ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Guido Kemeling; Editorial Board Chairs: Matthias Beller, Gabriele Centi, Licheng Sun

Impact Factor: 7.657

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 18/157 (Chemistry Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1864-564X

Associated Title(s): Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Chemistry - A European Journal, Chemistry – An Asian Journal, ChemCatChem, ChemElectroChem, ChemPhysChem, Energy Technology

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  1. 1 - 52
  1. Communications

    1. Rational Design of an Electron-Reservoir PtII Complex for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water

      Dr. Dong Ryeol Whang and Prof. Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500787

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      Try this on for size: Photocatalytic H2 production from water is reported using a PtII complex with a tetraphenylsilyl-substituted bipyridine ligand as the water reduction catalyst. The catalyst exhibited significant H2 evolution with turnover numbers (TONs) up to 510 000, which is higher than those observed for two control complexes with standard bipyridine ligands, highlighting the importance of ligand substitution and the electron-reservoir characteristics.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Immobilization of a Molecular Ruthenium Catalyst on Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Water Oxidation with Stable Photocurrent

      Dr. Ke Fan, Fusheng Li, Lei Wang, Quentin Daniel, Dr. Hong Chen, Dr. Erik Gabrielsson, Prof. Junliang Sun and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500730

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      Hold on tight! A molecular ruthenium catalyst containing a strong 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid anchoring group is successfully demonstrated as a co-catalyst for the hematite photoanode. By combining a hematite nanorod array with this molecular ruthenium catalyst, the photocurrent of the photoelectrochemical device for water oxidation is not only enhanced, but also shows high stability.

    2. Metal-free and Scalable Synthesis of Porous Hyper-cross-linked Polymers: Towards Applications in Liquid-Phase Adsorption

      Kai Schute and Dr. Marcus Rose

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500829

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      Making it metal free: Porous polymers with high specific surface areas and outstanding hydrophobicity are synthesized by a metal-free and environmentally benign route. The adsorbents show exceptional properties in the liquid-phase adsorption of hydroxymethylfurfural and, thus, render this separation technology suitable for future biorefineries.

    3. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

      Dr. Jinfa Chang, Dr. Ligang Feng, Prof. Changpeng Liu and Prof. Wei Xing

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500357

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      R-u lost? The PtRu material is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from Ru loss seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrate that the presence of Ni2P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Reviews

    1. Organic Charge Carriers for Perovskite Solar Cells

      Dr. Sebastian F. Völker, Silvia Collavini and Prof. Juan Luis Delgado

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500742

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      Department of transport: The most promising organic hole- and electron-transport materials (HTMs and ETMs) that have been used in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) are reviewed. These compounds play a significant role in the function principle of PSCs. Rapid transport of holes/electrons and efficient blocking of the other are key requisites to support the excellent properties of the perovskites. ITO=indium tin oxide.

  4. Communications

    1. A Highly Efficient Heterogenized Iridium Complex for the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Formate

      Kwangho Park, Gunniya Hariyanandam Gunasekar , Natarajan Prakash, Dr. Kwang-Deog Jung and Prof. Dr. Sungho Yoon

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500436

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      Complex in New Basket: A new, highly porous, industrially viable, heterogenized Ir catalyst has been synthesized and characterized, and the coordination environment is confirmed to be similar to that of its homogeneous counterpart. The catalyst efficiently converts CO2 to formate through hydrogenation at high turnover frequencies (TOFs) and turnover numbers (TONs) and shows good stability during the recycling process.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

      Geert Pirotte, Dr. Jurgen Kesters, Dr. Pieter Verstappen, Sanne Govaerts, Prof. Jean Manca, Dr. Laurence Lutsen, Prof. Dirk Vanderzande and Prof. Wouter Maes

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500850

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      Flowing Efficiency: A continuous flow synthetic protocol is developed to reproducibly up-scale the state-of-the-art benzodithiophene–thienopyrroledione copolymer, commonly referred to as PBDTTPD. The combination of this low bandgap copolymer with an ionic polythiophene cathodic interlayer affords highly efficient polymer solar cells.

