Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.475

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 17/152 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 108
  1. Communications

    1. Tungsten Carbide–Nitride on Graphene Nanoplatelets as a Durable Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst

      Dr. Wei-Fu Chen, Jonathan M. Schneider, Dr. Kotaro Sasaki, Chiu-Hui Wang, Dr. Jacob Schneider, Shilpa Iyer, Shweta Iyer, Dr. Yimei Zhu, Dr. James T. Muckerman and Dr. Etsuko Fujita

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402454

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      Win–WN situation: A graphene nanoplatelet-supported electrocatalyst comprised of nanostructured tungsten carbide (W2C) and tungsten nitride (WN) generates hydrogen efficiently in acidic water. Anchoring the W2C–WN onto graphene nanoplatelets greatly reduces the charge transfer resistance and accelerates the proton discharge kinetics. The overpotential (η10) is 120 mV, which is among the best of non-noble metal catalysts reported to date.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performances by Molecular Engineering: Highly Efficient π-Extended Organic Sensitizers

      Dr. Roberto Grisorio, Dr. Luisa De Marco, Dr. Rita Agosta, Dr. Rosabianca Iacobellis, Dr. Roberto Giannuzzi, Dr. Michele Manca, Prof. Piero Mastrorilli, Prof. Giuseppe Gigli and Prof. Gian Paolo Suranna

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402164

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      Can I have an extension please? Two new π-extended D–A–π–A dyes are synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of an ethynylene–phenylene moiety in the π-bridge leads to remarkably higher efficiency in DSSCs compared to the sensitizer with the ethynylene–thienylene spacer due to higher electron injection, inhibition of back electron-transfer as well as dark current.

    2. Compositional Insights and Valorization Pathways for Carbonaceous Material Deposited During Bio-Oil Thermal Treatment

      Aitor Ochoa, Borja Aramburu, María Ibáñez, Dr. Beatriz Valle, Prof. Dr. Javier Bilbao, Prof. Dr. Ana G. Gayubo and Dr. Pedro Castaño

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402276

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      Differences flashed out: Carbonaceous material deposited during the thermal treatment of bio-oil (obtained in the flash pyrolysis of biomass) is an attractive solid for the biorefinery concept. Results identify the differences between the pyrolytic lignins deposited under diverse temperatures. Based on these differences, tailored valorization pathways for each lignin are proposed. In addition, specific protocols for analyzing the properties of pyrolytic lignins and solids alike are set.

    3. Free-Standing Nitrogen-doped Graphene Paper as Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium/Dissolved Polysulfide Batteries

      Kai Han, Dr. Jingmei Shen, Dr. Shiqiang Hao, Prof. Hongqi Ye, Prof. Christopher Wolverton, Prof. Mayfair C. Kung and Prof. Harold H. Kung

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402329

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      Get out of a bind: A binder-free N-doped graphene has been synthesized to use as electrodes for Li/dissolved polysulfides battery. The N-doped graphene was found to have a larger capacity to adsorb polysulfide, lower electrolyte resistance, and much slower growth of passivation film resistance. The cell exhibited superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacities and coulombic efficiencies.

  3. Concepts

    1. High-Performance Polymers from Nature: Catalytic Routes and Processes for Industry

      Dr. Guido Walther

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402379

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      I love it when a plant comes together: A complete understanding of the transformation of plant oil into α,ω-functionalized monomers is key to its development as an industrial process. Besides economical and ecological perspectives, there are other important factors to consider, such as a reduction in CO2 emission and waste by the complete molecular utilization of the feedstock. This Concept advocates the drop-in strategy, and is guided by the example of catalytically synthesized α,ω-functionalized polymerizable monomers.

  4. Full Papers

    1. SBA-15-Functionalized 3-Oxo-ABNO as Recyclable Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols under Metal-Free Conditions

      Prof. Dr. Babak Karimi, Dr. Elham Farhangi, Prof. Hojatollah Vali and Saleh Vahdati

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402059

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      SABNO aerobics: The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) and its SBA-15-supported form (SABNO) are highly efficient catalysts in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of alcohols under metal-free conditions. Furthermore, SABNO can be conveniently recovered and subsequently reused at least seven times without affecting its catalytic efficiency.

  5. Cover Pictures

    1. Vertical Distribution of Overpotentials and Irreversible Charge Losses in Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

      Dr. Stefan Klink, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Dr. Fabio La Mantia

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400164

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      The Inside Cover illustrates the electrochemical sieving effect in porous graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, which appears during the first charge. Limitations in mass transport result in a reduction of contaminants and additives preferentially at the negative electrode surface close to the separator. The electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite occurs in a layer-by-layer process due to the depletion of lithium from the solution and formation of concentration overpotential, which slow down the reaction in the bottom layers. The cross-current density distribution becomes broader during the intercalation and deintercalation processes. More details can be found in the Full Paper by La Mantia et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400056).

  6. Full Papers

    1. Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots Supported on Gallium and Indium Oxide for Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution from Water

      Dr. Yun-xiang Pan, Huaqiang Zhuang, Jindui Hong, Dr. Zheng Fang, Hai Liu, Prof. Bin Liu, Prof. Yizhong Huang and Prof. Rong Xu

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402334

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      Dotty about H2: CdS quantum dots (QDs) supported on Pt/Ga2O3 and Pt/In2O3 enhance the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under visible light significantly. The surface properties of the oxide supports play important roles for the highly efficient H2 evolution, which include (i) the anchoring of CdS QDs and Pt nanoparticles and (ii) the efficient trapping of photogenerated electrons from CdS QDs in the presence of surface defects.

  7. Communications

    1. Vitamin B1-Catalyzed Acetoin Formation from Acetaldehyde: A Key Step for Upgrading Bioethanol to Bulk C4 Chemicals

      Dr. Ting Lu, Dr. Xiukai Li, Dr. Liuqun Gu and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402396

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      Take your vitamins: A highly selective process for the conversion of bioethanol to C4 bulk chemicals, such as 2,3-butanediol and butene, is reported. The process involves the use of a vitamin B1 (thiamine)-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed acetoin condensation as the key step to assemble two C2 acetaldehydes into a C4 product. The environmentally benign and cheap natural catalyst vitamin B1 demonstrates high selectivity, high efficiency, and high tolerance toward ethanol and water impurities in the acetoin reaction.

    2. Biological Production of Muconic Acid via a Prokaryotic 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Decarboxylase

      Xinxiao Sun, Yuheng Lin, Qipeng Yuan and Yajun Yan

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402092

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      Germ of an idea: Muconic acid is an important bulk chemical which is currently manufactured from unsustainable petroleum feedstocks. An artificial pathway is designed to enable the biosynthesis of muconic acid from renewable carbon sources. This pathway employs 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) decarboxylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  8. Full Papers

    1. In situ Observation of Radicals and Molecular Products During Lignin Pyrolysis

      Christian Bährle, Victoria Custodis, Prof. Dr. Gunnar Jeschke, Prof. Dr. Jeroen A. van Bokhoven and Prof. Dr. Frédéric Vogel

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400079

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      Illuminating the pyrolysis black box: In situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to monitor the radical depolymerization reactions occurring during lignin pyrolysis. This technique combined with common analytical tools, such as GC–MS and thermogravimetric analysis, exposes differences in the pyrolysis chemistry of lignins from different botanical origin. This new knowledge can be used to optimize the production of green chemicals from lignin.

