biodiesel Synthesis

      Dr. Laura Faba, Dr. Eva Díaz and Prof. Salvador Ordóñez

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402236

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      One step is enough! The use of bifunctional catalysts allows the integration of aldol condensation and total hydrodeoxygenation of the condensation products in a single step. Using an aqueous solution of furfural and acetone, selectivities to alkanes higher than 50 % are obtained when Pt/Mg–Zr oxides are used as catalyst. The use of organic solvent, carbonaceous supports, or mechanical mixtures of basic and metal catalysts leads to poorer results.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

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      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

    2. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

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      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

  29. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

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      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

    2. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

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      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    3. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

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      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

    4. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

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      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

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