  6. Communications

    1. Deuterium-Labeling Study of the Hydrogenation of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Noble Metal Catalysts

      Dr. Jungshik Kang, Dr. Anne Vonderheide and Prof. Vadim V. Guliants

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500722

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      R2–D2: The hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis pathways of 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran are studied over Pt and Pd catalysts under a deuterium atmosphere. The produced deuterated THFs, ketones, and alcohols are analyzed by GC–MS in the chemical ionization mode by using methanol.

    2. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes

      Nerea Lago, Dr. Oihane Garcia-Calvo, Dr. Juan Miguel Lopez del Amo, Prof. Teofilo Rojo and Prof. Michel Armand

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500783

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      Rosy future: Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles are grafted and co-grafted to obtain cation-only conductor solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). High ionic conductivities are reached (10−4 S cm−1) at 70 °C with the co-grafted nanoparticles, which are shown to be a valuable polymer electrolyte in a LiFePO4-based all-solid-state battery. The results open a myriad of opportunities in the development of all-solid-state batteries, a safer lithium-ion technology.

    3. Water-Soluble Iridium-NHC-Phosphine Complexes as Catalysts for Chemical Hydrogen Batteries Based on Formate

      Dr. Henrietta Horváth, Dr. Gábor Papp, Roland Szabolcsi, Dr. Ágnes Kathó and Prof. Ferenc Joó

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500808

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      Relief effort: The dehydrogenation of HCO2Na and hydrogenation of HCO3Na in water is catalyzed with an unprecedented high rate by water-soluble iridium-N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine (IrI-NHC-phosphine) complexes. The complexes allow the construction of a fully inorganic model hydrogen battery in which the charge–discharge cycles are regulated solely by the hydrogen pressure.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Understanding of Surface Redox Behaviors of Li2MnO3 in Li-Ion Batteries: First-Principles Prediction and Experimental Validation

      Duho Kim, Jin-Myoung Lim, Young-Geun Lim, Dr. Min-Sik Park, Dr. Young-Jun Kim, Prof. Maenghyo Cho and Prof. Kyeongjae Cho

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500706

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      Underneath the surface: A fundamental understanding of the phase transformation at the surface of Li2MnO3 and of Li ion extraction is obtained by calculating the thermodynamic, kinetic energy, and electronic structures based on a first-principles study using a reliable surface model and experimental validation. The Li ions at the surface are electrochemically activated at a lower voltage than in bulk, leading to phase transformation into a spinel-like phase starting from the surface.

  8. Concepts

    1. New Sustainable Model of Biorefineries: Biofactories and Challenges of Integrating Bio- and Solar Refineries

      Dr. Salvatore Abate, Dr. Paola Lanzafame, Prof. Siglinda Perathoner and Prof. Gabriele Centi

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500277

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      A refined solution: The realization of new sustainable models for biorefineries requires revision of the current models and progress towards the establishment of biofactories; challenges associated with integrating bio- and solar refineries must also be addressed.

  9. Corrigenda

    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: State of the Art and Perspectives

      Julian Kalhoff, Dr. Gebrekidan Gebresilassie Eshetu, Dr. Dominic Bresser and Prof. Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501066

      This article corrects:

      Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: State of the Art and Perspectives

      Vol. 8, Issue 13, 2154–2175, Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015

    2. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: Dimethylaminopyridine-Supported Graft Polymer Catalyst and its Flow System

      Yoshinori Okuno, Dr. Shigeki Isomura, Takahiro Kamakura, Fumiaki Sano, Kaoru Tamahori, Takahiro Goto, Takahiro Hayashida, Yuuichi Kitagawa, Ami Fukuhara and Prof. Kazuyoshi Takeda

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501065

      This article corrects:

      Dimethylaminopyridine-Supported Graft Polymer Catalyst and its Flow System

      Vol. 8, Issue 10, 1711–1715, Article first published online: 8 APR 2015

  10. Communications

    1. Visible-Light-Driven Oxidation of Organic Substrates with Dioxygen Mediated by a [Ru(bpy)3]2+/Laccase System

      Ludovic Schneider, Dr. Yasmina Mekmouche, Dr. Pierre Rousselot-Pailley, Dr.  A. Jalila Simaan, Dr. Viviane Robert, Dr. Marius Réglier, Prof. Ally Aukauloo and Dr. Thierry Tron

