Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.117

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/148 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology


  1. 1 - 65
  1. Full Papers

    1. Photogeneration of Hydrogen from Water by Hybrid Molybdenum Sulfide Clusters Immobilized on Titania

      David Recatalá, Prof. Rosa Llusar, Dr. Artem L. Gushchin, Dr. Ekaterina A. Kozlova, Yuliya A. Laricheva, Dr. Pavel A. Abramov, Prof. Maxim N. Sokolov, Prof. Roberto Gómez and Prof. Teresa Lana-Villarreal

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402773

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      Mo magic: Two new hybrid Mo3S7 molybdenum(IV) cluster complexes derivatized with diimino ligands are prepared. In these Mo3 units, disulfide ligands bridge adjacent metal atoms and the outer positions on one of the metal atoms are functionalized with substituted bipyridines. The Mo3S7 cores are adsorbed on TiO2 and reduced to generate an electrocatalyst that reduces the overpotential for the H2 evolution reaction considerably.

    2. Perfluorinated Ionomer-Enveloped Sulfur Cathodes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Jongchan Song, Min-Ju Choo, Hyungjun Noh, Prof. Jung-Ki Park and Prof. Hee-Tak Kim

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402789

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      A salt and batteries: Perfluorinated ionomers such as Nafion are used in lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries because they are selectively permeable to lithium cations while passage of polysulfides (PSs) is restricted. We investigate which layer configuration is most effective for suppressing the PS shuttle effect and improving energy density and cycling stability. A Nafion layer on the skin of the sulfur cathode that does not restrict porosity is key to the high capacity and good cycling of our Li–S batteries.

    3. Lignin-based Microporous Materials as Selective Adsorbents for Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Dr. Qing Bo Meng and Prof. Dr. Jens Weber

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402879

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      Craftswerk: A microporous polymer is developed by hypercrosslinking of organosolv lignin, a renewable resource, by Friedel–Crafts chemistry. Further pyrolysis of hypercrosslinked organosolv lignin yields shape-persistent materials with increased capacity for carbon dioxide adsorption. The selectivity towards CO2/N2 mixtures is investigated on the basis of ideal adsorption–solution theory (IAST), indicating excellent selectivity.

    4. Aerobic Oxidation of Hydroxymethylfurfural and Furfural by Using Heterogeneous CoxOy–N@C Catalysts

      Dr. Jin Deng, Hai-Jie Song, Min-Shu Cui, Yi-Ping Du and Prof. Dr. Yao Fu

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402843

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      Happy Ester: The oxidative esterification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural over CoxOy–N@C catalysts is performed using O2 as benign oxidant, obtaining the corresponding esters. High yield and selectivity of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid methyl and methyl 2-furoate are achieved under optimized conditions.

    5. Synthesis of One-Dimensional Copper Sulfide Nanorods as High-Performance Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries

      Xue Li, Xinyi He, Chunmei Shi, Bo Liu, Yiyong Zhang, Shunqing Wu, Zizong Zhu and Jinbao Zhao

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402862

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      No template, no surfactant—still good? One-dimensional CuxS (x=1, 2) nanorods have been prepared by using a template- and surfactant-free solvent thermal method, which allows precise control of the composition of the highly crystalline CuxS. The nanorods can be used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, giving rise to high rate capabilities and electrochemical stability and excellent capacity retention irrespective of the rate used.

    6. 3 D Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Aerogels as Pt-Free Transparent Counter Electrodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jie Ma, Cheng Li, Fei Yu and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403062

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      Gelling well with solar cells: 3D single-walled carbon nanotube/graphene aerogel is synthesized and used as an alternative to platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) for counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The aerogel-based electrode shows high electrical conductivity and good electrocatalytic activity, resulting in a high power conversion efficiency (9.64 %) compared to Pt.

  2. Communications

    1. Inhibition of Ammonia Poisoning by Addition of Platinum to Ru/α-Al2O3 for Preferential CO Oxidation in Fuel Cells

      Dr. Katsutoshi Sato, Sho Yagi, Shuhei Zaitsu, Godai Kitayama, Yuto Kayada, Prof. Dr. Kentaro Teramura, Prof. Dr. Yusaku Takita and Prof. Dr. Katsutoshi Nagaoka

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402583

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      In conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), supported ruthenium catalysts for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) (Ru/α-Al2O3) lose most of their catalytic activity due to ruthenium oxidation. This activity loss is related to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the reformate gas. Under the same conditions, Pt/Ru/α-Al2O3 (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) reduced at 1073 K exhibits excellent catalytic activity in the presence of excess ammonia.

