ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

VIEW

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  1. Communications

    1. Regio- and Enantioselective Friedel–Crafts Reactions of Indoles to Epoxides Catalyzed by Graphene Oxide: A Green Approach

      Dr. Maria Rosaria Acocella, Marco Mauro and Gaetano Guerra

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402770

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      Do not pass GO: Graphene oxide efficiently promotes highly regio- and enantioselective ring opening reactions of aromatic epoxides by addition of indoles, in solvent- and metal-free conditions. The Friedel–Crafts products were obtained with enantioselectivity up to 99 % ee. The complete inversion of stereochemistry indicates the occurrence of SN2-type reactions, which assures high level of enantioselectivity.

    2. Silanediol-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Fixation

      Andrea M. Hardman-Baldwin and Prof. Dr. Anita E. Mattson

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402783

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      Life in the silane: Silanediols operate in conjunction with iodide to catalyze the incorporation of carbon dioxide into epoxides. The reaction system benefits from mild reaction conditions and the ability to prepare a wide array of cyclic carbonates in excellent yields. The excellent hydrogen-bonding abilities of silanediols render them useful metal-free catalysts in reactions of carbon dioxide and epoxides.

  2. Cover Pictures

    1. Engineering the Electrochemical Capacitive Properties of Graphene Sheets in Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes by Correct Selection of Anions

      Minjie Shi, Prof. Shengzhong Kou and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402974

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      The Back Cover picture shows the electrochemical double layer capacitor behavior of graphene sheets in ionic liquids. In these ionic liquids the same cation has been coupled with different anions. Prof. Yan et al. systematically studied the relationship between the anion characteristics of ionic liquids and the electrochemical performance of graphene sheets. Moreover, they deeply analyzed the inherent reason and the mechanism influencing energy density and cycling stability of graphene sheets in ionic liquids. More details can be found in their Full Paper on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402275).

  3. Full Papers

    1. Formation of a CdO Layer on CdS/ZnO Nanorod Arrays to Enhance their Photoelectrochemical Performance

      Thanh Khue Van, Long Quoc Pham, Do Yoon Kim, Jin You Zheng, Dokyoung Kim, Amol U. Pawar and Prof. Young Soo Kang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402365

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      High-performance photoelectrode: We describe a facile strategy for the preparation a CdO layer onto the CdS/ZnO nanorod array system, which is significantly beneficial to its photoelectrochemical performance. The unique structure and physiochemical properties of the formed CdO layer in this approach retard the photogenerated charge carrier recombination and photocorrosion of the CdS/ZnO electrode.

    2. Electron-Acceptor-Dependent Light Absorption, Excited-State Relaxation, and Charge Generation in Triphenylamine Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Renzhi Li, Dr. Min Zhang, Cancan Yan, Zhaoyang Yao, Jing Zhang and Prof. Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402806

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      A lifetime of excitation: Electron-acceptor-dependent excited-state torsional relaxation and multiple-state electron injection at the dye/titania interface are investigated by broadband femtosecond transient spectroscopy measurements in conjunction with theoretical calculations. Results indicate the crucial role of a long excited-state lifetime in maintaining a high electron-injection yield.

    3. Sulfur-Doped Carbons Prepared from Eutectic Mixtures Containing Hydroxymethylthiophene as Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

      Nieves López-Salas, Francisco del Monte, Aitana Tamayo, José Luís G. Fierro, Antonio L. De Lacey, M. Luisa Ferrer and María C. Gutiérrez

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402753

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      Performance-enhancing treatment: A template-free approach based on the use of eutectic mixtures composed of 2-hydroxymethylthiophene and furfuryl alcohol has been designed for the preparation of hierarchical sulfur-doped carbons (see picture) in monolithic form. The performance of these carbons in the oxygen reduction reaction is described.

    4. Mesoporous TiN as a Noncarbon Support of Ag-Rich PtAg Nanoalloy Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media

      Dr. Zhiming Cui, Dr. Minghui Yang, Dr. Hao Chen, Mengtian Zhao and Prof. Francis J. DiSalvo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402726

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      Cut out those carbons! Mesoporous TiN is demonstrated to be a very promising alternative to carbon support for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media with Pt1Ag9 nanoalloy as catalyst. The TiN support exhibits significantly enhanced activity and stability for ORR in alkaline media, indicating that mesoporous TiN is a very promising material to replace carbon.

    5. Comparative Studies on Rigid π Linker-Based Organic Dyes: Structure–Property Relationships and Photovoltaic Performance

      Dr. Hairong Li, Teck Ming Koh, Dr. Yan Hao, Dr. Feng Zhou, Yuichiro Abe, Prof. Haibin Su, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402651

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      Sensitive solar cells: A series of six structurally correlated donor–π bridge–acceptor organic dyes are designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene[2′,1′:4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as π spacers, their structure–property relationships are investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations.

