Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 19

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.657

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 18/157 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology


  1. 1 - 46
  1. Full Papers

    1. Photopolymer Electrolytes for Sustainable, Upscalable, Safe, and Ambient-Temperature Sodium-Ion Secondary Batteries

      Dr. Federico Bella, Francesca Colò, Dr. Jijeesh R. Nair and Prof. Dr. Claudio Gerbaldi

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500873

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      Shine a light on an electrolyte: The first example of a photopolymer for use as electrolyte in sodium-ion batteries is proposed. Photopolymerization is an easy and scalable technique useful for the preparation of large-scale grid storage systems. The resulting polymer exhibits high thermal stability, low glass transition temperature, outstanding ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical stability window. Assembled lab-scale quasi-solid sodium polymer batteries are characterized.

    2. Mechanistic Insight into a Sugar-Accelerated Tin-Catalyzed Cascade Synthesis of α-Hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone from Formaldehyde

      Dr. Sho Yamaguchi, Takeaki Matsuo, Dr. Ken Motokura, Dr. Yasuharu Sakamoto, Dr. Akimitsu Miyaji and Prof. Toshihide Baba

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500885

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      Glucose powered: The formose reaction, which involves the formation of sugars from formaldehyde, is usually confined to the selective synthesis of unprotected sugars. A homogeneous tin chloride can be used to produce α-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (HBL), which is one of the most important intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses, from paraformaldehyde.

  2. Minireviews

    1. Molecular Catalyst Immobilized Photocathodes for Water/Proton and Carbon Dioxide Reduction

      Dr. Haining Tian

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500983

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      Catching rays: Photocathodes in complete tandem photoelectrochemical solar-fuel production devices have been attracting interest. The immobilization of a molecular catalyst onto a photocathode helps to enhance the interfacial electron/hole-transfer process, and molecular catalysts help to improve the selectivity of the reduction reaction. This Review presents recent progress in molecular catalyst immobilized photocathodes for H2 generation and CO2 reduction.

  3. Reviews

    1. Progress in Synthesis of Highly Active and Stable Nickel-Based Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane

      Prof. Sibudjing Kawi, Dr. Yasotha Kathiraser, Dr. Jun Ni, Dr. Usman Oemar, Dr. Ziwei Li and Dr. Eng Toon Saw

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500390

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      New from old: Salient catalyst features and innovative design strategies for nickel-based catalysts to achieve high stability and coke resistance for CO2 (dry) reforming of methane is reviewed and developments from recent years are discussed with examples.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage Through Carbonation Cycles of SrCO3/SrO Supported on SrZrO3

      Nathan R. Rhodes, Dr. Amey Barde, Kelvin Randhir, Dr. Like Li, Dr. David W. Hahn, Dr. Renwei Mei, Dr. James F. Klausner and Dr. Nick AuYeung

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501023

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      Sun off, storage on: A thermochemical energy storage (TCES) system based on a SrO/SrCO3 carbonation cycle is investigated. The SrCO3/SrO systems supported by zirconia-based sintering inhibitors exhibit energy density exceeding 1500 MJ m−3 for ten cycles at temperatures not previously approached by other TCES systems. The high-temperature nature of this TCES concept could potentially power a solar-driven combined cycle power plant at times of no solar input.

  5. Communications

    1. Significantly Enhanced Separation using ZIF-8 Membranes by Partial Conversion of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxide Precursors

      Dr. Yi Liu, Dr. Yuan Peng, Dr. Nanyi Wang, Prof. Yanshuo Li, Prof. Jia Hong Pan, Prof. Weishen Yang and Prof. Jürgen Caro

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500977

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      There is still space for improvement: Alleviation of the framework flexibility enables significantly enhanced gas selectivity of pure ZIF-8 membranes, which is realized by partial conversion of calcined ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide precursor membranes under solvothermal conditions. This study represents a new concept for designing advanced MOF membranes.