  9. Communications

    1. Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation Products Toward Biodiesel

      Dr. Sanil Sreekumar, Zachary C. Baer, Dr. Elad Gross, Dr. Sasisanker Padmanaban, Konstantinos Goulas, Gorkem Gunbas, Dr. Selim Alayoglu, Prof. Harvey W. Blanch, Prof. Douglas S. Clark and Prof. F. Dean Toste

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244

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      Free upgrade: By tailoring both biological and chemocatalytic processes, the production of sustainable biodiesel from lignocellulosic sugar is maximized. Hydrotalcite-supported copper(II) and palladium(0) catalysts are combined with a modification of the process of fermentation of acetone–butanol–ethanol to isopropanol–butanol–ethanol, producing higher concentrations of diesel-range components in the alkylation reaction.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Selective Conversion of Cellulose in Corncob Residue to Levulinic Acid in an Aluminum Trichloride–Sodium Chloride System

      Dr. Jianmei Li, Zhicheng Jiang, Libin Hu and Prof. Dr. Changwei Hu

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402384

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      With a pinch of salt: Levulinic acid is obtained in high yield and selectivity directly from the selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue in an AlCl3–NaCl system. NaCl shows a notable performance, being involved in the enhancement of yield and selectivity to levulinic acid, promoting the separation of levulinic acid from aqueous solution, and solubilizing cellulose allowing to replace expensive ionic-liquid solvents.

    2. Aerobic Oxidation of Alkylaromatics using a Lipophilic N-Hydroxyphthalimide: Overcoming the Industrial Limit of Catalyst Solubility

      Dr. Manuel Petroselli, Dr. Paola Franchi, Prof. Marco Lucarini, Dr. Carlo Punta and Dr. Lucio Melone

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402132

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      Lipophilic and selective: A new lipophilic analogous of N-hydroxyphthalimide, operating with reduced amounts of polar cosolvent, reaches the goal of promoting the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics to the corresponding hydroperoxides with good yields and high selectivity. The catalyst is selected on the basis of a study on the influence of substituents on the aromatic ring of N-hydroxyphthalimide.

    3. Synthesis of Potassium-Modified Graphitic Carbon Nitride with High Photocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Evolution

      Ming Wu, Dr. Jun-Min Yan, Xian-nian Tang, Dr. Ming Zhao and Dr. Qing Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402180

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      Visible superiority in hydrogen production! Potassium-modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets are synthesized by a facile KCl-template method using no hazardous chemicals. The resultant architecture has a high photocatalytic activity (thirteen times higher than that of pure g-C3N4) as well as good stability for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation.

    4. Effect of Preparation Method and CuO Promotion in the Conversion of Ethanol into 1,3-Butadiene over SiO2–MgO Catalysts

      Carlo Angelici, Marjolein E. Z. Velthoen, Prof. Bert M. Weckhuysen and Dr. Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402361

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      It′s a matter of kneading: The morphology strongly influences the activity of SiO2–MgO catalyst for ethanol-to-butadiene conversion. Of the catalysts tested, those obtained by wet-kneading give rise to the best catalytic performance and their structure can be correlated to activity. CuO-promotion furthermore leads to much improved yields for all SiO2–MgO catalysts. Based on UV/Vis characterization, isolated species and small clusters of CuO are proposed to be responsible for the increased selectivity towards butadiene.

    5. Laccase-Mediator System for Alcohol Oxidation to Carbonyls or Carboxylic Acids: Toward a Sustainable Synthesis of Profens

      Dr. Paola Galletti, Dr. Matteo Pori, Federica Funiciello, Roberto Soldati, Alberto Ballardini and Prof. Daria Giacomini

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402136

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      Enzyme exploitation: Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) is used in a chemoenzymatic system with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) in water for the environmentally friendly oxidation of primary alcohols into the corresponding carboxylic acids or aldehydes and of selected secondary alcohols to ketones.

    6. Synthesis of Bio-Based Methacrylic Acid by Decarboxylation of Itaconic Acid and Citric Acid Catalyzed by Solid Transition-Metal Catalysts

      Dr. Jérôme Le Nôtre, Susan C. M. Witte-van Dijk, Dr. Jacco van Haveren, Dr. Elinor L. Scott and Prof. Johan P. M. Sanders

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402117

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      Plastic from decarboxylated lemonade: Citric acid and itaconic acid can be used as feedstocks for the production of methacrylic acid. Pd, Pt, and Ru catalysts allow the decarboxylation reaction to occur in water under relatively mild conditions. This process provides an opportunity to access bio-based poly(methyl methacrylate) materials.

    7. Conversion of Toluene and Water to Methylcyclohexane and Oxygen using Niobium-Doped Strontium Titanate Photoelectrodes

      Dr. Vit Kalousek, Dr. Peng Wang, Prof. Tsutomu Minegishi, Prof. Takashi Hisatomi, Dr. Kojiro Nakagawa, Shinji Oshima, Yoshihiro Kobori, Prof. Jun Kubota and Prof. Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402133

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      No Bias! A high Faradaic efficiency is achieved for the direct photoelectrochemical conversion of toluene and water to methylcyclohexane and oxygen using light energy alone. The photoelectrochemical system consists of a Nb:SrTiO3 photoelectrode and Pt/C electrode. This is the first demonstration of the production of methylcyclohexane from toluene and water using only light energy.

    8. Porous Anionic Indium–Organic Framework with Enhanced Gas and Vapor Adsorption and Separation Ability

      Dr. Yuanbiao Huang, Zujin Lin, Hongru Fu, Dr. Fei Wang, Min Shen, Xusheng Wang and Prof. Dr. Rong Cao

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402206

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      Use MOFs, spur on sorption: A highly porous anionic metal–organic framework based on 4,4′,4′′-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyltribenzoate not only shows very high adsorption uptakes of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons, but also separates propane, acetylene, ethane, and ethylene highly selectively from methane at room temperature. Furthermore, the material demonstrates high separation selectivity for benzene over cyclohexane.

    9. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

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      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

    10. Toward New Fuel Cell Support Materials: A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene

      Dr. Min Ho Seo, Dr. Sung Mook Choi, Eun Ja Lim, In Hye Kwon, Joon Kyo Seo, Seung Hyo Noh, Prof. Won Bae Kim and Prof. Byungchan Han

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402258

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      Design of new support materials: By applying integrated first-principles calculation and experimental measurement approaches to well-defined model systems of N-doped graphene supports, fundamental mechanisms controlling the catalytic activity and structural stability of nanoscale platinum particles used for fuel cells are unveiled. This forms the basis for innovative ideas enhancing catalytic performance through a new design of support materials.

    11. An Innovative Approach for Highly Selective Direct Conversion of CO2 into Propanol using C2H4 and H2

      Stefan J. Ahlers, Dr. Ursula Bentrup, Dr. David Linke and Dr. Evgenii V. Kondratenko

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402212

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      A flowing conversion: CO2 can be continuously converted into propanol with a near 100 % selectivity through H2-assisted coupling with C2H4 over K-promoted Au/TiO2 in a single continuous-flow reactor. Thorough kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal the overall reaction scheme of products formation. The activity and selectivity strongly depend on nanoparticle size, which can be tuned by the method of Au deposition and by doping with K.