  4. Cover Pictures

    1. Rationalization of Dye Uptake on Titania Slides for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by a Combined Chemometric and Structural Approach

      Dr. Valentina Gianotti, Giada Favaro, Luca Bonandini, Dr. Luca Palin, Dr. Gianluca Croce, Dr. Enrico Boccaleri, Dr. Emma Artuso, Dr. Wouter van Beek, Dr. Claudia Barolo and Dr. Marco Milanesio

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402978

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      The Inside Cover picture underlines the link between solar energy and a sustainable economy. The sunny sky represents the environment in which we live and the dye-sensitized solar cell one of the tesserae needed to build the puzzle of a sustainable future. The optimization of DSC modules is facilitated through the chemical sciences represented by the molecule of D5, the topic of the paper, and through a deep comprehension of the molecular mechanism, represented by the 3D energetic landscape obtained by a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Gianotti et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402194).

    2. Molecular Basis for the High CO2 Adsorption Capacity of Chabazite Zeolites

      Trong D. Pham, Dr. Matthew R. Hudson, Dr. Craig M. Brown and Prof. Dr. Raul F. Lobo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402953

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      The Front Cover illustrates the migration of CO2 molecules from the earth atmosphere into the interior of the chabazite zeolite structure (displayed on the top right of the image). This structure shows the location of CO2 inside the zeolite pores, one (green–black) connected to the cation (in light blue) and another (yellow–black) located inside a “small window” (an 8-membered ring separating different cages). The high CO2 adsorption capacity of chabazite zeolites was investigated using in situ powder diffraction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Pham et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402555), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402954).

    3. Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium–Tin Bimetallic Catalyst

      Dr. Jong-Min Lee, Dr. Pravin P. Upare, Prof. Jong-San Chang, Dr. Young Kyu Hwang, Jeong Ho Lee, Dr. Dong Won Hwang, Dr. Do-Young Hong, Dr. Seung Hwan Lee, Myung-Geun Jeong, Prof. Young Dok Kim and Prof. Young-Uk Kwon

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402853

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      The Inside Cover picture shows an important method for the production of bioalcohols. The method relies on a hybrid conversion process that is based on the combination of selective hydrogenation of bio-based organic carboxylic acids with the fermentation of biomass to the corresponding acids. A powerful strategy would be the use of direct hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids without having to use additional esterification processes. To achieve this powerful strategy, it is necessary to adopt effective hydrogenation catalysts to produce yields of bioalcohols above 95% without deactivation of the catalyst. More details on this strategy can be found in the Communication by Jong-San Chang on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402311).

  5. Full Papers

    1. High Shear Homogenization of Lignin to Nanolignin and Thermal Stability of Nanolignin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blends

      Dr. Sandeep S. Nair, Sudhir Sharma, Dr. Yunqiao Pu, Qining Sun, Shaobo Pan, Dr. J. Y Zhu, Prof. Yulin Deng and Prof. Art J. Ragauskas

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402314

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      Lignin to nanolignin: Nanolignin particles are obtained by homogenizing kraft lignin particles using a high shear homogenizer. The nanolignin particles show no change in chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, and polydispersity compared to the kraft lignin particles. The nanolignin particles are well dispersed within the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix (see image) with minimal agglomeration to enhance the composite performance.

    2. Effects of Hydrophobicity of Diffusion Layer on the Electroreduction of Biomass Derivatives in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Reactors

      Wei Chen, Prof. Gaohong He, Feilong Ge, Prof. Wu Xiao, Prof. Jay Benziger and Prof. Xuemei Wu

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402302

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      How volatile? The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer (DL) is designed based on the volatility of aqueous solutions of hydrogenation reactants in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors. Volatile butanone permeates a hydrophobic DL in vapor form, whereas great mass transfer resistance prevents nonvolatile maleic acid from hydrogenation. Aqueous solutions can permeate a hydrophilic DL in liquid form and favor hydrogenation.