    2. Convenient and Simple Esterification in Continuous-Flow Systems using g-DMAP

      Yoshinori Okuno, Dr. Shigeki Isomura, Anna Sugamata, Kaoru Tamahori, Ami Fukuhara, Miyu Kashiwagi, Yuuichi Kitagawa, Emiri Kasai and Prof. Kazuyoshi Takeda

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500919

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      Graft and flow: The utility and applicability of polyethylene-g-polyacrylic acid-immobilized dimethylaminopyridine (g-DMAP) as a catalyst in a continuous flow system is demonstrated using coupling reactions involving di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O) for decarboxylative esterification. The developed system not only reduces the production of by-products, but also dramatically decreases the reaction time.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Efficient Light-Driven Water Oxidation Catalysis by Dinuclear Ruthenium Complexes

      Dr. Serena Berardi, Dr. Laia Francàs, Sven Neudeck, Dr. Somnath Maji, Dr. Jordi Benet-Buchholz, Prof. Dr. Franc Meyer and Prof. Dr. Antoni Llobet

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500798

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      Limelight on water oxidation: Two rugged pyrazolate-based diruthenium complexes efficiently catalyze the homogeneous photoinduced water oxidation in a three-component system including a photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor at pH 7. Outstanding results are obtained in terms of both turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF).

    2. Dual-Templated Cobalt Oxide for Photochemical Water Oxidation

      Xiaohui Deng, Hans-Josef Bongard, Prof. Candace K. Chan and Dr. Harun Tüysüz

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500872

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      Catalytic Templates: Mesoporous Co3O4 is prepared using a dual-templating approach whereby the mesopores inside SiO2 nanospheres, as well as the void spaces between the nanospheres, are used as templates. The effect of calcination temperature on the nanostructure morphology and catalytic activity for photochemical water oxidation is studied. CoO is also synthesized by reduction of the mesoporous Co3O4 using ethanol to yield higher turnover frequency.

    3. Effect of Dopants on the Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Ceria Surfaces

      Dr. Meijun Li, Dr. Uma Tumuluri, Dr. Zili Wu and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500899

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      Serious about ceria: A series of high-surface-area CeO2 and M-doped CeO2 (M=Cu, La, Zr, and Mg) nanomaterials are synthesized and their CO2-capture behavior was tested at 303 K. The relative amount of surface oxygen defect sites affects the CO2 adsorption at a low dopant content. The presence of dopants can tune the surface functionalities such as the surface acid–base properties and defect sites, which impact the adsorption behavior of CO2 on a CeO2 surface.

  7. Reviews

    1. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries

      Ricardo E. Sousa, Dr. Carlos M. Costa and Prof. Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500657

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      How to print energy: Printed batteries are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for specific applications. This Review presents and discusses the main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, printing techniques, and state-of-the-art for printed batteries. The state-of-the-art takes into account research and industrial levels. Research progress of printed batteries is divided in lithium-ion, Zn–manganese dioxide, and other printed battery types.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Increased Microbial Butanol Tolerance by Exogenous Membrane Insertion Molecules

      Dr. Jamie Hinks, Dr. Yaofeng Wang, Artur Matysik, Prof. Rachel Kraut, Prof. Staffan Kjelleberg, Prof. Yuguang Mu, Prof. Guillermo C. Bazan, Prof. Stefan Wuertz and Dr. Thomas Seviour

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500194

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      Insane in the membrane: One strategy to make biobutanol more attractive economically is to boost production titers in bioprocesses. Herein, we describe a chemical intervention technique that instantly imparts butanol tolerance to microbes through desirable structural changes to their membranes. This is an important first step in increasing production titers in butanol-producing bioprocesses and a significant conceptual departure from current strain-improvement strategies.

  9. Communications

    1. Waste Tire Derived Carbon–Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life

      M. Boota, Dr. M. Parans Paranthaman, Dr. Amit K. Naskar, Yunchao Li, Kokouvi Akato and Prof. Y. Gogotsi

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500866

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      Tire-derived carbon: Converting waste into value-added products is critically required for the sustainable development of our society. Here, we convert waste tires into carbon by sulfonation and pyrolysis followed by chemical activation. As-produced carbon demonstrates high charge storage capacity and serves as an excellent conductive support for the deposition of conducting polymers.