  3. Full Papers

    1. One-pot, One-step Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran from Carbohydrates over Mo-Containing Keggin Heteropolyacids

      Yu Liu, Dr. Liangfang Zhu, Jinqiang Tang, Mingyang Liu, Ruodi Cheng and Prof. Changwei Hu

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402468

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      One-stop shop for DFF: 2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) was directly produced from readily available carbohydrates in a one-pot, one-step method over Mo-containing Keggin heteropolyacids (HPAs) without any separation and purification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A high DFF yield was obtained and the produced DFF could be separated from the resulting mixture by an adsorption–desorption method using activated carbon as the adsorbent and furfural as the desorbent.

    2. Dynamic Potential-Dependent Electron Transport Pathway Shifts in Anode Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens

      Rachel A. Yoho, Dr. Sudeep C. Popat and Dr. César I. Torres

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402589

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      A small change in pathway: Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens exhibit two pathways of electron transport to the anode that are used preferentially depending on the anode potential; this observation has implications not only on the understanding of electron transport in this model anode-respiring bacterium, but also has implications on interpretation of past and future electrochemical data.

  4. Communications

    1. Compatibility between Cellulose and Hydrophobic Polymer Provided by Microfibrillated Lignocellulose

      Prof. Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter, Michael Obersriebnig, Dr. Stefan Veigel and Prof. Falk Liebner

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402742

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      The strength lies in the residue: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), a bio-based nanoscale high-strength reinforcement for polymers, lacks compatibility with hydrophobic polymer. It is shown that residual lignin in microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) is of amphiphilic character, which provides compatibility with the hydrophobic polymers polycaprolactone and polystyrene.

    2. You have free access to this content
      “Nanorust”-catalyzed Benign Oxidation of Amines for Selective Synthesis of Nitriles

      Dr. Rajenahally V. Jagadeesh, Dr. Henrik Junge and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402613

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      Next steps towards an iron age in catalysis: A “nanorust”-based material is produced by the pyrolysis of iron acetate-phenanthroline complex on carbon. The material, comprising nanoscale iron oxide covered by layers of nitrogen-doped graphene on carbon (Fe2O3/NGr@C), is a stable, active, and reusable catalyst system for environmentally benign oxidation processes. The selective synthesis of structurally diverse nitriles from amines using molecular oxygen is performed.

  5. Full Papers

    1. New Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-Based Small Molecules Containing Alkoxyphenyl Side Chains for High Efficiency Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells

      Zhengkun Du, Dr. Weichao Chen, Dr. Shuguang Wen, Dr. Shanlin Qiao, Qian Liu, Dan Ouyang, Dr. Ning Wang, Dr. Xichang Bao and Prof. Renqiang Yang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402865

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      Taking it up a notch: A 2D small molecule based on the benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) unit containing alkoxyphenyl (PO) side chains is synthesized for organic solar cells. By replacing the alkoxy side chain with an alkoxyphenyl group, the molecular aggregation of BDT-PO-DPP is effectively reduced. A small-molecule organic solar cell based on BDT-PO-DPP/PC61BM exhibits promising power conversion efficiency. DPP=diketopyrrolopyrrole.

    2. Photocatalytic Acceptorless Alkane Dehydrogenation: Scope, Mechanism, and Conquering Deactivation with Carbon Dioxide

      Dr. Abhishek Dutta Chowdhury, Dr. Jennifer Julis, Dr. Kathleen Grabow, Dr. Bernd Hannebauer, Dr. Ursula Bentrup, Martin Adam, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke, Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402850

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      CO2 catalysis: A CO2-influenced, improved dehydrogenation protocol is described using trans-Rh(PMe3)2(CO)Cl as a catalyst. Alkanes and liquid organic hydrogen carriers are used as substrates under benign homogeneous reaction conditions. High catalyst turnover numbers as well as high yields are obtained because of the prevention of catalyst deactivation.

    3. Screen-Printed Calcium–Birnessite Electrodes for Water Oxidation at Neutral pH and an “Electrochemical Harriman Series”

      Seung Y. Lee, Diego González-Flores, Jonas Ohms, Tim Trost, Prof. Dr. Holger Dau, Dr. Ivelina Zaharieva and Prof. Dr. Philipp Kurz

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402533

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      Ca-lling on oxides: Powders of calcium manganese oxide (Ca–birnessite) are screen printed onto conductive substrates that are used as anodes in water electrolysis. Screening of various transition-metal oxides for electrochemical water oxidation under “artificial leaf conditions” is possible and confirms the suitability of Ca–Mn-oxides for this task.