  6. Communications

    1. Cost-Effective Synthesis of Amine-Tethered Porous Materials for Carbon Capture

      Dr. Weigang Lu, Mathieu Bosch, Prof. Dr. Daqiang Yuan and Prof. Dr. Hong-Cai Zhou

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402622

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      Energy-efficient carbon capture: A truly cost-efficient strategy for the synthesis of amine-tethered porous polymer networks has been developed. A network containing diethylenetriamine exhibits a high working capacity comparable to current state-of-art technology (30 % monoethanolamine solution), yet it requires only one third as much energy for regeneration. It has also been demonstrated that no capacity loss occurs after 50 adsorption–desorption cycles of CO2 in a temperature-swing adsorption process.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Promotion of Selective Pathways in Isomerizing Functionalization of Plant Oils by Rigid Framework Substituents

      Josefine T. Christl, Philipp Roesle, Florian Stempfle, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Müller, Prof. Dr. Lucia Caporaso, Prof. Dr. Luigi Cavallo and Prof. Dr. Stefan Mecking

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402441

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      Get more from the oil: In a combined experimental and theoretical approach, enhanced selectivity in the isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of plant oils with an adamantyl-substituted diphosphine is revealed. The destabilization of transition states of unselective pathways by interaction of the substrates with the rigid adamantyl framework is decisive for the enhanced selectivity.

    2. The Role of Hydroxyl Group Acidity on the Activity of Silica-Supported Secondary Amines for the Self-Condensation of n-Butanal

      Dr. Sankaranarayanapillai Shylesh, David Hanna, Joseph Gomes, Dr. Christian G. Canlas, Prof. Martin Head-Gordon and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402443

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      Co-operative effect: Self-condensation of n-butanal to 2-ethylhexenal can be significantly enhanced by controlling the Brønsted acidity of M[BOND]OH groups present on the surface of amine-tethered silica supports. The spacing between the amines and M[BOND]OH groups is crucial to maximize their co-operative action and to minimize acid-base neutralization. The reaction pathway is analyzed by DFT calculations.

    3. Efficient Production and Separation of Biodegradable Surfactants from Cellulose in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

      Dr. Alberto V. Puga and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402722

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      Sugars on a slippery slope: Alkyl glycoside surfactants are obtained in high yields from cellulose by performing the transformation in an ionic liquid under acidic catalysis. Optimization of the process leads to excellent recovery of the ionic liquid (>99 %) and surfactant isolation (>70 % molar yield) by using only water as the separation solvent.

    4. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Functionalized Mixed-Ligand Metal–Organic Frameworks of UiO-66 Topology

      Jayashree Ethiraj, Dr. Elisa Albanese, Dr. Bartolomeo Civalleri, Dr. Jenny G. Vitillo, Dr. Francesca Bonino, Dr. Sachin Chavan, Greig C. Shearer, Prof. Karl Petter Lillerud and Prof. Silvia Bordiga

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402694

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      Catch it! A series of mixed-ligand UiO-66 metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthesized through two different methods and their carbon dioxide adsorption properties from 0 to 1 bar are investigated to clarify the role of amino loading on carbon dioxide uptake.

  8. Communications

    1. Phosphorus-based Bifunctional Organocatalysts for the Addition of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides

      Dr. Thomas Werner and Hendrik Büttner

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402477

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      Bifunctional phosphonium salts catalyze efficiently the coupling reaction of CO2 and epoxides under mild and solvent-free reaction conditions. These organocatalysts can be easily obtained by alkylation of the corresponding phosphines with a halo alcohol. The hydrogen-bond donating alcohol moiety accelerates the catalytic reaction remarkably. Under optimized reaction conditions various epoxides are converted to the cyclic carbonates. This solvent-free protocol can be performed even on multigram scale.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production by ZnxCd1−xS Modified with Earth-Abundant Nickel-Based Cocatalysts

      Jingrun Ran, Dr. Jun Zhang, Prof. Jiaguo Yu and Prof. Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402574

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      Nickel in the mix: Zn0.8Cd0.2S has been loaded with various earth-abundant Ni species and applied in the photocatalytic production of H2 using visible light. Of all the species used, Ni(OH)2 shows a very high photocatalytic H2-production rate with a high quantum efficiency at 420 nm, which arises from the synergetic effect promoted by Ni(OH)2 and metallic Ni formed in situ. The role that the co-catalyst plays in the photocatalytic reaction is also investigated.

    2. Ordered Hierarchically Porous Carbon Codoped with Iron and Nitrogen as Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Chengwei Deng, Prof. Hexiang Zhong, Lan Yao, Dr. Sisi Liu, Dr. Zhuang Xu and Prof. Huamin Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402556

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      Electric results: A soft-templating strategy is introduced to develop an iron- and nitrogen-doped ordered hierarchal porous carbon. Using this strategy, it is possible to effectively control the pore structure and pore size distribution as well as the particle size and structure of the transition metals. The resulting doped carbon exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    3. Cube-like α-Fe2O3 Supported on Ordered Multimodal Porous Carbon as High Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

      Dr. Nitin K. Chaudhari, Dr. Sudeshna Chaudhari and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402526

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      Cubed iron for storage: Synthesis of cube-like α-Fe2O3 supported on OMPC is presented through a facile solution-based mild hydrothermal route using glycine. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the as-synthesized α-Fe2O3/OMPC composite demonstrates high specific capacitance, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability, which are ascribed to the favorable synergistic interaction between cube-like α-Fe2O3 and uniform hierarchically nanostructured OMPC with high surface area as support in the composite.