  10. Full Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Highly Soluble Benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide Derivatives: Stable and Air-Insensitive Electron Acceptors for Artificial Photosynthesis

      Hung-Cheng Chen, Prof. Chao-Ping Hsu, Prof. Joost N. H. Reek, Dr. René M. Williams and Prof. Albert M. Brouwer

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500950

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      Promising electron acceptor for artificial photosynthesis: New benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) derivatives combine unexpectedly good solubility with favorable physical properties. The high triplet-state energy prevents energy-wasting charge recombination processes. The BPTI radical anion is chemically stable in charge/discharge processes in the presence of oxygen, and BPTI stacks are predicted to have high electron mobilities.

    2. Design of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Derived Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbons Containing Metal Species for Carbon Dioxide Fixation Reactions

      Takashi Toyao, Mika Fujiwaki, Kenta Miyahara, Dr. Tae-Ho Kim, Dr. Yu Horiuchi and Prof. Masaya Matsuoka

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500780

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      Cook the ZIF: Various N-doped nanoporous carbons containing metal species are prepared by direct thermal conversion of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs; ZIF-7, -8, -9, and -67) at different temperatures and are utilized as acid–base bifunctional catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides.

    3. The Effect of the Scattering Layer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing a Cobalt-Based Aqueous Gel Electrolyte

      Dr. Wanchun Xiang, Dr. Dehong Chen, Prof. Rachel A. Caruso, Prof. Yi-Bing Cheng, Prof. Udo Bach and Prof. Leone Spiccia

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500627

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      Aqueous gels for stability and performance: Dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using an aqueous gel electrolyte based on a cobalt(II)/(III) as the redox mediator and a photoanode with different forms of mesoporous titania beads as the scattering layer. Device efficiencies up to 4.1 % are achieved with higher device stability observed for the gel-electrolyte-based devices relative to those assembled with the corresponding liquid electrolyte.

    4. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation

      Robert Reichert, Christian Zambrzycki, Dr. Zenonas Jusys and Prof. Dr. R. Jürgen Behm

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500800

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      Go Organic! The addition of organic molecules to an aqueous electrolyte and their photo-electro-oxidation generally yields higher photocurrents and can improve H2 evolution in photo-electrochemical cells. The mechanisms of the reactions during photo-electro-oxidation of organic C1 molecules at WO3 photoanodes and their contribution to the photocurrent were studied systematically by combined photo-electrochemistry and mass spectrometry measurements.

    5. Changing the Action of Iron from Stoichiometric to Electrocatalytic in the Hydrogenation of Ketones in Aqueous Acidic Media

      Dr. Marina Gottardo, Max Easton, Dr. Viktoria Fabos, Dr. Si-Xuan Guo, Dr. Jie Zhang, Prof. Alvise Perosa, Prof. Maurizio Selva, Prof. Alan M. Bond, Prof. Anthony. F. Masters and Prof. Thomas Maschmeyer

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500624

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      Reduce, reuse, recycle: Cyclohexanone, a model compound for oxygenates present in biomass hydrothermal upgrading streams, is hydrogenated in the presence of electrodeposited iron using formic or sulfuric acid as the hydrogen donor. Zero-valent iron operates as an effective electrocatalyst (17 % conversion, 1000 s, >80 % efficiency) that can be continuously regenerated.

  11. Communications

    1. Continuous Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Molecules over Carbonized Filter Paper-Supported FeNi Alloy

      Dr. Gianpaolo Chieffi, Max Braun and Dr. Davide Esposito

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500804

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      Burn in the fire of filters: Continuous reductive amination of biomass-derivable molecules is achieved using a carbonized filter paper-supported FeNi catalyst in combination with EtOH, MeOH, and 2-methyl THF as green solvents. A biorefinery case study for the preparation of pyrrolidones using crude levulinic acid feeds is also investigated.