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500602

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      Coming up for air: The photo-oxidation of olefins is coupled to the light driven reduction of O2 by a [Ru(bpy)3]2+/laccase system White light irradiation of the system enables the oxidation in water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, without requiring a sacrificial electron acceptor. This original approach can be implemented in the development of sustainable oxidation processes.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Oxidative Nitration of Styrenes for the Recycling of Low-Concentrated Nitrogen Dioxide in Air

      Dagmar Hofmann, Dr. Cristina de Salas and Prof. Dr. Markus R. Heinrich

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500188

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      Scrub it! The oxidative nitration of styrenes in ethyl acetate represents a metal-free, environmentally friendly, and sustainable technique to recover even low concentrations of NO2 in air. Experiments in a miniplant-type 10 L wet scrubber demonstrate that the recycling technique is well applicable on larger scales at which initial NO2 concentrations of >10 000 ppm are reliably reduced to less than 40 ppm.

    2. Functionalized Agarose Self-Healing Ionogels Suitable for Supercapacitors

      Dr. Tushar J. Trivedi, Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharjya, Dr. Jong-Sung Yu and Dr. Arvind Kumar

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500648

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      Gel, heal thyself: Agarose has been functionalized (acetylation and carbanilation) in an ionic liquid (IL) medium with a high degree of substitution. Ionogels prepared from the carbanilated agarose in a mixed-IL system have shown superior self-healing properties after external damage. Additionally, such ionogels are suitable as a solid electrolyte for activated-carbon-based flexible supercapacitor cells.

    3. Biomass-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Aerogels from a Salt Melt Sol–Gel Synthesis and their Performance in Li–S Batteries

      Dr. Florian Schipper, Alen Vizintin, Dr. Jiawen Ren, Dr. Robert Dominko and Dr. Tim-Patrick Fellinger

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500832

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      These batteries are doped! Ionothermal carbon aerogels with different heteroatom doping motifs are used in lithium–sulfur batteries. The variation in the capacity fading can be explained by the respective polysulfide adsorption capacities, which are related to surface charge.

    4. Oxidized Mild Steel S235: An Efficient Anode for Electrocatalytically Initiated Water Splitting

      Dr. Helmut Schäfer, Dr. Karsten Küpper, Prof.Dr. Joachim Wollschläger, Dr. Nikolai Kashaev, Dr. Jörg Hardege, Prof.Dr. Lorenz Walder, Seyyed Mohsen Beladi-Mousavi, Brigitte Hartmann-Azanza, Prof.Dr. Martin Steinhart, Shamaila Sadaf and Falk Dorn

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500666

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      Anode of steel: Exposure to chlorine gas at room temperature converts standard carbon manganese steel (S235) into an oxygen evolution electrocatalyst that exhibits a surprisingly high catalytic activity in a neutral regime. This is shown by the strong voltage current behavior derived from long-term chronopotentiometry measurements: 462 mV overpotential at 1 mA cm−2 in 0.1 M KH2PO4/K2KHPO4 buffer solution.

    5. Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc–Air Batteries

      Dong Un Lee, Moon Gyu Park, Dr. Hey Woong Park, Dr. Min Ho Seo, Dr. Xiaolei Wang and Prof. Zhongwei Chen

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500609

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      Fully charged: We introduce cobalt oxide nanocrystals decorated on N-doped carbon nanotubes created by a facile method based on hydrophobicity as a bifunctional air electrode catalyst for rechargeable zinc–air batteries. The hybrid catalyst performs well in the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions and has an excellent electrochemical durability. This hybrid catalyst created by a facile synthetic method is very promising as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst for electrically rechargeable zinc–air batteries.

    6. Isolation of Renewable Phenolics by Adsorption on Ultrastable Hydrophobic MIL-140 Metal–Organic Frameworks

      Dr. Ben Van de Voorde, Daiane Damasceno Borges, Dr. Frederik Vermoortele, Robin Wouters, Belgin Bozbiyik, Prof.Dr. Joeri Denayer, Prof. Dr. Francis Taulelle, Dr. Charlotte Martineau, Prof. Dr. Christian Serre, Prof. Dr. Guillaume Maurin and Prof. Dr. Dirk De Vos

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500281

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      Going separate ways: Highly stable and hydrophobic Zr metal–organic frameworks of the MIL-140 type are effective adsorbent materials for the separation of different phenolic derivatives originating from the decomposition of renewable lignin. MIL-140C is able to fractionate successfully complex aqueous mixtures by using a combination of both entropic and enthalpic separation mechanisms.