  10. Reviews

    1. Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films Synthesized for Photoelectrocatalytic Water Oxidation: A review

      Tao Zhu, Dr. Meng Nan Chong and Prof. Eng Seng Chan

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402089

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      It′s all a matter of e: The synthesis of nanostructured WO3 to be used for photochemical water splitting using various electrochemical routes is reviewed. Key fundamental reaction mechanisms and various effects of synthesis methods and approaches on physical, chemical, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured WO3 are explained. Also, a summary of the current evaluation practices on the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 is provided.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Molecular Basis for the High CO2 Adsorption Capacity of Chabazite Zeolites

      Trong D. Pham, Dr. Matthew R. Hudson, Dr. Craig M. Brown and Prof. Dr. Raul F. Lobo

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402555

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      Window of opportunity: Li, Na, K, and Si chabazite zeolites were investigated by in situ powder diffraction. Two adsorption sites for CO2 were found in all samples with CO2 adsorption in the 8-membered ring window being dominant with end-on coordination to alkali-metal cations also observed. Li and Na chabazite with Si/Al=6 have adsorption capacity comparable to low-silica commercial faujasite and linde type A zeolite at ambient temperature and pressure.

  12. Reviews

    1. Catalytic Oxidation of Biorefinery Lignin to Value-added Chemicals to Support Sustainable Biofuel Production

      Ruoshui Ma, Prof. Dr. Yan Xu and Prof. Xiao Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402503

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      Running on the environment platform: Lignin valorization to value-added platform chemicals may play a pivotal role in the sustainable production of biofuel from renewable biomass. This paper reviews oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Rationalization of Dye Uptake on Titania Slides for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by a Combined Chemometric and Structural Approach

      Dr. Valentina Gianotti, Giada Favaro, Luca Bonandini, Dr. Luca Palin, Dr. Gianluca Croce, Dr. Enrico Boccaleri, Dr. Emma Artuso, Dr. Wouter van Beek, Dr. Claudia Barolo and Dr. Marco Milanesio

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402194

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      Live and let dye: A polyene-diphenylaniline dye (D5) for dye-sensitized solar cells is studied by a combination of XRD, theoretical calculations, and spectroscopic/chemometric methods. These data allow us to characterize the driving forces that govern D5 uptake and grafting, to infer the most likely arrangement of the D5 molecules on TiO2, and to understand the aggregation phenomena suggested by the chemometric study.

  14. Communications

    1. Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402605

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      Cascading biomass breakdown: The physicochemical recalcitrance of cellulose limits its rapid and cost-effective degradation. An integrated enzymatic and chemocatalytic process for cascading deconstruction of cellulose into fructose and dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is reported. The reactions are performed sequentially by using mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) catalysts loaded with Fe3O4 as solid supports for enzyme (cellulase, isomerase) immobilization and acid functionalization (SO3H).

  15. Full Papers

    1. Complete Chemical Hydrolysis of Cellulose into Fermentable Sugars through Ionic Liquids and Antisolvent Pretreatments

      Silvia Morales-delaRosa, Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin and Prof. Dr. Jose L. G. Fierro

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402466

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      Back to basics: A relatively simple methodology for efficiently deconstructing cellulose into monomeric glucose, which is easier to transform into a variety of platform molecules for the production of chemicals and fuels, is described.

  16. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

      Sushumna Shukla, Patrick de Wit, Dr. Mieke W. J. Luiten-Olieman, Emiel J. Kappert, Prof. Dr. Arian Nijmeijer and Prof. Dr. Nieck E. Benes

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402483

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      Fibers are good for you: A method that avoids harmful solvents (using water instead) is presented for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio. The method is based bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous particle loaded sodium alginate solution during wet spinning, enables fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics, and completely avoids the use of malignant organic solvents and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods.

    2. Assessing the Utility of Bipolar Membranes for use in Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Cells

      Nella M. Vargas-Barbosa, Dr. Geoffrey M. Geise, Prof. Michael A. Hickner and Prof. Thomas E. Mallouk

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402535

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      Use your ′branes: A bipolar membrane enables high- and low-pH solutions to be used on two sides of a water electrolysis cell. Steady-state membrane and solution resistances, electrode overpotentials, and pH gradients are measured at current densities relevant to solar photoelectrolysis, revealing that overall losses in a bipolar membrane-based cell can be minimized when strongly acidic and basic electrolytes are used on the cathode and anode sides of the cell, respectively.