    4. A Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Poly (ether ether ketone) Anion-Exchange Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cell: Design, Synthesis, and Properties

      Jiangju Si, Dr. Shanfu Lu, Xin Xu, Sikan Peng, Ruijie Xiu and Prof. Yan Xiang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402664

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      PEEK and ye shall find: To reconcile the tradeoff between conductivity and dimensional stability in anion exchange membranes, a novel Gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) (GQ-PEEK) membrane was successfully synthesized. The GQ-PEEK membranes exhibited enhanced ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance while undergoing only moderate swelling.

    5. CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol on Supported Au Catalysts under Moderate Reaction Conditions: Support and Particle Size Effects

      Yeusy Hartadi, Dr. Daniel Widmann and Prof. Dr. R. Jürgen Behm

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402645

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      Golden times for methanol: The production of “green methanol” from CO2 and H2 represents an attractive approach for chemical energy conversion in renewable energy concepts. Oxide-supported Au catalysts are highly active for this reaction under moderate conditions, and we show how their catalytic performance (activity, selectivity) is correlated to their physical and chemical properties (nature of the support, Au particle size).

  6. Communications

    1. Controlling Porosity in Lignin-Derived Nanoporous Carbon for Supercapacitor Applications

      Ju-Won Jeon, Libing Zhang, Prof. Jodie L. Lutkenhaus, Dr. Dhrubojyoti D. Laskar, Dr. John P. Lemmon, Dr. Daiwon Choi, Dr. Manjula I. Nandasiri, Ali Hashmi, Prof. Jie Xu, Dr. Radha K. Motkuri, Dr. Carlos A. Fernandez, Dr. Jian Liu, Dr. Melvin P. Tucker, Peter B. McGrail, Prof. Bin Yang and Dr. Satish K. Nune

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402621

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      Low-cost renewable lignin is used as a precursor to produce high surface area, graphitized porous carbons for supercapacitor applications. Molecular weight and oxygen consumption during carbonization are critical factors in controlling the structure and, consequently, capacitor performance. The carbonized residues exhibit good electrochemical performance in terms of high specific capacitance, high energy density and power, and good capacity retention.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Activity of Platinum/Carbon and Palladium/Carbon Catalysts Promoted by Ni2P in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

      Guoqiang Li, Dr. Ligang Feng, Jinfa Chang, Dr. Björn Wickman, Prof. Dr. Henrik Grönbeck, Prof. Dr. Changpeng Liu and Prof. Dr. Wei Xing

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402705

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      Leaning on C for support: The activity of Pt/C and Pd/C as catalysts for the oxidation of ethanol is greatly improved by using Ni2P as a promoter. The corresponding integrated direct ethanol fuel cells exhibit performance that is remarkably enhanced relative to that of commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts; high activity and stability as well as high maximum power density are observed.

    2. A Catalytic Reactor for the Organocatalyzed Enantioselective Continuous Flow Alkylation of Aldehydes

      Dr. Riccardo Porta, Prof. Dr. Maurizio Benaglia, Dr. Alessandra Puglisi, Dr. Alessandro Mandoli, Dr. Andrea Gualandi and Prof. Pier Giorgio Cozzi

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402610

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      Flowing enantioselectivity: The organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate is performed under continuous flow conditions; excellent enantioselectivities (up to 95 % ee) and high productivity (>3800 h−1) are obtained. Thus, a metal-free catalytic reactor can continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds.

    3. General Approach for High-Power Li-Ion Batteries: Multiscale Lithographic Patterning of Electrodes

      Sinho Choi, Tae-Hee Kim, Jung-In Lee, Jieun Kim, Prof. Hyun-Kon Song and Prof. Soojin Park

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402448

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      Mix and pack of Patterned Si: LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode materials are combined with multiscale patterned current collectors to make high-performance Li-ion batteries. The patterned Si electrodes show significantly enhanced electrochemical performances, including a high rate capability and highly stable cycling. This simple strategy can be extended to other cathode and anode materials for practical Li-ion battery applications.

    4. Monitoring Solid Oxide CO2 Capture Sorbents in Action

      Christopher J. Keturakis, Fan Ni, Michelle Spicer, Dr. Michael G. Beaver, Prof. Hugo S. Caram and Prof. Israel E. Wachs

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402474

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      Tailorable, reversible solid oxide CO2 sorbents: Sodium-doped Al2O3 solid oxide sorbents are synthesized and monitored in action, during CO2 capture, with operando IR spectroscopy. A structure–sorption relationship is established between sorbent–CO2 surface complexes and the sorbent working capacity. Surface Al2O3 hydroxyl groups are responsible for low temperature reversible adsorption while small carbonate nanoparticles are responsible for high temperature adsorption.