    12. Biosourced Polymetallic Catalysts: An Efficient Means To Synthesize Underexploited Platform Molecules from Carbohydrates

      Vincent Escande , Dr. Tomasz K. Olszewski, Eddy Petit and Prof. Dr. Claude Grison 

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400078

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      Common-or-garden variety catalyst: Polymetallic hyperaccumulating plants are used in the preparation of Lewis acid plant-based catalysts. The catalysts efficiently mediate the Garcia Gonzalez reaction to furnish platform molecules from carbohydrates. Efficiency, generality of application, ease of control of the reaction selectivity, use of solid-state reactions, and the capacity to recover and reuse polymetallic catalysts are the key advantages of the presented approach.

    13. Low temperature Hydrogen Reduction of High Surface Area Anatase and Anatase/β-TiO2 for High-Charging-Rate Batteries

      Dr. Edgar Ventosa, Anna Tymoczko, Kunpeng Xie, Dr. Wei Xia, Prof. Martin Muhler and Prof. Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402279

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      Kill two birds with one stone: A strategy to simultaneously tackle the two main limitations of TiO2 as negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, namely poor electrical conductivity and low lithium-ion mobility, is achieved by low temperature (275–300 °C) hydrogen annealing of TiO2 with a high surface area or a β-phase, as oxygen vacancies enhance the former issue and the high surface area or the β-phase addresses the latter.

  11. Communications

    1. Efficient Conversion of Polyamides to ω-Hydroxyalkanoic Acids: A New Method for Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kosuke Ikeda, Shuzo Suzuki, Kazunari Kato, Yugo Akinari, Dr. Tsunemi Sugimoto, Dr. Kohichi Kashiwagi, Dr. Kouji Kaiso, Hiroshi Matsumoto and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402125

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      Pay for it with plastic: Polyamides were directly converted to hydroxylcarboxylic esters or diols, chemicals that are more highly valued than simple monomeric materials, by treatment with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid. Simple depolymerization along with efficient conversion of the amino group to hydroxyl group provides these compounds in high yields. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Ion Distribution in Quaternary-Ammonium-Functionalized Aromatic Polymers: Effects on the Ionic Clustering and Conductivity of Anion-Exchange Membranes

      E. Annika Weiber and Prof. Patric Jannasch

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402223

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      Location, location, location: The water uptake and ionic conductivity of polymers with different contents and locations of cationic groups are investigated. The synthetic strategy enables careful control of the position of precisely two, three, or four ionic groups on single aromatic rings in the polymer. The close proximity of the ionic groups promotes ionic clustering, which improves the anion-exchange membrane properties significantly.

    2. Highly Crystalline Lithium Titanium Oxide Sheets Coated with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon enable High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Cuiping Han, Prof. Yan-Bing He, Prof. Baohua Li, Hongfei Li, Dr. Jun Ma, Prof. Hongda Du, Dr. Xianying Qin, Prof. Quan-Hong Yang and Prof. Feiyu Kang

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402305

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      Between the sheets: Thick sheets of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) with high crystallinity are prepared by a controlled hydrothermal reaction route. In a subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) step, the surfaces of the LTO sheets are coated with a nitrogen-doped carbon layer. The uniform layer serves to preserve the sheet morphology and improves surface stability, as in addition greatly enhances the rate and cycling performance of the LTO electrode.

    3. Green Acetylation of Solketal and Glycerol Formal by Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts to Form a Biodiesel Fuel Additive

      Dr. Jennifer R. Dodson, Thays d C. M. Leite, Nathália S. Pontes, Dr. Bianca Peres Pinto and Prof. Claudio J. A. Mota

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402070

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      One man’s waste is another’s treasure: Acetylated acetals from solketal and glycerol formal can act as useful additives for biodiesel from the upgrading of waste glycerol. A solventless, heterogeneously catalyzed route for the production of acetylated additives with high conversions and selectivities is described. Reaction variables are examined and explained in terms of reactivity, thermodynamics, and reaction mechanisms.

    4. Cobalt-Phosphate-Assisted Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by Arrays of Molybdenum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorods

      Dr. Yan-Gu Lin, Prof. Yu-Kuei Hsu, Ying-Chu Chen, Bing-Wei Lee, Prof. Jih-Shang Hwang, Dr. Li-Chyong Chen and Dr. Kuei-Hsien Chen

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402025

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      Molybdenum and Co: A photocatalytic system comprising an array of zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) doped with molybdenum is reported. The addition of cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) further enhances the performance of the Zn1−xMoxO NR-array photoanodes. The results demonstrate that the system can serve as visible-light-sensitive photofunctional electrodes to fundamentally improve the performance of ZnO-based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

  13. Cover Profiles

    1. Multifunctional Organized Mesoporous Tin Oxide Films Templated by Graft Copolymers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Jung Tae Park, Sung Hoon Ahn, Dr. Dong Kyu Roh, Chang Soo Lee and Prof. Jong Hak Kim

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400102

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      “the future opportunity raised by this work is that multi-functional organized mesoporous materials could be applied for water splitting, lithium batteries…….” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the Cover image can be found on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201400102). View the Front Cover on page ▪▪ (10.1002/cssc.201400101).

  14. Full Papers

    1. A Continuous Flow Strategy for the Coupled Transfer Hydrogenation and Etherification of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural using Lewis Acid Zeolites

      Jennifer D. Lewis, Dr. Stijn Van de Vyver, Dr. Anthony J. Crisci, William R. Gunther, Dr. Vladimir K. Michaelis, Prof. Robert G. Griffin and Prof. Yuriy Román-Leshkov

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402100

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      Go with the continuous flow: The title reaction was investigated under continuous flow conditions in the presence of Hf-, Zr-, and Sn-Beta zeolites. Product distribution studies and a thorough characterization of the catalysts reveal that their deactivation can be correlated to changes in the local environment of the metal sites.

  15. Communications

    1. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

      Dr. Ruiguo Cao, Dr. Eric D. Walter, Dr. Wu Xu, Dr. Eduard N. Nasybulin, Dr. Priyanka Bhattacharya, Dr. Mark E. Bowden, Mark H. Engelhard and Dr. Ji-Guang Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402315

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      Chasing radicals: The fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries is essential for the further development of these batteries. Here, we systematically investigated the ORR/OER reaction mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Phenothiazinedioxide-Conjugated Sensitizers and a Dual-TEMPO/Iodide Redox Mediator for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Ryan Yeh-Yung Lin, Te-Chun Chu, Ping-Wei Chen, Jen-Shyang Ni, Pei-Chieh Shih, Yung-Chung Chen, Prof. Kuo-Chuan Ho and Prof. Jiann T. Lin

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402160

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      An electric disposition: Metal-free dyes based on an arylamine donor and an acceptor containing a phenothiazinedioxide unit in the spacer have been designed and synthesized. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazinedioxide using a chenodeoxycholic acid co-adsorbent and a dual 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/iodide electrolyte exhibit high light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies.

    2. A Tailored Catalyst for the Sustainable Conversion of Glycerol to Acrolein: Mechanistic Aspect of Sequential Dehydration

      Danim Yun, Tae Yong Kim, Dae Sung Park, Yang Sik Yun, Prof. Jeong Woo Han and Prof. Jongheop Yi

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402057

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      A maze of holes and acid is all it takes: A highly stable and selective catalyst for the sequential dehydration of glycerol to acrolein is presented. Outstanding performance is achieved due to the superior recyclability of Brønsted acid sites and hierarchical structure with meso- and macropores. The former hinders 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde degradation during sequential dehydration and the latter enhances the intrinsic coke resistivity.