    7. Designing Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution: Are Complex Preparation Strategies Necessary to Produce Active Catalysts?

      Tobias Grewe and Dr. Harun Tüysüz

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500774

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      Fast and facile photocatalyst preparation: The injection of a metal alkoxide precursor into a methanol/water mixture results in the formation of a highly active photocatalyst. The prepared amorphous photocatalysts show superior activity for hydrogen production over commercial and synthesized nanostructured reference catalysts. This simple and quick method could be an alternative to time- and energy-demanding synthesis routes.

    8. Importance of Reaction Kinetics and Oxygen Crossover in aprotic Li–O2 Batteries Based on a Dimethyl Sulfoxide Electrolyte

      Dr.  M. Marinaro, P. Balasubramanian, Dr.  E. Gucciardi, S. Theil, Dr.  L. Jörissen and Dr.  M. Wohlfahrt-Mehrens

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500600

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      The dual personality of dimethyl sulfoxide: The reactivity of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is investigated at both negative and positive electrode of a Li–O2 battery. Oxygen crossover leads to the formation of Li2O that further reacts with DMSO through an acid–base reaction. On the other hand, DMSO is stable at the cathode side in association with our Au-coated carbon electrodes. Consistent O2 redox reactions are enabled for more than 300 cycles. WE: working electrode, CE: counter electrode.

    9. Direct Production of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural via Catalytic Conversion of Simple and Complex Sugars over Phosphated TiO2

      Luqman Atanda, Dr. Abhijit Shrotri, Swathi Mukundan, Dr. Qing Ma, Dr. Muxina Konarova and Dr. Jorge Beltramini

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500395

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      A matter of phases: The potential of sustainable HMF production from cellulosic biomass is demonstrated in this article. Phosphated TiO2 effectively catalyzes the conversion of sugars to HMF in a biphasic reactor. In addition, selective formation of HMF is enhanced by adding an aqueous-phase modifier to the biphasic medium. Under both batch and continuous flow conditions, direct conversion of pretreated cellulose to HMF is achievable.

    10. Carbazole Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Studied from Femtoseconds to Seconds—Effect of Additives in Cobalt- and Iodide-Based Electrolytes

      Jan Sobuś, Dr. Jacek Kubicki, Dr. Gotard Burdziński and Dr. Marcin Ziółek

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500628

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      A matter of time: Solar cells sensitized with one of the most promising and efficient carbazole dyes are studied using a number of complex techniques (from ultrafast and fast laser spectroscopy to electrochemical impedance measurements) to provide information about partial charge separation processes occurring from femtoseconds to seconds in complete devices. The observed features have a direct impact on the performance of the solar cells, and therefore are crucial for the construction of more efficient devices.

  12. Communications

    1. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics: A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics

      Dr. Shanmugam Thiyagarajan, Dr. Homer C. Genuino, Dr. Michał Śliwa, Dr. Jan C. van der Waal, Dr. Ed de Jong, Dr. Jacco van Haveren, Prof. Dr. Bert M. Weckhuysen, Dr. Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx and Dr. Daan S. van Es

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500511

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      Er zit een Aldertje onder het gras: The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics, via Diels–Alder (DA) aromatization, is modified into a three-step procedure to avoid retro-DA reactions. The new sequence involves a mild hydrogenation step to obtain a stable oxanorbornane intermediate. Subsequent dehydration and dehydrogenation using a physical mixture of acidic zeolites or resins in combination with metal on a carbon support then gives high yields of aromatics under relatively mild conditions.

  13. Reviews

    1. In Situ Powder Diffraction Studies of Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries

      Dr. Neeraj Sharma, Dr. Wei Kong Pang, Prof. Zaiping Guo and Dr. Vanessa K. Peterson

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500152

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      Under observation: The importance of structure–property relationships to understand battery function, why in situ experimentation is critical to this, and the types of experiments and electrochemical cells required to obtain such information are described.