    3. AgTFSI as p-Type Dopant for Efficient and Stable Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Jing Huang, Prof. Hans Ågren, Prof. Lars Kloo, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402678

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      Hole is other dopants: A silver-based salt, silver bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (AgTFSI), is an effective p-type dopant for the triarylamine-based, organic hole-transport material Spiro-MeOTAD. The doped material, when applied in solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of these devices by as much as 20 %, as compared to devices based on the commonly used dopant oxygen.

    4. Control of Thickness and Chemical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposition Overcoats for Stabilizing Cu/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

      Dr. Brandon J. O'Neill, Dr. Canan Sener, David H. K. Jackson, Prof. Thomas F. Kuech and Prof. James A. Dumesic

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402832

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      Don′t overdo it: In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of furfural, an important biorefining platform in biomass conversion, overcoating a Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst eliminates irreversible deactivation. Physical and chemical modification of stabilizing atomic layer deposition overcoats can reduce acidity and reduce the rate of deactivation during furfural hydrogenation, making such control an effective method to increase rate per gram of catalyst.

    5. Use of Bipolar Membranes for Maintaining Steady-State pH Gradients in Membrane-Supported, Solar-Driven Water Splitting

      Michael B. McDonald, Prof. Shane Ardo, Prof. Nathan S. Lewis and Prof. Michael S. Freund

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402288

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      Grad students: Bipolar membranes are capable of maintaining a pH gradient, which can realize the introduction of novel earth-abundant catalysts into solar-driven water-splitting devices. A device configuration involving bipolar membrane-supported photoelectrode arrays is proposed with two different pH on each side, and materials to minimize the membrane overpotential and meet solar requirements simultaneously are discussed.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Life Cycle Analysis within Pharmaceutical Process Optimization and Intensification: Case Study of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Production

      Dr. Denise Ott, Dr. Dana Kralisch, Ivana Denčić, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel, Yosra Laribi, Philippe D. Perrichon, Charline Berguerand, Prof. Dr. Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker and Dr. Patrick Loeb

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402313

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      Taken as a whole: This study deals with holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process to identify bottlenecks, improve potentials, and determine new directions for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development activities.

  18. Communications

    1. Thin-Film Silicon for Flexible Metal–Air Batteries

      Ahmed Garamoun, Dr. Markus B. Schubert and Prof. Dr. Jürgen H. Werner

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402463

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      Roll with it! Silicon is a promising candidate material for metal–air batteries because of its high theoretical energy density. Depositing thin films of doped amorphous silicon on ultrathin flexible foil substrates opens the door for flexible and rollable Si–air batteries with high specific and volumetric energy density. It is expected that avoiding self-discharge and enhancing specific capacity can be realized by using different electrolytes and modifying the silicon anodes.

  19. Cover Pictures

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

  20. Full Papers

    1. Hole-Transporting Small Molecules Based on Thiophene Cores for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dr. Hairong Li, Kunwu Fu, Dr. Pablo P. Boix, Prof. Lydia H. Wong, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402587

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      Core of the material: Two new electron-rich molecules containing thiophene and bithiophene cores and arylamine side groups are described. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite-based solar cell devices, good power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G solar simulation are obtained.

  21. Communications

    1. Rapid Conversion of Sorbitol to Isosorbide in Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids under Microwave Irradiation

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kengo Murata, Yoshiki Tanaka, Tomoki Okagawa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Dr. Kouji Kaiso and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402655

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      As easy as cooking instant food! Only 10 min of microwave irradiation efficiently converts sorbitol in hydrophobic ionic liquids to isosorbide. A catalytic amount of acid accelerates the reaction. Separation of ionic liquids and isosorbide is easily achieved by an extraction method and recovered ionic liquids can be used in several iterations of the reaction.

    2. Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines

      Lipeng Wu, Dr. Ivana Fleischer, Dr. Min Zhang, Dr. Qiang Liu, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke , Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402626

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tertiary education: The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3(CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45–76 %) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

  22. Full Papers

    1. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Nanoporous Materials Based on Poly(ionic liquid)s

      Dr. Itxaso Azcune, Dr. Ignacio García, Dr. Pedro M. Carrasco, Dr. Aratz Genua, Dr. Marek Tanczyk, Dr. Manfred Jaschik, Prof. Krzysztof Warmuzinski, Germán Cabañero and Dr. Ibon Odriozola

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402593

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Jagged little PIL: We present a very simple and convenient strategy to prepare nanoporous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in a sustainable and scalable manner. An ionic liquid (IL) analogous to the polymerizable IL is used as the solvent and porogen, which can be extracted after polymerization and recycled for further use. The resulting nanoporous materials have been investigated as CO2 sorbents.