    5. Tailoring Dispersion and Aggregation of Au Nanoparticles in the BHJ Layer of Polymer Solar Cells: Plasmon Effects versus Electrical Effects

      Wanjung Kim, Bong Geun Cha, Jung Kyu Kim, Woonggi Kang, Eunchul Kim, Prof. Tae Kyu Ahn, Prof. Dong Hwan Wang, Prof. Qing Guo Du, Prof. Jeong Ho Cho, Prof. Jaeyun Kim and Prof. Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402511

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      Taking control of the dispersity: Here, we systematically control the Au nanoparticle (NP) dispersion behavior in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer of polymer solar cells (PSCs). By controlling the van der Waals attraction among Au NPs, the dispersity of the NPs in the BHJ layer is controlled and the plasmonic and electrical effects of the Au NPs in the PSCs are investigated.

  8. Communications

    1. Regio- and Enantioselective Friedel–Crafts Reactions of Indoles to Epoxides Catalyzed by Graphene Oxide: A Green Approach

      Dr. Maria Rosaria Acocella, Marco Mauro and Gaetano Guerra

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402770

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      Do not pass GO: Graphene oxide efficiently promotes highly regio- and enantioselective ring opening reactions of aromatic epoxides by addition of indoles, in solvent- and metal-free conditions. The Friedel–Crafts products were obtained with enantioselectivity up to 99 % ee. The complete inversion of stereochemistry indicates the occurrence of SN2-type reactions, which assures high level of enantioselectivity.

    2. Silanediol-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Fixation

      Andrea M. Hardman-Baldwin and Prof. Dr. Anita E. Mattson

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402783

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      Life in the silane: Silanediols operate in conjunction with iodide to catalyze the incorporation of carbon dioxide into epoxides. The reaction system benefits from mild reaction conditions and the ability to prepare a wide array of cyclic carbonates in excellent yields. The excellent hydrogen-bonding abilities of silanediols render them useful metal-free catalysts in reactions of carbon dioxide and epoxides.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Formation of a CdO Layer on CdS/ZnO Nanorod Arrays to Enhance their Photoelectrochemical Performance

      Thanh Khue Van, Long Quoc Pham, Do Yoon Kim, Jin You Zheng, Dokyoung Kim, Amol U. Pawar and Prof. Young Soo Kang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402365

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      High-performance photoelectrode: We describe a facile strategy for the preparation a CdO layer onto the CdS/ZnO nanorod array system, which is significantly beneficial to its photoelectrochemical performance. The unique structure and physiochemical properties of the formed CdO layer in this approach retard the photogenerated charge carrier recombination and photocorrosion of the CdS/ZnO electrode.

    2. Electron-Acceptor-Dependent Light Absorption, Excited-State Relaxation, and Charge Generation in Triphenylamine Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Dr. Renzhi Li, Dr. Min Zhang, Cancan Yan, Zhaoyang Yao, Jing Zhang and Prof. Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402806

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      A lifetime of excitation: Electron-acceptor-dependent excited-state torsional relaxation and multiple-state electron injection at the dye/titania interface are investigated by broadband femtosecond transient spectroscopy measurements in conjunction with theoretical calculations. Results indicate the crucial role of a long excited-state lifetime in maintaining a high electron-injection yield.

    3. Sulfur-Doped Carbons Prepared from Eutectic Mixtures Containing Hydroxymethylthiophene as Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

      Nieves López-Salas, Francisco del Monte, Aitana Tamayo, José Luís G. Fierro, Antonio L. De Lacey, M. Luisa Ferrer and María C. Gutiérrez

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402753

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      Performance-enhancing treatment: A template-free approach based on the use of eutectic mixtures composed of 2-hydroxymethylthiophene and furfuryl alcohol has been designed for the preparation of hierarchical sulfur-doped carbons (see picture) in monolithic form. The performance of these carbons in the oxygen reduction reaction is described.

    4. Mesoporous TiN as a Noncarbon Support of Ag-Rich PtAg Nanoalloy Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media

      Dr. Zhiming Cui, Dr. Minghui Yang, Dr. Hao Chen, Mengtian Zhao and Prof. Francis J. DiSalvo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402726

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      Cut out those carbons! Mesoporous TiN is demonstrated to be a very promising alternative to carbon support for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media with Pt1Ag9 nanoalloy as catalyst. The TiN support exhibits significantly enhanced activity and stability for ORR in alkaline media, indicating that mesoporous TiN is a very promising material to replace carbon.