  14. Communications

    1. Gold-Catalyzed Reductive Transformation of Nitro Compounds Using Formic Acid: Mild, Efficient, and Versatile

      Lei Yu, Qi Zhang, Shu-Shuang Li, Dr. Jun Huang, Dr. Yong-Mei Liu, Dr. He-Yong He and Prof. Dr. Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500869

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      Renewable formic acid as a flexible feedstock: A versatile heterogeneous gold-based catalytic system has been developed for the controlled, flexible, and target-specific reductive transformation of nitro compounds using stoichiometric equivalents of formic acid as a key starting material under mild and convenient conditions. The overall operational simplicity, high chemoselectivity, functional-group tolerance, and reusability of the catalyst make this approach an attractive and reliable tool for organic and process chemists.

  15. Full Papers

    1. Nanostructured Double Perovskite Cathode With Low Sintering Temperature For Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Seona Kim, Areum Jun, Ohhun Kwon, Junyoung Kim, Dr. Seonyoung Yoo, Prof. Hu Young Jeong, Prof. Jeeyoung Shin and Prof. Guntae Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500509

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      Sinter and structure: We report the engineering of a nanostructured double perovskite cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells by using an infiltration method and careful control of the sintering temperature. The study focuses on the reduction of the cathode polarization resistance through the use of mixed ionic electronic conductors and the optimization of cathode microstructure to increase the number of electrochemically active sites.

  16. Communications

    1. Cellulose Dissolution and In Situ Grafting in a Reversible System using an Organocatalyst and Carbon Dioxide

      Longchu Song, Yunlong Yang, Prof. Haibo Xie and Prof. Enhui Liu

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500378

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      Be flexible: Cellulose is a promising renewable material, but is difficult to process owing to the stiffness of the molecules and the dense packing of its chains. Reacting cellulose with carbon dioxide in the presence of DBU as organocatalyst and subsequent grafting of L-lactide (LLA) by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) leads to cellulose-graft-poly(L-lactide) co-polymers with tunable glass-transition temperatures, efficiently transforming the originally semirigid cellulose into thermoplastic materials.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Rational Design of a Hierarchical Tin Dendrite Electrode for Efficient Electrochemical Reduction of CO2

      Da Hye Won, Dr. Chang Hyuck Choi, Jaehoon Chung, Min Wook Chung, Eun-Hee Kim and Prof. Seong Ihl Woo

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500694

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      Not exactly what it says on the tin: Rational design principles for tin electrodes to be used in selective CO2 reduction to formate are suggested using hierarchical tin dendrite electrodes (multi-branched conifer-like structure) that show remarkable activity and stability. The initial oxygen content of the tin electrode is set as “selectivity descriptor” and the architecture is manipulated to maximize the number of active sites.

    2. Mechanochemically Reduced SiO2 by Ti Incorporation as Lithium Storage Materials

      Kyungbae Kim, Janghyuk Moon, Jaewoo Lee, Dr. Ji-Sang Yu, Prof. Maenghyo Cho, Prof. Kyeongjae Cho, Dr. Min-Sik Park, Prof. Jae-Hun Kim and Dr. Young-Jun Kim

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500638

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      Taking charge! A mechanochemically reduced SiO2−x/TiO2−x composite is designed by thermodynamic calculations and synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By incorporation of Ti, amorphous SiO2 can be effectively reduced during the synthesis, leading to the in situ formation of a SiO2−x/TiOx composite that shows a high reversible capacity with excellent cycle performance.

    3. Electrolytes Ageing in Lithium-ion Batteries: A Mechanistic Study from Picosecond to Long Timescales

      Dr. Daniel Ortiz, Dr. Isabel Jiménez Gordon, Jean-Pierre Baltaze, Dr. Oscar Hernandez-Alba, Solène Legand, Vincent Dauvois, Dr. Gregory Si Larbi, Dr. Uli Schmidhammer, Dr. Jean-Louis Marignier, Dr. Jean-Frédéric Martin, Prof. Jacqueline Belloni, Prof. Mehran Mostafavi and Dr. Sophie Le Caër

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500641

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      Accelerated Ageing! Radiolysis is used as a tool to study the ageing phenomena occurring in various diethyl carbonate/LiPF6 solutions. The degradation products obtained by radiolysis are similar to the ones occurring in electrolysis of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) (see scheme). The research validates the use of steady-state and pulse radiolysis as tools to quickly investigate the reactivity of newly developed electrolytes.