    2. Methyltriphenylphosphonium Methylcarbonate, an All-In-One Wittig Vinylation Reagent

      Lisa Cattelan, Dr. Marco Noè, Prof. Maurizio Selva, Nicola Demitri and Prof. Alvise Perosa

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500935

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      Add carbonyl and go! The Wittig reaction is widely applied, despite having shortcomings such as low atom economy (AE), the necessity to use solvents, and stoichiometric amounts of waste from generating the ylide. [Ph3PCH3][CH3OCO2] is a latent phosphorous ylide that promotes Wittig vinylation of aldehydes and ketones by simply heating with the carbonyl. No external base and no halides involved, and the protocol offers good AE, environmental factor, and mass index.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage

      Dr. Xin Tan, Dr. Liangzhi Kou, Dr. Hassan A. Tahini and Prof. Sean C. Smith

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501082

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      Charge up for hydrogen: Electrical charging of conductive graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4N3) is proposed as an experimentally feasible strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. This approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need for specific catalysts and may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

    2. 3D Woven-Like Carbon Micropattern Decorated with Silicon Nanoparticles for Use in Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Da-Young Kang, Cheolho Kim, Donghee Gueon, Gyulim Park, Jung Sub Kim, Dr. Joong Kee Lee and Prof. Jun Hyuk Moon

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501041

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      3D micropattern anode: We suggest a architecture for a composite electrode made of a woven-like carbon (WLC) material decorated with Si nanoparticles (SiNPs). The 3D WLC structure is fabricated by direct carbonization of polymer patterns prepared using multi-beam interference lithography. Subsequent solution coating is applied to decorate the WLC with SiNPs, resulting in minimal aggregation as well as well-defined cavities, which effectively reduce the pulverization during the lithiation/delithiation cycles.

    3. A Systematic Comparative Study of Hydrogen-Evolving Molecular Catalysts in Aqueous Solutions

      Dr. Souvik Roy, Dr. Marine Bacchi, Dr. Gustav Berggren and Dr. Vincent Artero

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501002

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      How much hydrogen? The systematic screening of eight hydrogen-producing transition-metal complexes is performed in aqueous media under thermal and photochemical conditions with a Clark-type H2 microsensor. This method allows the quick evaluation of the catalytic rates and turnover numbers through the quantification of hydrogen and, thus, complements the existing electrochemical methods based on rotating disk electrode measurements.

  13. Communications

    1. A TiO2 Nanofiber–Carbon Nanotube-Composite Photoanode for Improved Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Thomas J. Macdonald, Dr. Daniel D. Tune, Dr. Melissa R. Dewi, Dr. Christopher T. Gibson, Prof. Joseph G. Shapter and Prof. Thomas Nann

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500945

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      The grass is always greener: Titanium dioxide nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotubes form a composite photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The scattering layer contains no nanoparticulates and forms a fibrous lawn-like nanoarchitecture. The integration of carbon nanostructures to nanofiber photoanodes increases the power conversion efficiency of the devices by 67 %.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Electrocatalytic Transformation of Carbon Dioxide into Low Carbon Compounds on Conducting Polymers Derived from Multimetallic Porphyrins

      Dr. Paulina Dreyse, Dr. Jessica Honores, Dr. Diego Quezada and Dr. Mauricio Isaacs

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500816

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      Lowdown on modification: The electrochemical reduction of CO2 is studied by using conducting polymers based on metallotetraruthenated porphyrins. A detailed study of the activity of the modified electrode shows that the morphology drives product formation, rather than the presence of an active metal center in the porphyrin core.

    2. Mass-transport Control on the Discharge Mechanism in Li–O2 Batteries Using Carbon Cathodes with Varied Porosity

      Dr. Mohamed Aklalouch, Dr. Mara Olivares-Marín, Dr. Rung-Chuan Lee, Dr. Pablo Palomino, Prof. Eduardo Enciso and Dr. Dino Tonti

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500719

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      Stirred, not shaken: Electrolyte stirring in Li–O2 cells results in a change in the morphology of the discharged deposits. As a consequence, carbon electrodes with varied porosity show different capacity enhancements in still- versus stirred-electrolyte cells. The battery capacity depends on the interplay between the morphologies of the supporting carbon and the discharge deposits.

    3. Antimony Doping in Solution-processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells

      Kong Fai Tai, Dr. Dongchuan Fu, Dr. Sing Yang Chiam, Prof. Cheng Hon Alfred Huan, Dr. Sudip Kumar Batabyal and Prof. Dr. Lydia Helena Wong

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500433

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      Sb to the rescue: Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4-based solar cells with 6 % efficiency are fabricated by facile solution-processing using 2-methoxyethanol as the solvent. The efficiency of these devices is improved by Sb-doping of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 active layer, which is a result of significantly reduced trap densities. This enhancement is explained using power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy.