    5. Comparative Studies on Rigid π Linker-Based Organic Dyes: Structure–Property Relationships and Photovoltaic Performance

      Dr. Hairong Li, Teck Ming Koh, Dr. Yan Hao, Dr. Feng Zhou, Yuichiro Abe, Prof. Haibin Su, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402651

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      Sensitive solar cells: A series of six structurally correlated donor–π bridge–acceptor organic dyes are designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene[2′,1′:4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as π spacers, their structure–property relationships are investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations.

    6. High Shear Homogenization of Lignin to Nanolignin and Thermal Stability of Nanolignin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blends

      Dr. Sandeep S. Nair, Sudhir Sharma, Dr. Yunqiao Pu, Qining Sun, Shaobo Pan, Dr. J. Y Zhu, Prof. Yulin Deng and Prof. Art J. Ragauskas

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402314

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      Lignin to nanolignin: Nanolignin particles are obtained by homogenizing kraft lignin particles using a high shear homogenizer. The nanolignin particles show no change in chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, and polydispersity compared to the kraft lignin particles. The nanolignin particles are well dispersed within the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix (see image) with minimal agglomeration to enhance the composite performance.

    7. Effects of Hydrophobicity of Diffusion Layer on the Electroreduction of Biomass Derivatives in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Reactors

      Wei Chen, Prof. Gaohong He, Feilong Ge, Prof. Wu Xiao, Prof. Jay Benziger and Prof. Xuemei Wu

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402302

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      How volatile? The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer (DL) is designed based on the volatility of aqueous solutions of hydrogenation reactants in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors. Volatile butanone permeates a hydrophobic DL in vapor form, whereas great mass transfer resistance prevents nonvolatile maleic acid from hydrogenation. Aqueous solutions can permeate a hydrophilic DL in liquid form and favor hydrogenation.

  10. Communications

    1. Cost-Effective Synthesis of Amine-Tethered Porous Materials for Carbon Capture

      Dr. Weigang Lu, Mathieu Bosch, Prof. Dr. Daqiang Yuan and Prof. Dr. Hong-Cai Zhou

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402622

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      Energy-efficient carbon capture: A truly cost-efficient strategy for the synthesis of amine-tethered porous polymer networks has been developed. A network containing diethylenetriamine exhibits a high working capacity comparable to current state-of-art technology (30 % monoethanolamine solution), yet it requires only one third as much energy for regeneration. It has also been demonstrated that no capacity loss occurs after 50 adsorption–desorption cycles of CO2 in a temperature-swing adsorption process.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Promotion of Selective Pathways in Isomerizing Functionalization of Plant Oils by Rigid Framework Substituents

      Josefine T. Christl, Philipp Roesle, Florian Stempfle, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Müller, Prof. Dr. Lucia Caporaso, Prof. Dr. Luigi Cavallo and Prof. Dr. Stefan Mecking

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402441

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      Get more from the oil: In a combined experimental and theoretical approach, enhanced selectivity in the isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of plant oils with an adamantyl-substituted diphosphine is revealed. The destabilization of transition states of unselective pathways by interaction of the substrates with the rigid adamantyl framework is decisive for the enhanced selectivity.

    2. The Role of Hydroxyl Group Acidity on the Activity of Silica-Supported Secondary Amines for the Self-Condensation of n-Butanal

      Dr. Sankaranarayanapillai Shylesh, David Hanna, Joseph Gomes, Dr. Christian G. Canlas, Prof. Martin Head-Gordon and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402443

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      Co-operative effect: Self-condensation of n-butanal to 2-ethylhexenal can be significantly enhanced by controlling the Brønsted acidity of M[BOND]OH groups present on the surface of amine-tethered silica supports. The spacing between the amines and M[BOND]OH groups is crucial to maximize their co-operative action and to minimize acid-base neutralization. The reaction pathway is analyzed by DFT calculations.

    3. Efficient Production and Separation of Biodegradable Surfactants from Cellulose in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

      Dr. Alberto V. Puga and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402722

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      Sugars on a slippery slope: Alkyl glycoside surfactants are obtained in high yields from cellulose by performing the transformation in an ionic liquid under acidic catalysis. Optimization of the process leads to excellent recovery of the ionic liquid (>99 %) and surfactant isolation (>70 % molar yield) by using only water as the separation solvent.

    4. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Functionalized Mixed-Ligand Metal–Organic Frameworks of UiO-66 Topology

      Jayashree Ethiraj, Dr. Elisa Albanese, Dr. Bartolomeo Civalleri, Dr. Jenny G. Vitillo, Dr. Francesca Bonino, Dr. Sachin Chavan, Greig C. Shearer, Prof. Karl Petter Lillerud and Prof. Silvia Bordiga

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402694

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      Catch it! A series of mixed-ligand UiO-66 metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthesized through two different methods and their carbon dioxide adsorption properties from 0 to 1 bar are investigated to clarify the role of amino loading on carbon dioxide uptake.