    4. Effect of Mesoporous Structured Cathode Materials on Charging Potentials and Rate Capability of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

      Jihee Park, Jooyoung Jeong, Seonggyu Lee, Changshin Jo and Prof. Jinwoo Lee

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500534

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      Pore some more: Mesoporous carbon materials (i.e., CMK-3 and MSU-F-C) are used in Li–O2 batteries to examine their effect on the morphology of the discharge products and to improve the discharge capacities and polarization of cycling. Large interconnected pores also increase the rate capabilities of the cells. These results demonstrate that control of the porous structure of the cathode is needed to improve the performance of Li–O2 batteries.

    5. Enhanced Performance of “Flower-like” Li4Ti5O12 Motifs as Anode Materials for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Lei Wang, Yiman Zhang, Megan E. Scofield, Shiyu Yue, Coray McBean, Dr. Amy C. Marschilok, Dr. Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Dr. Esther S. Takeuchi and Dr. Stanislaus S. Wong

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500639

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      Stop and smell the flowers: 3 D hierarchical flower-shape Li4Ti5O12 motifs are synthesized by using a facile and rapid hydrothermal process involving short reaction times, relatively low reaction temperatures, and reusable and recyclable Ti precursors. The resulting Li4Ti5O12 electrodes exhibit remarkably high rate capability and cycling stability as compared with analogous, previously reported motifs.

    6. Photocatalysis using a Wide Range of the Visible Light Spectrum: Hydrogen Evolution from Doped AgGaS2

      Kohei Yamato, Dr. Akihide Iwase and Prof. Akihiko Kudo

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500540

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      In broad daylight: Iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper are doped into AgGaS2. Doping with nickel forms an electron donor level in a forbidden band of AgGaS2. The nickel-doped material shows activity towards sacrificial H2 evolution, utilizing light up to 760 nm corresponding to the extended absorption band. H2 evolution is due to a transition from the electron donor level consisting of nickel to the conduction band of AgGaS2.

    7. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Xiuqiang Xie, Shuangqiang Chen, Dr. Bing Sun, Prof. Dr. Chengyin Wang and Prof. Dr. Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500149

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      Explore the pores: 3 D SnO2/graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure are prepared by a facile self-assembly method, in which graphene nanosheets self-bridge to form 3D continuous networks with interconnected porous channels and SnO2 nanoparticles are homogeneously loaded on the graphene nanosheets. The integration of SnO2 nanoparticles leads to fast Na+ diffusion and electronic conductivity, giving rise to a promising high-rate performance as anode in sodium-ion batteries.

    8. Towards Stable Lithium–Sulfur Batteries with a Low Self-Discharge Rate: Ion Diffusion Modulation and Anode Protection

      Wen-Tao Xu, Hong-Jie Peng, Prof. Dr. Jia-Qi Huang, Chen-Zi Zhao, Xin-Bing Cheng and Prof. Dr. Qiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500428

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      All about me! The self-discharge rate of a stable lithium–sulfur cell can be controlled by anode protection from attack of polysulfides or through diffusion control of polysulfides by an ion-selective membrane.

    9. Layered Graphene–Hexagonal BN Nanocomposites: Experimentally Feasible Approach to Charge-Induced Switchable CO2 Capture

      Dr. Xin Tan, Dr. Liangzhi Kou and Prof. Sean C. Smith

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500026

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      Hybrid boron nitride and graphene nanosheets: An experimentally feasible strategy to charge up the wide-gap hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) for charge-controlled switchable CO2 capture is presented. Extra electrons might be effectively transferred from the high-mobility graphene (G) layer utilized into h-BN layer on the surface of G such that CO2 capture/release can be simply controlled and reversed by switching on/off the charge states of the hybrid BN/G system.