    3. Nanostructured Manganese Oxides as Highly Active Water Oxidation Catalysts: A Boost from Manganese Precursor Chemistry

      Dr. Prashanth W. Menezes, Dr. Arindam Indra, Patrick Littlewood, Dr. Michael Schwarze, Dr. Caren Göbel, Prof. Dr. Reinhard Schomäcker and Prof. Dr. Matthias Driess

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402169

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      Natural to Artificial: A low temperature single-source precursor approach has been used to synthesize three different manganese oxide phases under various reaction conditions. These bioinspired photosystem II catalysts can be used for efficient chemical and photochemical water oxidation.

  17. Communications

    1. Paving the Way for Using Li2S Batteries

      Dr. Rui Xu, Dr. Xiaofeng Zhang, Cun Yu, Dr. Yang Ren, Prof. James C. M. Li and Dr. Ilias Belharouak

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402177

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      Electrolyte my fire: Lithium disulfide (Li2S) cathode has gained great attention in Li–S battery research recently. However, Li2S does not provide the full extent of its capacity in the cell because it is barely active due to its highly insulating character. The use of a non-conventional electrolyte in a Li2S battery is described. This electrolyte significantly improved the electrochemical activity of Li2S by delivering high capacity and good cycling.

  18. Full Papers

    1. You have free access to this content
      Application of In Operando UV/Vis Spectroscopy in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Manu U. M. Patel and Dr. Robert Dominko

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402215

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      As it happens: A newly developed method for the deconvolution of UV/Vis spectra back into concentrations enables the study of the polysulfide shuttle mechanism in the different environments of lithium–sulfur batteries. The method is used to systematically study two different electrolytes. It is possible to distinguish the differences in the mechanism of polysulfide shuttling between two electrolytes and to correlate differences in capacity fading.

    2. Pd–Tetrahydrosalan-Type Complexes as Catalysts for Sonogashira Couplings in Water: Efficient Greening of the Procedure

      Krisztina Voronova, Levente Homolya, Dr. Antal Udvardy, Dr. Attila C. Bényei and Prof. Ferenc Joó

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Exclusive partnership: Water-soluble sulfonated tetrahydrosalen complexes of palladium(II) efficiently catalyze the Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides and terminal alkynes in aqueous–organic biphasic mixtures under mild conditions. Instead of extraction with organic solvents, several of the products can be isolated in high purity by simple filtration.

  19. Reviews

    1. Heterogeneous Catalysis and the Challenges of Powering the Planet, Securing Chemicals for Civilised Life, and Clean Efficient Utilization of Renewable Feedstocks

      Sir John Meurig Thomas

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A tall order: This Review focuses partly on current challenges in photocatalysis and the comparative promise of solar-thermal converters. Existing industrial catalysts that process non-renewable feedstocks and the need for their replacement are also discussed, including those for ammoxidation, the benign synthesis of nylon, PET, and catalytic cracking. The combined use of metabolic engineering and designed single-site nanoporous catalysts for processing renewable feedstocks is outlined.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Photoreduction of Iron(III) to Iron(0) Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Hydrogen Evolution in Aqueous Solution

      Dr. Chuan-Jun Wang, Dr. Shuang Cao, Dr. Biao Qin, Chen Zhang, Dr. Ting-Ting Li and Prof. Wen-Fu Fu

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shedding light on an iron catalyst: A bifunctional noble-metal-free system for the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe(0) nanoparticles in water and simultaneous highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is established. The sizes of the Fe nanoparticles generated in situ are tuned by changing the sacrificial donor from triethylamine to triethanolamine and by the introduction of H2N-MCM-41 or graphene into the photocatalytic system.

  21. Communications

    1. Metal–Organic Frameworks at Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Yafeng Li, Caiyun Chen, Xun Sun, Jie Dou and Prof. Mingdeng Wei

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402143

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Timing is everything: ZIF-8, a widely studied metal–organic framework material, is used to modify titania/dye/electrolyte interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells. The use of a facile post-treatment strategy, instead of a pretreatment one, solves the problem of severely decreased short-circuit photocurrents. The tight adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 surface is a key point for efficient photocurrent output, and leads to an improved performance.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Performance and Stability of Polymer BHJ Photovoltaic Devices from Dry Transfer of PEDOT:PSS

      Jung Kyu Kim, Dr. Insun Park, Wanjung Kim, Prof. Dong Hwan Wang, Dr. Dae-Geun Choi, Dr. Yeong Suk Choi and Prof. Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Smoothing it over with a stamp: Bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with enhanced device performances and a long-term stability are fabricated using a simple dry transfer method. Due to the reverse poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-enriched region in the transferred poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT):PSS layer, its work function and morphology can be tuned. Furthermore, by avoiding direct contact between substrate and PEDOT:PSS solution, the stability is improved.

    2. Vertical Distribution of Overpotentials and Irreversible Charge Losses in Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

      Dr. Stefan Klink, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Dr. Fabio La Mantia

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrochemical sieving: Porous electrodes are characterized by a vertical distribution of cross currents. In an appropriate simplification, the cross-current distribution can be described by a transmission line model consisting of thin electrode layers. Using a multi-layered working electrode as experimental analogue of the transmission line model, it is shown that electrolyte additives and contaminants are unevenly reduced in graphite lithium ion battery electrodes during the first charge.

    3. Carbon-Coated Ceramic Membrane Reactor for the Production of Hydrogen by Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Sorbitol

      M. F. Neira D'Angelo, V. Ordomskiy, J. C. Schouten, J. van der Schaaf and Dr. T. A. Nijhuis

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301324

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tubular shells: Hydrogen is selectively produced by means of aqueous-phase reforming in a hydrophobic tubular membrane reactor. The hydrogen gas permeates to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The removal of hydrogen through the membrane prevents its consumption in undesired reactions, increasing the yield of hydrogen.

    4. Mechanistic Insight into Oxide-Promoted Palladium Catalysts for the Electro-Oxidation of Ethanol

      Dr. Ulises Martinez, Dr. Alexey Serov, Monica Padilla and Dr. Plamen Atanassov

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402062

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Which way to go? A correlation between in situ IR spectroelectrochemical studies and voltammetry studies is used to obtain mechanistic insight into the ethanol electro-oxidation pathways on oxide-promoted palladium catalysts. Evidence is presented for the intrinsic effect obtained from an alloyed system and the synergistic effect produced from the promotion of oxide phases.

    5. Impact of the Electron-Transport Layer on the Performance of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells

      Guankui Long, Dr. Xiangjian Wan, Bin Kan, Zhicheng Hu, Xuan Yang, Yi Zhang, Dr. Mingtao Zhang, Prof. Hongbing Wu, Prof. Fei Huang, Prof. Shijian Su, Prof. Yong Cao and Prof. Yongsheng Chen

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402171

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Efficient electron transport: The effect of two solution-processed electron-transport layers, PFN and ZnO nanoparticles, on the performance of small-molecule-based devices is investigated, and improved power conversion efficiencies are achieved. The combination of reduced bimolecular recombination and increased photon absorption contribute to the improved performance.