    4. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers Utilizing Non-precious Mo-based Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts

      Dr. Jia Wei Desmond Ng, Thomas R. Hellstern, Dr. Jakob Kibsgaard, Allison C. Hinckley, Dr. Jesse D. Benck and Prof. Thomas F. Jaramillo

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500334

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      Holy Moly! Supported MoSx, [Mo3S13]2− nanoclusters, and S-doped MoP with high hydrogen evolution activity and stability are synthesized through facile routes and integrated into water electrolysis devices. Precious-metal free polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers utilizing these low-cost catalysts display excellent performance over 24 h of operation, opening a pathway towards more cost-effective water splitting for renewable H2 production.

    5. Measuring the Absorption Rate of CO2 in Nonaqueous CO2-Binding Organic Liquid Solvents with a Wetted-Wall Apparatus

      Dr. Paul M. Mathias, Dr. Feng Zheng, Dr. David J. Heldebrant, Andy Zwoster, Greg Whyatt, Charles M. Freeman, Mark D. Bearden and Dr. Phillip Koech

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500288

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      On the BOL: The kinetics of the absorption of CO2 into two nonaqueous CO2-binding organic liquid (CO2BOL) solvents were measured with a wetted-wall column to study the kinetics of CO2 capture and develop a rate-based model. The results suggest comparable kinetic performances of CO2BOLs to those of aqueous solvents, in spite of far higher solution viscosities.

  15. Highlights

    1. 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural is the New HMF: Functionally Equivalent But More Practical in Terms of its Production From Biomass

      Prof. Mark Mascal

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500940

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      A disruptive innovation in the biorefinery: 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural has the potential to unseat HMF as the carbohydrate-derived platform molecule of choice. Chemically, it is at least as versatile as HMF but, unlike HMF, it is accessible in high yield directly from cellulosic biomass.

  16. Communications

    1. Functionalization of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions

      Dinara Andirova, Yu Lei, Xiaodan Zhao and Dr. Sunho Choi

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500580

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      MOF for humid CO2 capture: A metal–organic framework (MOF) is functionalized postsynthetically with amines. The functionalized MOF provides enhanced structural integrity as well as completely regenerable CO2 adsorption capacity after high-temperature steam treatment, which implies its potential utility for humid CO2-capture applications.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Direct Methylation of Amines with Carbon Dioxide and Molecular Hydrogen using Supported Gold Catalysts

      Dr. Xian-Long Du, Gao Tang, Dr. Hong-Liang Bao, Prof. Zheng Jiang, Prof. Xin-Hua Zhong, Prof. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Jian-Qiang Wang

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500486

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      Gold standard: The direct methylation of amines with CO2 and H2 is achieved using a heterogeneous alumina-supported Au catalyst. The catalyst is tolerant toward a variety of amines, which includes aromatic and aliphatic amines. Furthermore, through a one-pot process, it is possible to convert primary amines, aldehydes, and CO2 to unsymmetrical tertiary amines with H2 as the reductant in the presence of the Au catalyst.

    2. Ammine Calcium and Strontium Borohydrides: Syntheses, Structures, and Properties

      Lars H. Jepsen, Dr. Young-Su Lee, Prof. Radovan Černý, Ram S. Sarusie, Prof. Young Whan Cho, Prof. Flemming Besenbacher and Prof. Torben R. Jensen

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500713

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      Storage solution: The structural trends of a series of Sr(NH3)n(BH4)2 (n=1, 2, and 4) are presented and compared to those of Ca(NH3)n(BH4)2 (n=1, 2, 4, and 6). The thermal properties are investigated in detail and compared to those of other similar compounds. A new general mechanism for decomposition and gas release from ammine metal borohydrides is proposed.