    10. Carbon Nanotubes as Support in the Platinum-Catalyzed Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane

      Wenyao Chen, Dr. Xuezhi Duan, Dr. Gang Qian, Prof. De Chen and Prof. Xinggui Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500228

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      Just gimme defects please: The hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane by platinum nanoparticles (NPs) is used to investigate the chemistry of carbon nanotube (CNT) supports. The use of defect-rich CNTs, as compared to pristine CNTs and CNTs rich in oxygen groups, not only enhances the binding energy of platinum, leading to the highest hydrogen generation rate, but also inhibits the adsorption of boron-containing species and stabilizes the platinum NPs to resist the agglomeration, leading to the highest durability.

  18. Communications

    1. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Zeolite Crystals Encapsulating Gold–Palladium Nanoparticles for the Selective Oxidation of Bioethanol

      Jian Zhang, Dr. Liang Wang, Dr. Longfeng Zhu, Qinming Wu, Chunyu Chen, Xiong Wang, Yanyan Ji, Dr. Xiangju Meng and Prof. Feng-Shou Xiao

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500261

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      Inner strength: The conversion of bioethanol into valuable products is an important topic in biomass conversion. Bimetallic gold–palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in zeolite crystals synthesized by a solvent-free strategy exhibit superior catalytic activity, unique selectivity, and high stability in aerobic oxidation of bioethanol. These features are important for future practical applications of the AuPd@S-1 catalyst.

  19. Reviews

    1. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art

      Qiwen Lai, Dr. Mark Paskevicius, Dr. Drew A. Sheppard, Prof. Craig E. Buckley, Dr. Aaron W. Thornton, Dr. Matthew R. Hill, Dr. Qinfen Gu, Dr. Jianfeng Mao, Dr. Zhenguo Huang, Prof. Hua Kun Liu, Dr. Zaiping Guo, Amitava Banerjee, Dr. Sudip Chakraborty, Prof. Rajeev Ahuja and Prof. Kondo-Francois Aguey-Zinsou

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500231

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      Hydrogen Holy Grail: Light materials that enable the safe and compact storage of hydrogen remain the bottleneck of the hydrogen economy. This review presents a critical analysis of progress made over the last 20 years following the initial discovery of hydrogen reversibility in NaAlH4, which is a light, complex hydride.

  20. Full Papers

    1. Self-Assembled 3D Graphene-Based Aerogel with Co3O4 Nanoparticles as High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrode

      Dr. Lijing Xie, Dr. Fangyuan Su, Longfei Xie, Xiaoming Li, Zhuo Liu, Qingqiang Kong, Xiaohui Guo, Yaoyao Zhang, Liu Wan, Prof. Kaixi Li, Prof. Chunxiang Lv and Prof. Chengmeng Chen

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500355

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      Carbon of Blinding Light: An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using a three-dimensional Co3O4–reduced graphene oxide aerogel as cathode, hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) as anode, and 6 M aqueous KOH solution as electrolyte. Three as-fabricated CR2032 coin-type asymmetric supercapacitors in series can drive a light-emitting-diode (LED) bulb brightly for 30 min after charging for only 30 s.

  21. Communications

    1. The Effect of Different Phosphorus Chemical States on an Onion-like Carbon Surface for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Xiaoyan Sun, Junyuan Xu, Yuxiao Ding, Dr. Bingsen Zhang, Zhenbao Feng and Prof. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500154

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      Peeling back the layers: The bonding state of phosphorus on nanocarbon has a significant effect on the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction. The formation of C[BOND]O[BOND]P bonds improves the activity, whereas C[BOND]P bonds have an adverse effect on stabilizing key intermediates during the reaction owing to the distorted graphitic structure.

  22. Full Papers

    1. Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Silicon and Composite Films of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes

      LePing Yu, Dr. Daniel Tune, Dr. Cameron Shearer and Prof. Joseph Shapter

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500169

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      Composite electrode: Graphene oxide (GO) sheets are used as the surfactant to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water to prepare GO/CNT electrodes that are applied on silicon to form a heterojunction that can be used in solar cells.

    2. Improvement of Energy Capacity with Vitamin C Treated Dual-Layered Graphene–Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

      Jin Won Kim, Joey D. Ocon, Dr. Ho-Sung Kim and Prof. Dr. Jaeyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500111

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      Take your vitamins: a dual-layered cathode design based on a sulfur-nanoparticle–graphene composite as the sulfur active layer and vitamin C reduced graphene oxide as the polysulfide absorption layer with high energy and power densities is proposed (over 600 mAh g−1 for 100 cycles at 1C).