  12. Communications

    1. Phosphorus-based Bifunctional Organocatalysts for the Addition of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides

      Dr. Thomas Werner and Hendrik Büttner

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402477

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      Bifunctional phosphonium salts catalyze efficiently the coupling reaction of CO2 and epoxides under mild and solvent-free reaction conditions. These organocatalysts can be easily obtained by alkylation of the corresponding phosphines with a halo alcohol. The hydrogen-bond donating alcohol moiety accelerates the catalytic reaction remarkably. Under optimized reaction conditions various epoxides are converted to the cyclic carbonates. This solvent-free protocol can be performed even on multigram scale.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production by ZnxCd1−xS Modified with Earth-Abundant Nickel-Based Cocatalysts

      Jingrun Ran, Dr. Jun Zhang, Prof. Jiaguo Yu and Prof. Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402574

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      Nickel in the mix: Zn0.8Cd0.2S has been loaded with various earth-abundant Ni species and applied in the photocatalytic production of H2 using visible light. Of all the species used, Ni(OH)2 shows a very high photocatalytic H2-production rate with a high quantum efficiency at 420 nm, which arises from the synergetic effect promoted by Ni(OH)2 and metallic Ni formed in situ. The role that the co-catalyst plays in the photocatalytic reaction is also investigated.

    2. Ordered Hierarchically Porous Carbon Codoped with Iron and Nitrogen as Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Chengwei Deng, Prof. Hexiang Zhong, Lan Yao, Dr. Sisi Liu, Dr. Zhuang Xu and Prof. Huamin Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402556

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      Electric results: A soft-templating strategy is introduced to develop an iron- and nitrogen-doped ordered hierarchal porous carbon. Using this strategy, it is possible to effectively control the pore structure and pore size distribution as well as the particle size and structure of the transition metals. The resulting doped carbon exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  14. Reviews

    1. Catalytic Oxidation of Biorefinery Lignin to Value-added Chemicals to Support Sustainable Biofuel Production

      Ruoshui Ma, Prof. Dr. Yan Xu and Prof. Xiao Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402503

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      Running on the environment platform: Lignin valorization to value-added platform chemicals may play a pivotal role in the sustainable production of biofuel from renewable biomass. This paper reviews oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed.

  15. Communications

    1. Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402605

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      Cascading biomass breakdown: The physicochemical recalcitrance of cellulose limits its rapid and cost-effective degradation. An integrated enzymatic and chemocatalytic process for cascading deconstruction of cellulose into fructose and dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is reported. The reactions are performed sequentially by using mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) catalysts loaded with Fe3O4 as solid supports for enzyme (cellulase, isomerase) immobilization and acid functionalization (SO3H).

  16. Full Papers

    1. Complete Chemical Hydrolysis of Cellulose into Fermentable Sugars through Ionic Liquids and Antisolvent Pretreatments

      Silvia Morales-delaRosa, Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin and Prof. Dr. Jose L. G. Fierro

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402466

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      Back to basics: A relatively simple methodology for efficiently deconstructing cellulose into monomeric glucose, which is easier to transform into a variety of platform molecules for the production of chemicals and fuels, is described.

  17. Communications

    1. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

      Sushumna Shukla, Patrick de Wit, Dr. Mieke W. J. Luiten-Olieman, Emiel J. Kappert, Prof. Dr. Arian Nijmeijer and Prof. Dr. Nieck E. Benes

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402483

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      Fibers are good for you: A method that avoids harmful solvents (using water instead) is presented for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio. The method is based bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous particle loaded sodium alginate solution during wet spinning, enables fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics, and completely avoids the use of malignant organic solvents and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods.

    2. AgTFSI as p-Type Dopant for Efficient and Stable Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells

      Bo Xu, Jing Huang, Prof. Hans Ågren, Prof. Lars Kloo, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402678

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      Hole is other dopants: A silver-based salt, silver bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (AgTFSI), is an effective p-type dopant for the triarylamine-based, organic hole-transport material Spiro-MeOTAD. The doped material, when applied in solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of these devices by as much as 20 %, as compared to devices based on the commonly used dopant oxygen.

    3. Control of Thickness and Chemical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposition Overcoats for Stabilizing Cu/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

      Dr. Brandon J. O'Neill, Dr. Canan Sener, David H. K. Jackson, Prof. Thomas F. Kuech and Prof. James A. Dumesic

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402832

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      Don′t overdo it: In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of furfural, an important biorefining platform in biomass conversion, overcoating a Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst eliminates irreversible deactivation. Physical and chemical modification of stabilizing atomic layer deposition overcoats can reduce acidity and reduce the rate of deactivation during furfural hydrogenation, making such control an effective method to increase rate per gram of catalyst.