  18. Reviews

    1. Current Pretreatment Technologies for the Development of Cellulosic Ethanol and Biorefineries

      Dr. Marcos Henrique Luciano Silveira, Ana Rita C. Morais, Andre M. da Costa Lopes, Drielly Nayara Olekszyszen, Dr. Rafał Bogel-Łukasik, Dr. Jürgen Andreaus and Prof. Luiz Pereira Ramos

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500282

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      Minor adjustments, major effects: Lignocellulosic materials are among the most important resources for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials as substitutes for petrochemistry in modern society. An overview of the most important pretreatment methods available to date, including those that are based on the use of green solvents (supercritical fluids and ionic liquids).

  19. Full Papers

    1. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum–Vanadium–Molybdenum

      Samira Lotfi, Dr. Daria C. Boffito and Prof. Gregory S. Patience

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501036

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      Breaking up: Vanadium heterogeneous catalysts are used to cleave lignin. A nozzle atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin directly into a microfluidized bed containing vanadium oxides to form carboxylic acids. The cofeeding of oxygen reduces carbon buildup and catalyst deactivation to improve carboxylic acids yields. Specialty chemicals is the target market rather than fuel.

    2. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes

      Martin Grützke, Dr. Steffen Krüger, Vadim Kraft, Britta Vortmann, Sergej Rothermel, Prof. Martin Winter and Dr. Sascha Nowak

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500920

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      Battery Recycling Waste: One of the first steps during lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling is to dismantle the cells. However, there are currently no regulations to control the handling of the resulting materials. Here, we investigate the composition of LIB waste over a storage period of 20 months to detect the presence of corrosive compounds, search for hazardous compounds, and identify electrolyte decomposition products.

    3. Design Guidelines for High-Performance Particle-Based Photoanodes for Water Splitting: Lanthanum Titanium Oxynitride as a Model

      Dr. Steve Landsmann, Dr. Alexandra E. Maegli, Matthias Trottmann, Dr. Corsin Battaglia, Prof. Dr. Anke Weidenkaff and Dr. Simone Pokrant

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500830

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      The Fab Five! Semiconductor powders are used to prepare high-performance photoelectrodes by performing a systematic study and varying the particle morphology, necking procedure, and size-dependent co-catalyst loading. Five rules are proposed to guide the design of high-performance particle-based photoanodes.

    4. In situ Formation of a Monodispersed Spherical Mesoporous Nanosilica–Torlon Hollow-Fiber Composite for Carbon Dioxide Capture

      Prof. Ali A. Rownaghi, Prof. Fateme Rezaei, Dr. Ying Labreche, Patrick J. Brennan, Dr. Justin R. Johnson, Dr. Fuyue Stephanie Li and Prof. William J. Koros

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500906

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      Skin deep: We propose and demonstrate a new template-free method to develop a facile and cost-effective strategy for the in situ formation of monodispersed spherical mesoporous nanosilica–Torlon hollow fiber composite for carbon capture. The hollow-fiber composite functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane exhibits a high CO2 equilibrium capacity at 60 °C.

  20. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources

      Charlotte Petit, Klaus P. Luef, Dr. Matthias Edler, Prof. Thomas Griesser, Dr. Jennifer M. Kremsner, Dr. Alexander Stadler, Prof. Bruno Grassl, Dr. Stéphanie Reynaud and Prof. Frank Wiesbrock

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500847

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      Photo opportunity: 2-Nonyl-2-oxazoline and 2-dec-9′-enyl-2-oxazoline can be obtained from renewable resources and be copolymerized in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation. The copoly(2-oxazoline) precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. The copolymer can be used as polymer in a photoresist with resolution of 1 μm.

  21. Full Papers

    1. One-Pot 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran Production from Levulinic Acid in Green Solvents Using Ni-Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts

      Iker Obregón, Dr. Iñaki Gandarias, Dr. Nemanja Miletić, Ainhoa Ocio and Prof. Dr. Pedro L. Arias

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500671

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      Catalytic Synergy: One-pot hydrogenation of levulinic acid to 2-methyltetrahydrofuran is performed using non-noble monometallic and bimetallic Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts in water and biomass-derived alcohols. Yields up to 75 % are achieved in 2-propanol as reaction solvent, and synergistic effects are observed in the bimetallic catalysts leading to high catalyst activity and selectivity.