    3. Ceramic Lithium Ion Conductor to Solve the Anode Coking Problem of Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      Dr. Wei Wang, Feng Wang, Yubo Chen, Jifa Qu, Prof. Moses O. Tadé and Prof. Zongping Shao

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500028

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      No coke without fire: The high Li+ conductivity of Li0.33La0.56TiO3 (LLTO) in the Ni/LLTO catalyst successfully compensates surface lithium loss caused by evaporation through bulk diffusion and leads to a much better coking resistance, which is beneficial for the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cells.

    4. Carbon-Nanotubes-Supported Pd Nanoparticles for Alcohol Oxidations in Fuel Cells: Effect of Number of Nanotube Walls on Activity

      Jin Zhang, Dr. Shanfu Lu, Prof. Yan Xiang, Prof. Pei Kang Shen, Dr. Jian Liu and Prof. San Ping Jiang

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500107

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      Three′s the magic number: Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled particle size are uniformly assembled on the surface of carbon nanotubes CNTs with varying numbers of walls. Pd NPs supported on triple-walled CNTs (TWNTs) have the highest mass activity and stability for methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions, as compared to Pd NPs supported on single-walled and multi-walled CNTs.

  23. Cover Pictures

    1. You have free access to this content
      Enhancing the Performance of a Robust Sol–Gel-Processed p-Type Delafossite CuFeO2 Photocathode for Solar Water Reduction

      Mathieu S. Prévot, Dr. Néstor Guijarro and Prof. Kevin Sivula

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500314

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      The Back Cover picture shows a solution-processed thin film of semi-conducting CuFeO2 held in front of the sun. An impressive performance is reported using this material as a photocathode for the reduction of water molecules to hydrogen (as depicted in the bottom right corner) under solar radiation. In addition to being fully solution processable, the copper-based delafossite (crystal structure is shown in the top right corner) is a class of material known for being stable in aqueous environments. Moreover, it is only composed of earth-abundant materials, as suggested by the delafossite ore shown in the bottom right corner. Overall, these properties make p-type CuFeO2 a very attractive material in the quest for inexpensive, sustainable, and stable direct solar water splitting for the generation of carbon-free hydrogen. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Prévot et al. (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403146).

  24. Full Papers

    1. Organic Dyes Incorporating the Dithieno[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline Moiety for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Jen-Shyang Ni, Wei-Siang Kao, Hao-Ju Chou and Prof. Jiann T. Lin

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500193

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      More acceptance: New donor–acceptor′–acceptor-type sensitizers with a rigid dithieno[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline segment comprised of electron-rich and electron-deficient units in the conjugated spacer are proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells. Their structure gives rise to broad absorption spectra and high molar extinction coefficient, resulting in power conversion efficiencies higher than that of the N719 dye.

  25. Communications

    1. Hierarchical Vanadium Pentoxide Spheres as High-Performance Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries

      Dr. Dawei Su, Prof. Dr. Shixue Dou and Prof. Dr. Guoxiu Wang

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500139

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      In higher spheres: Hierarchical V2O5 spheres are synthesized and demonstrate a preferred (110) orientation, exposing more open interlayers of its crystal structure. When tested in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared V2O5 spheres achieve high discharge capacity, superior high rate capability, and excellent cyclability. The promising electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique hierarchical spherical architecture and preferred exposure of the (110) crystal planes.

  26. Full Papers

    1. β-Functionalized Push–Pull Porphyrin Sensitizers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Conjugated Spacers

      Dr. Masatoshi Ishida, Daesub Hwang, Dr. Zhan Zhang, Yung Ji Choi, Juwon Oh, Dr. Vincent M. Lynch, Dr. Dong Young Kim, Prof. Dr. Jonanthan L. Sessler and Prof. Dr. Dongho Kim

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500085

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      Pushing through it: A series of new β-functionalized push–pull-structured porphyrin dyes are synthesized. Together, these dyes allow the effect of the π-conjugated spacer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to be assessed. The highest conversion efficiency in the present study (8.2 %) is achieved by using a doubly β-butadiene-linked porphyrin as the sensitizer with a cobalt-based redox shuttle as the mediator.

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