  18. Full Papers

    1. Life Cycle Analysis within Pharmaceutical Process Optimization and Intensification: Case Study of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Production

      Dr. Denise Ott, Dr. Dana Kralisch, Ivana Denčić, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel, Yosra Laribi, Philippe D. Perrichon, Charline Berguerand, Prof. Dr. Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker and Dr. Patrick Loeb

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402313

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      Taken as a whole: This study deals with holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process to identify bottlenecks, improve potentials, and determine new directions for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development activities.

  19. Communications

    1. Thin-Film Silicon for Flexible Metal–Air Batteries

      Ahmed Garamoun, Dr. Markus B. Schubert and Prof. Dr. Jürgen H. Werner

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402463

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      Roll with it! Silicon is a promising candidate material for metal–air batteries because of its high theoretical energy density. Depositing thin films of doped amorphous silicon on ultrathin flexible foil substrates opens the door for flexible and rollable Si–air batteries with high specific and volumetric energy density. It is expected that avoiding self-discharge and enhancing specific capacity can be realized by using different electrolytes and modifying the silicon anodes.

  20. Cover Pictures

    1. A Combinatorial Approach towards Water-Stable Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Carbon Dioxide Separation

      Zhigang Hu, Kang Zhang, Mei Zhang, Dr. Zhengang Guo, Prof. Jianwen Jiang and Prof. Dan Zhao

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402892

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      The Inside Back Cover shows the crystal structure of an ionized Zr metal–organic framework (MOF) and its selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 for applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability. A library of 20 UiO-66-derived MOFs is synthesized in a combinatorial approach involving mixed ligand copolymerization and two post-synthetic modifications in tandem. These MOFs exhibit excellent water stabilities in a pH range of 1 to 12, together with high CO2 uptake capacities and selectivities as revealed by the analysis of 147 isotherms. This approach paves a way towards the systematic study of water-stable and affordable MOFs as highly efficient adsorbents for CO2 separation in the applications of post-combustion CO2 capture and natural gas upgrading. More details can be found in the Communication by Hu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402378).

  21. Full Papers

    1. Hole-Transporting Small Molecules Based on Thiophene Cores for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dr. Hairong Li, Kunwu Fu, Dr. Pablo P. Boix, Prof. Lydia H. Wong, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402587

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      Core of the material: Two new electron-rich molecules containing thiophene and bithiophene cores and arylamine side groups are described. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite-based solar cell devices, good power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G solar simulation are obtained.

  22. Communications

    1. Rapid Conversion of Sorbitol to Isosorbide in Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids under Microwave Irradiation

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kengo Murata, Yoshiki Tanaka, Tomoki Okagawa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Dr. Kouji Kaiso and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402655

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      As easy as cooking instant food! Only 10 min of microwave irradiation efficiently converts sorbitol in hydrophobic ionic liquids to isosorbide. A catalytic amount of acid accelerates the reaction. Separation of ionic liquids and isosorbide is easily achieved by an extraction method and recovered ionic liquids can be used in several iterations of the reaction.

    2. Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines

      Lipeng Wu, Dr. Ivana Fleischer, Dr. Min Zhang, Dr. Qiang Liu, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke , Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402626

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      Tertiary education: The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3(CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45–76 %) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

  23. Full Papers

    1. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Nanoporous Materials Based on Poly(ionic liquid)s

      Dr. Itxaso Azcune, Dr. Ignacio García, Dr. Pedro M. Carrasco, Dr. Aratz Genua, Dr. Marek Tanczyk, Dr. Manfred Jaschik, Prof. Krzysztof Warmuzinski, Germán Cabañero and Dr. Ibon Odriozola

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402593

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      Jagged little PIL: We present a very simple and convenient strategy to prepare nanoporous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in a sustainable and scalable manner. An ionic liquid (IL) analogous to the polymerizable IL is used as the solvent and porogen, which can be extracted after polymerization and recycled for further use. The resulting nanoporous materials have been investigated as CO2 sorbents.

    2. Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes

      Rui Huang, Dr. Hong Yang Liu, Dr. Bing Sen Zhang, Xiao Yan Sun, Prof. Chang Hai Liang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su, Bao Ning Zong and Jun Feng Rong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402457

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      ODHing on phosphate: Phosphate-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a novel catalyst for isopentane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) show increased selectivity towards dehydrogenation compared to the conventional V-Mg-O catalysts. The catalytic properties during ODH are strongly dependent on amount of phosphate loading on the CNTs. Phosphorous oxides can not only inhibit the generation of electrophilic oxygen species but also cover selective sites (C[DOUBLE BOND]O groups) with increasing loading.