    2. Conjugated Microporous Poly(Benzochalcogenadiazole)s for Photocatalytic Oxidative Coupling of Amines under Visible Light

      Zi Jun Wang, Kim Garth, Saman Ghasimi, Prof. Katharina Landfester and Dr. Kai A. I. Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500827

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      No metals allowed! Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of metal-free conjugated microporous poly(benzochalcogenadiazole) networks is observed by altering the chalcogene moieties in the benzochalcogenadiazole unit to match the required redox potentials of the catalytic reactions under visible light. As an example, the catalysts are used for the oxidative coupling of amines with the benzothiadiazole-based photocatalyst demonstrating superior activity.

    3. Solar-Energy Driven Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Starch to Bioethanol for Fuel-Cell Applications

      Betina Tabah, Dr. Indra Neel Pulidindi, Dr. Venkateswara Rao Chitturi, Dr. Leela Mohana Reddy Arava and Prof. Aharon Gedanken

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500469

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      All you need is sun: A solar reactor is designed for conversion of starch to bioethanol in a single step. An aqueous starch solution (5 wt % ) is fed into the reactor charged with Baker’s yeast and amylase. Ethanol production with no additional energy input signifies the importance of this new process. The ethanol produced from starch is demonstrated as a potential fuel for direct ethanol fuel cells.

    4. Metal-free and Scalable Synthesis of Porous Hyper-cross-linked Polymers: Towards Applications in Liquid-Phase Adsorption

      Kai Schute and Dr. Marcus Rose

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500829

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      Making it metal free: Porous polymers with high specific surface areas and outstanding hydrophobicity are synthesized by a metal-free and environmentally benign route. The adsorbents show exceptional properties in the liquid-phase adsorption of hydroxymethylfurfural and, thus, render this separation technology suitable for future biorefineries.

  22. Communications

    1. A Highly Efficient Heterogenized Iridium Complex for the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Formate

      Kwangho Park, Gunniya Hariyanandam Gunasekar , Natarajan Prakash, Dr. Kwang-Deog Jung and Prof. Dr. Sungho Yoon

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500436

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      Complex in New Basket: A new, highly porous, industrially viable, heterogenized Ir catalyst has been synthesized and characterized, and the coordination environment is confirmed to be similar to that of its homogeneous counterpart. The catalyst efficiently converts CO2 to formate through hydrogenation at high turnover frequencies (TOFs) and turnover numbers (TONs) and shows good stability during the recycling process.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Electrolytes Ageing in Lithium-ion Batteries: A Mechanistic Study from Picosecond to Long Timescales

      Dr. Daniel Ortiz, Dr. Isabel Jiménez Gordon, Jean-Pierre Baltaze, Dr. Oscar Hernandez-Alba, Solène Legand, Vincent Dauvois, Dr. Gregory Si Larbi, Dr. Uli Schmidhammer, Dr. Jean-Louis Marignier, Dr. Jean-Frédéric Martin, Prof. Jacqueline Belloni, Prof. Mehran Mostafavi and Dr. Sophie Le Caër

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500641

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      Accelerated Ageing! Radiolysis is used as a tool to study the ageing phenomena occurring in various diethyl carbonate/LiPF6 solutions. The degradation products obtained by radiolysis are similar to the ones occurring in electrolysis of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) (see scheme). The research validates the use of steady-state and pulse radiolysis as tools to quickly investigate the reactivity of newly developed electrolytes.

  24. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500314

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      The Back Cover picture shows a solution-processed thin film of semi-conducting CuFeO2 held in front of the sun. An impressive performance is reported using this material as a photocathode for the reduction of water molecules to hydrogen (as depicted in the bottom right corner) under solar radiation. In addition to being fully solution processable, the copper-based delafossite (crystal structure is shown in the top right corner) is a class of material known for being stable in aqueous environments. Moreover, it is only composed of earth-abundant materials, as suggested by the delafossite ore shown in the bottom right corner. Overall, these properties make p-type CuFeO2 a very attractive material in the quest for inexpensive, sustainable, and stable direct solar water splitting for the generation of carbon-free hydrogen. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Prévot et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146).


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