  23. Communications

    1. Post-Synthetic Modification of Hangman Porphyrins Synthesized on the Gram Scale

      Daniel J. Graham, Dr. Shao-Liang Zheng and Dr. Daniel G. Nocera

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402242

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Not a noose-ance anymore! Hangman porphyrins can now be synthesized on the gram scale from inexpensive starting materials. Using these hangman porphyrins as ligands for transition metals allows control of the nature of the secondary coordination sphere. Post-synthetic modification is used to introduce a wide range of hanging groups with tailored characteristics that facilitate proton delivery during electrocatalysis.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Cyclic Vicinal Diols to Cyclic Alcohols over Tungsten Oxide–Palladium Catalysts

      Dr. Yasushi Amada, Nobuhiko Ota, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa and Prof. Keiichi Tomishige

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402188

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Synergy Catalysis: A high yield of 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran is achieved from the partial hydrodeoxygenation of 1,4-anhydroerythritol over a heterogeneous WOx–Pd/ZrO2 catalyst. The tungsten center is reduced by palladium, and H2 works as the reductant for the hydrodeoxygenation.

    2. Promising Aquivion Composite Membranes based on Fluoroalkyl Zirconium Phosphate for Fuel Cell Applications

      Dr. Anna Donnadio, Dr. Monica Pica, Dr. Surya Subianto, Dr. Deborah J. Jones, Dr. Paula Cojocaru and Prof. Mario Casciola

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Killing two birds with one stone: Organically modified zirconium phosphate (ZPR) with fluorinated alkyl chains is used as a filler with a short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) to obtain mechanically reinforced composite membranes with improved conductivity and reduced hydration compared to the PFSA.

  25. Communications

    1. Unveiling TiNb2O7 as an Insertion Anode for Lithium Ion Capacitors with High Energy and Power Density

      Dr. Vanchiappan Aravindan, Dr. Jayaraman Sundaramurthy, Akshay Jain, Dr. Palaniswamy Suresh Kumar, Dr. Wong Chui Ling, Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna, Prof. Madapusi P. Srinivasan and Prof. Srinivasan Madhavi

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400157

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spinning to capacity: High-energy-density lithium-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors are fabricated by using an insertion-type TiNb2O7 anode, prepared by a scalable electrospinning technique, with an activated carbon (AC) counter electrode.

    2. Visible-Light-Enhanced Electrocatalysis and Bioelectrocatalysis Coupled in a Miniature Glucose/Air Biofuel Cell

      Dr. Lingling Zhang, Dr. Zhikun Xu, Dr. Baohua Lou, Dr. Lei Han, Dr. Xiaowei Zhang and Prof. Shaojun Dong

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402325

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      BFCs forever: A miniature glucose/air biofuel cell (BFC) converts both chemical and light energy into electricity. The power output of the BFC exhibits an enhancement by a factor of ca. 22 upon visible-light illumination, with excellent stability and a fast photoresponse. Fabricating a BFC in this manner provides an energy conversion model that offers high efficiency at low cost, paving an avenue for practical solar energy conversion on a large scale.

    3. Palladium/Carbon Dioxide Cooperative Catalysis for the Production of Diketone Derivatives from Carbohydrates

      Dr. Fei Liu, Maïté Audemar, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier, Dr. Jean-Marc Clacens, Dr. Floryan De Campo and Dr. François Jérôme

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402221

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Allez les verts! Valuable diketone derivatives are produced from carbohydrates and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through a flexible cooperative catalysis process involving a palladium/carbon dioxide system. Key to the process is reversible in situ formation of carbonic acid, which is capable of assisting Pd/C during the hydrogenation reaction by promoting the dehydration of carbohydrates and the ring-opening of furanic intermediates.

    4. Monitoring Structural Dynamics of In situ Spray-Deposited Zinc Oxide Films for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Kuhu Sarkar, Erik V. Braden, Stefan Pogorzalek, Dr. Shun Yu, Dr. Stephan V. Roth and Prof. Dr. Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      One layer at a time: Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are performed to track the structural evolution and fast drying of an in situ spray-deposited nanostructured zinc oxide film. Multiple spray coats provide a considerable film thickness for use as an active layer in a dye-sensitized solar cell.

    5. New Hydrogen-Evolution Heteronanostructured Photocatalysts: Pt-Nb3O7(OH) and Cu-Nb3O7(OH)

      Dr. Mohamad Hmadeh, Dr. Veronika Hoepfner, Eduardo Larios, Dr. Kristine Liao, Jia Jia, Prof. Miguel Jose-Yacaman and Prof. Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nb3O7(OH), a new hydrogen-evolution photocatalyst: Under solar illumination photogenerated holes are scavenged by methanol, whereas the reduction of protons to hydrogen is kinetically hindered. Thus, the electrons remain in the conduction band and/or trap states. The deposition of metal particles on the surface introduces a new reaction side, which can overcome the kinetic barrier. Subsequently, hydrogen is formed and no photochromic process is observed.

  26. Full Papers

    1. Catalytic Conversion of γ-Valerolactone to ε-Caprolactam: Towards Nylon from Renewable Feedstock

      Saeed Raoufmoghaddam, Marcus T. M. Rood, Florine K. W. Buijze, Prof. Dr. Eite Drent and Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Bouwman

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301397

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Caprolactam made easy: The conversion of γ-valerolactone (GVL) in three atom-efficient steps to ε-caprolactam is reported. Bio-based GVL can be converted to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenamides through trans-esterification with methanol and subsequent aminolysis with ammonia. The resulting pentenamides are ultimately converted into ε-caprolactam via the rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamidomethylation reaction.

  27. Minireviews

    1. Catalytic Formation of Monosaccharides: From the Formose Reaction towards Selective Synthesis

      Dr. Irina V. Delidovich, Dr. Alexandr N. Simonov, Dr. Oxana P. Taran and Prof. Dr. Valentin N. Parmon

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      First and formose: The formose reaction (FR) is a simple method for synthesis of complex sugar-like molecules from the simplest organic substrate—formaldehyde. This Minireview outlines the mechanisms of numerous parallel and consequential chemical transformations that take place during the FR. The different approaches to the control of selectivity of carbohydrate synthesis from formaldehyde and lower monosaccharides are also considered.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Hollow Nanospheres Constructed by CoS2 Nanosheets with a Nitrogen-Doped-Carbon Coating for Energy-Storage and Photocatalysis

      Dr. Shengjie Peng, Dr. Linlin Li, Prof. Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar, Madhavi Srinivasan, Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna and Prof. Qingyu Yan

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402161

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The coating edge! Hierarchical CoS2 hollow nanospheres with a nitrogen-doped-carbon coating are fabricated by a simple solution method. The resultant composite material, benefiting from its unique overall architectural traits, has superior electrochemical and photocatalytic performance and shows great promise in energy-storage and photocatalytic degradation applications.

    2. Lithium-Ion Transport through a Tailored Disordered Phase on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Surface for High-Power Cathode Materials

      Mi Ru Jo, Dr. Yong-Il Kim, Yunok Kim, Ji Su Chae, Dr. Kwang Chul Roh, Prof. Won-Sub Yoon and Prof. Yong-Mook Kang

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402109

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      From disorder comes super power! Phosphidated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 shows high rate capability with an excellent cycle performance. Increased disordered phase originating from the locally modified surface structure facilitates Li+ diffusion and maximizes power density.