  24. Minireviews

    1. Upgrading Carbon Dioxide by Incorporation into Heterocycles

      Dr. Bing Yu and Prof. Dr. Liang-Nian He

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402837

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      CO2 in heterocycles: Direct incorporation of CO2 as the entire “CO2” moiety or “C[DOUBLE BOND]O” fragments into organic substrates can be successfully performed by carbonylative/carboxylative cyclization of the nitrogen/oxygen/carbon-nucleophilic species with CO2 or initiated by C[BOND]H bond activation, resulting in the formation of various heterocycles. These techniques stimulate further interest in upgrading CO2 from a waste into an ideal and sustainable chemical feedstock in organic synthesis.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Proton Conductivity of Naphthalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde Resin-Doped Mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Composites

      Jonathan P. Turley, Frederik Romer, Dr. Michel L. Trudeau, Prof. Marcos L. Dias, Prof. Mark E. Smith, Dr. John V. Hanna and Prof. David M. Antonelli

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402546

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      Use your membrane: A series of mesoporous Nb and Ta oxide polymer composites of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde resin is synthesized and characterized. The effect on proton conductivity of changing pore size and metal in the mesostructure of the polymer composite is studied. All composites exhibit conductivities that surpass that of the Nafion standard and may have promising applications in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    2. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Performance using Cone-Calix[4]Arene Based Dyes

      Li-Lin Tan, Dr. Jun-Min Liu, Dr. Shao-Yong Li, Prof. Li-Min Xiao, Prof. Dai-Bin Kuang and Prof. Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sunny Cali: Novel and efficient cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes (Calix-1, Calix-2, and Calix-3) with multiple donor–π–acceptor (D–π–A) moieties are prepared and tested for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The conversion efficiency of one of the dyes is above 5 %, compared to 3.56 % for a device using rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D–π–A chain. The cone-calix[4]arene-based dyes offer higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, and better thermostability.

  26. Communications

    1. Doubly Renewable Cellulose Polymer for Water-Based Coatings

      Cameron J. Tristram, Jennifer M. Mason, Prof. Dr. D. Bradley G. Williams and Dr. Simon F. R. Hinkley

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402590

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      Pulp Nonfiction: Wood pulp modified with cellulose-derived levulinic acid generates a “doubly-renewable” biopolymer—with >75 % renewable content—for industrial applications. The process is scalable and the polymer may be modified to improve its physical characteristics. The utility of this biobased polymer is demonstrated by the production of a novel coating formulation.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

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      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

    2. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

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      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

    3. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

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      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

    4. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

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      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

  28. Cover Pictures

    1. Design and Functionalization of Photocatalytic Systems within Mesoporous Silica

      Dr. Xufang Qian, Dr. Kojirou Fuku, Dr. Yasutaka Kuwahara, Prof. Takashi Kamegawa, Prof. Kohsuke Mori and Prof. Hiromi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400097

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      The Front Cover image shows various photocatalysts such as nano-sized TiO2, transition-metal-oxide moieties (single-site photocatalysts), plasmonic metal nanostructures, and metal complexes displaying various light-excited photocatalytic processes. All of the processes occur in the nanospace of mesoporous silica-based materials, which possess high surface areas, transparency to UV and visible light as well as easily modified surfaces. More details can be found in the Minireview by Yamashita et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400111), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400098).

    2. Seaweed-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon as an Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Min Young Song, Hyean Yeol Park, Dae-Soo Yang, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400099

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      The Back Cover picture shows how porous carbon with a high surface area and which is naturally doped with nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, can be prepared from the easily available seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) as a single precursor for obtaining carbon with heteroatoms. U. pinnatifida is highly abundant, available at a low price, and proves to be a prime choice precursor for heteroatom-rich highly porous carbon materials as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yu et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400049).

    3. Rapid Trifluoromethylation and Perfluoroalkylation of Five-Membered Heterocycles by Photoredox Catalysis in Continuous Flow

      Natan J. W. Straathof, Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Dr. Xiao Wang, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel and Dr. Timothy Noël

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400100

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      The Inside Cover picture shows how trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles can be prepared by continuous-flow photoredox catalysis utilizing [Ru(bpy)3] and blue light irradiation. Spectacular accelerations are observed in microreactors because of the homogeneous irradiation of the reaction sample and the optimal gas–liquid mass transfer. The mild reaction conditions should facilitate the implementation of this methodology in both academia and industry. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Noël et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301282).

    4. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400088

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      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page ▪▪ (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).


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