  23. Communications

    1. Metal–Nitrogen Doping of Mesoporous Carbon/Graphene Nanosheets by Self-Templating for Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

      Shuang Li, Dr. Dongqing Wu, Dr. Haiwei Liang, Jinzuan Wang, Dr. Xiaodong Zhuang, Dr. Yiyong Mai, Dr. Yuezeng Su and Prof. Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402680

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Double doping strategy: Highly efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared by a self-templating strategy. The strategy yields carbon/graphene nanosheets that are doped by both transition metals and nitrogen, having a unique two-dimensional morphology and tunable meso-scale porosity. The as-prepared iron–cobalt catalysts exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the ORR and are stable in both alkaline and acidic media.

  24. Full Papers

    1. Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes

      Rui Huang, Dr. Hong Yang Liu, Dr. Bing Sen Zhang, Xiao Yan Sun, Prof. Chang Hai Liang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su, Bao Ning Zong and Jun Feng Rong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402457

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      ODHing on phosphate: Phosphate-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a novel catalyst for isopentane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) show increased selectivity towards dehydrogenation compared to the conventional V-Mg-O catalysts. The catalytic properties during ODH are strongly dependent on amount of phosphate loading on the CNTs. Phosphorous oxides can not only inhibit the generation of electrophilic oxygen species but also cover selective sites (C[DOUBLE BOND]O groups) with increasing loading.

    2. Lead Methylammonium Triiodide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: An Interfacial Charge-Transfer Investigation

      Xiaobao Xu, Hua Zhang, Kun Cao, Jin Cui, Jianfeng Lu, Xianwei Zeng, Prof. Yan Shen and Prof. Mingkui Wang

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402566

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recombining holes and electrons: CH3NH3PbI3-based p–n heterojunction solar cells with anatase TiO2 nanocuboids, in combination with carbon as a counter electrode, are described. The effect of 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene as a hole-transport material is also investigated.

  25. Minireviews

    1. Upgrading Carbon Dioxide by Incorporation into Heterocycles

      Dr. Bing Yu and Prof. Dr. Liang-Nian He

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402837

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CO2 in heterocycles: Direct incorporation of CO2 as the entire “CO2” moiety or “C[DOUBLE BOND]O” fragments into organic substrates can be successfully performed by carbonylative/carboxylative cyclization of the nitrogen/oxygen/carbon-nucleophilic species with CO2 or initiated by C[BOND]H bond activation, resulting in the formation of various heterocycles. These techniques stimulate further interest in upgrading CO2 from a waste into an ideal and sustainable chemical feedstock in organic synthesis.

  26. Full Papers

    1. Multifunctional Pd/Ni–Co Catalyst for Hydrogen Production by Chemical Looping Coupled With Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid

      Dr. Javier Fermoso, Dr. María V. Gil, Dr. Fernando Rubiera and Prof. De Chen

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402675

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Combined power for hydrogen: High-purity H2 is obtained from the sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR) of biomass-derived compounds. A Ni–Co catalyst derived from a hydrotalcite-like material has been promoted with Pd to eliminate the catalyst reduction step after regeneration of the CO2 sorbent with air. Thus, the proposed Pd/Ni–Co HT catalyst may function as an oxygen carrier in a chemical loop coupled to the SESR process, supplying heat in situ for the regeneration reaction.

    2. Synthesis of 1,4:3,6-Dianhydrohexitols Diesters from the Palladium-Catalyzed Hydroesterification Reaction

      Dr. Romain Pruvost, Jérôme Boulanger, Dr. Bastien Léger, Prof. Anne Ponchel, Prof. Eric Monflier, Dr. Mathias Ibert, Prof. André Mortreux, Dr. Thomas Chenal and Prof. Mathieu Sauthier

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402584

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An ester is born: The hydroesterification of α-olefins with isosorbide allows a straightforward access to diesters according to a catalytic and highly atom-economical pathway. With optimized reaction conditions, the diesters can be synthesized selectively with high yields using a palladium catalyst. The reaction conditions can be scaled up to 100-gram-scale synthesis under solvent-free conditions.

    3. Proton Conductivity of Naphthalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde Resin-Doped Mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Composites

      Jonathan P. Turley, Frederik Romer, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Prof. Marcos L. Dias, Prof. Mark E. Smith, Dr. John V. Hanna and Prof. David M. Antonelli

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402546

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      Use your membrane: A series of mesoporous Nb and Ta oxide polymer composites of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde resin is synthesized and characterized. The effect on proton conductivity of changing pore size and metal in the mesostructure of the polymer composite is studied. All composites exhibit conductivities that surpass that of the Nafion standard and may have promising applications in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    4. Immobilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Stable and Reusable Catalysts for Hydrazine-Mediated Nitro Reductions in Continuous Flow

      Mojtaba Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Bartholomäus Pieber, Dr. Toma Glasnov and Prof. Dr. C. Oliver Kappe

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402455

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      Support it! A simple and convenient experimental procedure for the effective immobilization of Fe3O4 nanocrystals on alumina is presented. This supported catalyst shows excellent behavior for reduction of nitroarenes to anilines in continuous-flow formats over a prolonged time period at high productivity rates without leaching of the catalyst.