    3. Tunable and Selective Conversion of 5-HMF to 2,5-Furandimethanol and 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Copper-Doped Porous Metal Oxides

      Angela J. Kumalaputri, Dr. Giovanni Bottari, Petra M. Erne, Prof. Dr. Hero J. Heeres and Dr. Katalin Barta

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402095

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With a little help from Ru: Selective and tunable hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with earth-abundant, copper-based porous metal oxides (Cu-PMOs) is achieved. Addition of a small amount of ruthenium dopant enhances the combined selectivity to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (DMTHF) under optimized conditions.

  29. Communications

    1. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

      Yang Hu, Dr. Jens Oluf Jensen, Dr. Wei Zhang, Dr. Yunjie Huang, Dr. Lars N. Cleemann, Prof. Wei Xing, Prof. Niels J. Bjerrum and Dr. Qingfeng Li

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402183

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ironclad approach: A novel approach is reported for the direct fabrication of few-layer graphene functionalized with Fe3C nanoparticles. The synthesis, achieved by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis of volatile precursors without any substrate, is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the composite showed excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  30. Full Papers

    1. High-Power Lithium-Ion Capacitor using LiMnBO3-Nanobead Anode and Polyaniline-Nanofiber Cathode with Excellent Cycle Life

      Dr. Kaliyappan Karthikeyan, Samuthirapandian Amaresh, Sol-Nip Lee, Jae-Yeon An and Prof. Yun-Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Super performer: A high-performance lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated using a LiMnBO3-nanobead anode and a polyaniline-nanofiber cathode in an organic electrolyte. The LIC cell showed superior rate performance investigation relative to other LICs constructed by anodes of various lithium intercalation materials and activated carbon cathodes.

  31. Communications

    1. Coupled Near- and Far-Field Scattering in Silver Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency, Stable, and Thin Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Gede Widia Pratama Adhyaksa, Se-Woong Baek, Dr. Ga In Lee, Dong Ki Lee, Prof. Jung-Yong Lee and Prof. Jeung Ku Kang

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Near, far, wherever you are: Synergy through coupling of near- and far-field scattering of size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) improves the efficiency of thin dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Far-field scattering is critical in the electrolyte while near-field scattering is efficient in the photo-electrode. The size of the AgNPs affects both the photon-to-current efficiency in the electrolyte and in the photo-electrode. Use of a nonvolatile ionic liquid prevents corrosion of the nanoparticles. In addition, the DSSCs show excellent stability.

    2. A High-Capacity, Low-Cost Layered Sodium Manganese Oxide Material as Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Shaohua Guo, Dr. Haijun Yu, Dr. Zelang Jian, Dr. Pan Liu, Dr. Yanbei Zhu, Dr. Xianwei Guo, Prof. Mingwei Chen, Prof. Masayoshi Ishida and Prof. Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402138

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A layered cake of Birnessite: A sodium manganese oxide (NaMn3O5) material is synthesized with the aim to use it as cathode material in sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterization reveals that the material has a layered Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of synthetic nanosheets. When used as cathode in a test sodium-ion battery, the materials enables extremely large capacity and exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg−1.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cellulose at a Gold Electrode

      Dr. Yasuhito Sugano, Dr. Rose-Marie Latonen, Dr. Marceline Akieh-Pirkanniemi, Prof. Dr. Johan Bobacka and Prof. Dr. Ari Ivaska

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402139

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electro-great: Cellulose is electrocatalytically oxidized at a Au electrode in alkaline solution. The reaction is irreversible, and two reaction products are obtained. One is a water-soluble cellulose derivative, and the other is a water-insoluble hybrid material composed of cellulose and Au nanoparticles.

  33. Communications

    1. Selective Route to 2-Propenyl Aryls Directly from Wood by a Tandem Organosolv and Palladium-Catalysed Transfer Hydrogenolysis

      Maxim V. Galkin and Dr. Joseph S. M. Samec

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Working in tandem: A tandem organosolv pulping and Pd-catalysed transfer hydrogenolysis depolymerization and deoxygenation method is developed to generate 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(prop-1-enyl)phenol in 49 % yield starting from birch wood. Only endogenous hydrogen from wood is consumed, and the reaction is performed using green solvents.

    2. Poly-benzylic Ammonium Chloride Resins as Solid Catalysts for Fructose Dehydration

      Siew Ping Teong, Dr. Guangshun Yi, Dr. Xueqin Cao and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402131

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      I′m a resin I′m a saint: A poly-benzyl ammonium chloride (PBnNH3Cl) resin is developed and proves to be a highly efficient and stable solid catalyst for the dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). In the isopropanol system, PBnNH3Cl produces high-purity HMF, from fructose as well as inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber, that is suitable as feedstock for oxidization to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA).

  34. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Lignin Chemistry on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Woody Biomass

      Dr. Zhiying Yu, Dr. Ki-Seob Gwak, Trevor Treasure, Dr. Hasan Jameel, Dr. Hou-min Chang and Dr. Sunkyu Park

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Breaking it down: A new method called biomass reconstruction is introduced to study the effect of lignin chemistry on enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is inhibited by increasing degree of condensation and decreasing total hydroxyl content of lignin; this may be a reason for the high recalcitrant nature of softwood substrate.

  35. Communications

    1. High-Performance Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cell using a Nitrogen-Postdoped Anode

      Dr. Prabhuram Joghee, Dr. Svitlana Pylypenko, Dr. Kevin Wood, Dr. Guido Bender and Dr. Ryan O'Hayre

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400158

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High performance: We demonstrate a high performance alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) that obtains high maximum power densities in oxygen as well as in air using a commercial PtRu/C catalyst. Upon doping the commercial catalyst with nitrogen, we are able to further improve the performance to the highest power densities demonstrated so far for an ADMFC.

  36. Highlights

    1. Advances in Asymmetric Borrowing Hydrogen Catalysis

      Dr. Dirk Hollmann

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402320

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Borrowing extends opportunities: Borrowing hydrogen (BH) catalysis represents a powerful and environmental alternative to known C[BOND]C, C[BOND]N, and C[BOND]O formation schemes. Recently, two important approaches have been published that extended this methodology to asymmetric catalysis. A short discussion combined with a perspective for the asymmetric BH is presented in this highlight.

  37. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

  38. Communications

    1. Efficient Fixation of CO2 by a Zinc-Coordinated Conjugated Microporous Polymer

      Yong Xie, Ting-Ting Wang, Rui-Xia Yang, Dr. Nian-Yu Huang, Prof. Dr. Kun Zou and Prof. Dr. Wei-Qiao Deng

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CO2 cycles go round: Zinc-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers have been used as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 fixation. This polymer can be used to efficiently catalyze the reaction of internal epoxides with CO2 to form functional organic carbonates. Excellent catalytic activities and improved recyclability of this polymer have been achieved.

    2. Purification of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Its Catalytic Conversion to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid

      Dr. Guangshun Yi, Siew Ping Teong, Dr. Xiukai Li and Dr. Yugen Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hell hath no furan: A simple and effective water extraction method to purify 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) obtained from biomass dehydration system is reported. Up to 99 % of the HMF can be recovered and the aqueous solution of HMF can be directly used for further catalytic oxidization reaction to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) as the sole product. This purification technique allows an integrated process to produce FDCA from fructose via HMF

    3. Towards a Zero-Waste Oxidative Coupling of Nonactivated Aromatics by Supported Gold Nanoparticles

      Dr. Pedro Serna and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      No more waste: Supported gold nanoparticles catalyze the coupling of unactivated arenes in O2 without the typical need of iodine oxidants, acids, bases, or additional metal salts in solution to result in a zero-waste synthetic process. This is in contrast to other catalysts that can perform for only a few turnovers and produce large quantities of waste.

  39. Cover Pictures

    1. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    2. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

  40. Full Papers

    1. Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin in Supercritical Ethanol

      Xiaoming Huang, Dr. Tamás I. Korányi, Dr. Michael D. Boot and Prof. Dr. Emiel J. M. Hensen

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402094

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Good cop, good cop: Valorization of lignin in supercritical ethanol using a copper-containing mixed oxide results in high monomer yield (23 wt %) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products and almost half of this monomer fraction is free of oxygen. Ethanol acts as hydrogen-donor solvent as well as capping agent, stabilizing through C- and O-alkylation the highly reactive phenolic intermediates and suppressing repolymerization reactions.

    2. Cobalt Dopant with Deep Redox Potential for Organometal Halide Hybrid Solar Cells

      Teck Ming Koh, Sabba Dharani, Dr. Hairong Li, Rajiv Ramanujam Prabhakar, Prof. Nripan Mathews, Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale and Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400081

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      Superiority complex: A new cobalt complex with deep redox potential is synthesized as p-dopant for hole-transporting materials in photovoltaic devices. High efficiency perovskite-based solar cells are fabricated using the complex as dopant for molecular hole-conductor 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene. The dopant shows effective spiro-to-spiro+ conversion and excellent dopant properties in photovoltaic applications.

    3. Formic Acid Dehydrogenation with Bioinspired Iridium Complexes: A Kinetic Isotope Effect Study and Mechanistic Insight

      Dr. Wan-Hui Wang, Dr. Shaoan Xu, Dr. Yuichi Manaka, Dr. Yuki Suna, Dr. Hide Kambayashi, Dr. James T. Muckerman, Dr. Etsuko Fujita and Dr. Yuichiro Himeda

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301414

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      The key controls the mechanism: A deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) study clearly indicates a different mechanism for complexes with OH at different positions of the ligands. The rate-limiting step is β-hydrogen elimination from the iridium–formate intermediate for complexes with OH at ortho positions owing to a proton relay (i.e., pendent-base effect), which lowers the energy barrier of generation of H2.

    4. Synergistic Fusion of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

      Dong Han Seo, Samuel Yick, Dr. Zhao Jun Han, Dr. Jing Hua Fang and Prof. Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402045

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      Better from butter: A hybrid structure grown directly from carbon nanotubes on vertical graphene nanosheets is used to construct supercapacitors and its performance is evaluated. The intrinsic challenges inherent in both materials can be overcome through a synergistic fusion of the two structures and augments their electrochemical performance in the hybrid. This method is substrate independent and can thus be applied to a large variety of substrates.

  41. Communications

    1. Chitosan-Microreactor: A Versatile Approach for Heterogeneous Organic Synthesis in Microfluidics

      Dr. K. C. Basavaraju, Dr. Siddharth Sharma, Dr. Ajay K. Singh, Dr. Do Jin Im and Prof. Dr. Dong-Pyo Kim

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400012

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      Swallowed chitosan fixes metals: A general-purpose platform has been devised for the synthesis of a library of compounds in the form of a microreactor using a facile method: chitosan is immobilized on a microreactor channel as nanobrush. Using this method, a variety of metal compounds/metals can be immobilized on chitosan; used as a versatile substrate, robust and excellent catalytic activity can be achieved.

  42. Full Papers

    1. Growth of Hierarchical 3D Mesoporous NiSix/NiCo2O4 Core/Shell Heterostructures on Nickel Foam for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Qiaobao Zhang, Huixin Chen, Jiexi Wang, Daguo Xu, Xinhai Li, Yong Yang and Kaili Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402039

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      No place like foam: Hierarchical 3D mesoporous NiSix/NiCo2O4 core/shell nanowire arrays are synthesized on nickel foam by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) combined with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The resultant nanowire arrays demonstrate enhanced electrochemical performance as binder- and conductive-agent-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with excellent capacity retention and high rate capability on cycling.

  43. Communications

    1. Ultrathin Graphitic C3N4 Nanosheets/Graphene Composites: Efficient Organic Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

      Dr. Jingqi Tian, Qian Liu, Prof. Abdullah M. Asiri, Dr. Khalid A. Alamry and Prof. Xuping Sun

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402118

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      Thin is N: Ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets/graphene composites can serve as an efficient organic electrocatalyst toward oxygen evolution reaction with high activity and good durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that the catalytic activity results from pyridinic-N active sites of the g-C3N4.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Recycling Nanoparticle Catalysts without Separation Based on a Pickering Emulsion/Organic Biphasic System

      Huifang Liu, Prof. Zhiming Zhang, Prof. Hengquan Yang, Prof. Fangqin Cheng and Prof. Zhiping Du

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400142

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      Going through a phase: A new methodology is explored for in situ recycling of nanoparticle catalysts based on transforming a conventional organic/aqueous biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system. The simple protocol results in a high catalysis efficiency and excellent catalyst recyclability for more sustainable nanocatalysis.

    2. Low-Temperature Depolymerization of Polysiloxanes with Iron Catalysis

      Dr. Stephan Enthaler and Dr. Robert Kretschmer

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301386

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      Breaking and making: The straightforward iron-catalyzed depolymerization of a range of polysiloxanes is studied. Depolymerization products are subsequently utilized as appropriate starting materials for new polymers. In the presence of simple iron salts extraordinary catalyst activities and selectivities are noted at low temperatures.

    3. Harvesting, Storing and Utilising Solar Energy using MoO3: Modulating Structural Distortion through pH Adjustment

      Shi Nee Lou, Dr. Yun Hau Ng, Dr. Charlene Ng, Dr. Jason Scott and Prof. Rose Amal

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400047

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      Photogenic: Subjected to positive bias and illumination, α-MoO3 demonstrates the capability to generate and store photoexcited charges in its layered structure through the intercalation of alkali cations. The electrolyte pH during anodization can be used to modulate the crystal structure of α-MoO3, which in turn governs charge storage and mobility properties.

  45. Reviews

    1. Ionic Liquids and Deep Eutectic Mixtures: Sustainable Solvents for Extraction Processes

      Francisco Pena-Pereira and Jacek Namieśnik

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301192

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      Exacting extractions: Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have attracted considerable attention on account of their unique properties. This review provides relevant applications of these sustainable solvents in extraction processes that have significant impact in science and technology, including analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking.

  46. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst Containing Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for the Production of Furfurals

      Michael G. Mazzotta, Dinesh Gupta, Dr. Basudeb Saha, Dr. Astam K. Patra, Prof. Dr. Asim Bhaumik and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402007

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      A tale of two acids: A Brønsted and Lewis acidic sulfonated carbonaceous catalyst is prepared by a one-pot synthesis method. The catalyst with a Lewis-to-Brønsted acid density ratio of 1.2 is effective for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural from carbohydrates in a biphasic solvent of water and methyltetrahydrofuran.