    5. Scalable Integration of Li5FeO4 towards Robust, High-Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors

      Dr. Min-Sik Park, Young-Geun Lim, Dr. Soo Min Hwang, Prof. Jung Ho Kim, Prof. Jeom-Soo Kim, Prof. Shi Xue Dou, Prof. Jaephil Cho and Dr. Young-Jun Kim

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402397

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lithium sourcing: A single-phase Li5FeO4 is developed, which features a large first charge capacity (Li+ extraction) and irreversibility for efficient Li+ predoping into the negative electrode. The unique properties of Li5FeO4 render it an excellent lithium-source additive. This innovative strategy provides an effective solution for improving the volumetric energy density as well as the safety of lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

  27. Communications

    1. Silicon Nanowire Photocathodes for Light-Driven Electroenzymatic Synthesis

      Dr. Sahng Ha Lee, Gyeong Min Ryu, Dong Heon Nam, Dr. Jae Hong Kim and Prof. Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402469

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoelectroenzymatic synthesis: A photoelectrochemical NADH regeneration system is realized by using platinum nanoparticle-decorated, p-type silicon nanowires (Pt-SiNWs) as a photocathode. Pt-SiNWs enable an efficient electron transfer from an electrode to NAD+, which facilitates photoelectroenzymatic synthesis of L-glutamate at a low applied potential. This approach is applicable to a wide range of cofactor-dependent redox enzymatic synthesis without the requirement of sacrificial electron donors.

  28. Full Papers

    1. Gluconic Acid from Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oils: Specialty Chemicals from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

      Dr. Daniel Santhanaraj, Dr. Marjorie R. Rover, Prof. Daniel E. Resasco, Prof. Robert C. Brown and Prof. Steven Crossley

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402431

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      Chemicals from pyrolysis: We demonstrate the production of gluconic acid from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. Because a relatively clean anhydrosugar solution is obtained, a simple contact with activated carbon removes the impurities to produce gluconic acid. The purity of the stream offers potential for long catalyst lifetimes, with no measurable decrease in catalyst activity after oxidation.

    2. Operando and In situ X-ray Spectroscopies of Degradation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Thin Film Cathodes in Fuel Cells

      Samson Y. Lai, Dr. Dong Ding, Dr. Mingfei Liu, Prof. Meilin Liu and Prof. Faisal M. Alamgir

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402670

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      Phantom of the operando: Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together formulate a deeper understanding of how water vapor and carbon dioxide instigate degradation in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes during operation. The results from the operando experiment are distinctly different compared to the combined results of the individual in situ experiments, emphasizing the uniqueness of operando experiments.

    3. Continuous-Flow Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Revolutionary Reduction of the Amino Acid Excess

      Dr. István M. Mándity, Balázs Olasz, Dr. Sándor B. Ötvös and Prof. Dr. Ferenc Fülöp

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402436

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      Pep talk: A highly efficient continuous-flow technique for the synthesis of peptides is reported. The method uses only 1.5 equivalents of amino acid during coupling, while yielding virtually quantitative conversions, allowing to incorporate exotic and expensive artificial amino acids in a highly economic and more sustainable manner.

  29. Communications

    1. Novel Pathways to 2,5-Dimethylfuran via Biomass-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural

      Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402702

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fueling the revolution: 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a promising biofuel and key precursor for the production of renewable para-xylene, is synthesized under mild conditions and in high yield from biomass-derived 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) via hydrogenolysis of acetal and imine intermediates.

    2. Iron-Catalyzed Synthesis of Secondary Amines: On the Way to Green Reductive Aminations

      Tobias Stemmler, Dr. Annette-Enrika Surkus, Dr. Marga-Martina Pohl, Dr. Kathrin Junge and Prof. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402413

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      A well-defined carbon-supported iron-based catalyst is investigated for a one-pot multistep synthesis of secondary amines. The reductive amination of aldehydes includes the industrially relevant hydrogenation of nitroarenes to functionalized anilines as well as the conclusive reduction of the formed Schiff base. The catalytic activity of this cheap, promising catalyst is caused by a core–shell-structured iron oxide nanocomposite, which is encapsulated by individually nitrogen-enriched graphene-type layers.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Zinc-Assisted Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Dimethylfuran

      Dr. Basudeb Saha, Christine M. Bohn and Prof. Dr. Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402530

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Are you thinking what I′m zincing? The addition of zinc salt enhances the catalytic effectiveness of a palladium–carbon (Pd/C) catalyst in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by a factor of more than 3. The finding allows to use catalysts with less palladium. The synergistic effect of the zinc salt with different hydrodeoxygenation catalysts is compared to elucidate the role of the zinc component.