  47. Communications

    1. Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquid as a Solvent-Conserving Catalyst for Organic Reactions

      Amir Taheri, Xiaojuan Pan, Changhui Liu and Prof. Yanlong Gu

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402220

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      Brains not Brønsted: Sulfonyl-containing ammonium-based Brønsted acid ionic liquids (ILs) are prepared and used as liquid heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions under solvent-free conditions. The sulfonyl group endowed these ILs with unique macroscopic phase heterogeneity in the reaction system, ensuring outstanding catalytic activities of the ILs. These catalytic systems are applicable in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions.

  48. Full Papers

    1. Competing Reactions of CO2 with Cations and Anions in Azolide Ionic Liquids

      Thomas R. Gohndrone, Dr. Tae Bum Lee, Dr. M. Aruni DeSilva, Dr. Mauricio Quiroz-Guzman, Prof. William F. Schneider and Prof. Joan F. Brennecke

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400009

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      Two different paths: Phosphonium azolide ionic liquids of interest for CO2 capture applications react with CO2 both through the normal anion channel and, at elevated temperatures, through a previously unrecognized cation channel. The cation channel involves a phosphonium ylide intermediate that is formed due to cation/anion interactions. This channel is suppressed with less-acidic ammonium cations.

    2. Aqueous Batteries Based on Mixed Monovalence Metal Ions: A New Battery Family

      Dr. Liang Chen, Leyuan Zhang, Prof. Xufeng Zhou and Prof. Zhaoping Liu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402084

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      A New Battery Family: Two new aqueous batteries based on monovalence metal ions (Li+/K+ and Na+/K+) as charge-transfer ions are demonstrated. They deliver high specific energy, superior to current aqueous battery systems. The establishment of these batteries together with the previous Li+/Na+ mixed-ion battery not only constitutes a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broadens our horizons for battery research.

    3. Tuning Thin-Film Electrolyte for Lithium Battery by Grafting Cyclic Carbonate and Combed Poly(ethylene oxide) on Polysiloxane

      Dr. Jie Li, Yue Lin, Hehua Yao, Dr. Changfu Yuan and Prof. Jin Liu

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400113

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      Polymer power: A bifunctional polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries is reported. The cyclic carbonate propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are simultaneously grafted on the polysiloxane, and the ionic conductivity can be significantly improved by adjusting the PC/PEO ratio. In addition, the electrolyte can be efficiently used in the LiFePO4/Li battery that lights a light-emitting diode lamp.

  49. Communications

    1. Aluminum Manganese Oxides with Mixed Crystal Structure: High-Energy-Density Cathodes for Rechargeable Sodium Batteries

      Dr. Dong-Wook Han, Jun-Hwan Ku, Ryoung-Hee Kim, Dr. Dong-Jin Yun, Seok-Soo Lee and Seok-Gwang Doo

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301254

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      Going Al in: The incorporation of aluminum into NaxMnO2 results in aluminum manganese oxides (NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2) showing higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine NaxMnO2. The enhanced performance is due to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na0.44MnO2 phase in NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2, and to increase in the surface stability of the NaAl0.1Mn0.9O2 particles caused by the formation of Al[BOND]O bonds on their surfaces.

  50. Full Papers

    1. Construction of Hybrid Supercapacitor–Batteries with dual-scale shelled architecture

      Dr. Zhongyu Qian, Tao Peng, Prof. Jun Wang and Prof. Liangti Qu

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400148

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      A bold step into space: Inspired by the slurry-casting method, a dual-scale shelled architecture is constructed by using a simple and flexible solution-based strategy. The specific thermodynamic hysteresis results in consecutive ‘breaking’ and ‘fusing’ of the structure, which in turn confers a hybrid supercapacitor–battery character upon the material. This result also highlights a new interfacial design that shifts focus from surface towards free volume utilization.

    2. In Situ Thermally Cross-linked Polyacrylonitrile as Binder for High-Performance Silicon as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

      Dr. Lanyao Shen, Dr. Lian Shen, Prof. Zhaoxiang Wang and Prof. Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400030

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      Flying with PAN: Polyacrylonitrile is thermally cross-linked in situ, leading to the formation of a conjugated system. The material is used as a binder and greatly improves the electrochemical performance of silicon-based electrodes by endowing them with high capacity maintenance and high efficiency. The overall concept is significant for industrial fabrication of lithium-ion batteries.

    3. A High-Performance Renewable Thermosetting Resin Derived from Eugenol

      Dr. Benjamin G. Harvey, Dr. Christopher M. Sahagun, Dr. Andrew J. Guenthner, Dr. Thomas J. Groshens, Dr. Lee R. Cambrea, Dr. Josiah T. Reams and Dr. Joseph M. Mabry

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400019

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      For the clove of it: Eugenol, an abundant natural phenol and the primary component of clove oil, is converted to a thermoset resin without the use of bisphenol A, which has estrogenic effects. This is achieved by using a high yield, two-step reaction, in which the intermediate bisphenol is generated through a solvent-free process with low catalyst loading. The structure–property relationships resulting from the presence of atypical substituents on the aromatic rings of the eugenol-derived resin are also discussed.

    4. The Effects of Preparation Conditions for a BaNbO2N Photocatalyst on Its Physical Properties

      Dr. Takashi Hisatomi, Chisato Katayama, Dr. Kentaro Teramura, Dr. Tsuyoshi Takata, Dr. Yosuke Moriya, Dr. Tsutomu Minegishi, Dr. Masao Katayama, Dr. Hiroshi Nishiyama, Dr. Taro Yamada and Prof. Dr. Kazunari Domen

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400121

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      All under control: Faster ammonia flow rates and higher barium/niobium ratios in precursors suppress the reduction of Nb5+ ions during nitridation. Precursors prepared by a soft-chemistry route are nitrided faster into BaNbO2N at lower temperatures than physical mixtures of BaCO3 and Nb2O5; this enables control of the physical properties of BaNbO2N.

  51. Communications

    1. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Maghemite/Silica Nanocomposites: Advanced Materials for Aqueous Room-Temperature Catalysis

      Manuel Ojeda, Dr. Antonio Pineda, Prof. Antonio A. Romero, Prof. Vidal Barrón and Prof. Rafael Luque

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400055

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      When in room: A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol is developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials are applied in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, where they show unprecedented activities, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  52. Full Papers

    1. Modulated Ionomer Distribution in the Catalyst Layer of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells for High Temperature Operation

      Min-Ju Choo, Keun-Hwan Oh, Prof. Hee-Tak Kim and Prof. Jung-Ki Park

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402015

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      Ionomer distribution modulation: A series of new catalyst layers for high temperature operation was fabricated through a simple poly(ethylene glycol) addition and leaching process. The ionomer domain was expanded by poly(ethylene glycol) addition, resulting in an increase in the electrochemical active area and proton transport without loss in oxygen transport, at a fixed ionomer content.

    2. Thermoset Coatings from Epoxidized Sucrose Soyate and Blocked, Bio-Based Dicarboxylic Acids

      Dr. Curtiss S. Kovash Jr., Dr. Erin Pavlacky, Dr. Sermadurai Selvakumar, Prof. Mukund P. Sibi and Prof. Dean C. Webster

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402091

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      Blockbuster: A solvent-free, green method was used to block bio-based dicarboxylic acids, rendering them miscible with epoxidized sucrose soyate. The thermal reversibility of this blocking allowed the formulation of epoxy-acid thermoset coatings that are 100 % bio-based. These systems have good adhesion to metal substrates and perform well under chemical and physical stress.


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