    2. Nano-Sized Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Solar Hydrogen Production

      Dr. Tarek A. Kandiel, Dr. Dalaver H. Anjum and Prof. Kazuhiro Takanabe

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402525

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lighting the way to H2: Quaternary CuGa2In3S8 photocatalysts with a primary particle size of ≈4 nm are synthesized using a facile hot-injection method by fine-tuning the sulfur source injection temperature and aging time. Under optimized conditions, the 1.0 wt % Ru-loaded CuGa2In3S8 photocatalyst exhibits a photocatalytic H2 evolution response up to 700 nm and an apparent quantum efficiency of (6.9±0.5) % at 560 nm.

    3. From Gene Towards Selective Biomass Valorization: Bacterial β-Etherases with Catalytic Activity on Lignin-Like Polymers

      Dr. Pere Picart, Christoph Müller, Jakob Mottweiler, Lotte Wiermans, Prof. Dr. Carsten Bolm, Dr. Pablo Domínguez de María and Prof. Dr. Anett Schallmey

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402465

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nature takes over: New β-etherases that display catalytic activity on lignin-like fluorescence-based polymers are described for the potential of these enzymes to cleave C[BOND]O bonds selectively in macromolecules. Upon optimization of both the biocatalyst and process setup, future lignin valorization strategies are foreseeable.

    4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Performance using Cone-Calix[4]Arene Based Dyes

      Li-Lin Tan, Dr. Jun-Min Liu, Dr. Shao-Yong Li, Prof. Li-Min Xiao, Prof. Dai-Bin Kuang and Prof. Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sunny Cali: Novel and efficient cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes (Calix-1, Calix-2, and Calix-3) with multiple donor–π–acceptor (D–π–A) moieties are prepared and tested for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The conversion efficiency of one of the dyes is above 5 %, compared to 3.56 % for a device using rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D–π–A chain. The cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes offer higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, and better thermostability.

    5. Aminosilanes Grafted to Basic Alumina as CO2 Adsorbents—Role of Grafting Conditions on CO2 Adsorption Properties

      Dr. Sumit Bali, Dr. Johannes Leisen, Guo Shiou Foo, Prof. Carsten Sievers and Prof. Christopher W. Jones

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402373

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Catch that carbon: Solid-oxide-supported amine sorbents for CO2 capture are amongst the most rapidly developing classes of sorbent materials for CO2 capture. Basic γ-alumina supports are used as hosts for amine sites through the grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to the alumina surface under a variety of conditions to yield the expected surface-grafted alkylamine groups.

  31. Communications

    1. Doubly Renewable Cellulose Polymer for Water-Based Coatings

      Cameron J. Tristram, Jennifer M. Mason, Prof. Dr. D. Bradley G. Williams and Dr. Simon F. R. Hinkley

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402590

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pulp Nonfiction: Wood pulp modified with cellulose-derived levulinic acid generates a “doubly-renewable” biopolymer—with >75 % renewable content—for industrial applications. The process is scalable and the polymer may be modified to improve its physical characteristics. The utility of this biobased polymer is demonstrated by the production of a novel coating formulation.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Engineering the Electrochemical Capacitive Properties of Graphene Sheets in Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes by Correct Selection of Anions

      Minjie Shi, Prof. Shengzhong Kou and Prof. Xingbin Yan

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402275

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      What a way to behave! The electrochemical behavior of graphene sheets (GSs) in a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the same cation and different anions is systematically studied. Viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight of the ILs all affect the electrochemical characteristics of GSs.

    2. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

    3. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

  33. Communications

    1. Direct Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Butyric Acid to n-Butanol over a Ruthenium–Tin Bimetallic Catalyst

      Dr. Jong-Min Lee, Dr. Pravin P. Upare, Prof. Jong-San Chang, Dr. Young Kyu Hwang, Jeong Ho Lee, Dr. Dong Won Hwang, Dr. Do-Young Hong, Dr. Seung Hwan Lee, Myung-Geun Jeong, Prof. Young Dok Kim and Prof. Young-Uk Kwon

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402311

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      True convert: A hybrid conversion process for the selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose is developed. Bimetallic ruthenium–tin catalysts supported on zinc oxide (Ru–Sn/ZnO) show good performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol, as well as good long-term performance.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

    2. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

  35. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

    2. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    3. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

    4. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

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